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1

"Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be": Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy  

PubMed Central

Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal.

Yang, J S; Malone, R E

2009-01-01

2

Internet advertising strategy alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - Because the web can be an influential medium for attracting and retaining customers, it is critical to examine the connection between web advertising and corporate strategy. This is particularly true for multinational organizations, which face the most complex organizational environment. The purpose of this paper is to propose that multinational organizations should be concerned with alignment of their

Marie-claude Boudreau; Richard T. Watson

2006-01-01

3

Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

2010-01-01

4

Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

ATLAS; Golling, T.

2007-09-23

5

Green consumerism and the societal marketing concept: Marketing strategies for the 1990's  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of these trends on the role of the marketing department in the J990's. Essentially, when the buying habits of consumers are being strangely influenced by green and other environmental issues, the paper argues that the marketing concept and subsequent strategies need to be rethought. The paper then imaginatively develops the concept of societal marketing within

Andrea Prothero

1990-01-01

6

Strategies and tools for whole genome alignments  

SciTech Connect

The availability of the assembled mouse genome makespossible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two largevertebrate genomes. We have investigated different strategies ofalignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that areeffective for different quality assemblies. These strategies were appliedto the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the MouseGenome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediatemouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignmentsexhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90 percent ofknown coding exons in the human genome. We have obtained such coveragewhile preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we havedeveloped a suite of tools and websites for automatically aligning, andsubsequently browsing and working with whole genome comparisons. Wedescribe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regionsbetween the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not beenidentified by other methods.

Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov,Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna

2002-11-25

7

Strategic IT alignment with business strategy: Service oriented architecture approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprises are moving fast to transform into service orientation to maintain their competitive advantage. In order to meet rapidly changing demands, and achieve true agility an enterprise needs strategic IT alignment with business strategy integrated with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). As enterprises transform service oriented enterprises, the challenge of aligning IT strategy with business strategy and the use of IT

Mohammed Abdi; P. D. D. Dominic

2010-01-01

8

The alignment of market research with business strategy and CRM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the alignment between market research, business strategy and customer relationship management (CRM). With the introduction of advanced IT systems which collect and model internal customer data (CRM), marketing managers face new choices when seeking information to facilitate their particular business strategy. A survey of market research (MR) and CRM usage was conducted among 207 marketing managers. The

Michael John Valos; David H. B. Bednall

2010-01-01

9

IT alignment strategies for customer relationship management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer relationship management (CRM) is the overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. A CRM strategy involves the entire enterprise and is employed on an ongoing basis. Despite the fact that CRM projects incur huge expenditures, a large percentage fails to achieve the stated objectives. Failure in CRM initiatives could be

Arun Sen; Atish P. Sinha

2011-01-01

10

Aligning Staff Development with Implementation Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides the results of a comprehensive 4-year study of a statewide instructional improvement effort in Maryland; presents the characteristics of successful staff development for each of four implementation strategies (active teaching, mastery learning, student team learning, and teaching variables); and identifies the relationships…

Kenney, Jane L.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

11

Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.  

SciTech Connect

This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

2010-09-01

12

Two Strategies for Sequence Comparison: Profile-preprocessed and Secondary Structure-induced Multiple Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment remains one of the most powerful tools for assessing sequence relateness and the identification of structurally and functionally important protein regions. In this work, two new techniques are introduced to increase the sensitivity of dynamic programming and to enable checks for alignment consistency: Profile-preprocessed and secondary structure-induced alignments. Both strategies are based upon the hierarchical dynamic programming

Jaap Heringa

1999-01-01

13

Alignment strategy for mixed e-beam and optical lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although maskless electron beam lithography is viewed as an alternative lithographic technology by the mainstream semiconductor industry, it has long been a key lithographic tool of the compound semiconductor devices. It combines very high resolution with a high depth of field, but its wide acceptance in semiconductor production has been hindered by lower throughput when compared to optical lithography. Several new approaches to parallel e-beam lithography are currently being developed. These technologies, however, have not yet demonstrated the throughput per dollar invested that the current optical tools achieve. Given the cost and high throughput requirements set by most semiconductor manufacturers, the new parallel e-beam lithography tools are likely to be used for processing only a few critical layers, similar to the way the older electron beam tools are used by compound semiconductor manufacturers. Overlay accuracy is another big challenge when mixing optical and E-beam lithography tools. An alignment mark strategy is needed which will results in optimum registration accuracy between E-beam and optically defined layers on the chip.

Duval, Paul; Tabatabaie-Alavi, Kamal; Shaw, Dale; St. Germain, Alan

2013-03-01

14

Vibration Suppression Strategies for Large Tension-Aligned Array Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tension-aligned structures have been proposed for space-based antenna applications. The structure uses a compression member to impart tension on the antenna, thus helping to maintain shape and facilitate disturbance rejection. These structures can be larg...

A. R. Diaz R. Mukherjee

2013-01-01

15

Aligning Technology and Business Strategy: Issues & Frameworks, A Field Study of 15 Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents survey and interview findings from 21 Senior IT and business executives in 15 organizations including several Fortune 500 and 1000 firms. Survey, interviews, and field observational techniques were used to characterize organizations as Operational, Strategic Resource, or Strategic Weapon profiles based on level of business\\/IT strategy alignment. Results indicate that strategic alignment occurs most frequently across industries

Joseph W. Weiss; Don Anderson

2004-01-01

16

Perspectives: Societal Issues in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students investigate local issues in science class, they gain research and critical-thinking skills while improving their attitudes toward science. However, since many societal issues are controversial, it is important to create a safe and risk-free classroom climate where students can discuss their ideas, personal needs, experiences, and responsibilities. This article discribes some strategies that will help students to use science to make personal and societal decisions.

Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.

2009-04-01

17

Progressive structure-based alignment of homologous proteins: Adopting sequence comparison strategies.  

PubMed

Comparison of multiple protein structures has a broad range of applications in the analysis of protein structure, function and evolution. Multiple structure alignment tools (MSTAs) are necessary to obtain a simultaneous comparison of a family of related folds. In this study, we have developed a method for multiple structure comparison largely based on sequence alignment techniques. A widely used Structural Alphabet named Protein Blocks (PBs) was used to transform the information on 3D protein backbone conformation as a 1D sequence string. A progressive alignment strategy similar to CLUSTALW was adopted for multiple PB sequence alignment (mulPBA). Highly similar stretches identified by the pairwise alignments are given higher weights during the alignment. The residue equivalences from PB based alignments are used to obtain a three dimensional fit of the structures followed by an iterative refinement of the structural superposition. Systematic comparisons using benchmark datasets of MSTAs underlines that the alignment quality is better than MULTIPROT, MUSTANG and the alignments in HOMSTRAD, in more than 85% of the cases. Comparison with other rigid-body and flexible MSTAs also indicate that mulPBA alignments are superior to most of the rigid-body MSTAs and highly comparable to the flexible alignment methods. PMID:22676903

Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G

2012-09-01

18

Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms  

PubMed Central

Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy.

2013-01-01

19

Alignment strategies for fullerenes and their dimers using soft matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of this research was to achieve alignment of endohedral fullerene dimers defined as covalently linked pairs of fullerene cages where each fullerene cage encapsulates a spin-active atom. The first section will discuss polymer-fullerene interactions from the point of view of determining how various polymer functional groups enhance or hinder the miscibility of C60. In order to successfully incorporate fullerenes into a block copolymer system, we first need to understand the basic interactions that occur between polymers and fullerenes to anticipate the upper limit of fullerenes that may be incorporated in a given polymer and potential approaches to increase this quantity. In particular, studies conducted using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) of vinyl polymer-fullerene blends indicated that an increasing number of phenyl rings in the vinyl side group of the polymer leads to an increase in the miscibility. In particular, poly(9-vinylphenanthrene) (P9VPh), having three phenyl rings in the side group, showed a 6-fold improvement in miscibility limit compared to the other systems studied, polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-vinylnaphathalene) (P2VN). The degree of increase in miscibility observed with P9VPh is attributed to the ability of the vinyl aromatic structure to essentially conform to the curvature of a fullerene molecule rather than the increased potential for pi-pi interactions. These results importantly suggest that a block copolymer system can be tuned to maximize fullerene content, particularly by considering the geometry of functional groups with respect to the fullerene cage and will be discussed further in Chapter III. Second, the use of block copolymers as templates for creating ordered arrays of fullerenes is discussed. The initial goal was to disperse the fullerenes in one block of a block copolymer system and by aligning the microphase separation structure, also align the incorporated fullerenes. There are several major challenges associated with incorporating fullerenes into a block copolymer including the limited miscibility discussed in Chapter III. Furthermore, overcoming the strong inter-fullerene interactions that lead to aggregation also proves to be challenging; aggregates can disrupt the microphase structure in a block copolymer and make alignment difficult to obtain. One potential method generically used to solubilize nanoparticles within a block copolymer is modification of the nanoparticles by grafting polymer chains to the surface to solubilize the nanoparticle in a specific block. As discussed in Chapter IV, the effects of nanoparticle size and concentration on the phase behavior of lamellar-forming dPS-PMMA systems as well as the location of the fullerene star within the dPS block were studied using neutron reflectivity (NR). The scheme above has the disadvantage that modification of the fullerene cage with polymer arms dilutes the overall quantity of fullerene in the system and in the case of endohedral systems, would dilute and severely limit the overall quantity of spins available for measurement in quantum computing. For this reason we chose to investigate the formation of monolayers of amphiphilic fullerene dimers at the air/water interface using the Langmuir technique. We also studied the behavior of these materials when transferred as monolayers and multilayers to solid substrates as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The fullerene dimers in this case were modified to have at least one hydrophilic, polyethylene glycol-based ligand to balance the inherently hydrophobic nature of the fullerene cage and allow for a molecule that more closely resembled typical LB materials. Results of these studies indicated that we can form stable, close-packed monolayers and also control the orientation of the dimer at the air/water interface as well as on solid substrates by tuning the ligand chemistry as shown in Chapter V. The final approach used to achieve alignment of fullerene materials involves the interaction of fullerenes with a chemically-modified substrate either covalently or non-covale

Campbell, Katie

20

Seed selection strategy in global network alignment without destroying the entire structures of functional modules  

PubMed Central

Background Network alignment is one of the most common biological network comparison methods. Aligning protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of different species is of great important to detect evolutionary conserved pathways or protein complexes across species through the identification of conserved interactions, and to improve our insight into biological systems. Global network alignment (GNA) problem is NP-complete, for which only heuristic methods have been proposed so far. Generally, the current GNA methods fall into global heuristic seed-and-extend approaches. These methods can not get the best overall consistent alignment between networks for the opinionated local seed. Furthermore These methods are lost in maximizing the number of aligned edges between two networks without considering the original structures of functional modules. Methods We present a novel seed selection strategy for global network alignment by constructing the pairs of hub nodes of networks to be aligned into multiple seeds. Beginning from every hub seed and using the membership similarity of nodes to quantify to what extent the nodes can participate in functional modules associated with current seed topologically we align the networks by modules. By this way we can maintain the functional modules are not damaged during the heuristic alignment process. And our method is efficient in resolving the fatal problem of most conventional algorithms that the initialization selected seeds have a direct influence on the alignment result. The similarity measures between network nodes (e.g., proteins) include sequence similarity, centrality similarity, and dynamic membership similarity and our algorithm can be called Multiple Hubs-based Alignment (MHA). Results When applying our seed selection strategy to several pairs of real PPI networks, it is observed that our method is working to strike a balance, extending the conserved interactions while maintaining the functional modules unchanged. In the case study, we assess the effectiveness of MHA on the alignment of the yeast and fly PPI networks. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms at detecting conserved functional modules and retrieves in particular 86% more conserved interactions than IsoRank. Conclusions We believe that our seed selection strategy will lead us to obtain more topologically and biologically similar alignment result. And it can be used as the reference and complement of other heuristic methods to seek more meaningful alignment results.

2012-01-01

21

A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies  

SciTech Connect

Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m{sup 2} flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The optimal approach can vary with the application.

Jones, S.A.

1996-03-01

22

A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m² flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The

1996-01-01

23

Aligning USGS senior leadership structure with the USGS science strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is realigning its management and budget structure to further enhance the work of its science programs and their interdisciplinary focus areas related to the USGS Science Strategy as outlined in 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). In 2007, the USGS developed this science strategy outlining major natural-science issues facing the Nation and focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well being of the Nation and the world. These areas include global climate change, water resources, natural hazards, energy and minerals, ecosystems, and data integration.

U.S. Geological Survey

2010-01-01

24

Decomposition strategies for self-aligned double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacer technology, a self-aligned double patterning (SADP) technique, has been drawing more and more attention due to its less stringent overlay requirements compared to other double-patterning methods. However, use of SADP techniques was previously limited by the lack of flexibility in terms of decomposition options , and significant developments were mainly implemented for 1D-type applications for memory. In this paper, we extend the SADP technique into the logic field. A matrix of design rule extraction structures was created by GLOBALFOUNDRIES, which was then decomposed into 2-mask SADP patterning solutions by Cadence Design Systems, and wafers were manufactured by Applied Materials. The wafers were processed in both positive and negative spacer tones, and then we evaluate the design capabilities of SADP for logic BEOL patterning on pitches from 56nm to 64nm. It shows that the SADP has big advantage over other pitch splitting techniques such as LELE in terms of design rules, overlay, and CD uniformity control. With SADP, the most challenging design rules for BEOL such as tip-to-tip and tip-to-line can be reduced 50% from 80 nm to 40 nm.

Ma, Yuansheng; Sweis, Jason; Bencher, Chris; Dai, Huixiong; Chen, Yongmei; Cain, Jason P.; Deng, Yunfei; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry J.

2010-03-01

25

Embedding strategies for effective use of information from multiple sequence alignments.  

PubMed Central

We describe a new strategy for utilizing multiple sequence alignment information to detect distant relationships in searches of sequence databases. A single sequence representing a protein family is enriched by replacing conserved regions with position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) or consensus residues derived from multiple alignments of family members. In comprehensive tests of these and other family representations, PSSM-embedded queries produced the best results overall when used with a special version of the Smith-Waterman searching algorithm. Moreover, embedding consensus residues instead of PSSMs improved performance with readily available single sequence query searching programs, such as BLAST and FASTA. Embedding PSSMs or consensus residues into a representative sequence improves searching performance by extracting multiple alignment information from motif regions while retaining single sequence information where alignment is uncertain.

Henikoff, S.; Henikoff, J. G.

1997-01-01

26

Success factors for creating a PMO aligned with the objectives and organizational strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with how to implement a Project Management Office that is aligned with the objectives and organizational strategy. This study documents the experience provided by the implementation of a PMO at the Department of Technology at the Universidad Te?cnica Particular de Loja, which methodology for managing projects was evolved from a documented oriented version to a deliverable oriented

José Carrillo V; M. E. Abad; A. S. Cabrera; D. H. Jaramillo

2010-01-01

27

Aligning the Software Project Selection Process with the Business Strategy: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report aims to present the significance of requirements engineering approaches in guiding the project selection process\\u000a with an overall objective of ensuring that selected projects align fully with an established business strategy. We analyze\\u000a software practitioners’ views on managing the software project selection process in Cape Town, South Africa. We designed this\\u000a empirical study following on from our previous

Joseph Kibombo Balikuddembe; Antoine Bagula

28

Enabling the business strategy of SMEs through e-business capabilities: A strategic alignment perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present study aims at a deeper understanding of the performance outcomes of the alignment between the e-business capabilities of manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their business strategy in terms of Miles and Snow's recognised strategic typology that includes prospectors, analyzers, and defenders. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From a contingency theory perspective, a survey of 107 Canadian manufacturers

Louis Raymond; François Bergeron

2008-01-01

29

The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

2007-05-01

30

DNA Familial Binding Profiles Made Easy: Comparison of Various Motif Alignment and Clustering Strategies  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP–chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations). We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the comparative study of transcriptional regulation, and the work presented here will form the basis for tool and method development for future transcriptional modeling studies.

Mahony, Shaun; Auron, Philip E; Benos, Panayiotis V

2007-01-01

31

Active reconstruction and alignment strategies for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4m off-axis telescope with a Gregorian front end. At the time of its construction it will be the world's largest solar astronomical telescope. During scientific operations the ATST mirrors and structure will be deformed due to thermal and gravitational loading. The ATST team has developed a quasi-static alignment scheme that utilizes the wavefront sensing signals from at least one and as many as three wavefront sensors in the telescope science field of view, and active figure control of the primary mirror and rigid body control of the secondary mirror to achieve least-squares optical control of the telescope. This paper presents the quasi-static alignment model for the ATST, and three different active alignment schemes that are the damped least-squares control, force optimized control that defines a least-squares aligned state of the telescope subject to minimum primary actuator force, and pivot-point control of the secondary mirror. All three strategies achieve the desired minimum RMS wavefront error, but demonstrate different optimized states of the telescope.

Upton, Robert; Rimmele, Thomas

2010-08-01

32

TIM Barrel Protein Structure Classification Using Alignment Approach and Best Hit Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of protein structures is essential for their function determination in bioinformatics. It has been estimated that around 10% of all known enzymes have TIM barrel domains from the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database. With its high sequence variation and diverse functionalities, TIM barrel protein becomes to be an attractive target for protein engineering and for the evolution study. Hence, in this paper, an alignment approach with the best hit strategy is proposed to classify the TIM barrel protein structure in terms of superfamily and family levels in the SCOP. This work is also used to do the classification for class level in the Enzyme nomenclature (ENZYME) database. Two testing data sets, TIM40D and TIM95D, both are used to evaluate this approach. The resulting classification has an overall prediction accuracy rate of 90.3% for the superfamily level in the SCOP, 89.5% for the family level in the SCOP and 70.1% for the class level in the ENZYME. These results demonstrate that the alignment approach with the best hit strategy is a simple and viable method for the TIM barrel protein structure classification, even only has the amino acid sequences information.

Chu, Jia-Han; Lin, Chun Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Lee, Chihan; Yang, Yuh-Shyong; Tang, Chuan Yi

2007-11-01

33

Societal assessment overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

Bloomquist, C. E.

1980-01-01

34

Societal assessment overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

Bloomquist, C. E.

1980-07-01

35

Octree-Based SIMD Strategy for Icp Registration and Alignment of 3d Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matching and fusion of 3D point clouds, such as close range laser scans, is important for creating an integrated 3D model data infrastructure. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm for alignment of point clouds is one of the most commonly used algorithms for matching of rigid bodies. Evidently, scans are acquired from different positions and might present different data characterization and accuracies, forcing complex data-handling issues. The growing demand for near real-time applications also introduces new computational requirements and constraints into such processes. This research proposes a methodology to solving the computational and processing complexities in the ICP algorithm by introducing specific performance enhancements to enable more efficient analysis and processing. An Octree data structure together with the caching of localized Delaunay triangulation-based surface meshes is implemented to increase computation efficiency and handling of data. Parallelization of the ICP process is carried out by using the Single Instruction, Multiple Data processing scheme - based on the Divide and Conquer multi-branched paradigm - enabling multiple processing elements to be performed on the same operation on multiple data independently and simultaneously. When compared to the traditional non-parallel list processing the Octree-based SIMD strategy showed a sharp increase in computation performance and efficiency, together with a reliable and accurate alignment of large 3D point clouds, contributing to a qualitative and efficient application.

Eggert, D.; Dalyot, S.

2012-07-01

36

Business strategy-IT alignment in a multi-actor setting: a mobile e-service case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a framework and methodology for aligning the business strategy and IT\\/IS for an organization offering an e-service in a multi-organizational setting. We explore three perspectives on the e-service to be offered: 1) The business strategy perspective, in terms of the organization's strategic position; 2) The value creation perspective, in terms of a networked value constellation

Vincent Pijpers; Jaap Gordijn; Hans Akkermans

2008-01-01

37

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

38

iPBA: a tool for protein structure comparison using sequence alignment strategies.  

PubMed

With the immense growth in the number of available protein structures, fast and accurate structure comparison has been essential. We propose an efficient method for structure comparison, based on a structural alphabet. Protein Blocks (PBs) is a widely used structural alphabet with 16 pentapeptide conformations that can fairly approximate a complete protein chain. Thus a 3D structure can be translated into a 1D sequence of PBs. With a simple Needleman-Wunsch approach and a raw PB substitution matrix, PB-based structural alignments were better than many popular methods. iPBA web server presents an improved alignment approach using (i) specialized PB Substitution Matrices (SM) and (ii) anchor-based alignment methodology. With these developments, the quality of ?88% of alignments was improved. iPBA alignments were also better than DALI, MUSTANG and GANGSTA(+) in >80% of the cases. The webserver is designed to for both pairwise comparisons and database searches. Outputs are given as sequence alignment and superposed 3D structures displayed using PyMol and Jmol. A local alignment option for detecting subs-structural similarity is also embedded. As a fast and efficient 'sequence-based' structure comparison tool, we believe that it will be quite useful to the scientific community. iPBA can be accessed at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/ipba/. PMID:21586582

Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G

2011-07-01

39

Strategic alignment: ITIL perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that organizations cannot be competitive if their business and information technology strategies are not aligned. Yet achieving strategic alignment continues to be a major concern for business executives. A number of alignment models have been offered in the literature, primary among them the Strategic Alignment model (SAM) and IT Governance (via ITIL). As there is no published

Haleh Bagher Esmaili; Hassan Gardesh; S. S. Sikari

2010-01-01

40

The contribution of manufacturing strategy involvement and alignment to world-class manufacturing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore links between the process of strategy formulation and subsequent performance in operations within firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An in-depth literature review on resource-based and operations strategy naturally led to three hypotheses. These are then tested using evidence from field-based case studies of manufacturing\\/assembly plants in the computer industry. Findings – The

Steve Brown; Brian Squire; Kate Blackmon

2007-01-01

41

Using Electronic Services Quality Metrics as an Enabler of Business-IT Strategy Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study discusses how the Electronic Services Quality Metrics can be used as a useful tool in bridging the Business IT\\u000a strategy gap. During our work as researchers in eCommerce domain, and as academic lecturers to many IT strategy courses; we\\u000a have concluded some potential uses of some methodologies that are being applied in the eMarketing domain. These methodologies\\u000a can

Mahmoud Amer; Jorge Marx Gómez

42

Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.  

PubMed

Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p?.047 and p?.003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p?.011) and lateral (p?.004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p<.001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p?.022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats. PMID:24792362

Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

2014-06-01

43

Societal communication and brand equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms. Yet few empirical works have focused on the effects of the firm's societal communication and of its characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (2003) brand equity framework to derive hypotheses and test them using an experiment on 200

Florence Benoît-Moreau; Béatrice Parguel

2007-01-01

44

Societal communication and brand equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research works on corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally acknowledge that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms. Yet next to nothing has been written on the effects of the firm's societal communication and its characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (2003) brand equity framework to derive hypotheses and test them using an experiment

Florence Benoît-Moreau; Béatrice Parguel

2007-01-01

45

Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This

M. C. Roco

2003-01-01

46

Broader societal issues of nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This

M. C. Roco

2003-01-01

47

The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to

Julie D. Thompson; Toby J. Gibson; Frédéric Plewniak; François Jeanmougin; Desmond G. Higgins

1997-01-01

48

Correction and alignment strategies for the beam separator of thePEEM3 microscope  

SciTech Connect

A new high-resolution aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope (PEEM3) will be installed on an undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim of this instrument is to provide a substantial flux and resolution improvement by employing an electron mirror for correcting both the third-order spherical aberration and the primary chromatic aberration. In order to utilize this concept of correction, a beam separator is a prerequisite. Crucial to achieving a resolution of 5nm for the high resolution mode, and a sixteen-fold increase in throughput at the same resolution as its predecessor, PEEM2, specified as 20nm at 2% transmission, for the high flux mode is the double symmetric design of the beam separator, which eliminates all the second order geometric aberrations. Nonetheless, substantial tuning capabilities must be incorporated into the PEEM3 design to compensate for both systematic and random errors. In this paper, we investigate how to correct for non-systematic imperfections and for systematic uncertainties in the accuracy of the magnetic fields and focus on how degradation of the resolution and the field of view can be minimized. Finally, we outline a tentative correction strategy for PEEM3.

Schmid, Peter; Feng, Jun; Padmore, Howard; Robin, David; Rose,Harald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, YingHarald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, Ying

2004-07-01

49

The Interplay of Psychology and Societal Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the International Journal of Group Tensions examines the contribution of psychology to societal transformation worldwide and the impact of societal transformation on psychology. In this introduction, I review the aims and scope of the journal and the focus of the special issue. Second, I identify several key consequences of societal transformation that are not bounded by

Michael J. Stevens

2002-01-01

50

The societal costs of insomnia  

PubMed Central

Objective Insomnia can be broadly defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or sleep that is not refreshing or of poor quality with negative effect on daytime function. Insomnia can be a primary condition or comorbid to an underlying disorder. Subjective measures of insomnia used in population studies, usually based on complaints of unsatisfactory sleep, put the prevalence at about 10%. Insomnia is more common in the elderly and in women, and is often associated with medical and psychiatric disorders. This review examines the measures used to assess quality of sleep (QOS) and daytime functioning and the impact of insomnia on society using these measures. Methods Literature searches were performed to identify all studies of insomnia (primary and comorbid) in adults (aged 18–64 years) and the elderly (aged ? 65 years) with baseline and/or outcomes relating to QOS or daytime functioning. The impact of poor QOS on quality of life (QOL), psychomotor and cognitive skills, health care resource utilization, and other societal effects was examined. Results Although definitions and measurement scales used to assess sleep quality vary widely, it is clear that the societal consequences of insomnia are substantial and include impaired QOL and increased health care utilization. The impact of poor QOS and impaired daytime functioning common in insomnia can lead to indirect effects such as lower work productivity, increased sick leave, and a higher rate of motor vehicle crashes. Conclusions Insomnia is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to society. It is almost impossible to separate the costs associated with primary and comorbid insomnia. More studies are required which control for the severity of any primary disorder to accurately evaluate the costs of comorbid insomnia. Development of standardized diagnostic and assessment scales will enable more accurate quantification of the true societal burden of insomnia and will contribute to greater understanding of this disorder.

Wade, Alan G

2011-01-01

51

Societal responses to the Anthropocene.  

PubMed

This article discusses the societal responses to the Anthropocene. First we need to confront the effects of our own population proliferation in all its aspects; next to look again at economics and replace consumerism as a goal; then to work out new ways of generating energy; to manage and adapt to what is in effect climate destabilization; to give higher priority to conservation of the natural world; and last to create the necessary institutional means of coping with global problems in a world in which society is more integrated than ever before. PMID:21282154

Tickell, Crispin

2011-03-13

52

Practical study on the electron-beam-only alignment strategy for the electron beam direct writing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to introduce of electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology into the volume production lines for the 65 nm process technology are shown and discussed. In order to apply these techniques in a harmonious way, partial modifications to the current production line infrastructures are required, because those infrastructures have been optimized for the conventional photolithography technology. One of the large differences is with the alignment. For the gate layer, the appropriate solution is to have an additional process step to remove SiO2 material filled in the shallow trench isolation alignment marks before the patterning. For the dual damascene process at the metal layers, careful consideration of the choice between the indirect alignment or the direct alignment is necessary, when the metal layer is aligned to the previous via layer underneath. We expect that these techniques can be used for the advanced node devices as well, while some new structures would be applied on these devices. In addition to the optimizing the alignment mark structures, the appropriate adjustment of EBDW system parameters by advanced process control (APC) is required, in order to have enough overlay accuracy at the actual production use. Although such process control systems are normally optimized to photolithography, we have confirmed that APC system can be also used for the EBDW technology for appropriate overlay accuracy control. Furthermore, the alignment budget in our systems is created and the alignment accuracy in our future system is estimated based on it. Based on the findings from these discussions, we expect that the EBDW with e-beam-only alignment will be applicable for the production of the 11 nm half-pitch process technology node and the beyond.

Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Kon, Junichi

2013-03-01

53

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

54

PRALINE: a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit.  

PubMed

Profile ALIgNmEnt (PRALINE) is a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit. In its main alignment protocol, PRALINE follows the global progressive alignment algorithm. It provides various alignment optimization strategies to address the different situations that call for protein multiple sequence alignment: global profile preprocessing, homology-extended alignment, secondary structure-guided alignment, and transmembrane aware alignment. A number of combinations of these strategies are enabled as well. PRALINE is accessible via the online server http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/PRALINEwww/. The server facilitates extensive visualization possibilities aiding the interpretation of alignments generated, which can be written out in pdf format for publication purposes. PRALINE also allows the sequences in the alignment to be represented in a dendrogram to show their mutual relationships according to the alignment. The chapter ends with a discussion of various issues occurring in multiple sequence alignment. PMID:24170407

Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap

2014-01-01

55

Achieving Alignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how school districts can implement alignment between student learning standards and assessments used to measure that learning. Focuses on alignment between standards and assessment in No Child Left Behind Act, the types of alignment studies requested by states and districts, and using the results of alignment studies to inform practice.…

Ananda, Sri

2003-01-01

56

Societal health and urban sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

1996-08-27

57

MC64-ClustalWP2: a highly-parallel hybrid strategy to align multiple sequences in many-core architectures.  

PubMed

We have developed the MC64-ClustalWP2 as a new implementation of the Clustal W algorithm, integrating a novel parallelization strategy and significantly increasing the performance when aligning long sequences in architectures with many cores. It must be stressed that in such a process, the detailed analysis of both the software and hardware features and peculiarities is of paramount importance to reveal key points to exploit and optimize the full potential of parallelism in many-core CPU systems. The new parallelization approach has focused into the most time-consuming stages of this algorithm. In particular, the so-called progressive alignment has drastically improved the performance, due to a fine-grained approach where the forward and backward loops were unrolled and parallelized. Another key approach has been the implementation of the new algorithm in a hybrid-computing system, integrating both an Intel Xeon multi-core CPU and a Tilera Tile64 many-core card. A comparison with other Clustal W implementations reveals the high-performance of the new algorithm and strategy in many-core CPU architectures, in a scenario where the sequences to align are relatively long (more than 10 kb) and, hence, a many-core GPU hardware cannot be used. Thus, the MC64-ClustalWP2 runs multiple alignments more than 18x than the original Clustal W algorithm, and more than 7x than the best x86 parallel implementation to date, being publicly available through a web service. Besides, these developments have been deployed in cost-effective personal computers and should be useful for life-science researchers, including the identification of identities and differences for mutation/polymorphism analyses, biodiversity and evolutionary studies and for the development of molecular markers for paternity testing, germplasm management and protection, to assist breeding, illegal traffic control, fraud prevention and for the protection of the intellectual property (identification/traceability), including the protected designation of origin, among other applications. PMID:24710354

Díaz, David; Esteban, Francisco J; Hernández, Pilar; Caballero, Juan Antonio; Guevara, Antonio; Dorado, Gabriel; Gálvez, Sergio

2014-01-01

58

Homology-extended sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

We present a profile–profile multiple alignment strategy that uses database searching to collect homologues for each sequence in a given set, in order to enrich their available evolutionary information for the alignment. For each of the alignment sequences, the putative homologous sequences that score above a pre-defined threshold are incorporated into a position-specific pre-alignment profile. The enriched position-specific profile is used for standard progressive alignment, thereby more accurately describing the characteristic features of the given sequence set. We show that owing to the incorporation of the pre-alignment information into a standard progressive multiple alignment routine, the alignment quality between distant sequences increases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art methods, such as T-COFFEE and MUSCLE. We also show that although entirely sequence-based, our novel strategy is better at aligning distant sequences when compared with a recent contact-based alignment method. Therefore, our pre-alignment profile strategy should be advantageous for applications that rely on high alignment accuracy such as local structure prediction, comparative modelling and threading.

Simossis, V. A.; Kleinjung, J.; Heringa, J.

2005-01-01

59

The Alignment Between Social Responsibility and Business Strategy: Implications for Social Responsibility Value Creation in Spanish SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study we empirically analyse the integration of Social Responsibility\\u000a (SR) practices in business strategy\\u000a and its effect over the creation of value for the business itself in the small and medium enterprise (SME\\u000a context. We consider that SR must contribute to the firm’s core activities and help the firm to achieve its mission. Moreover,\\u000a we believe that this

Cristina Iturrioz; Cristina Aragón; Lorea Narvaiza; Asunción Ibañez

60

Integration of Aerial and long-range Terrestrial Laser Scanner: alignment strategies and 3D models for landslide/rockslide description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to integrate airborne and long-range (up to some kilometers) terrestrial laser scanning data in order to obtain a good and reliable description of the geomorphology of unstable slopes. 3D models derived from the integrated point clouds can be particularly useful to study and analyze complex morphology, vertical walls of rockslides and surfaces with sparse vegetation. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) are very efficient techniques for characterizing the morphostructure of slopes; although both techniques individually show some limits, their integration can overcome these limits. For example, for vertical walls of rock, the TLS could be recommended because of its "frontal" point of view, that permits a description of vertical walls with a higher point density than ALS can reach. On the other hand, the power of the ALS methodology is highlighted when a large and flat area is involved and/or when a lot of vegetation covers the area. The ALS can easily reach the ground with respect to TLS due to its vertical position of measurement and this allows a more reliable result even if the last generation of terrestrial laser scanners has the skill to penetrate inside the vegetation thanks to a multi-echo technology. All the problems and difficulties encountered will be fully described. When a reliable description of the morphology is requested and involved distances are of some kilometers, the alignment strategies, the point cloud management and filtering, along with the DTM generation are crucial aspects that cannot be underestimate. Thus, different alignment techniques were examined (ICP - Iterative Closest Point, backsigthing orientation with GPS positioning, alignment with targets or homologous points). Results could be optimized only combining the different alignment approaches. In addition, the DTM generation was deeply analyzed, comparing TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) and grid mesh format, different point cloud densities, different grid dimensions and algorithms of interpolation. The challenge was the definition of a quantitative method for comparing 3D models obtained with the different approaches.

Bertacchini, Eleonora; Rivola, Riccardo; Castagnetti, Cristina; Capra, Alessandro; Parmeggiani, Erika

2013-04-01

61

Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

2010-01-01

62

Minority Group Identification and Societal Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong positive identification with a specific group is potentially both functional and dysfunctional for the solidarity of an encompassing larger social system. The impact of strong ethnic group identification upon societal integration is here explored by analyzing data obtained from 515 Negroes as part of the Cornell Studies in Intergroup…

Noel, Donald L.

63

Societal Safety: Concept, Borders and Dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most industrialized countries, the end of the Cold War marked a change in focus from preparedness for war to an increasing focus on civil society's own vulnerability and safety. To meet new threats and changing risks, there is also a need for new analytical concepts. Societal safety is a concept developed in Norway during the last decade. It could

Odd Einar Olsen; Bjørn Ivar Kruke; Jan Hovden

2007-01-01

64

The societal impact value of risk  

SciTech Connect

A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ``de facto`` risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 {times} 10{sup 7}) NR{sub i}{sup 4/3} where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity.

Simpson, D.E.

1995-04-01

65

Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

2005-12-01

66

NSF Awards New Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology  

NSF Publications Database

... rholland@nsf.gov NSF Awards New Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology The ... that greatly expand its ongoing commitment to study the societal implications of nanotechnology: the ...

67

Glycoform Analysis of Recombinant and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Protein gp120 via Higher Energy Collisional Dissociation and Spectral-Aligning Strategy.  

PubMed

Envelope protein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is armored with a dense glycan shield, which plays critical roles in envelope folding, immune-evasion, infectivity, and immunogenicity. Site-specific glycosylation profiling of recombinant gp120 is very challenging. Therefore, glycoproteomic analysis of native viral gp120 is still formidable to date. This challenge promoted us to employ a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer to identify low abundant glycopeptides from virion-associated gp120. To search the HCD-MS data for glycopeptides, a novel spectral-aligning strategy was developed. This strategy depends on the observation that glycopeptides and the corresponding deglycosylated peptides share very similar MS/MS pattern in terms of b- and y-ions that do not contain the site of glycosylation. Moreover, glycopeptides with an identical peptide backbone show nearly resembling spectra regardless of the attached glycan structures. For the recombinant gp120, this "copy-paste" spectral pattern of glycopeptides facilitated identification of 2224 spectra using only 18 spectral templates, and after precursor mass correction, 1268 (57%) spectra were assigned to 460 unique glycopeptides accommodating 19 N-linked and one O-linked glycosylation sites (glycosites). Strikingly, we were able to observe five N- and one O-linked glycosites in native gp120. We further revealed that except for Asn276 in the C2 region, glycans were processed to contain both high mannose and hybrid/complex glycans; an additional four N-linked glycosites were decorated with high mannose type. Core 1 O-linked glycan Gal1GalNAc1 was seen for the O-linked glycosite at Thr499. This direct observation of site-specific glycosylation of virion-derived gp120 has implications in HIV glycobiology and vaccine design. PMID:24941220

Yang, Weiming; Shah, Punit; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Shisheng; Ao, Minghui; Rubin, Abigail; Jackson, J Brooks; Zhang, Hui

2014-07-15

68

Improvement of the thermostability and activity of a pectate lyase by single amino acid substitutions, using a strategy based on melting-temperature-guided sequence alignment.  

PubMed

In the vast number of random mutagenesis experiments that have targeted protein thermostability, single amino acid substitutions that increase the apparent melting temperature (Tm) of the enzyme more than 1 to 2 degrees C are rare and often require the creation of a large library of mutated genes. Here we present a case where a single beneficial mutation (R236F) of a hemp fiber-processing pectate lyase of Xanthomonas campestris origin (PL(Xc)) produced a 6 degrees C increase in Tm and a 23-fold increase in the half-life at 45 degrees C without compromising the enzyme's catalytic efficiency. This success was based on a variation of sequence alignment strategy where a mesophilic amino acid sequence is matched with the sequences of its thermophilic counterparts that have established Tm values. Altogether, two-thirds of the nine targeted single amino acid substitutions were found to have effects either on the thermostability or on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, evidence of a high success rate of mutation without the creation of a large gene library and subsequent screening of clones. Combination of R236F with another beneficial mutation (A31G) resulted in at least a twofold increase in specific activity while preserving the improved Tm value. To understand the structural basis for the increased thermal stability or activity, the variant R236F and A31G R236F proteins and wild-type PL(Xc) were purified and crystallized. By structure analysis and computational methods, hydrophobic desolvation was found to be the driving force for the increased stability with R236F. PMID:18156340

Xiao, Zhizhuang; Bergeron, Hélène; Grosse, Stephan; Beauchemin, Manon; Garron, Marie-Line; Shaya, David; Sulea, Traian; Cygler, Miroslaw; Lau, Peter C K

2008-02-01

69

Societal Impacts of Solar Electromagnetic Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in solar electromagnetic radiation, which occur continuously and at all wavelengths of the spectrum, can have significant societal impacts on a wide range of time scales. Detection of climate change and ozone depletion requires reliable specification of solar-induced processes that mask or exacerbate anthropogenic effects. Living with, and mitigating, climate change and ozone depletion has significant economic, habitat and political impacts of international extent. As an example, taxes to restrict carbon emission may cause undue economic stress if the role of greenhouse gases in global warming is incorrectly diagnosed. Ignoring solar-induced ozone changes in the next century may lead to incorrect assessment of the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer by limiting the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Societal infrastructure depends in many ways on space-based technological assets. Communications and navigation for commerce, industry, science and defense rely on satellite signals transmitted through, and reflected by, electrons in the ionosphere. Electron densities change in response to solar flares, and by orders of magnitude in response to EUV and X-ray flux variations during the Sun's 11-year activity cycle. Spacecraft and space debris experience enhanced drag on their orbits when changing EUV radiation causes upper atmosphere densities to increase. Especially affected are spacecraft and debris in lower altitude orbits, such as Iridium-type communication satellites, and the International Space Station (ISS). Proper specification of solar-induced fluctuations in the neutral upper atmosphere can, for example, aid in tracking the ISS and surrounding space debris, reducing the chance of ISS damage from collisions, and maximizing its operations. Aspects of solar electromagnetic radiation variability will be briefly illustrated on a range of time scales, with specific identification of the societal impacts of different spectral regions.

Lean, J. L.

2000-05-01

70

Alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

Bell, Grover C. (Norris, TN) [Norris, TN; Gibson, O. Theodore (Lenoir City, TN) [Lenoir City, TN

1980-01-01

71

Societal Dimensions of Engineering, Science and Technology (SDEST)  

NSF Publications Database

... 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230 For General Information (NSF Information Center): (703 ... 292-5111 SUMMARY OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS GENERAL INFORMATION Program Title: Societal Dimensions of ...

72

Applications and societal benefits of plastics.  

PubMed

This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

2009-07-27

73

Societal Implicit Memory and his Speed on Tracking Extrema over Dynamic Environments using Self-Regulatory Swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome difficult dynamic optimization and environment extrema tracking problems, we propose a Self-Regulated Swarm (SRS) algorithm which hybridizes the advantageous characteristics of Swarm Intelligence as the emergence of a societal environmental memory or cognitive map via collective pheromone laying in the landscape (properly balancing the exploration\\/exploitation nature of the search strategy), with a simple Evolutionary mechanism that

Vitorino Ramos; Carlos Fernandes; Agostinho C. Rosa

2005-01-01

74

Alignment of Helical Membrane Protein Sequences Using AlignMe  

PubMed Central

Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S) matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P)), in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T), in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set.

Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

2013-01-01

75

Spiritual perspectives on individual, organizational and societal transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores issues of what matters most in individual organizational and societal transformation – economic issues or spirit? Transformation is defined and literature on individual, organizational and societal transformation is presented. The article looks at the standard arguments that economics are the driving force in transformation and then postulates that spirituality may be as much – if not more

Judith A. Neal; Benyamin M. Bergmann Lichtenstein; David Banner

1999-01-01

76

An Overview of Web Mining in Societal Benefit Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of web mining research related to areas of social benefit is the focus of this paper. We particularly focus on web mining that may help and benefit societal areas in ways of extracting new knowledge, providing support for decision making and empowering valuable management of societal issues. E-commerce and E-business are two fields empowered by web mining having

Georgios Lappas

2007-01-01

77

IUS Prerelease Alignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor a...

F. A. Evans

1978-01-01

78

Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.  

PubMed

Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications. PMID:11539240

Race, M S

1995-03-01

79

Aligned nanotubes.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes by lijima in 1991, various carbon nanotubes with either a single- or multilayered graphene cylinder(s) have been produced, along with their noncarbon counterparts (for example, inorganic and polymer nanotubes). These nanostructured materials often possess size-dependent properties and show new phenomena related to the nanosize confinement of the charge carriers inside, which leads to the possibility of developing new materials with useful properties and advanced devices with desirable features for a wide range of applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes have been shown to exhibit superior properties attractive for various potential applications, ranging from their use as novel electron emitters in flat-panel displays to electrodes in electrochemical sensors. For many of the applications, it is highly desirable to have aligned/patterned forms of carbon nanotubes so that their structure/property can be easily assessed and so that they can be effectively incorporated into devices. In this Review, we present an overview on the development of aligned and micropatterned nanotubes, with an emphasis on carbon nanotubes. PMID:14652993

Dai, Liming; Patil, Ajeeta; Gong, Xiaoyi; Guo, Zhixin; Liu, Luqi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Daoben

2003-11-14

80

Societal and patient burden of fibromyalgia syndrome.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is an under-diagnosed disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread muscular pain, often accompanied by somatic and psychological symptoms. Several studies have described the impact of FMS on patients' functionality, disability and quality of life. Other studies have reported on the burden to patients, healthcare payers and society. This review brings the existing evidence together and concludes that the patient burden of fibromyalgia is very high in comparison with many other conditions. The burden to healthcare payers and society is important as well, and can be mostly explained by factors not directly related to the treatment of FMS. Data suggest that the cost before diagnosis may even be higher than the cost after diagnosis. It is very likely that the combination of symptoms not only complicates the recognition and treatment of FMS, but also magnifies the burden of FMS. Despite the complex and controversial construct of this syndrome, the results in terms of patient, healthcare payer and societal burden are quite consistent. PMID:19663526

Annemans, Lieven; Le Lay, Katell; Taïeb, Charles

2009-01-01

81

Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

Bluestein, Howard B.

2011-08-01

82

Strategies and Lessons-Learned for the Successful Alignment of Contract Cost with the Contract Budget Base (CBB) within the First Year of Contract Award - 13154  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide a sound basis and foundation for integrated Project and Contract change management, it is imperative to ensure the alignment of the Negotiated Contract Costs (NCC) with the Contract Budget Base (CBB), where CBB is defined as the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) plus Management Reserve (MR). The achievement of this alignment assures customer and contractor agreement on scope, requirements, quantities, schedule and cost, which facilitates the identification of change conditions and ultimate agreement on the value of changes to the NCC and the CBB. Delays in contract/CBB true up/reconciliation can negatively effect measurement of project progress, limiting owner understanding of liability, and may result in increased contract disagreements and potential claims. The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) and URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) achieved alignment of the NCC with the CBB within 10 months of UCOR taking over work on the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) cleanup contract by: 1. Managing as a discrete project; 2. Establishing expectations and setting tone of interactions; 3. Using personnel experienced with Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR); 4. Partnering; 5. Establishing ombudsmen. (authors)

Mullis, Jay [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rueter, Ken [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)

2013-07-01

83

Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of decisions, but subsets of indicators, or the data supporting the indicator, might be used to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region.

Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

2011-01-01

84

Global alignment: Finding rearrangements during alignment  

SciTech Connect

Motivation: To compare entire genomes from different species, biologists increasingly need alignment methods that are efficient enough to handle long sequences, and accurate enough to correctly align the conserved biological features between distant species. The two main classes of pairwise alignments are global alignment, where one string is transformed into the other, and local alignment, where all locations of similarity between the two strings are returned. Global alignments are less prone to demonstrating false homology as each letter of one sequence is constrained to being aligned to only one letter of the other. Local alignments, on the other hand, can cope with rearrangements between non-syntenic, orthologous sequences by identifying similar regions in sequences; this, however, comes at the expense of a higher false positive rate due to the inability of local aligners to take into account overall conservation maps.

Brudno, Michael; Malde, Sanket; Poliakov, Alexander; Do, Chuong B.; Couronne, Olivier; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim

2003-01-06

85

Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational and management boundaries that must be resolved at local, state, national and international levels to implement and realize free flow of such vital information.

Habib, Shahid

2010-01-01

86

Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%. PMID:23118847

Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

2012-01-01

87

Societal Implications: Selected Readings. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 14.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These selected readings provide participants in the building process at the local, State, and regional levels with information on the most significant societal implications of adopting new or improved seismic regulations for new buildings. Included are pa...

1985-01-01

88

Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism - Forecasting Domestic Political Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism (PSIR) Model of Domestic Political Violence forecasts political violence levels at yearly intervals into the future. The model enables policymakers, particularly in the COCOMS, to proactively plan for insta...

A. Caglayan A. Murdie D. Cingranelli L. Stroh S. Bell

2011-01-01

89

Compram, a method for handling complex societal problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article starts with an introduction to complex societal problems, and the aspects and causes of such problems are described. The phases in the problem handling process are discussed. Then the main aspects of Compram method are discussed. The Compram method is developed to support handling complex societal problems. The method is developed by DeTombe (cf. DeTombe, D.J., 1994. Defining

Dorien J. DeTombe

2001-01-01

90

A (computational) social science perspective on societal transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to illustrate how social sciences, sociology in particular, have theorized on societal transitions. The first\\u000a section introduces some preliminary definitions. The assumption is that a societal transition is more than a social, economic\\u000a or technological change. It is a large-scale and long-term macro process through which a given social system radically changes\\u000a its structural basis, in terms

Flaminio Squazzoni

2008-01-01

91

Cultural Estrangement: The Role of Personal and Societal Value Discrepancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., free- dom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward politi- cal (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The rela- tions between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal dis- crepancies in values

Mark M. Bernard; Jochen E. Gebauer; Gregory R. Maio

2006-01-01

92

Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the face alignment problem as a process of maximizing the response from a boosting classifier. Enlightened by AAM and BAM, we

Hua Zhang; Duanduan Liu; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt; H. Zha; R.-I. Taniguchi; S. Maybank

2010-01-01

93

Strategis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.

1998-01-01

94

Semantics of Ontology Alignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ontology alignment is a foundational problem area for semantic interoperability. We discuss the complexity faced by automated alignment solutions and describe an ontology-based approach for describing and evaluating alignments.

B. C. Ashpole T. C. Hughes

2004-01-01

95

Teacher Perception of the Alignment of Enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) standards for staff development as a framework for measuring specific aspects of the enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) educational technology professional development program, as perceived by eMINTS teachers. The Technology Integration Cycle…

Stanfill, Diana L.

2010-01-01

96

How Japanese manufacturing firms align their human resource policies with business strategies: testing a contingency performance prediction in a Japanese context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interaction effects of business-level strategy and HRM policies upon performance among Japanese manufacturers, in response to the current debate around the contingency fit proposition in the field of strategic human resource management (SHRM). Specifically, it was hypothesized that the three generic strategic types (cost reduction, differentiation (innovation), and quality enhancement) would moderate the relationship between particular

Norihiko Takeuchi

2009-01-01

97

Asking the Right Questions: Atmospheric Sciences Research and Societal Needs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, those who conduct federally funded research in the United States have been asked by their patrons, the public and their elected representatives, to demonstrate more efficacy with respect to societal needs. Although there is a long record of efforts to improve connections of research with societal needs, a problem exists in that in recent decades the production of scientific knowledge seems to have outrun its effective use by society. Current debate asks questions such as the following: In what different ways has society understood the connections of research with societal needs? What are the implications of such understandings for the structure and conduct of atmospheric sciences research? How can society (and especially sponsors of science) accurately and meaningfully assess the contributions of the atmospheric sciences to societal needs? This paper seeks to shed light on dimensions of these questions through discussion of the relationship of atmospheric sciences research with societal problems. Because the atmospheric sciences have an extended record of experience in connecting research with practical problems, the lessons of that experience have significance for current efforts to improve the relation of the atmospheric sciences with society's needs. In addition, these lessons have broader relevance for more general understandings of the evolving relationship of science and society.

Pielke, Roger A., Jr.

1997-02-01

98

Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies.

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

2009-01-01

99

Validating ITIL maturity to strategic business-IT alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that organizational IT is in alignment with and provides support for an organization's business strategy is critical to business success. As there is no published research that attempts to describe maturity of ITIL V3 in aligning business and IT at strategic level, this paper reports on determining aligning roles of ITIL V3 in practice. In this paper, ITIL maturity

Haleh Bagher Esmaili; Hassan Gardesh; Shahram Shadrokh Sikari

2010-01-01

100

Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18?683 (14?665to 22?889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15?228 (11?245to 19?492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets.

Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

2013-01-01

101

Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are informed by evidence from a range of sources, including document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and multiple media analyses. Finally, this study highlights a set of cross-cutting, transferable lessons that can be applied as future emerging technologies arise over time. The intention is that the insights gained from this study can help address these pressing issues as they rapidly unfold.

Michelson, Evan S.

102

SOCIETAL SERVICES AFTER TRAUMATIC SPINAL CORD INJURY IN SWEDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Societal services after traumatic spinal cord injury in Sweden were investigated, including self-rated levels of satisfaction with the application process and resource allocation. Design: Survey of an incidence population. Subjects: Thirty-four persons of a total regional incidence population (n = 48) with traumatic spinal cord injury. Methods: Structured interviews using a standardized ques- tionnaire. Results: About 25 separate services

Camilla Nordgren; Richard Levi; Gunnar Ljunggren; Åke Seiger

2003-01-01

103

United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

Donoughe, P. L.

1976-01-01

104

Environmental innovation and societal transitions: Introduction and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the new journal Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (EIST). We consider its key terms and offer a survey of relevant theoretical and empirical insights, policy issues and research challenges. Four theoretical approaches to studying sustainability transitions are identified. The treatise ends with a synopsis of the 19 articles in this inaugural issue and a list of suggested

Bernhard Truffer; Giorgos Kallis

2011-01-01

105

A QALY-based societal health statistic for Canada, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the appropriateness of QALYs (quality adjusted life years) as a foundation for an index of societal health, and the feasibility of using such an index to guide health care policy. Results of this paper suggest that the standard aggregate QALY index imposes an ethical position on policy makers which may promote inequality in well-being associated with health.

Ann M. Holmes

1995-01-01

106

Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The

Klaas van Alphen; Quirine van Voorst tot Voorst; Marko P. Hekkert; Ruud E. H. M. Smits

2007-01-01

107

Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

108

VTT: n Yhteiskunnalliset Vaikutukset. (Societal Impacts of VTT.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents the results of a study on the societal impact of VTT for Finland and on its role in the national innovation system from the perspective of the governmental authorities, representatives of interest groups and industry, and VTT's p...

P. Kutinlahti K. Hyytinen

2002-01-01

109

Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

110

Societal Trends: The Aging Baby Boom and Women's Increased Independence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two most important societal trends today are the aging baby boom and womens increased independence. This paper compares the travel profiles of women aged 40 to 49 (early baby boomers) with women aged 75 and over and with men aged 75 and over (parents ...

D. Spain

1997-01-01

111

Beware of Societal Issues As Organizers for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avi Hofstein and Robert E. Yager recently published "Societal Issues as Organizers for Science Education in the 80's" (EJ 273 207). Objections to their thesis are discussed indicating, among others, that their suggestions would be counterproductive to their stated goals and open to dangerous manipulation by anti-scientific factions and social…

Kromhout, Robert; Good, Ron

1983-01-01

112

Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

2008-01-01

113

Teachers' Conceptions about Their Understanding of Societal Science Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' scientific knowledge about societal science issues must be one of the prerequisites for the process of science teaching. Innovation in science teaching and its implications for students' scientific literacy depends on the understanding that teachers bring with them into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how…

Martins, Isabel P.

114

76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and...wishes to examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the methods of...Following a particularly deadly year of tornadoes in the United States despite the...

2011-11-16

115

Fast Statistical Alignment  

PubMed Central

We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment—previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches—yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/.

Bradley, Robert K.; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

2009-01-01

116

Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm.\\u000a Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy,\\u000a then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the face alignment problem as a process of maximizing the response from a boosting\\u000a classifier. Enlightened by AAM and BAM, we

Hua Zhang; Duanduan Liu; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt

2009-01-01

117

The societal gain of medical development and innovation in gastroenterology  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroenterology has over the past 30 years evolved very rapidly. The societal benefits to which this has led are incompletely determined, yet form a mandate to determine the need for future innovations and further development of the field. A more thorough understanding of societal benefits may help to determine future goals and improve decision making. Aims The objective of this article is to determine the societal gains of medical innovations in the field of gastroenterology in the past and future, using peptic ulcer disease as an example of past innovation and the implementation of colorectal cancer screening as an illustration of future gains. Methods Literature searches were performed for data on peptic ulcer and colorectal cancer epidemiology, treatment outcomes, and costs. National and governmental databases in the Netherlands were searched to obtain the input for calculations of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE), and the corresponding societal benefit. Results Since 1980 the improvements in peptic ulcer treatment have had a limited impact on life expectancy, rising from 83.6 years to 83.7 years, but have led to a yearly gain of 46,000 QALYs, caused by improved quality of life. These developments in the field of peptic ulcer translated into a yearly gain of 1.8 billion to 7.8 billion euros in 2008 compared with the 1980s. Mortality due to colorectal cancer is high, with 21.6 deaths per 100,000 per year in the Netherlands (European Standardized Rate (ESR)). The future implementation of a nationwide call-recall colorectal cancer screening by means of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is expected to result in a 50%–80% mortality reduction and thus a gain of an estimated 35,000 life years per year, corresponding to 26,000 QALYs per year. The effects of the implementation of FIT screening can be translated to a future societal gain of 1.0 billion to 4.4 billion euro. Conclusions The innovations and developments in the field of gastroenterology have led to significant societal gains in the past three decades. This process will continue in the near future as a result of further developments. These calculations provide a template for calculations on the need for specialist training as well as research and implementation of new developments in our field.

Isendoorn, Kees; Klinkhamer, Wouter; Gupta, Anshu; Kuipers, Ernst J

2013-01-01

118

Evaluation of alignment marks using ASML ATHENA alignment system in 90-nm BEOL process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the critical dimension (CD) in integrated circuit (IC) device reduces, the total overlay budget needs to be more stringent. Typically, the allowable overlay error is 1/3 of the CD in the IC device. In this case, robustness of alignment mark is critical, as accurate signal is required by the scanner"s alignment system to precisely align a layer of pattern to the previous layer. Alignment issue is more severe in back-end process partly due to the influenced of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), which contribute to the asymmetric or total destroy of the alignment marks. In this paper, the performance of different design of alignment marks on 0.10im technology wafer has been evaluated using ASML ATHENATM alignment system. For example, segmented marks with smaller dimensions in terms of width and length are used. Narrow marks are preferable due to the space constraint in the scribe lines. The width of NSPM has been shrunk down to 70% of the SPM and the length remains the same. It is a challenge to the alignment system to collect the NSPM signal and provide comparable alignment capability. The evaluations were completed using short loop wafers, which focus on back-end-of-line via and metal layers in a 90nm Cu dual damascene low k process. The results also look into the overlay performance using different alignment strategies. Offline overlay measurements were performed to verify the results.

Tan, Chin-Boon; Yeo, Swee-Hock; Koh, Hui Peng; Koo, Chee K.; Foong, Yee M.; Siew, Yong K.

2003-05-01

119

Girder Alignment Plan  

SciTech Connect

The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-18

120

MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination.

2014-01-01

121

Climate Change, Societal Transitions and Changing Infectious Disease Burdens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human health is directly and indirectly influenced by the effects of climate change – air and sea temperatures, rainfall and\\u000a more frequent and severe climate extremes. These effects do not impact on human populations uniformly, however, and this chapter\\u000a looks at the interplay between climate and the different lifestyles that follow societal transitions, from hunting and gathering,\\u000a through agriculture, industrialisation

Emily Fearnley; Philip Weinstein; John Dodson

122

The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the\\u000a theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition\\u000a period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts,

Rui Zheng; Kan Shi; Shu Li

2009-01-01

123

Newborn jaundice and kernicterus—health and societal perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public\\u000a and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid\\u000a cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per\\u000a CDC’s Financial Burden of Disability

Vinod IC Bhutani; Lois H. Johnson

2003-01-01

124

Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform.

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

2013-01-01

125

Implementation of a parallel protein structure alignment service on cloud.  

PubMed

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

2013-01-01

126

Physician alignment strategies and real estate.  

PubMed

When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image. PMID:22734329

Czerniak, Thomas A

2012-06-01

127

Aligning human resource development with business strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest among senior managers, human resource professionals and business school academics about evaluating the strategic benefits of workplace learning; particularly how organised training and d evelopment activities contribute to an organisation's success. The opinion is polari sed: one school of thought takes a pro-human resource standpoint and advocates a strong and irrefutable connection, while the other

Tom Short

128

Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

Somerville, Mary R.

1995-01-01

129

Use of a conceptual model of societal drivers of ecological change in South Florida: Implications of an ecosystem management scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-dominated ecosystems such as in South Florida's Everglades region are greatly affected by societal actions and choices, and efforts to restore degraded ecosystems must take into account the societal drivers of ecosystem change. A conceptual model of societal-ecological interactions within the region illustrates connections between major societal drivers, such as water management and land use, and ecological stressors, such as

Christine C. Harwell; Christopher W. Deren; George H. Snyder; William D. Solecki; James Wilson; Mark A. Harwell

1999-01-01

130

The Societal Impact of Single Versus Bilateral Lung Transplantation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) improves survival compared with single lung transplantation (SLT) for some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which strategy optimally uses this scarce societal resource. Objectives: To compare the effect of SLT versus BLT strategies for COPD on waitlist outcomes among the broader population of patients listed for lung transplantation. Methods: We developed a Markov model to simulate the transplant waitlist using transplant registry data to define waitlist size, donor frequency, the risk of death awaiting transplant, and disease- and procedure-specific post-transplant survival. We then applied this model to 1,000 simulated patients and compared the number of patients under each strategy who received a transplant, the number who died before transplantation, and total post-transplant survival. Measurements and Main Results: Under baseline assumptions, the SLT strategy resulted in more patients transplanted (809 vs. 758) and fewer waitlist deaths (157 vs. 199). The strategies produced similar total post-transplant survival (SLT = 4,586 yr vs. BLT = 4,577 yr). In sensitivity analyses, SLT always maximized the number of patients transplanted. The strategy that maximized post-transplant survival depended on the relative survival benefit of BLT versus SLT among patients with COPD, donor interval, and waitlist size. Conclusions: In most circumstances, a policy of SLT for COPD improves access to organs for other potential recipients without significant reductions in total post-transplant survival. However, there may be substantial geographic variations in the effect of such a policy on the balance between these outcomes.

Christie, Jason D.; Halpern, Scott D.

2011-01-01

131

Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the GDSS have demonstrated the benefits of utilizing science for policy decisions. Investment in science reduces decision-making uncertainty and reducing that uncertainty has economic value.

Bernknopf, R. L.

2005-01-01

132

An enhanced RNA alignment benchmark for sequence alignment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The performance of alignment programs is traditionally tested on sets of protein sequences, of which a reference alignment is known. Conclusions drawn from such protein benchmarks do not necessarily hold for the RNA alignment problem, as was demonstrated in the first RNA alignment benchmark published so far. For example, the twilight zone – the similarity range where alignment quality

Andreas Wilm; Indra Mainz; Gerhard Steger

2006-01-01

133

Optical Alignment Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical technique was developed to assure proper alignment of a missile warhead section assembly stand. The initial alignment of an assembly stand was successfully performed at Sierra Army Depot. The required radial tolerance of 0.002 inch at the assem...

A. Davidoff J. Rayner

1971-01-01

134

Interface Alignment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel optical alignment system and method is provided for detecting misalignment of the optical components of a high energy laser comprising a source of radiation, such as HeNe laser, for providing an alignment beam to intersect the optical path of the ...

P. J. Pomphrey

1983-01-01

135

Alignment of whole genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse

Arthur L. Delcher; Simon Kasif; Robert D. Fleischmann; Jeremy Peterson; Owen White; Steven L. Salzberg

1999-01-01

136

Poverty driven bilingual alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilingual corpora are essential for the construction of bilingual resources just as for any other work in translation studies, but the alignment itself needs bilingual resources or important interventions of bilingual speakers. This article describes work in progress on bilingual text alignment with a dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW). All other algorithms rely on bilingual resources or on the assumption

Kim Gerdes

137

Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008), which was prepared by the Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events: A Workshop. The present document is an expanded summary of that report.

2009-01-01

138

Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals' clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured.

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Melanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quenec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michael; Lacasse, Francis

2013-01-01

139

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

Jones, Nelson E. (Huntington Beach, CA)

1990-01-01

140

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

141

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

Jones, N.E.

1988-03-10

142

Holographic mask-aligner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total internal reflection holography permits high resolution, non-contact lithography over very large fields. A prototype lithographic system has been constructed employing scanning illumination, focus, and alignment subsystems integrated onto a 4 inch wafer handling mechanism. Resolution down to 0.25 (mu) has been achieved with a present alignment capability of < 1 (mu) . A fine alignment system under development has been demonstrated to be capable of < 0.1 (mu) accuracy. The technology is well suited to many applications, including flat panel displays, DRAMs, surface acoustic wave devices, and optical storage disks.

Clube, Francis S.; Gray, Simon; Hamidi, Massoud; Omar, Basil A.; Struchen, Denis; Tisserand, Jean-Claude

1992-06-01

143

Laser alignment of large assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronically leveled laser instrument, incorporating special tiltmeter-controlled laser alignment transit, simplifies alignment of large structure. System operated from single alignment reference tower saves time and costs in assembling of structures.

Cazares, W. S.; Kern, D. D.

1979-01-01

144

Optical Alignment (Basic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continued developments in optical measurement systems (optical tooling) carried out by aerospace and related industries have resulted in practical techniques for effecting precise physical alignment of large structural elements. Contents: Optical principl...

1969-01-01

145

It's All about Alignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many corporations have initiated learning initiatives during the past few years. Training managers are successfully aligning organizational learning with business objectives and bringing about recognition of the relationship between work force development and corporate performance. (Author/JOW)

Barron, Tom

2003-01-01

146

Magnetic Heading Sensor Alignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A magnetic heading sensor alignment device for an acoustic towed line array is described. It includes a generally cylindrical non-magnetic piece having a longitudinal opening along its central axis to accommodate the heading sensor. A plurality of longitu...

D. Strong

1990-01-01

147

Alignment Positioning Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidl...

P. M. Fantasia

1990-01-01

148

Optical Alignment for Lithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The total overlay budget in semiconductor lithography has many components, including mask dimensional accuracy, tool-to-tool printing distortion, and process bias, but historically alignment registration has been the most critical. Yet progress in alignme...

N. Bobroff A. E. Rosenbluth

1992-01-01

149

Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already a part of the International initiative called Satellite Aided Search and Rescue System. The programme to set up satellite-based Village Resource Centres (VRCs) across India, for providing a variety of services relevant to the rural communities, is also a unique societal application of space technology. The VRCs are envisaged as single window delivery mechanism for a variety of space-based products and services, such as tele-education; telemedicine; information on natural resources for planning and development at local level; interactive advisories on agriculture, fisheries, land and water resources management, livestock management, etc.; interactive vocational training towards alternative livelihood; e-governance; weather information; etc. This paper describes the various possibilities and potentials of Satcom and Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications. The initiatives taken by Indian Space Research Organisation in this direction are highlighted.

Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

2009-11-01

150

Dipole Field Aligned Potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have proposed the development of field-aligned electrostatic potentials as a result of the convection of hot (keV) magnetospheric plasma. The development of large, field-aligned potentials appear necessary to explain observations of 40 keV, field-aligned O+ beams in the ring current [Sheldon et al., 1998]. In an experimental effort to reproduce the development of field-aligned potentials, a terrella experiment has been conducted. In an 18" bell jar, cylindrical magnet is charged and immersed in a DC glow discharge plasma. Diffusion, rather than convection, in this experiment is thought to be responsible for the formation of a ring current-like plasma distribution that includes a field-aligned potential structure. The mapping of space charge potential with a floating probe will be presented, along with the result of using micron sized dust as tracers in this environment. The development of a minimum in electrostatic potential at the magnetic equator is vividly revealed by the formation of an equatorial dust ring, not unlike that found at Saturn. The dependence of the field-aligned potential structure on the environmental parameters of the experiment will also be presented and their implication for magnetospheric systems discussed.

Sheldon, R.; Abbas, M.; Adrian, M. L.; Craven, P.; Gallagher, D.; Thomas, E.

2002-05-01

151

Hierarchical Alignment of Timelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hierarchical alignment activity, students are given multiple opportunities to align time to space in a linear representation. They begin by scaling a familiar amount of time (e.g. a personal time line) to a spatial representation (e.g. a meter stick), and progressively align increasing/decreasing amounts until completing the target unfamiliar time line (e.g. geologic time). For example, in the hierarchical alignment of geologic time, students can work through 10 time lines: personal, human lifespan, American history, Recorded history, human evolution, Cenozoic, Phanerozoic, Proterozoic, Archean, and then Hadean. While the amount of time varies, the amount of space remains constant: in this example, students align all new temporal scales to one meter. For each time line, students are asked to locate specific events, hierarchicaly organized divisions of time, and the length of the time line in order to engage the students in thinking about that temporal scale. Additionally, every time students align a new temporal scale to space, they locate all previous scales relative to the current scale.

Resnick, Ilyse

152

Smart and precise alignment of optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the assembly of any kind of optical systems the precise centration of every single element is of particular importance. Classically the precise alignment of optical components is based on the precise centering of all components to an external axis (usually a high-precision rotary spindle axis). Main drawback of this timeconsuming process is that it is significantly sensitive to misalignments of the reference (e.g. the housing) axis. In order to facilitate process in this contribution we present a novel alignment strategy for the TRIOPTICS OptiCentric® instrument family that directly aligns two elements with respect to each other by measuring the first element's axis and using this axis as alignment reference without the detour of considering an external reference. According to the optical design any axis in the system can be chosen as target axis. In case of the alignment to a barrel this axis is measured by using a distance sensor (e.g., the classically used dial indicator). Instead of fine alignment the obtained data is used for the calculation of its orientation within the setup. Alternatively, the axis of an optical element (single lens or group of lenses) whose orientation is measured with the standard OptiCentric MultiLens concept can be used as a reference. In the instrument's software the decentering of the adjusting element to the calculated axis is displayed in realtime and indicated by a target mark that can be used for the manual alignment. In addition, the obtained information can also be applied for active and fully automated alignment of lens assemblies with the help of motorized actuators.

Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Stickler, Daniel

2013-09-01

153

Societal and parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior.  

PubMed

A study of 1551 high school students in four midwestern states showed that more girls than boys reported "some" or "a lot" of encouragement to abstain from having sex. More boys than girls reported societal pressure to become sexually active. The sources of encouragement for abstinence were mother, father, and teacher. The largest difference reported between boys and girls was for friends; more than twice as many girls as boys reported that friends encouraged abstinence. Virgin vs nonvirgin comparisons showed similar results, with mother and father chosen most frequently, but nonvirgins chose guest speaker instead of teacher for third place. Regarding important decision-making factors, both boys and girls selected own feelings, health, future, boy- or girlfriend, and parents' feelings. Girls considered parents' feelings more while boys rated boy- or girlfriends' feelings higher. It was concluded that society exerts a strong influence through the media, but parents have the strongest influence on adolescents' sexuality. PMID:7862805

Jensen, L C; De Gaston, J F; Weed, S E

1994-10-01

154

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

SciTech Connect

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

2007-10-26

155

Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

Squires, David

2012-01-01

156

libgapmis: extending short-read alignments  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. Results In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. Conclusions We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We show that libgapmis is better-suited and more efficient than existing algorithms for this task. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any short-read alignment pipeline. The open-source code of libgapmis is available at http://www.exelixis-lab.org/gapmis.

2013-01-01

157

Societal, Environmental and Stakeholder Value DriversA Case Analysis of US and Asian International Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a shift in the role of business in society where societal, environmental and stakeholder value drivers could reshape the basis of economic competitive advantage. Investors are willing to pay a premium for well-governed companies because of positive perceptions of CSR. Organizations respond to the value drivers to endure and function effectively along the societal, environmental and stakeholder dimensions.

Salil K. Sen; Fredric William Swierczek

2007-01-01

158

Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of national…

Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka

2008-01-01

159

Genomic multiple sequence alignments: refinement using a genetic algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic sequence data cannot be fully appreciated in isolation. Comparative genomics – the practice of comparing genomic sequences from different species – plays an increasingly important role in understanding the genotypic differences between species that result in phenotypic differences as well as in revealing patterns of evolutionary relationships. One of the major challenges in comparative genomics is producing a high-quality alignment between two or more related genomic sequences. In recent years, a number of tools have been developed for aligning large genomic sequences. Most utilize heuristic strategies to identify a series of strong sequence similarities, which are then used as anchors to align the regions between the anchor points. The resulting alignment is globally correct, but in many cases is suboptimal locally. We describe a new program, GenAlignRefine, which improves the overall quality of global multiple alignments by using a genetic algorithm to improve local regions of alignment. Regions of low quality are identified, realigned using the program T-Coffee, and then refined using a genetic algorithm. Because a better COFFEE (Consistency based Objective Function For alignmEnt Evaluation) score generally reflects greater alignment quality, the algorithm searches for an alignment that yields a better COFFEE score. To improve the intrinsic slowness of the genetic algorithm, GenAlignRefine was implemented as a parallel, cluster-based program. Results We tested the GenAlignRefine algorithm by running it on a Linux cluster to refine sequences from a simulation, as well as refine a multiple alignment of 15 Orthopoxvirus genomic sequences approximately 260,000 nucleotides in length that initially had been aligned by Multi-LAGAN. It took approximately 150 minutes for a 40-processor Linux cluster to optimize some 200 fuzzy (poorly aligned) regions of the orthopoxvirus alignment. Overall sequence identity increased only slightly; but significantly, this occurred at the same time that the overall alignment length decreased – through the removal of gaps – by approximately 200 gapped regions representing roughly 1,300 gaps. Conclusion We have implemented a genetic algorithm in parallel mode to optimize multiple genomic sequence alignments initially generated by various alignment tools. Benchmarking experiments showed that the refinement algorithm improved genomic sequence alignments within a reasonable period of time.

Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J

2005-01-01

160

Flexible Alignments for Protein Threading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present a new local alignment method for the protein threading problem. Local sequence-sequence alignments are widely used to find func- tionally important regions in families of proteins. However, to the best of our knowledge, no local sequence-structure alignment algorithm has been described in the literature. Here we model local alignments as Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) models. These models

Guillaume Collet; Rumen Andonov; Nikola Yanev; Jean-François Gibrat

161

Multiple sequence alignments in linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we apply and evaluate an iterative pairwise alignment program for producing multiple sequence alignments, ALPHAMALIG (Alonso et al., 2004), us- ing as material the phonetic transcriptions of words used in Bulgarian dialectological research. To evaluate the quality of the multiple alignment, we propose two new methods based on comparing each column in the obtained alignments with the

Martijn Wieling; John Nerbonne

162

Inertial Navigation Systems: Prelaunch Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional inertial navigation system navigates by sensing components of the acceleration vector along three mutually perpendicular axes held stable after some initial alignment. This paper discusses the need for initial alignment, followed by a review of the effects of alignment errors on navigation in order to establish the order of accuracies desired. Several alignment techniques are described and compared

Richard H. Parvin

1962-01-01

163

Identifying DNA and protein patterns with statistically significant alignments of multiple sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOTIVATION: Molecular biologists frequently can obtain interesting insight by aligning a set of related DNA, RNA or protein sequences. Such alignments can be used to determine either evolutionary or functional relationships. Our interest is in identifying functional relationships. Unless the sequences are very similar, it is necessary to have a specific strategy for measuring-or scoring-the relatedness of the aligned sequences.

G. Z. Hertz; Gary D. Stormo

1999-01-01

164

Optical alignment device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A patent application was presented for an invention whose principal objective is the provision of an improved alignment device for observing the degree of coalignment of a pair of objects. The device includes a beamsplitter to be interposed between a pair of objects for observing the degree of coalignment. Light from one of the objects is reflected from the beamsplitter into a retroreflector which reflects the light back through the beamsplitter into an imaging system. Light from the other object is reflected from the beamsplitter into the same imaging system. The amount of displacement of the two images is inversely related to the degree of coalignment of the two objects. The optical alignment device is useful for aligning a mirror with an object, two objects or two mirrors.

Thomas, N. L. (inventor)

1976-01-01

165

FMIT alignment cart  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

1981-01-01

166

Optics Alignment Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

Schroeder, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

167

Holographic mask aligner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total internal reflection holography permits high-resolution, noncontact lithography over very large fields. A production lithographic system has been constructed employing specially developed illumination, focus, and alignment subsystems integrated onto a 6-in. substrate- handling mechanism. The system achieves an imaging resolution of 0.25 micrometers with a present overlay capability of +/- 0.5 micrometers . A fine alignment system under development has demonstrated a 50-nm measurement accuracy. The technology is well suited to many applications, including the manufacture of flat panel displays, surface acoustic wave devices, integrated optics, and optical storage disks.

Clube, Francis S.; Gray, Simon; Struchen, Denis; Tisserand, Jean-Claude

1993-10-01

168

Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

2008-01-01

169

Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

2008-01-01

170

Solar experiment alignment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor system determines absolute alignment of optical axis of experiment package relative to solar vector and provides control information to permit pointing experiment anywhere on solar disc to absolute accuracy of the order of two arc seconds in center and five arc seconds on limb.

Fain, D. L.

1972-01-01

171

Light microscope alignment methods.  

PubMed

Instructions for proper alignment for each of the most common wide field light microscopy contrast techniques are presented: bright field, polarization, dark field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence. These are then followed by methods on photomicrography, measurement, and cleaning. An extensive set of Notes provides practical tips for each of these methods. PMID:25015142

Bagnell, Robert

2014-01-01

172

Orthodontics and Clear Aligners  

MedlinePLUS

... 11.14 Read More Find a Cosmetic Dentist Teeth Whitening Accredited and General Member Dental Patients ? Cosmetic Procedures ? Orthodontics and Aligners Orthodontics and Clear ... are concerned with the position of the teeth, what has caused them to arrive at their ...

173

Data Alignment and Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

scales and complex tasks that it must administer, the government splits its data in many different ways, collecting it at dif-ferent times and through different agen-cies. The resulting massive data heterogeneity makes it impossible to effectively locate, share, or compare data across sources, let alone achieve computational data interoperability. Many settings urgently need some form of data alignment or merging.

Patrick Pantel; Andrew Philpot; Eduard H. Hovy

2005-01-01

174

Choosing vs. allocating: discrete choice experiments and constant-sum paired comparisons for the elicitation of societal preferences.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of a reluctance to allocate health care solely on the basis of maximizing quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Stated preference methods can be used to elicit preferences for efficiency vs. equity in the allocation of health-care resources. OBJECTIVE: To compare discrete choice experiment (DCE) and constant-sum paired comparison (CSPC) methods for eliciting societal preferences. METHODS: Over a series of choice pairs, DCE respondents allocated a fixed budget to one preferred group and CSPC respondents allocated budget percentages between the groups. Questionnaires were compared in terms of completion rates, preference consistency, dominant preferences and derived attribute importance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the proportions that rated the questionnaires somewhat or extremely difficult, but a significantly greater proportion completed the DCE compared to the CSPC. Preference consistency was also higher in the DCE. The incidence of dominant preferences, including for aggregate QALYs, was low and not significantly different between questionnaires. Similarly, no CSCP respondents equalized budgets or outcomes in every task. Final health state was the most important attribute in both questionnaires, but the rankings diverged for the other attributes. Notably, the total patients' treated attribute was important in the CSPC but insignificant in the DCE, perhaps reflecting a 'prominence effect'. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower completion rates and preference consistency, CSPC may offer advantages over DCE in eliciting preferences over the distribution of resources and/or outcomes as well as attribute levels, avoiding extreme 'all-or-nothing' distributions and possibly aligning respondent attention more closely with a societal perspective. PMID:23758539

Skedgel, Chris D; Wailoo, Allan J; Akehurst, Ron L

2013-06-12

175

Alignment and recognition apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A matrix array of objects, for example semiconductor bars, is located on a carrier such as an X-Y table and the objects are successively brought into the field of view of a television camera for precise alignment with respect to a reference point. Video signals corresponding to an image of the object and its peripheral area are digitized to produce digitized video signals predominantly of a first level corresponding to surface areas of the object and of a second level corresponding to the peripheral areas. The digitized video signals are analyzed during a plurality of data window sets which are associated with axial directions corresponding to directions of movement of the X-Y table and which correspond to areas of the video image which are in a defined position relative to different edges of the video image of the object when the latter is in an aligned position. The data windows of each set correspond to parallel video image regions having predetermined distances from each other in the associated axial direction of displacement of the carrier. If the object is mis-aligned, digitized video signals of the first level will be present in one or more data windows of at least one data window set. Operating signals are derived for each data window set characterizing the number of data windows present in that set in uninterrupted sequence from the inside to the outside of the video image of the object during which appearance of digitized video signals of the first level has occurred. These output signals provide a measure of magnitude and direction of displacement of the object and may be used in adjusting the position of the carrier to bring the object into alignment with respect to the reference position. Following this alignment step, an analysis may be made, again on the basis of digitized video signals, to confirm the presence of an object, and that the object is complete, in the aligned position. In the event a complete object is determined to be present in the aligned position, further analysis may be made on the basis of digitized video signals to determine whether the object has a surface identification mark indicating that the object is a reject.

1982-12-14

176

AlignMe-a membrane protein sequence alignment web server.  

PubMed

We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe. PMID:24753425

Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R

2014-07-01

177

Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

2009-09-01

178

Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.

1995-01-01

179

Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most food production depends, directly or indirectly, on freshwater resources. In the absence of importation of food commodities, population growth is constrained by the availability of local resources—including water—as well as by cultural and health-related factors. The global trade of massive amounts of food makes societies less reliant on locally available water resources, thereby allowing some populations to exceed the limits posed by their local water budget. Thus, international trade implies a virtual transfer of water resources from areas of food production to importing regions. While it is recognized that in the short term this globalization of (virtual) water resources may prevent malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, its long-term effects on the coupled human-natural system remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a minimalist modeling framework to investigate the effect of the uncontrolled trade of food products on the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Our results suggest that in the long run the globalization of water resources reduces the societal resilience with respect to water limitations in that it leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failure.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

2010-07-01

180

Alignment-Free Design of Highly Discriminatory Diagnostic Primer Sets for Escherichia coli O104:H4 Outbreak Strains  

PubMed Central

Background An Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany in summer 2011 caused 53 deaths, over 4000 individual infections across Europe, and considerable economic, social and political impact. This outbreak was the first in a position to exploit rapid, benchtop high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and crowdsourced data analysis early in its investigation, establishing a new paradigm for rapid response to disease threats. We describe a novel strategy for design of diagnostic PCR primers that exploited this rapid draft bacterial genome sequencing to distinguish between E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates and other pathogenic E. coli isolates, including the historical hæmolytic uræmic syndrome (HUSEC) E. coli HUSEC041 O104:H4 strain, which possesses the same serotype as the outbreak isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Primers were designed using a novel alignment-free strategy against eleven draft whole genome assemblies of E. coli O104:H4 German outbreak isolates from the E. coli O104:H4 Genome Analysis Crowd-Sourcing Consortium website, and a negative sequence set containing 69 E. coli chromosome and plasmid sequences from public databases. Validation in vitro against 21 ‘positive’ E. coli O104:H4 outbreak and 32 ‘negative’ non-outbreak EHEC isolates indicated that individual primer sets exhibited 100% sensitivity for outbreak isolates, with false positive rates of between 9% and 22%. A minimal combination of two primers discriminated between outbreak and non-outbreak E. coli isolates with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions/Significance Draft genomes of isolates of disease outbreak bacteria enable high throughput primer design and enhanced diagnostic performance in comparison to traditional molecular assays. Future outbreak investigations will be able to harness HTS rapidly to generate draft genome sequences and diagnostic primer sets, greatly facilitating epidemiology and clinical diagnostics. We expect that high throughput primer design strategies will enable faster, more precise responses to future disease outbreaks of bacterial origin, and help to mitigate their societal impact.

Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge; Toth, Ian K.

2012-01-01

181

Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups  

PubMed Central

The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the future, accountability and advocacy. This quantitative approach to assess societal quality in a quantitative sense is based on indicators that function as proxies for society quality on different levels, based on the communication of researchers with their societal stakeholders (i.e. knowledge production, knowledge exchange and knowledge use). The methodology presented is just a first attempt to compare scientific quality scores (publication and citation scores) with societal quality scores in a quantitative way. This comparison can be used by organisations (e.g. university medical centres) in their planning and control cycle.

2010-01-01

182

Repeatable alignment--Part II: Consistent photographic alignment accuracy.  

PubMed

Predictable aesthetic results necessitate the implementation of various dental principles for tooth display, alignment, and relative proportion. In order to ensure accurate communication, clinicians must clearly document visual information regarding violations of these tooth arrangement principles via dental photography. Accuracy in the alignment of photographs is crucial for subsequent treatment planning and evaluation. This article discusses several alignment complications that may be encountered while capturing diagnostic dental photographs. A technique for repeatable alignment accuracy is proposed. PMID:14509098

Snow, Stephen R

2003-08-01

183

Parametric Alignment of Drosophila Genomes  

PubMed Central

The classic algorithms of Needleman–Wunsch and Smith–Waterman find a maximum a posteriori probability alignment for a pair hidden Markov model (PHMM). To process large genomes that have undergone complex genome rearrangements, almost all existing whole genome alignment methods apply fast heuristics to divide genomes into small pieces that are suitable for Needleman–Wunsch alignment. In these alignment methods, it is standard practice to fix the parameters and to produce a single alignment for subsequent analysis by biologists. As the number of alignment programs applied on a whole genome scale continues to increase, so does the disagreement in their results. The alignments produced by different programs vary greatly, especially in non-coding regions of eukaryotic genomes where the biologically correct alignment is hard to find. Parametric alignment is one possible remedy. This methodology resolves the issue of robustness to changes in parameters by finding all optimal alignments for all possible parameters in a PHMM. Our main result is the construction of a whole genome parametric alignment of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. This alignment draws on existing heuristics for dividing whole genomes into small pieces for alignment, and it relies on advances we have made in computing convex polytopes that allow us to parametrically align non-coding regions using biologically realistic models. We demonstrate the utility of our parametric alignment for biological inference by showing that cis-regulatory elements are more conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura than previously thought. We also show how whole genome parametric alignment can be used to quantitatively assess the dependence of branch length estimates on alignment parameters.

Dewey, Colin N; Huggins, Peter M; Woods, Kevin; Sturmfels, Bernd; Pachter, Lior

2006-01-01

184

Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

2012-01-01

185

Improved Alignment Optimization and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the development of an enhanced highway alignment evaluation and optimization model. A GIS-based software tool is prepared for alignment optimization that uses genetic algorithms for optimal search. The software is capable of quickly e...

G. A. Karri M. K. Jha M. W. Kang P. M. Schonfeld

2007-01-01

186

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

SciTech Connect

The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean�an expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean�s role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)�s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council�s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation�s attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions�enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure � autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating

National Research Council

2011-04-22

187

Alignment methods for the OPERA drift tube detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the OPERA experiment is to give the first direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel ?????. The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in the originally pure muon neutrino CNGS beam. An important part of the magnetic spectrometer is the Precision Tracker (PT), a drift tube detector consisting of 9504 drift tubes. Its main task is the determination of the muon charge and momentum. The alignment strategy for the PT consists of two parts: the hardware measurement by theodolite and the software alignment using long muon tracks. In this paper, the hardware and the software alignment are described, and the track-based alignment methods are explained in detail. Results of the software alignment are presented with a focus on the analysis of cosmic particles.

Büttner, B.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Göllnitz, C.; Goloubkov, D.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Rostovtseva, I.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zaitsev, Y.

2014-05-01

188

Alignment reference device  

DOEpatents

An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA) [Sunnyvale, CA; Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA) [Palo Alto, CA

1987-01-01

189

Aspects of vacuum alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of both spontaneous symmetry breaking and explicit symmetry breaking, the ground state of a system is determined by vacuum alignment. In this thesis I examine the consequences of vacuum alignment in models with many competing explicit symmetry breaking interactions. In particular, I investigate the appearance of unexpectedly massless pseudo-Goldstone bosons and their connection to second order phase transitions in the symmetry of the ground state. The foundation for this investigation is a model based on the spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern SU(3)L ? SU(3)R ? SU(3). One feature of this model, repeated phase transitions, motivates a new approach toward generating light states. In this approach, states are light because there are many nearby phase transitions rather than as a consequence of a symmetry. I test this new approach by applying repeated phase transitions to composite higgs models of electroweak symmetry breaking. This investigation not only elucidates the advantages and disadvantages of repeated phase transitions but it also provides a new path to a light composite higgs. A more familiar approach to a light composite higgs is the Little Higgs mechanism. This achieves a light higgs by protecting it with additional global symmetries. As a consequence of these additional symmetries, new TeV scale particles must be introduced which tend to cause conflicts with precise low energy experiments. Imposing a discrete symmetry known as T parity on these models not only removes many problematic processes but also creates a dark matter candidate. I construct a T parity invariant version of the Simplest Little Higgs model and find a cosmologically viable dark matter candidate. To demonstrate an application of vacuum alignment outside of electroweak symmetry breaking, I also examine the constraints from B meson mixings and decays on models of spontaneous CP violation in topcolor-assisted technicolor. In these models, CP is violated as a consequence of vacuum alignment in the technicolor sector, then communicated to the standard model fields through quark mass terms.

Martin, Adam O.

190

Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?  

PubMed Central

Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking.

Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

2009-01-01

191

Building the symbiotic societal enterprise: A social architecture for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three possible paradigms for enterprise in the future: (1) Industrial Paradigm, (2) Anti?industrial Paradigm, and (3) Societal Paradigm. Explored are the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each, concluding with a recommended choice.

Howard V. Perlmutter

1984-01-01

192

University of South Carolina Hosts International Conference on the Global Societal Impacts of Nanoscience  

NSF Publications Database

... nsf.gov University of South Carolina Hosts International Conference on the Global Societal Impacts ... implications of nanoscale science and technology on a global scale. The conference is the first ever ...

193

Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

2013-07-01

194

Modelling Alignment for Affective Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a successful and satisfying interaction, a dialogue partic- ipant may align their language to be more like that of their interlocutor. In the first part of this paper, we examine the alignment phenomenon from the viewpoint of personality- related, linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic re- search, concluding that some people are stronger aligners than others. Motivated by these results, we

Carsten Brockmann; Amy Isard; Jon Oberlander; Michael White

2005-01-01

195

Alignment as a Teacher Variable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

2007-01-01

196

K-vec: A New Approach for Aligning Parallel Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods have been proposed for aligning texts in two or more languages such as the Canadian Parliamentary Debates (Hansards). Some of these methods generate a bilingual lexicon as a by-product. We present an alternative alignment strategy which we call K-vec, that starts by estimating the lexicon. For example, it discovers that the English word in the French. K-vec does

Pascale Fung; Kenneth Ward Church

1994-01-01

197

A Brief Annotated Bibliography on (1) Societal Futures; (2) Educational Futures; (3) Educational Alternatives and Change; (4) Resources: Societal and Educational.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publications selected to provide educators with information about changing societal values, attitudes, technologies, jobs, lifestyles, and political structures, and about the implications of these changes vis-a-vis education and educational processes, are listed in this annotated bibliography. Part I lists and annotates 41 books representing a…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

198

Engineering cell alignment in vitro.  

PubMed

Cell alignment plays a critical role in various cell behaviors including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane protein relocation, nucleus gene expression, and ECM remodeling. Cell alignment is also known to exert significant effects on tissue regeneration (e.g., neuron) and modulate mechanical properties of tissues including skeleton, cardiac muscle and tendon. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cell alignment in vitro for biomechanics, cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. With advances in nano- and micro-scale technologies, a variety of approaches have been developed to engineer cell alignment in vitro, including mechanical loading, topographical patterning, and surface chemical treatment. In this review, we first present alignments of various cell types and their functionality in different tissues in vivo including muscle and nerve tissues. Then, we provide an overview of recent approaches for engineering cell alignment in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are addressed for future improvement of engineering cell alignment. PMID:24269848

Li, Yuhui; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Du, Yanan; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

2014-01-01

199

Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Scientific Advance and Societal Benefit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dawn of the 21st Century finds spaceborne sensors poised to revolutionize the atmospheric CO2 record by providing high-quality measurements with unprecedented spatio-temporal coverage and density. Space-based CO2 observations will augment local and regional measurements from ground and airborne sensors, providing global context for existing measurements and covering regions not readily accessible or instrumented by other means. Hyperspectral data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched in 2002, have been used to produce global maps of CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere. These data provide important new constraints on the global distribution and transport of CO2. Future satellite missions dedicated to CO2 observations will collect precise global measurements, enabling more detailed process studies and contributing to further improvements in coupled carbon-climate model development, initialization, and validation. Japan's GOSAT mission, scheduled for launch in January 2009 will measure CO2 and CH4 spectral radiances via thermal and near infrared spectrometry to study the transport mechanisms of greenhouse gases with an emphasis on identification of CO2 sources and sinks on sub-continental scales in support of the Kyoto protocol. NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled to launch in February 2009, will deliver measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the precision, temporal and spatial resolution, and coverage needed to characterize the variability of CO2 sources and sinks on regional spatial scales and seasonal to interannual time scales. Satellite CO2 observations, combined with continued ground and airborne measurements, will improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the atmospheric abundance and distribution of this important greenhouse gas, generating both scientific advance and societal benefit. Deriving actionable information from these observation sources further requires coordinated efforts in carbon-cycle modeling, data assimilation, and data analysis - spanning multiple networks, spatial scales, disciplines, and agencies. A preliminary interdisciplinary planning effort was initiated in 2008 by the authors in concert with representatives of other government agencies, academia, and non-governmental organizations to identify the mechanisms and systems needed to facilitate such end-to-end coordination. In this paper we present a status of this effort, key findings, and future plans.

Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.

2009-04-01

200

4. The transectional structure of society: The basic societal functions.  

PubMed

For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a society is organised into 13 basic societal functions (BSFs) within an overall Coordination and Control system. This organisation facilitates transectional descriptions of society or a component of a society for assessment at any given time across the longitudinal phases of a disaster. An assessment results in a picture or description of function(s) limited to the point in time of the assessment. Together with simultaneous assessments of the functional status of all, some, or one of the other BSFs, such assessments deliver a transectional picture of the situation of a society. Since no function operates in isolation from the other functions, information of the concomitant status of several BSFs is crucial to gain a better understanding of functional losses and of the effects and side effects of an intervention. The 13 BSFs include: (1) Public Health (dominantly preventive); (2) Medical Care (dominantly curative); (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supplies; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structure; (9) Logistics And Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12); Economy; and (13) Education. These BSFs relate with each other through the Coordination and Control function. Many functions of the BSFs and their respective subfunctions and elements overlap (they share some common subfunctions and elements). However, for the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign subfunctions and elements to only one of the BSFs. Just as in the practice of clinical medicine, the sum of assessments provides the transectional description of the status of each of these BSFs at a given time. From this information, compared to the pre-event description of the society, interventions are selected that are likely to meet the defined objectives and their overarching goal(s), and respective plans are developed and implemented. The effects of each intervention are evaluated in reference to these goals and objectives and to their eventual effects on other BSFs or subfunctions of a BSF. PMID:24785801

2014-05-01

201

TSGC and JSC Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

Sanchez, Humberto

2013-01-01

202

Conditional alignment random fields for multiple motion sequence alignment.  

PubMed

We consider the multiple time-series alignment problem, typically focusing on the task of synchronizing multiple motion videos of the same kind of human activity. Finding an optimal global alignment of multiple sequences is infeasible, while there have been several approximate solutions, including iterative pairwise warping algorithms and variants of hidden Markov models. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model that represents the conditional densities of the latent target sequences which are aligned with the given observed sequences through the hidden alignment variables. By imposing certain constraints on the target sequences at the learning stage, we have a sensible model for multiple alignments that can be learned very efficiently by the EM algorithm. Compared to existing methods, our approach yields more accurate alignment while being more robust to local optima and initial configurations. We demonstrate its efficacy on both synthetic and real-world motion videos including facial emotions and human activities. PMID:24051737

Kim, Minyoung

2013-11-01

203

Conditional Alignment Random Fields for Multiple Motion Sequence Alignment.  

PubMed

We consider the multiple time-series alignment problem, typically focusing on the task of synchronizing multiple motion videos of the same kind of human activity. Finding an optimal global alignment of multiple sequences is infeasible, while there have been several approximate solutions including iterative pairwise warping algorithms and variants of hidden Markov models. In this paper we propose a novel probabilistic model that represents the conditional densities of the latent target sequences which are aligned with the given observed sequences through the hidden alignment variables. By imposing certain constraints on the target sequences at the learning stage, we have a sensible model for multiple alignment that can be learned very efficiently by the EM algorithm. Compared to existing methods, our approach yields more accurate alignment while being more robust to local optima and initial configurations. We demonstrate its efficacy on both synthetic and real-world motion videos including facial emotions and human activities. PMID:23689868

Kim, Minyoung

2013-05-17

204

FGS Alignment Assessment Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This test will (1) confirm the FGS/FGS alignment to an accuracy of about 0.5 arcsec, and (2) verify the the onboard flight software control of the dominant and sub-dominant guide stars. The assumption is made that if the FGS/FGS alignment calibration is not accurate, one would see systematic offsets in the Mode III acquisition as a function of the dominant FGS and the location dominant guide star. This effect has been catalogued and trends evident in all target acquisitions performed to date. The test will determine the amount of shift and rotation of each FGS with respect to the WFPC (and therefore to each other). Using each FGS as the astrometer, a series of parallel WFPC exposures will be obtained at 3 roll angles. Any displacement of the target star in the WFPC as a function of roll indicates misalignment. The field in PRAESEPE is on the ecliptic and astrometric measurements are available (J. Russell). ***THIS PROPOSAL REQUIRES MANUAL TRANSFORMATION.**** revision 2/9/91

Gilmozzi, Roberto

1990-07-01

205

Alignment of an inexpensive paraboloidal concentrator for hybrid solar lighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a practical method for precisely aligning the optical components of a low-cost solar concentrator developed for fiber optic solar lighting applications. A two-stage alignment process, involving both mechanical and optical alignment techniques, is described which allows the tilt, centering, and focal alignment of a large parabolic primary reflector relative to a segmented planar secondary mirror to be accurately determined. The alignment strategy is well suited to optical systems utilizing large reflectors with non-referenced optical axes and non-precision surface characteristics, as is typical of many inexpensive reflectors.

Earl, D. D.; Maxey, L. Curt

2004-01-01

206

Evolutionary Explanations for Societal Differences in Single Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new research strategy presented in this paper, Evolutionary Social Science, is designed to bridge the gap between evolutionary psychology that operates from the evolutionary past and social science that is bounded by recent history. Its core assumptions are (1) that modern societies owe their character to an interaction of hunter-gatherer adaptations with the modern environment; (2) that changes in

Nigel Barber

207

Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration  

DOEpatents

An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

2009-11-10

208

An enhanced RNA alignment benchmark for sequence alignment programs  

PubMed Central

Background The performance of alignment programs is traditionally tested on sets of protein sequences, of which a reference alignment is known. Conclusions drawn from such protein benchmarks do not necessarily hold for the RNA alignment problem, as was demonstrated in the first RNA alignment benchmark published so far. For example, the twilight zone – the similarity range where alignment quality drops drastically – starts at 60 % for RNAs in comparison to 20 % for proteins. In this study we enhance the previous benchmark. Results The RNA sequence sets in the benchmark database are taken from an increased number of RNA families to avoid unintended impact by using only a few families. The size of sets varies from 2 to 15 sequences to assess the influence of the number of sequences on program performance. Alignment quality is scored by two measures: one takes into account only nucleotide matches, the other measures structural conservation. The performance order of parameters – like nucleotide substitution matrices and gap-costs – as well as of programs is rated by rank tests. Conclusion Most sequence alignment programs perform equally well on RNA sequence sets with high sequence identity, that is with an average pairwise sequence identity (APSI) above 75 %. Parameters for gap-open and gap-extension have a large influence on alignment quality lower than APSI ? 75 %; optimal parameter combinations are shown for several programs. The use of different 4 × 4 substitution matrices improved program performance only in some cases. The performance of iterative programs drastically increases with increasing sequence numbers and/or decreasing sequence identity, which makes them clearly superior to programs using a purely non-iterative, progressive approach. The best sequence alignment programs produce alignments of high quality down to APSI > 55 %; at lower APSI the use of sequence+structure alignment programs is recommended.

Wilm, Andreas; Mainz, Indra; Steger, Gerhard

2006-01-01

209

The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

2014-04-01

210

The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

2014-05-01

211

Alignment system for encoders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

212

The RNA structure alignment ontology  

PubMed Central

Multiple sequence alignments are powerful tools for understanding the structures, functions, and evolutionary histories of linear biological macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins), and for finding homologs in sequence databases. We address several ontological issues related to RNA sequence alignments that are informed by structure. Multiple sequence alignments are usually shown as two-dimensional (2D) matrices, with rows representing individual sequences, and columns identifying nucleotides from different sequences that correspond structurally, functionally, and/or evolutionarily. However, the requirement that sequences and structures correspond nucleotide-by-nucleotide is unrealistic and hinders representation of important biological relationships. High-throughput sequencing efforts are also rapidly making 2D alignments unmanageable because of vertical and horizontal expansion as more sequences are added. Solving the shortcomings of traditional RNA sequence alignments requires explicit annotation of the meaning of each relationship within the alignment. We introduce the notion of “correspondence,” which is an equivalence relation between RNA elements in sets of sequences as the basis of an RNA alignment ontology. The purpose of this ontology is twofold: first, to enable the development of new representations of RNA data and of software tools that resolve the expansion problems with current RNA sequence alignments, and second, to facilitate the integration of sequence data with secondary and three-dimensional structural information, as well as other experimental information, to create simultaneously more accurate and more exploitable RNA alignments.

Brown, James W.; Birmingham, Amanda; Griffiths, Paul E.; Jossinet, Fabrice; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Knight, Rob; Lang, B. Franz; Leontis, Neocles; Steger, Gerhard; Stombaugh, Jesse; Westhof, Eric

2009-01-01

213

Reconciling societal and scientific definitions for the monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science defines the monsoon in numerous ways. We can apply these definitions to forecast data, reanalysis data, observations, GCMs and more. In a basic research setting, we hope that this work will advance science and our understanding of the monsoon system. In an applied research setting, we often hope that this work will benefit a specific stakeholder or community. We may want to inform a stakeholder when the monsoon starts, now and in the future. However, what happens if the stakeholders cannot relate to the information because their perceptions do not align with the monsoon definition we use in our analysis? We can resolve this either by teaching the stakeholders or learning from them about how they define the monsoon and when they perceive it to begin. In this work we reconcile different scientific monsoon definitions with the perceptions of agricultural communities in Bangladesh. We have developed a statistical technique that rates different scientific definitions against the people's perceptions of when the monsoon starts and ends. We construct a probability mass function (pmf) around each of the respondent's answers in a questionnaire survey. We can use this pmf to analyze the time series of monsoon onsets and withdrawals from the different scientific definitions. We can thereby quantitatively judge which definition may be most appropriate for a specific applied research setting.

Reeve, Mathew; Stephenson, David

2014-05-01

214

Improving pairwise sequence alignment accuracy using near-optimal protein sequence alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While the pairwise alignments produced by sequence similarity searches are a powerful tool for identifying homologous proteins - proteins that share a common ancestor and a similar structure; pairwise sequence alignments often fail to represent accurately the structural alignments inferred from three-dimensional coordinates. Since sequence alignment algorithms produce optimal alignments, the best structural alignments must reflect suboptimal sequence alignment

Michael L. Sierk; Michael E. Smoot; Ellen J. Bass; William R. Pearson

2010-01-01

215

Aligning Sentences in Parallel Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a statistical technique for aligning sentences with their translations in two parallel corpora. In addition to certain anchor points that are available in our data, the only information about the sentences that we use for calculating alignments is the number of tokens that they contain. Because we make no use of the lexical details of

Peter F. Brown; Jennifer C. Lai; Robert L. Mercer

1991-01-01

216

Well-pump alignment system  

DOEpatents

An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1998-01-01

217

Alignment in second language dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and suggest why such alignment may be different in

Albert Costa; Martin J. Pickering; Antonella Sorace

2008-01-01

218

Transformation and Alignment in Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

2009-01-01

219

Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments  

PubMed Central

We have developed a semiautomated RNA sequence editor (SARSE) that integrates tools for analyzing RNA alignments. The editor highlights different properties of the alignment by color, and its integrated analysis tools prevent the introduction of errors when doing alignment editing. SARSE readily connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture of the SARSE editor makes it a flexible tool to improve all RNA alignments with relatively little human intervention. Online documentation and software are available at http://sarse.ku.dk.

Andersen, Ebbe S.; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne; Kristensen, Susie E.; Havgaard, Jakob H.; Torarinsson, Elfar; Larsen, Niels; Zwieb, Christian; Sestoft, Peter; Kjems, J?rgen; Gorodkin, Jan

2007-01-01

220

Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.

221

Going Mobile: Perspectives on Aligning Learning and Teaching in Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been little consideration to date regarding how we might best adjust our assessment protocols so that the overall learning experience remains appropriately aligned to both content and teaching approach when adopting location-specific mobile learning. This paper explores the success of a novel strategy to design an assessment regime that…

Jarvis, Claire H.; Dickie, Jennifer; Brown, Gavin

2013-01-01

222

The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision. Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first p- p collisions.

Castello, R.

2009-12-01

223

Botulinum alignment for congenital esotropia.  

PubMed Central

This is the first report of a group of patients with congenital esotropia examined for motor and sensory evidence of binocularity a minimum of 3 years after alignment by botulinum. Evidence for binocularity was clearly present in approximately one half of the patients. Lag time to satisfactory alignment was at least 1 month (average, 5 months) following the initial botulinum injection. The results must be considered preliminary. However, when these results are compared with those of patients with congenital esotropia aligned by incisional surgery by age 2 years and examined with the same testing devices by this same investigator, botulinum alignment appears to be less effective than surgical alignment in establishing evidence for binocularity (P < 0.005).

Ing, M R

1992-01-01

224

Alignment of the MINOS FD  

SciTech Connect

The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

Becker, B.; /Minnesota U.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

225

Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.  

PubMed

Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. Availability: http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. PMID:24813445

Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

2014-07-01

226

Strategies for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Training" magazine taps 2011 Training Top 125 winners to provide their learning and development best practices in each issue. This article looks at strategies for aligning training with business goals and creating models to measure return-on-investment (ROI) and other financial metrics pertaining to training.

Pruitt, Lisa; McGeough, David

2011-01-01

227

Space Mirror Alignment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

2011-01-01

228

PAC: Progressive Alignment with Consensus Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computation of multiple sequence alignments is one of the major open problems in computational molecular biology. The purpose of this study was to provide a new method, PAC (Progressive Alignment with Consensus Sequences), for calculation of multiple amino acid sequence alignments. In PAC, multiple alignments are built by the successive application of pairwise alignment algorithms; the distance between two groups

Ke Liu; M. H. Samadzadeh

2006-01-01

229

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R. C.; Russell, H. A. J.

2010-01-01

230

A best-first alignment algorithm for automatic extraction of transfer mappings from bilingual corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translation systems that automatically extract transfer mappings (rules or examples) from bilingual corpora have been hampered by the difficulty of achieving accurate alignment and acquiring high quality mappings. We describe an algorithm that uses a best-first strategy and a small alignment grammar to significantly improve the quality of the transfer mappings extracted. For each mapping, frequencies are computed and sufficient

Arul Menezes; Stephen D. Richardson

2001-01-01

231

Looking for efective ways of achieving and sustaining Business-IT alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aligning Business and Information Technologies strategies has been a subject studied for a long time. Despite all the efforts, achieving and sustaining Business-IT alignment remains a challenge requiring even more agility nowadays to keep up with the competition in a turbulent organizational environment. Past contributions are uncovered in this paper calling particular attention to the development of Enterprise Architecture as

Pedro Maia MALTA; Rui Dinis SOUSA

2010-01-01

232

Sequence Alignment as Hypothesis Testing  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sequence alignment depends on the scoring function that defines similarity between pairs of letters. For local alignment, the computational algorithm searches for the most similar segments in the sequences according to the scoring function. The choice of this scoring function is important for correctly detecting segments of interest. We formulate sequence alignment as a hypothesis testing problem, and conduct extensive simulation experiments to study the relationship between the scoring function and the distribution of aligned pairs within the aligned segment under this framework. We cut through the many ways to construct scoring functions and showed that any scoring function with negative expectation used in local alignment corresponds to a hypothesis test between the background distribution of sequence letters and a statistical distribution of letter pairs determined by the scoring function. The results indicate that the log-likelihood ratio scoring function is statistically most powerful and has the highest accuracy for detecting the segments of interest that are defined by the statistical distribution of aligned letter pairs.

Meng, Lu; Sun, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xuegong

2011-01-01

233

A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

2008-01-01

234

Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: An application to conventional and organic dairy farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected attributes of physical health (working conditions) and societal sustainability (food safety, animal welfare and health, and landscape quality). Second, possible sustainability

K. J. van Calker; P. B. M. Berentsen; I. J. M. de Boer; G. W. J. Giesen; R. B. M. Huirne

2007-01-01

235

High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent investigations into the fundamental limits of mobile ad hoc networks have produced a physical layer method for approaching their capacity. This strategy, known as interference alignment, requires cooperation, rather than competition, among the tran...

J. R. Heath

2013-01-01

236

Internalized Societal Attitudes Moderate the Impact of Weight Stigma on Avoidance of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as

Lenny R. Vartanian; Sarah A. Novak

2011-01-01

237

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing

Susanne Bauer

2008-01-01

238

The Inter-Temporal Aspect of Well-Being and Societal Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptions on well-being and societal progress are influenced also by the quantitative indicators and measures used in the measurement, presentation and semantics of discussing these issues. The article presents a novel generic statistical measure S-time-distance, with clear interpretability that delivers a broader concept to look at data, to…

Sicherl, Pavle

2007-01-01

239

Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.  

PubMed

The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions. PMID:24673569

Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

2014-04-01

240

Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

Hyser, Raymond M.

241

Societal Education, Direct Action, and Working-Class Gains: An Anarchist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an anarchist theoretical framework, it is argued that the working class would obtain greater gains through militant direct action modeled on the labor movement of the past. The history of the 8-hour workday is reviewed as a case study showing that it was won because of radical leaders who challenged existing legal institutional frameworks through societal education, militant ideology,

John Asimakopoulos

2007-01-01

242

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

243

Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on

Tanjima Pervin; Ulf-G Gerdtham; Carl Hampus Lyttkens

2008-01-01

244

National contexts influencing principals' time use and allocation: economic development, societal culture, and educational system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional leadership, administration, and management of relationships with parents and community.

Moosung Lee; Philip Hallinger

2012-01-01

245

Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-Illness Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n=118) to costs of families from the general population…

Bodden, Denise H. M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bogels, Susan M.

2008-01-01

246

Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2009-01-01

247

Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

2005-01-01

248

Information and Data Flows in Societal Problem Areas: Focus-Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the problem of how scientific and technical information and data (STID) flow from research into decision making in efforts to solve important societal problems. Two case studies of STID flows in the area of energy provide an empirica...

J. E. Freeman J. P. Kottenstette P. M. Gatseos

1977-01-01

249

NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

250

Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

2005-01-01

251

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

2008-01-01

252

Structural Determinants of the Divorce Rate: A Cross-Societal Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a sample of 66 countries were analyzed to investigate 4 hypothesized societal-level correlates of the divorce rate: socioeconomic development, female labor participation, the sex ratio, and dominant religion. Regression analyses revealed that all factors except religion had a significant effect on the crude divorce rate. Theoretical…

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

1989-01-01

253

Barriers to Considering Ethical and Societal Implications of Research: Perceptions of Life Scientists  

PubMed Central

Background As part of an empirical study investigating how life scientists think about ethical and societal implications of their work, and about life science research in general, we sought to elucidate barriers that scientists might face in considering such implications. Method Between 2005 and 2007, we conducted a study consisting of phone interviews, focus groups, and a national survey of life scientists at biomedical research institutions. The study population included graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty, clinical instructors, and research staff. We analyzed data through qualitative and quantitative methods. Results In analyzing the data, we found that life scientists do, in fact, face barriers to considering ethical and societal implications of research. We categorized these barriers as falling into four broad domains: (1) lack of awareness of ethical and societal implications; (2) lack of relevance of such concerns to their specific research; (3) self-confidence in their ability to resolve such concerns; and (4) aspects of the daily practice of science itself. Conclusions Life science researchers experience elements inherent in their training and in the conduct of science as barriers to thinking about ethical and societal implications related to their work. These findings suggest areas in which research ethics educators, bioethicists, and the scientific community can focus their efforts to improve social and ethical accountability in research.

McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Boyce, Angie M.; Ladd, Jennifer M.; Cho, Mildred

2012-01-01

254

Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in small spacecraft and emerging information technologies, and how sensor web options may be realized and made affordable. Specialized detector subsystems and precision flying techniques may still require substantial innovation, development time and cost: we have presented the considerations for these issues. Finally, data and information gathering and compression techniques are also briefly described.

Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

255

Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density (greater than 100 mA/per square centimeters) field emission capabilities of CNTs can be exploited for construction of electron gun for electron microscopy and X-ray tubes for spectrometers and baggage screening. A CNT pillar array configuration has been demonstrated, not only meeting the high current density needs but more importantly providing long term emitter stability. Finally, supercapacitors hold the promise to combine the high energy density of a battery with the high power density of capacitors. Traditional graphite electrodes have not delivered this promise yet. A novel design and processing approach using MWCNTs has shown a record 550 F/g capacitance along with significant device endurance. This supercapacitor is suitable for railgun launch application for NASA, powering rovers and robots, consumer electronics and future hybrid vehicles.

Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

2011-01-01

256

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01

257

Laser beam alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

258

Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures.

Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

2013-01-01

259

Visual attitude orientation and alignment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active vehicle optical alignment aid and a passive vehicle three-dimensional alignment target ensure proper orientation and alignment plus control of the closure range and rate between two bodies, one in controlled motion and one at rest.

Beam, R. A.; Morris, D. B.

1967-01-01

260

Optimization of PSA Screening Policies: a Comparison of the Patient and Societal Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. Method A partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. We considered age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes. Our model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient’s probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient’s complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. Data Sources The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Perspective and Outcome Measures Patients’ perspective: maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies and treatment. Results From the patient perspective the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective, and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. Conclusions PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker.

Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T.; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D.; Inman, Brant A.

2011-01-01

261

The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.  

PubMed

In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points. PMID:24705824

van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

2014-05-01

262

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.

Aponte-Gonzalez, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

2013-01-01

263

Future Drivers for State Alignments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary drivers for nation-state alignments have been and will remain Political Ideology and Self Interest. Over the next fifty years, Western political dominance will diminish with the constriction of global economic interdependence and the rise of I...

B. P. Donohoo

2009-01-01

264

Well-pump alignment system  

DOEpatents

An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1998-10-20

265

A marker-free automatic alignment method based on scale-invariant features.  

PubMed

In electron tomography, alignment accuracy is critical for high-resolution reconstruction. However, the automatic alignment of a tilt series without fiducial markers remains a challenge. Here, we propose a new alignment method based on Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for marker-free alignment. The method covers the detection and localization of interest points (features), feature matching, feature tracking and optimization of projection parameters. The proposed method implements a highly reliable matching strategy and tracking model to detect a huge number of feature tracks. Furthermore, an incremental bundle adjustment method is devised to tolerate noise data and ensure the accurate estimation of projection parameters. Our method was evaluated with a number of experimental data, and the results exhibit an improved alignment accuracy comparable with current fiducial marker alignment and subsequent higher resolution of tomography. PMID:24582712

Han, Renmin; Zhang, Fa; Wan, Xiaohua; Fernández, Jose-Jesus; Sun, Fei; Liu, Zhiyong

2014-04-01

266

A Nonlinear Observer for Gyro Alignment Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear observer for gyro alignment estimation is presented. The observer is composed of two error terms, an attitude error and an alignment error. The observer is globally stable with exponential convergence of the attitude errors. The gyro alignment estimate converges to the true alignment when the system is completely observable.

Thienel, J.; Sanner, R. M.

2003-01-01

267

RALEE--RNA ALignment Editor in Emacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Production of high quality multiple sequence align- ments of structured RNAs relies on an iterative combination of manual editing and structure prediction. An essential feature of an RNA alignment editor is the facility to mark-up the align- ment based on how it matches a given secondary structure prediction, but few available alignment editors offer such a feature. The RALEE

Sam Griffiths-jones

2005-01-01

268

Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development: a comparison of four cultures.  

PubMed

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children's play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development. PMID:19930342

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L

2009-01-01

269

United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite. [antenna coverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a cooperative experimental program of the United States and Canadian governments. The CTS uses a high-power transponder at the frequencies of 14/12 GHz for two-way television and voice communication. The United States and Canada have agreed to share equally in the use of CTS. The U.S. program includes a variety of societal experiments. The ground stations for these experiments are located from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The satellite communications capabilities and the antenna coverage for the U.S. are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the U.S. societal experiments in the areas of education, health care, and community and special services; nine separate experiments are discussed.

Donoughe, P. L.

1976-01-01

270

Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators  

DOEpatents

A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-02-23

271

Does Social Isolation and Low Societal Participation Predict Disability Pension? A Population Based Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim was to examine the potential influence of social isolation and low societal participation on the future risk of receiving disability pension among individuals in Sweden. A specific aim was to describe differences depending on disability pension diagnoses, and how the results were modified by sex and age. Method The study comprised representative samples of Swedish women and men, who had been interviewed in any of the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions between 1990 and 2007. Information on disability pension and diagnoses was added from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency’s database (1991-2011). The mean number of years of follow-up for the 53920 women and men was twelve years (SD 5.5), and the study base was restricted to the ages 20 to 64 years of age. The predictors were related to disability pension by Cox’s proportional hazards regression. Results Social isolation and low societal participation were associated with future disability pension also after control for age, year of interview, socio demographic conditions and self reported longstanding illness. Lone individuals were at increased risk of disability pension, and the effect of living without children was modified by sex and age. An increase in risk was particularly noticeable among younger women who reported that they had sparse contacts with others, and no close friend. Both women and men who reported that they did not participate in political discussions and who could not appeal on a decision by a public authority were also at increased risk. The effects of social isolation were mainly attributed to disability pension with mental diagnoses, and to younger individuals. Conclusions The study suggests that social isolation and low societal participation are predictors of future disability pension. Social isolation and low societal participation increased particularly the risk of future disability pension in mental diagnoses among younger individuals.

Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

2013-01-01

272

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests\\u000a are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant\\u000a to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass\\u000a these differences. One important development

Eline M Bunnik; Maartje HN Schermer; A Cecile JW Janssens

2011-01-01

273

Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral,\\u000a ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution.\\u000a The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the\\u000a above-mentioned disciplines had been involved

Reuven Lazarowitz; Ilit Bloch

2005-01-01

274

The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

1975-01-01

275

Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: An Australasian perspective.  

PubMed

Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. PMID:25015875

Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

2014-11-01

276

The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.  

PubMed

Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual risk analysis. PMID:17445510

Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

2006-01-01

277

Societal costs of non-cardiac chest pain compared with ischemic heart disease - a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common complaint. Our aim was to present a detailed description of the costs of patients with NCCP compared to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and Angina Pectoris (AP) from a societal perspective. Methods Data on healthcare utilization and annual societal costs, including direct healthcare costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss, were collected from different databases. The participants consisted of 199 patients from a general hospital in Sweden (99 with NCCP, 51 with AMI, 49 with AP), mean age of 67 years, 59% men. Results NCCP, AMI, and AP patients had on average 54, 50 and 65 primary care contacts and 3, 4, and 4 hospital admissions during a period of 2 years. Length of hospital stay was 6, 11 and 11 days. On average, 14%, 18%, and 25% of NCCP, AMI and AP patients were on sick-leave annually, and about 12% in each group received a disability pension. The mean annual societal costs of NCCP, AMI and AP patients were €10,068, €15,989 and €14,737. Conclusions Although the annual societal cost of NCCP patients was lower than in AMI and AP patients, the cost was still considerable (€10,068). Taken into account the high prevalence of NCCP, the cumulative annual national cost of these patients could be more than the double of AMI and AP if all patients incurred the same costs as in this study. Targeted interventions are important in order to support patients with NCCP and minimize healthcare utilization and costs.

2013-01-01

278

Societal Costs of Late Blight in Potato and Prospects of Durable Resistance Through Cisgenic Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Union almost 6 Mha of potatoes are grown representing a value of close to €6,000,000,000. Late blight caused\\u000a by Phytophthora infestans causes annual losses (costs of control and damage) estimated at more than €1,000,000,000. Chemical control is under pressure\\u000a as late blight becomes increasingly aggressive and there is societal resistance against the use of environmentally unfriendly\\u000a chemicals. Breeding

A. J. Haverkort; P. M. Boonekamp; R. C. B. Hutten; E. Jacobsen; L. A. P. Lotz; G. J. T. Kessel; R. G. F. Visser; E. A. G. van der Vossen

2008-01-01

279

SYNBIOSAFE e-conference: online community discussion on the societal aspects of synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the SYNBIOSAFE project, we carried out an open electronic conference (e-conference), with the aim to stimulate\\u000a an open debate on the societal issues of synthetic biology in a proactive way. The e-conference attracted 124 registered participants\\u000a from 23 different countries and different professional backgrounds, who wrote 182 contributions in six different categories:\\u000a (I) Ethics; (II) Safety; (III)

Markus Schmidt; Helge Torgersen; Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra; Alexander Kelle; Anna Deplazes; Nikola Biller-Andorno

2008-01-01

280

Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2010-02-01

281

DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li

282

The alignment-distribution graph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

1993-01-01

283

The alignment-distribution graph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

1993-01-01

284

XUV ionization of aligned molecules  

SciTech Connect

New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

2011-11-15

285

Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

Snyder, Gary L.

1991-01-01

286

Georgia science curriculum alignment and accountability: A blueprint for student success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current trends and legislation in education indicate an increased dependency on standardized test results as a measure for learner success. This study analyzed test data in an effort to assess the impact of curriculum alignment on learner success as well as teacher perceptions of the changes in classroom instruction due to curriculum alignment. Qualitative and quantitative design methods were used to determine the impact of science curriculum alignment in grades 9-12. To determine the impact of science curriculum alignment from the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) to the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) test data and teacher opinion surveys from one Georgia School system were examined. Standardized test scores before and after curriculum alignment were analyzed as well as teacher perception survey data regarding the impact of curriculum change. A quantitative teacher perception survey was administered to science teachers in the school system to identify significant changes in teacher perceptions or teaching strategies following curriculum realignment. Responses to the survey were assigned Likert scale values for analysis purposes. Selected teachers were also interviewed using panel-approved questions to further determine teacher opinions of curriculum realignment and the impact on student success and teaching strategies. Results of this study indicate significant changes related to curriculum alignment. Teachers reported a positive change in teaching strategies and instructional delivery as a result of curriculum alignment and implementation. Student scores also showed improvement, but more research is recommended in this area.

Reining-Gray, Kimberly M.

287

Aligned single crystal boron nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well aligned boron nanowires (BNWs) with single crystalline structure were successfully prepared by using nanochannel-Al2O3 as a substrate and a chemical vapor deposition process. The diameter and length of BNWs were around of 40 nm and several micrometers, respectively. The formation of single crystal BNWs has been conceptually interpreted.

Q. Yang; J Sha; J Xu; Y. J Ji; X. Y Ma; J. J Niu; H. Q Hua; D. R Yang

2003-01-01

288

Sequence alignment using simulated annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply simulated annealing to amino acid sequence alignment, a fundamental problem in bioinformatics, particularly relevant to evolution. Our goal was obtaining results comparable to those reached through dynamic programming algorithms, like the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm, as well as making a connection between physics and bioinformatics through a representative example.

Sar?yer, Ozan S.; Güven, Can

2010-08-01

289

Aligned carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the central issues to be addressed for realizing carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoelectronics. We focus on selective growth, electron energy bandgap engineering and device integration. We have introduced a nanotemplate to control the selective growth, length and diameter of CNTs. Vertically aligned CNTs are synthesized for developing a vertical CNT-field effect transistor (FET). The ohmic contact of the CNT\\/metal

Won Bong Choi; Eunju Bae; Donghun Kang; Soodoo Chae; Byung-ho Cheong; Ju-hye Ko; Eungmin Lee; Wanjun Park

2004-01-01

290

Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

2005-01-01

291

The Virgo automatic alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic alignment system of the Virgo interferometer differs substantially from those used in similar experiments, since it uses a variant of the Anderson technique. This implies a completely different control topology with respect to other detectors, and the main feature is a strong coupling of different degrees of freedom in the optical signals. It also provides two extra output

F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Al-Shourbagy; S. Aoudia; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; L. Brocco; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Chassande-Mottin; C. Corda; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; D. Enard; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; L. Gammaitoni; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; L. Holloway; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; V. Loriette; M. Loupias; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; A. Pai; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; R. Stanga; R. Taddei; D. Tombolato; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert; Z. Zhang

2006-01-01

292

Alignments anchored on genomic landmarks can aid in the identification of regulatory elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The transcription start site (TSS) has been located for an increasing number of genes across several organisms. Statistical tests have shown that some cis-acting regulatory elements have positional preferences with respect to the TSS, but few strategies have emerged for locating ele- ments by their positional preferences. This paper elaborates such a strategy. First, we align promoter regions without

Kannan Tharakaraman; Leonardo Mariño-ramírez; Sergey Sheetlin; David Landsman; John L. Spouge

2005-01-01

293

The chief strategy officer.  

PubMed

They're nominally and ultimately responsible for strategy, but today's CEOs have less and less time to devote to it. As a result, CEOs are appointing "chief strategy officers"--executives specifically tasked with creating, communicating, executing, and sustaining a company's strategic initiatives. In this article, three authors from Accenture share the results of their research on this emerging organizational role. The typical CSO or top strategy executive is not a pure strategist, conducting long-range planning in relative isolation. Most CSOs consider themselves doers first, with the mandate, credentials, and desire to act as well as advise. They are seasoned executives with a strong strategy orientation who have usually worn many operations hats before taking on the role. Strategy executives are charged with three critical jobs that together form the very definition of strategy execution. First, they must clarify the company's strategy for themselves and for every business unit and function, ensuring that all employees understand the details of the strategic plan and how their work connects to corporate goals. Second, CSOs must drive immediate change. The focus of the job almost always quickly evolves from creating shared alignment around a vision to riding herd on the ensuing change effort. Finally, a CSO must drive decision making that sustains organizational change. He or she must be that person who, in the CEO's stead, can walk into any office and test whether the decisions being made are aligned with the strategy and are creating the desired results. When decisions below the executive suite aren't being made in accordance with strategy, much of the CSO's job involves learning why and quickly determining whether to stay the course or change tack. PMID:17972497

Breene, R Timothy S; Nunes, Paul F; Shill, Walter E

2007-10-01

294

High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies. PMID:22947824

Delamontagne, R Georges

2010-01-01

295

Alignment Mechanisms of Paramagnetic Grains Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taking into account the tight coupling of grain axis with angular momentum due to effective dissipation of rotation energy, the alignment of spheroidal grains was investigated by paramagnetic relaxation. Alignment degree will be significantly improved in ...

M. Seki

1989-01-01

296

Isolated Digit Recognition Without Time Alignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines methods for isolated digit recognition without using time alignment. Resource requirements for isolated word recognizers that use time alignment can become prohibitively large as the vocabulary to be classified grows. Thus, methods ca...

J. M. Gay

1994-01-01

297

NOVA Integrated Alignment/Diagnostic Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under Contract 3772003 to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Aerojet ElectroSystems Company has investigated a number of alignment system design topics for the NOVA and SHIVA upgrade lasers. Prior reports dealt with the Main Beam Alignment System, and wit...

1978-01-01

298

Vacuum alignment with more flavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with Nf Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the Nf=2,3, and 4 case. For Nf=2 and Nf=3 we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For Nf=4 we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here it is shown that at the point where Nf-1 flavors are degenerate with positive mass m >0 and the mass of the Nfth flavor becomes negative and equal to -m, CP breaks spontaneously.

Ryttov, Thomas A.

2014-06-01

299

Air quality management using modern remote sensing and spatial technologies and associated societal costs.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker's productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Lifecycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

Uddin, Waheed

2006-09-01

300

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

301

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

302

SOAP: short oligonucleotide alignment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We have developed a program SOAP for efficient gapped and ungapped alignment of short oligonucleotides onto reference sequences. The program is designed to handle the huge amounts of short reads generated by parallel sequencing using the new generation Illumina-Solexa sequencing technology. SOAP is compa- tible with numerous applications, including single-read or pair-end resequencing, small RNA discovery and mRNA tag

Ruiqiang Li; Yingrui Li; Karsten Kristiansen; Jun Wang

2008-01-01

303

Alignment Tool For Welding Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alignment tool enables accurate positioning of optoelectronic sensor measuring weld penetration. Designed for use on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus, used to adjust position of sensor so photodiode puts out maximum signal. Tangs of slotted cap bent slightly inward to provide spring force holding cap snugly on sensor mount. Tool installed and removed without aid of other tools. Length of pointer adjusted with set-screws. Used with variety of gas cup and electrode lengths.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Steffins, Alfred P.

1992-01-01

304

Being Who I Am: Effective Teaching, Learning, Student Support, and Societal Change Through LGBQ Faculty Freedom.  

PubMed

Framed within the context of a heterosexist society in which not all sexual minority faculty feel professionally and/or personally safe stepping out of the classroom closet, this qualitative study examines the phenomenon of non-heterosexual faculty disclosing their sexual orientation to students in their classrooms. Findings demonstrate the depth and magnitude of impact the disclosure has on teaching, learning, student support, and societal change. Overarching is that faculty do not necessarily view the experience as "coming out in the classroom," but rather as "being who I am" in terms of freedom to present an authentic self, if so desired, to students. PMID:24325330

Orlov, Janice M; Allen, Katherine R

2014-07-01

305

Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.  

PubMed

Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues. PMID:23579470

Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

2014-03-01

306

Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions  

PubMed Central

A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

2008-01-01

307

Parametric Analysis of Alignment and Phylogenetic Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

To infer a phylogenetic tree from a set of DNA sequences, typically a multiple alignment is first used to obtain homologous\\u000a bases. The inferred phylogeny can be very sensitive to how the alignment was created. We develop tools for analyzing the robustness\\u000a of phylogeny to perturbations in alignment parameters in the NW algorithm. Our main tool is parametric alignment, with

Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas; Nicholas Eriksson; Peter Huggins

2011-01-01

308

MOSAL: software tools for multiobjective sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Multiobjective sequence alignment brings the advantage of providing a set of alignments that represent the trade-off between performing insertion/deletions and matching symbols from both sequences. Each of these alignments provide a potential explanation of the relationship between the sequences. We introduce MOSAL, a software tool that provides an open-source implementation and an on-line application for multiobjective pairwise sequence alignment.

2014-01-01

309

Human-Mouse Alignments with BLASTZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mouse Genome Analysis Consortium aligned the human and mouse genome sequences for a variety of purposes, using alignment programs that suited the various needs. For investigating issues regarding genome evolution, a particularly sensitive method was needed to permit alignment of a large proportion of the neutrally evolving regions. We selected a program called BLASTZ, an independent implementation of the

Scott Schwartz; William Kent; Arian F. A. Smit; Robert Baertsch; Zheng Zhang

2003-01-01

310

Optical test alignment using computer generated holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement systems for optical surfaces that lack axisymmetry are notoriously difficult to align and have limited accuracy. This paper describes a technique that uses a single CGH to act as null lens for measuring the aspheric surface, at the same time as it projects alignment marks into space that can be used for aligning the test. By providing reference features

Jim Burge; Peter Koudelka

311

MUSTANG: a multiple structural alignment algorithm.  

PubMed

Multiple structural alignment is a fundamental problem in structural genomics. In this article, we define a reliable and robust algorithm, MUSTANG (MUltiple STructural AligNment AlGorithm), for the alignment of multiple protein structures. Given a set of protein structures, the program constructs a multiple alignment using the spatial information of the C(alpha) atoms in the set. Broadly based on the progressive pairwise heuristic, this algorithm gains accuracy through novel and effective refinement phases. MUSTANG reports the multiple sequence alignment and the corresponding superposition of structures. Alignments generated by MUSTANG are compared with several handcurated alignments in the literature as well as with the benchmark alignments of 1033 alignment families from the HOMSTRAD database. The performance of MUSTANG was compared with DALI at a pairwise level, and with other multiple structural alignment tools such as POSA, CE-MC, MALECON, and MultiProt. MUSTANG performs comparably to popular pairwise and multiple structural alignment tools for closely related proteins, and performs more reliably than other multiple structural alignment methods on hard data sets containing distantly related proteins or proteins that show conformational changes. PMID:16736488

Konagurthu, Arun S; Whisstock, James C; Stuckey, Peter J; Lesk, Arthur M

2006-08-15

312

Alignment of the atmospheric visibility monitoring telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alignment of the first Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring Telescope has revealed errors in mount design, mount manufacture, software, and electronics. This article discusses error sources and solutions, and re-alignment results. Alignment requirements for operation are also presented. The telescope now operates with the desired accuracy and repeatability.

Cowles, K.; Erickson, D.

1992-01-01

313

A Discriminative Framework for Bilingual Word Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilingual word alignment forms the foun- dation of most approaches to statistical machine translation. Current word align- ment methods are predominantly based on generative models. In this paper, we demonstrate a discriminative approach to training simple word alignment mod- els that are comparable in accuracy to the more complex generative models nor- mally used. These models have the the advantages

Robert C. Moore

2005-01-01

314

Multiposition alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that the stationary alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) can be improved by employing the multiposition\\/technique. Using an observability analysis, it is shown that an optimal two-position alignment not only satisfies complete observability conditions but also minimizes alignment errors. This is done by analytic rank testing of the stripped observability matrix and numerical calculation of the

J. G. Lee; C. G. Park; H. W. Park

1993-01-01

315

Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors.

Matthias Kruspe; Peter F. Stadler

2007-01-01

316

Alignment mechanisms of paramagnetic grains revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking into account the tight coupling of grain axis with angular momentum due to effective dissipation of rotation energy, the alignment of spheroidal grains was investigated by paramagnetic relaxation. Alignment degree will be significantly improved in diffuse clouds. The inclusions of superparamagnetic (SPM) substances may play a key role in grain alignment in dark clouds as well as in diffuse clouds.

Seki, Munezo

1989-01-01

317

Multiple Genome Alignment by Clustering Pairwise Matches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a multiple genome alignment algorithm by using a sequence clustering algorithm to combine local pairwise genome sequence matches produced by pairwise genome alignments, e.g, BLASTZ. Sequence clustering algorithms often generate clusters of sequences such that there exists a common shared region among all sequences in each cluster. To use a sequence clustering algorithm for genome alignment, it

Jeong-hyeon Choi; Kwangmin Choi; Hwan-gue Cho; Sun Kim

2004-01-01

318

A genome alignment algorithm based on compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traditional genome alignment methods consider sequence alignment as a variation of the string edit distance problem, and perform alignment by matching characters of the two sequences. They are often computationally expensive and unable to deal with low information regions. Furthermore, they lack a well-principled objective function to measure the performance of sets of parameters. Since genomic sequences carry genetic

Minh Duc Cao; Trevor I. Dix; Lloyd Allison

2010-01-01

319

Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the

Jaehwan Kim; Yi Chen; Kwang-Sun Kang; Young-Bin Park; Mark Schwartz

2008-01-01

320

Haploid to diploid alignment for variation calling assessment  

PubMed Central

Motivation Variation calling is the process of detecting differences between donor and consensus DNA via high-throughput sequencing read mapping. When evaluating the performance of different variation calling methods, a typical scenario is to simulate artificial (diploid) genomes and sample reads from those. After variation calling, one can then compute precision and recall statistics. This works reliably on SNPs but on larger indels there is the problem of invariance: a predicted deletion/insertion can differ slightly from the true one, yet both make the same change to the genome. Also exactly correct predictions are rare, especially on larger insertions, so one should consider some notion of approximate predictions for fair comparison. Results We propose a full genome alignment-based strategy that allows for fair comparison of variation calling predictions: First, we apply the predicted variations to the consensus genome to create as many haploid genomes as are necessary to explain the variations. Second, we align the haploid genomes to the (aligned) artificial diploid genomes allowing arbitrary recombinations. The resulting haploid to diploid alignments tells how much the predictions differ from the true ones, solving the invariance issues in direct variation comparison. In an effort to make the approach scalable to real genomes, we develop a simple variant of the classical edit distance dynamic programming algorithm and apply the diagonal doubling technique to optimise the computation. We experiment with the approach on simulated predictions and also on real prediction data from a variation calling challenge.

2013-01-01

321

MSARC: Multiple sequence alignment by residue clustering  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive methods offer efficient and reasonably good solutions to the multiple sequence alignment problem. However, resulting alignments are biased by guide-trees, especially for relatively distant sequences. Results We propose MSARC, a new graph-clustering based algorithm that aligns sequence sets without guide-trees. Experiments on the BAliBASE dataset show that MSARC achieves alignment quality similar to the best progressive methods. Furthermore, MSARC outperforms them on sequence sets whose evolutionary distances are difficult to represent by a phylogenetic tree. These datasets are most exposed to the guide-tree bias of alignments. Availability MSARC is available at http://bioputer.mimuw.edu.pl/msarc

2014-01-01

322

Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

O'Neill, B. C.

2013-12-01

323

Role of liability preferences in societal technology choices: results of a pilot study  

SciTech Connect

At the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Steve Rayner presented a paper that challenged the conventional wisdom of risk management research. In that paper, he argued that resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough.'' Adopting the fairness question as the concern of risk management would imply that the process of technology choice explicitly recognize the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. This paper discusses a recent empirical pilot study which explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of nuclear power. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted to examine whether or not preferred principles for liability distributions were consistent with those suggested by the cultural characteristics of the constituency. The results suggest that for this type of societal technology choice, violation of these preferred principles may be a major source of the conflict between different constituencies. Additionally, the study contributes towards the development of a new approach in risk management that combines the cultural model of risk perceptions with the decision-theoretic approaches found in economics and psychology.

Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.; Braid, B.

1985-01-01

324

Optimizing societal benefit using a systems engineering approach for implementation of the GEOSS space segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim

2009-01-01

325

Instrument for the measurement of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs.  

PubMed

Due to the importance of the relation between attitudes and the experimentation with and use of drugs among adolescents, an instrument was developed composed of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs. A pilot study was carried out on the basis of which a questionnaire containing 63 items was constructed. This questionnaire was given to the research sample of 566 Israeli high school students aged 15-17. Three criteria were used to determine the final version of the instrument, which contains 55 items. Factor analysis revealed seven factors: curiosity and willingness to use drugs, social concern, individual freedom, attribution of positive characteristics to drugs, perceived harmfulness of drugs, perceived characteristics of drug users, and legalization of drugs. Reliability of the factors ranges from alpha = 0.64 to alpha = 0.88; reliability of the entire questionnaire is alpha = 0.89. A short version of the questionnaire consisting of 27 items (alpha = 0.80) was developed for special populations. These findings suggest that the Green Individual and Societal Attitudes Toward Drugs Questionnaire can be employed as a diagnostic tool to identify potential drug experimenters, and as a planning and evaluation measure to preventive drug educational programs. PMID:2228330

Green, D

1990-02-01

326

Simultaneous alignment and folding of protein sequences.  

PubMed

Abstract Accurate comparative analysis tools for low-homology proteins remains a difficult challenge in computational biology, especially sequence alignment and consensus folding problems. We present partiFold-Align, the first algorithm for simultaneous alignment and consensus folding of unaligned protein sequences; the algorithm's complexity is polynomial in time and space. Algorithmically, partiFold-Align exploits sparsity in the set of super-secondary structure pairings and alignment candidates to achieve an effectively cubic running time for simultaneous pairwise alignment and folding. We demonstrate the efficacy of these techniques on transmembrane ?-barrel proteins, an important yet difficult class of proteins with few known three-dimensional structures. Testing against structurally derived sequence alignments, partiFold-Align significantly outperforms state-of-the-art pairwise and multiple sequence alignment tools in the most difficult low-sequence homology case. It also improves secondary structure prediction where current approaches fail. Importantly, partiFold-Align requires no prior training. These general techniques are widely applicable to many more protein families (partiFold-Align is available at http://partifold.csail.mit.edu/ ). PMID:24766258

Waldispühl, Jérôme; O'Donnell, Charles W; Will, Sebastian; Devadas, Srinivas; Backofen, Rolf; Berger, Bonnie

2014-07-01

327

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

328

Target alignment in the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Accurate placement of hundreds of focused laser beams on target is necessary to achieve success in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The current system requirement is {le}7 {mu}rad error in output pointing and {le}1 mm error in focusing. To accommodate several system shots per day, a target alignment system must be able to align the target to chamber center, inject an alignment beam to represent each shot beam, and point and focus the alignment beams onto the target in about one hour. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed a target alignment concept and built a prototype to validate the approach. The concept comprises three systems: the chamber center reference, target alignment sensor, and target alignment beams.

Vann, C.S.; Bliss, E.S.; Murray, J.E.

1994-06-06

329

Multiscale peak alignment for chromatographic datasets.  

PubMed

Chromatography has been extensively applied in many fields, such as metabolomics and quality control of herbal medicines. Preprocessing, especially peak alignment, is a time-consuming task prior to the extraction of useful information from the datasets by chemometrics and statistics. To accurately and rapidly align shift peaks among one-dimensional chromatograms, multiscale peak alignment (MSPA) is presented in this research. Peaks of each chromatogram were detected based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and aligned against a reference chromatogram from large to small scale gradually, and the aligning procedure is accelerated by fast Fourier transform cross correlation. The presented method was compared with two widely used alignment methods on chromatographic dataset, which demonstrates that MSPA can preserve the shapes of peaks and has an excellent speed during alignment. Furthermore, MSPA method is robust and not sensitive to noise and baseline. MSPA was implemented and is available at http://code.google.com/p/mspa. PMID:22222564

Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Na; Ferro, Miguel

2012-02-01

330

Antares beam-alignment-system performance  

SciTech Connect

The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

1983-01-01

331

Technology management competences supporting the business strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The execution of the business strategy requires the integration of market conditions, organizational capabilities and direction. Under this principle, Top Management needs to align theirs and the firm's human resources competences with the business strategy and the characteristics of the business environment. Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, expertise, attitudes and responsibilities acquired through professional studies that are used

Victoria E. Erosa; Pilar E. Arroyo

2009-01-01

332

A statistical score for assessing the quality of multiple sequence alignments  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignment is the foundation of many important applications in bioinformatics that aim at detecting functionally important regions, predicting protein structures, building phylogenetic trees etc. Although the automatic construction of a multiple sequence alignment for a set of remotely related sequences cause a very challenging and error-prone task, many downstream analyses still rely heavily on the accuracy of the alignments. Results To address the need for an objective evaluation framework, we introduce a statistical score that assesses the quality of a given multiple sequence alignment. The quality assessment is based on counting the number of significantly conserved positions in the alignment using importance sampling method in conjunction with statistical profile analysis framework. We first evaluate a novel objective function used in the alignment quality score for measuring the positional conservation. The results for the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, Ras-like proteins, peptidase M13, subtilase and ?-lactamase families demonstrate that the score can distinguish sequence patterns with different degrees of conservation. Secondly, we evaluate the quality of the alignments produced by several widely used multiple sequence alignment programs using a novel alignment quality score and a commonly used sum of pairs method. According to these results, the Mafft strategy L-INS-i outperforms the other methods, although the difference between the Probcons, TCoffee and Muscle is mostly insignificant. The novel alignment quality score provides similar results than the sum of pairs method. Conclusion The results indicate that the proposed statistical score is useful in assessing the quality of multiple sequence alignments.

Ahola, Virpi; Aittokallio, Tero; Vihinen, Mauno; Uusipaikka, Esa

2006-01-01

333

The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the

R. L. Scott; D. C. Goodrich; A. Browning-Aiken; H. Richter; R. Varady; W. J. Shuttleworth

2007-01-01

334

The Upper San Pedro Partnership: A Case Study of Successful Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper San Pedro Partnership (USPP) (http://www.usppartnership.com/) has been in existence since 1998. Its purpose is to coordinate and cooperate in the implementation of comprehensive policies and projects to meet the long-term water needs of residents within the U.S. side of the basin and of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. The Partnership consists of 21 local, state, and Federal agencies, NGO's and a private water company. In 2004 it was recognized by Congress in Section 321 of Public Law 108-136 and required to make annual reports to Congress on its progress in bringing the basin water budget into balance by 2011. The Partnership is dedicated to science-based decision making. This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of natural resources research in the binational (U.S.-Mexico) San Pedro Basin into a mature example of integrated science and decision making embodied in the USPP. It will discuss the transition through science and research for understanding; to science for addressing a need; to integrated policy development and science. At each stage the research conducted becomes more interdisciplinary, first across abiotic disciplines (hydrology, remote sensing, atmospheric science), then a merging of abiotic and biotic disciplines (adding ecology and plant physiology), and finally a further merging with the social sciences and policy and decision making for resource management. Federal, university, and NSF SAHRA Science and Technology Center research has been planned and conducted directly with the USPP. Because of the success the San Pedro has been designated as an operational HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) demonstration basin—the most advanced category. Lessons learned from this experience will be reviewed with the intent providing guidance to ensure that hydrologic and watershed research is socially and scientifically relevant and will directly address the needs of policy makers and resource managers. Additionally, the successful examples of science-society linkages can provide helpful models for basins, especially transnational basins, elsewhere.

Goodrich, D. C.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Shuttleworth, J.

2006-12-01

335

Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P., E-mail: lokhtin@mail.cern.ch; Managadze, A. K., E-mail: akmanag48@mail.ru; Snigirev, A. M., E-mail: snigirev@lav01.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

336

Measuring alignment of loading fixture  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

1989-01-01

337

CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP  

SciTech Connect

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

TAKACS, P.Z.

2005-07-26

338

Quantifying cellular alignment on anisotropic biomaterial platforms.  

PubMed

How do we quantify cellular alignment? Cellular alignment is an important technique used to study and promote tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, regenerative outcomes are often strongly correlated with the efficacy of alignment, making quantitative, automated assessment an important goal for the field of tissue engineering. There currently exist various classes of algorithms, which effectively address the problem of quantifying individual cellular alignments using Fourier methods, kernel methods, and elliptical approximation; however, these algorithms often yield population distributions and are limited by their inability to yield a scalar metric quantifying the efficacy of alignment. The current work builds on these classes of algorithms by adapting the signal processing methods previously used by our group to study the alignment of cellular processes. We use an automated, ellipse-fitting algorithm to approximate cell body alignment with respect to a silk biomaterial scaffold, followed by the application of the normalized cumulative periodogram criterion to produce a scalar value quantifying alignment. The proposed work offers a generalized method for assessing cellular alignment in complex, two-dimensional environments. This method may also offer a novel alternative for assessing the alignment of cell types with polarity, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as nuclei. PMID:23520051

Nectow, Alexander R; Kilmer, Misha E; Kaplan, David L

2014-02-01

339

Alignment-free supervised classification of metagenomes by recursive SVM  

PubMed Central

Background Comparison and classification of metagenome samples is one of the major tasks in the study of microbial communities of natural environments or niches on human bodies. Bioinformatics methods play important roles on this task, including 16S rRNA gene analysis and some alignment-based or alignment-free methods on metagenomic data. Alignment-free methods have the advantage of not depending on known genome annotations and therefore have high potential in studying complicated microbiomes. However, the existing alignment-free methods are all based on unsupervised learning strategy (e.g., PCA or hierarchical clustering). These types of methods are powerful in revealing major similarities and grouping relations between microbiome samples, but cannot be applied for discriminating predefined classes of interest which might not be the dominating assortment in the data. Supervised classification is needed in the latter scenario, with the goal of classifying samples into predefined classes and finding the features that can discriminate the classes. The effectiveness of supervised classification with alignment-based features on metagenomic data have been shown in some recent studies. The application of alignment-free supervised classification methods on metagenome data has not been well explored yet. Results We developed a method for this task using k-tuple frequencies as features counted directly from metagenome short reads and the R-SVM (Recursive SVM) for feature selection and classification. We tested our method on a simulation dataset, a real dataset composed of several known genomes, and a real metagenome NGS short reads dataset. Experiments on simulated data showed that the method can classify the classes almost perfectly and can recover major sequence signatures that distinguish the two classes. On the real human gut metagenome data, the method can discriminate samples of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients from control samples with high accuracy, which cannot be separated when comparing the samples with unsupervised clustering approaches. Conclusions The proposed alignment-free supervised classification method can perform well in discriminating of metagenomic samples of predefined classes and in selecting characteristic sequence features for the discrimination. This study shows as an example on the feasibility of using metagenome sequence features of microbiomes on human bodies to study specific human health conditions using supervised machine learning methods.

2013-01-01

340

The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

Dick, Steven J.

341

Hotspots of coastal vulnerability: A DPSIR analysis to find societal pathways and responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dramatic loss of life and economic losses in coastal zones have focused attention on natural and man-made hazards. The paper starts with a review of the coastal vulnerability terminology. Coastal zones are then presented as complex, socio-ecological systems. Four main coastal hotspots of vulnerability; namely Arctic coasts, small islands, river-mouth systems and urban coasts (including megacities) are analysed to demonstrate the complexity of coastal vulnerability. A DPSIR framework is used to explore the causes and consequences of coastal vulnerability. The paper then focuses in particular on societal, as well as floods, storm-surges and tsunamis to technological and engineering solutions. These include raising awareness, advancing forecasting, enhancing preparedness and improving governance.

Newton, Alice; Weichselgartner, Juergen

2014-03-01

342

When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

2010-01-01

343

Remote indicator for a laser alignment system  

SciTech Connect

A remote indicator is described for the main receiver of a laser alignment system the combination comprising: connecting means between the main receiver and the remote indicator. The connecting means is operable to supply power to the remote indicator and to transmit to the remote indicator alignment data indicative of the relative alignment detected by the main receiver; an LCD in the remote indicator coupled to the connecting means and operable to provide a visual indication of the alignment data; illuminating means located in back of the LCD operable when turned on to make the LCD visible under conditions of reduced ambient light; and switching means connected to the illuminating means and the connecting means and being operable to turn the illuminating means on if the alignment data is present and to turn the illuminating means off if the alignment data is not present.

Poling, M.E.

1987-03-31

344

Laminar silk scaffolds for aligned tissue fabrication  

PubMed Central

3D biomaterial scaffolds with aligned architecture are of vital importance in tissue regeneration to mimic native tissue hierarchy and hence function. We demonstrate a generic method to produce aligned biomaterial scaffolds using the physics of directional ice freezing. Homogeneously aligned 3D silk scaffold with high porosity and alignment was demonstrated. The method can be adapted to a wide range of polymers and is devoid of any chemical reactions, thus avoiding potential complications associated with by-products and purification procedures. Subsequently, the 3D aligned system was tested for mechanical properties and cellular responses with chondrocytes and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells, assessing survival, proliferation and differentiation. In vivo tests suggested biocompatibility of the matrices for future tissue engineering applications, specifically in areas where high cellular alignment is needed.

Mandal, Biman B.; Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.

2013-01-01

345

Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates.

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

2011-01-01

346

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

Maxey, L.C.

1993-09-28

347

Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided inputs through in-depth discussion in breakout sessions, plenary sessions on break-out results, and several panels that provided key insights about indicators, lessons learned through experience with developing and implementing indicators, and thoughts on how the NCA could proceed to develop indicators for the NCA.

Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

2011-01-01

348

R3D Align: global pairwise alignment of RNA 3D structures using local superpositions  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Comparing 3D structures of homologous RNA molecules yields information about sequence and structural variability. To compare large RNA 3D structures, accurate automatic comparison tools are needed. In this article, we introduce a new algorithm and web server to align large homologous RNA structures nucleotide by nucleotide using local superpositions that accommodate the flexibility of RNA molecules. Local alignments are merged to form a global alignment by employing a maximum clique algorithm on a specially defined graph that we call the ‘local alignment’ graph. Results: The algorithm is implemented in a program suite and web server called ‘R3D Align’. The R3D Align alignment of homologous 3D structures of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA was compared to a high-quality hand alignment. A full comparison of the 16S alignment with the other state-of-the-art methods is also provided. The R3D Align program suite includes new diagnostic tools for the structural evaluation of RNA alignments. The R3D Align alignments were compared to those produced by other programs and were found to be the most accurate, in comparison with a high quality hand-crafted alignment and in conjunction with a series of other diagnostics presented. The number of aligned base pairs as well as measures of geometric similarity are used to evaluate the accuracy of the alignments. Availability: R3D Align is freely available through a web server http://rna.bgsu.edu/R3DAlign. The MATLAB source code of the program suite is also freely available for download at that location. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: r-rahrig@onu.edu

Rahrig, Ryan R.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Zirbel, Craig L.

2010-01-01

349

Optimal Network Alignment with Graphlet Degree Vectors  

PubMed Central

Important biological information is encoded in the topology of biological networks. Comparative analyses of biological networks are proving to be valuable, as they can lead to transfer of knowledge between species and give deeper insights into biological function, disease, and evolution. We introduce a new method that uses the Hungarian algorithm to produce optimal global alignment between two networks using any cost function. We design a cost function based solely on network topology and use it in our network alignment. Our method can be applied to any two networks, not just biological ones, since it is based only on network topology. We use our new method to align protein-protein interaction networks of two eukaryotic species and demonstrate that our alignment exposes large and topologically complex regions of network similarity. At the same time, our alignment is biologically valid, since many of the aligned protein pairs perform the same biological function. From the alignment, we predict function of yet unannotated proteins, many of which we validate in the literature. Also, we apply our method to find topological similarities between metabolic networks of different species and build phylogenetic trees based on our network alignment score. The phylogenetic trees obtained in this way bear a striking resemblance to the ones obtained by sequence alignments. Our method detects topologically similar regions in large networks that are statistically significant. It does this independent of protein sequence or any other information external to network topology.

Milenkovic, Tijana; Ng, Weng Leong; Hayes, Wayne; Przulj, Natasa

2010-01-01

350

Anisotropic light emission from aligned luminophores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of aligned dichroic dyes in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) illuminated from one side with collimated light results in a non-isotropic light distribution. We develop a model to describe emission profiles for dichroic dyes aligned at a general tilt angle with respect to a lightguide surface (including planar and homeotropic alignments) for various order parameters. We compare calculations with experimental results, demonstrating the dichroic nature of the dyes can have significant impact on the surface loss of luminescent solar concentrators. Including this dichroic nature is essential in correctly simulating the preferred edge emissions demonstrated experimentally in dyes aligned planarly on the surface of a lightguide.

Verbunt, Paul P. C.; de Jong, Ties M.; de Boer, Dick K. G.; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.

2014-07-01

351

VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2012-09-01

352

The twilight zone of cis element alignments  

PubMed Central

Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein–DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein–DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments.

Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

2013-01-01

353

Molecular alignment using circularly polarized laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produce field-free alignment in linear and planar molecules. We study the rotational wavepacket evolution of O2 and benzene created by circularly polarized light. For benzene, we align the molecular plane to the plane of polarization. For O2, we demonstrate that circular polarization yields a net alignment along the laser propagation axis at certain phases of the evolution. Circular polarization gives us the ability to control alignment of linear molecules outside the plane of polarization, providing new capabilities for molecular imaging.

Smeenk, C. T. L.; Corkum, P. B.

2013-10-01

354

Self-aligned quadruple patterning-aware routing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) is one of the most leading techniques in 14 nm node and beyond. However, the construction of feasible layout configurations must follow stricter constraints than in LELELE triple patterning process. Some SAQP layout decomposition methods were recently proposed. However, due to strict constraints required for feasible SAQP layout, the decomposition strategy considering an arbitrary layout does not seem realistic. In this paper, we propose a new routing method for feasible SAQP layout requiring no decomposition. Our method performs detailed routing by correct-by-construction approach and offers compliant layout configuration without any pitch conflict.

Nakajima, Fumiharu; Kodama, Chikaaki; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Nakayama, Koichi; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

2014-03-01

355

The Needs of the Highly Able and the Needs of Society: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Talent Differentiation and Its Significance to Gifted Education and Issues of Societal Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does gifted education affect societal inequality, and does societal inequality suppress and/or distort the development of high ability? Drawing from several academic disciplines and current political discourse, a differentiated use of terms used to describe the highly able is explored in this article. A social evolutionary framework is proposed as…

Persson, Roland S.

2014-01-01

356

Integrating societal and psychological rules of entitlement: The basic task of each social actor and fundamental problem for the social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary statement of a theoretical framework integrating psychological and societal determinants of justice in human affairs is presented. It is proposed that the social structure provides the rules of entitlement and decision making that regulate the course of routine social interaction. These societally based norms are representable in people's conscious thought processes. By contrast, the psychologically generated rules of

Melvin J. Lerner

1987-01-01

357

FEDERAL POLICY IN LOCAL CONTEXT: The Influence of Local State-Societal Relations on Endangered Species Act Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates regarding the degree to which centralization or decentralization of environmental bureaucracies promotes more effective management of natural resources suggest the need for employing new methodologies to empirical analysis, in a variety of political and ecological settings. In this paper, recent state synergy scholarship is adopted to an analysis of the impact of state-societal relations on the implementation of

Debra J. Davidson

2001-01-01

358

Don't forget the bigger picture : The impact of societal issues on a community-based TB programme, Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the wider societal issues that can impact on the success of a TB programme. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a qualitative study of the experiences of people involved in a community-based DOTS programme in Lubombo, Swaziland, involving patients, DOT treatment supporters, clinic nurses and other key informants. Findings – The

Sarah Escott; James Newell

2007-01-01

359

Obstacles to and potentials of the societal implementation of sustainable development: a comparative analysis of two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, a growing societal awareness of problems in the context of unsustainable development meets with conflicts of interest, and the actual implementation of sustainability research, and sustainable innovations and technologies, has only been mildly successful. Sustainable development demands nothing less than a radical change in our modes of consumption, production, technology, and decision- making. We have investigated the obstacles to

Michael H. Glantz; Karen Kastenhofer; Christian Rammel; Martin Brueckner; Pierre Horwitz

2005-01-01

360

Boarding Schools at the Crossroads of Change: The Influence of Residential Education Institutions on National and Societal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines how boarding schools have influenced their societal contexts. It shows that the view of boarding schools as agencies stabilizing or conserving social status and cultural traditions is not always valid. On the contrary, boarding schools may be educationally integrative and socially innovative, breaking up social structures by…

Kashti, Yitzhak

361

Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

2013-01-01

362

Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

2012-01-01

363

A test of corporate real estate strategies and operating decisions in support of core business strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

If firms want corporate real estate resources to add value to the firm, they must align corporate real estate strategies and decisions with core business strategies. This research uses data from a survey of corporate real estate managers to test a theoretical model of how a strategic approach to corporate real estate management adds value to the firm. The relative

Karen M. Gibler; Anna-Liisa Lindholm

2012-01-01

364

A test of corporate real estate strategies and operating decisions in support of core business strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

If firms want corporate real estate resources to add value to the firm, they must align corporate real estate strategies and decisions with core business strategies. This research uses data from a survey of corporate real estate managers to test a theoretical model of how a strategic approach to corporate real estate management adds value to the firm. The relative

Karen M. Gibler; Anna-Liisa Lindholm

2011-01-01

365

GASSST: global alignment short sequence search tool  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The rapid development of next-generation sequencing technologies able to produce huge amounts of sequence data is leading to a wide range of new applications. This triggers the need for fast and accurate alignment software. Common techniques often restrict indels in the alignment to improve speed, whereas more flexible aligners are too slow for large-scale applications. Moreover, many current aligners are becoming inefficient as generated reads grow ever larger. Our goal with our new aligner GASSST (Global Alignment Short Sequence Search Tool) is thus 2-fold—achieving high performance with no restrictions on the number of indels with a design that is still effective on long reads. Results: We propose a new efficient filtering step that discards most alignments coming from the seed phase before they are checked by the costly dynamic programming algorithm. We use a carefully designed series of filters of increasing complexity and efficiency to quickly eliminate most candidate alignments in a wide range of configurations. The main filter uses a precomputed table containing the alignment score of short four base words aligned against each other. This table is reused several times by a new algorithm designed to approximate the score of the full dynamic programming algorithm. We compare the performance of GASSST against BWA, BFAST, SSAHA2 and PASS. We found that GASSST achieves high sensitivity in a wide range of configurations and faster overall execution time than other state-of-the-art aligners. Availability: GASSST is distributed under the CeCILL software license at http://www.irisa.fr/symbiose/projects/gassst/ Contact: guillaume.rizk@irisa.fr; dominique.lavenier@irisa.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Rizk, Guillaume; Lavenier, Dominique

2010-01-01

366

A genome alignment algorithm based on compression  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional genome alignment methods consider sequence alignment as a variation of the string edit distance problem, and perform alignment by matching characters of the two sequences. They are often computationally expensive and unable to deal with low information regions. Furthermore, they lack a well-principled objective function to measure the performance of sets of parameters. Since genomic sequences carry genetic information, this article proposes that the information content of each nucleotide in a position should be considered in sequence alignment. An information-theoretic approach for pairwise genome local alignment, namely XMAligner, is presented. Instead of comparing sequences at the character level, XMAligner considers a pair of nucleotides from two sequences to be related if their mutual information in context is significant. The information content of nucleotides in sequences is measured by a lossless compression technique. Results Experiments on both simulated data and real data show that XMAligner is superior to conventional methods especially on distantly related sequences and statistically biased data. XMAligner can align sequences of eukaryote genome size with only a modest hardware requirement. Importantly, the method has an objective function which can obviate the need to choose parameter values for high quality alignment. The alignment results from XMAligner can be integrated into a visualisation tool for viewing purpose. Conclusions The information-theoretic approach for sequence alignment is shown to overcome the mentioned problems of conventional character matching alignment methods. The article shows that, as genomic sequences are meant to carry information, considering the information content of nucleotides is helpful for genomic sequence alignment. Availability Downloadable binaries, documentation and data can be found at ftp://ftp.infotech.monash.edu.au/software/DNAcompress-XM/XMAligner/.

2010-01-01

367

Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems  

PubMed Central

The most expensive aspects in producing high quality miniature optical systems are the component costs and long assembly process. A new approach for fabricating these systems that reduces both aspects through the implementation of self-aligning LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, or x-ray lithography, electroplating, and molding) optomechanics with high volume plastic injection molded and off-the-shelf glass optics is presented. This zero alignment strategy has been incorporated into a miniature high numerical aperture (NA = 1.0W) microscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope. Tight alignment tolerances of less than 10 ?m are maintained for all components that reside inside of a small 9 gauge diameter hypodermic tubing. A prototype system has been tested using the slanted edge modulation transfer function technique and demonstrated to have a Strehl ratio of 0.71. This universal technology is now being developed for smaller, needle-sized imaging systems and other portable point-of-care diagnostic instruments.

Kester, Robert T.; Christenson, Todd; Kortum, Rebecca Richards; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2009-01-01

368

Human capital strategy: talent management.  

PubMed

Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization. PMID:22124869

Nagra, Michael

2011-01-01

369

Implementation of two-state alignment system into CXrL aligner (Poster Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the implementation of the two-state alignment system into the CXrL aligner, which is developed at our Center for X-ray Lithography. The CXrL aligner is designed to expose sub 0.25 micrometers feature size integrated circuits. The aligner consists of a three-axes two-state alignment system for alignment error detection and a piezo based precision mechanical stage for alignment error correction. The wafer is held by a precision vacuum chuck, while the mask is held by three vacuum suction cups located around the glass ring. In the prototype, the mask to wafer relative positioning is achieved by 3 motorized stages (for gap setting) and 3 piezo-actuators (for lateral alignment). Since the optical system is designed to be located outside of the synchrotron radiation path, alignment can be performed during exposure. We present the results of the alignment system performance, such as noise equivalent displacement and alignment signal response time. An alignment signal repeatability of much better than 3(omega) equals 0.07 micrometers is achieved. We also briefly describe the future evaluation of the system, such as overlay measurement of the system using verniers and SEM inspection of some specially designed patterns.

Chen, Guan-Jye; Bodoh, D.; Wallace, John P.; Anderson, Paul D.; Reilly, Michael T.; Nachman, Ramez; Cerrina, Franco

1992-07-01

370

Enterprise Reconfiguration Dynamics and Business Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstrAct The phenomenon of the enterprise organizational reconfiguration and its dynamics as a business align- ment enabler is discussed. Business alignment means the enterprise’s actions undertaken to gain synergy between the business; that is, the market opportunity and the provision of the required, or innovative, product, with the required, or designed, specifications at the required, or proper, time, with the

Goran D. Putnik; Maria Manuela Cunha; Bruno Conceição Cortes; Paulo Silva Ávila

371

Self-Illuminating Optical Alignment Target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic instrument designed for use as self-illuminating optical alignment target. Called "fiber-optic remote target" (FORT), instrument facilitates and accelerates optical alignment by providing small, bright reference spot of light easily visible, without having to supply illumination from external source, without concern for shadowing, and without need for antiglare adjustments.

Ashcraft, Carl D.; Trenn, David A.

1996-01-01

372

Physics and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991, there have been extensive research efforts on their synthesis, physics, electronics, chemistry, and applications due to the fact that CNTs were predicted to have extraordinary physical, mechanical, chemical, optical, and electronic properties. Among the various forms of CNTs, single-walled and multi-walled, random and aligned, semiconducting and metallic, aligned

Yucheng Lan; Yang Wang; Z. F. Ren

2011-01-01

373

Bilingual Sentence Alignment: Balancing Robustness and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentence alignment is the problem of making explicit the relations that exist between the sentences of two texts that are known to be mutual translations. Automatic sentence-alignment methods typically face two kinds of difficulties. First, there is the question of robustness. In real life, discrepancies between a source text and its translation are quite common: differences in layout, omissions, inversions,

Michel Simard; Pierre Plamondon

1998-01-01

374

Performance Metrics for it Human Resource Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to present some of the issues involved in designing performance metrics to better align the IT organization with the business. It begins with a high-level goal alignment framework. Then some guidelines for selecting what to measure, and how to measure, are presented. A case example is then used to demonstrate some practices in detail.

Carol V. Brown

2003-01-01

375

Optical alignment of a pupil imaging spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GOES Sounder is a 19-channel discrete filter spectrometer with an additional channel for star sensing. This paper presents the GOES Sounder's instrument optics and compensations, alignment rationale, and alignment mechanism and sensitivities. The results of a line of sight tolerance analysis of the instrument are described, and the prealignment and instrument coregistration are addressed.

Horchem, Stephen D.; Kohrman, Richard J.

1989-01-01

376

CARNA--alignment of RNA structure ensembles.  

PubMed

Due to recent algorithmic progress, tools for the gold standard of comparative RNA analysis, namely Sankoff-style simultaneous alignment and folding, are now readily applicable. Such approaches, however, compare RNAs with respect to a simultaneously predicted, single, nested consensus structure. To make multiple alignment of RNAs available in cases, where this limitation of the standard approach is critical, we introduce a web server that provides a complete and convenient interface to the RNA structure alignment tool 'CARNA'. This tool uniquely supports RNAs with multiple conserved structures per RNA and aligns pseudoknots intrinsically; these features are highly desirable for aligning riboswitches, RNAs with conserved folding pathways, or pseudoknots. We represent structural input and output information as base pair probability dot plots; this provides large flexibility in the input, ranging from fixed structures to structure ensembles, and enables immediate visual analysis of the results. In contrast to conventional Sankoff-style approaches, 'CARNA' optimizes all structural similarities in the input simultaneously, for example across an entire RNA structure ensemble. Even compared with already costly Sankoff-style alignment, 'CARNA' solves an intrinsically much harder problem by applying advanced, constraint-based, algorithmic techniques. Although 'CARNA' is specialized to the alignment of RNAs with several conserved structures, its performance on RNAs in general is on par with state-of-the-art general-purpose RNA alignment tools, as we show in a Bralibase 2.1 benchmark. The web server is freely available at http://rna.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/CARNA. PMID:22689637

Sorescu, Dragos Alexandru; Möhl, Mathias; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf; Will, Sebastian

2012-07-01

377

CARNA--alignment of RNA structure ensembles  

PubMed Central

Due to recent algorithmic progress, tools for the gold standard of comparative RNA analysis, namely Sankoff-style simultaneous alignment and folding, are now readily applicable. Such approaches, however, compare RNAs with respect to a simultaneously predicted, single, nested consensus structure. To make multiple alignment of RNAs available in cases, where this limitation of the standard approach is critical, we introduce a web server that provides a complete and convenient interface to the RNA structure alignment tool ‘CARNA’. This tool uniquely supports RNAs with multiple conserved structures per RNA and aligns pseudoknots intrinsically; these features are highly desirable for aligning riboswitches, RNAs with conserved folding pathways, or pseudoknots. We represent structural input and output information as base pair probability dot plots; this provides large flexibility in the input, ranging from fixed structures to structure ensembles, and enables immediate visual analysis of the results. In contrast to conventional Sankoff-style approaches, ‘CARNA’ optimizes all structural similarities in the input simultaneously, for example across an entire RNA structure ensemble. Even compared with already costly Sankoff-style alignment, ‘CARNA’ solves an intrinsically much harder problem by applying advanced, constraint-based, algorithmic techniques. Although ‘CARNA’ is specialized to the alignment of RNAs with several conserved structures, its performance on RNAs in general is on par with state-of-the-art general-purpose RNA alignment tools, as we show in a Bralibase 2.1 benchmark. The web server is freely available at http://rna.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/CARNA.

Sorescu, Dragos Alexandru; Mohl, Mathias; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf; Will, Sebastian

2012-01-01

378

Anterior tooth alignment--recommendations for stability.  

PubMed

This article considers the importance of current orthodontic practice in retention and stability when considering anterior tooth alignment. Clinical Relevance: With the exponential increase of general dentist-based orthodontic systems for anterior tooth alignment, with considerably shorter treatment times, practical recommendations along with a current literature review are required to improve success and outcome of the long-term result. PMID:24930252

Aulakh, Raman; Banerji, Subir

2014-05-01

379

High-order wafer alignment in manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for ever tightening overlay control are driving improvements in tool set up and matching procedures, APC processes, and wafer alignment techniques in an attempt to address both systematic and non systematic sources of overlay error. Thermal processes used in semiconductor manufacturing have been shown to have drastic and unpredictable impacts on lithography overlay control. Traditional linear alignment can accommodate symmetric and linearly uniform wafer distortions even if these defects vary in magnitude wafer to wafer. However linear alignment cannot accommodate asymmetric wafer distortions caused by variations in film stresses and rapid thermal processes. Overlay improvement techniques such as Corrections per Exposure can be used to compensate for known systematic errors. However, systematic corrections applied on a lot by lot basis cannot account for variations in wafer to wafer grid distortions caused by semiconductor processing. With High Order Wafer Alignment, the sample size of wafer alignment data is significantly increased and modeled to correct for process induced grid distortions. HOWA grid corrections are calculated and applied for each wafer. Improved wafer to wafer overlay performance was demonstrated. How HOWA corrections propagate level to level in a typical alignment tree as well as the interaction of mixing and matching high order wafer alignment with traditional linear alignment used on less overlay critical levels. This evaluation included the evaluating the impact of overlay offsets added by systematic tool matching corrections, product specific corrections per exposure and 10 term APC process control.

Pike, Michael; Felix, Nelson; Menon, Vinayan; Ausschnitt, Christopher; Wiltshire, Timothy; Meyers, Sheldon; Kim, Won; Minghetti, Blandine

2012-03-01

380

Coordinate measurement machines as an alignment tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February of 1990 the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a LEITZ PM 12-10-6 CMM (Coordinate measurement machine). The machine is shared by the Quality Control Team and the Alignment Team. One of the alignment tasks in positioning beamli...

B. T. Wand

1991-01-01

381

MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 ? m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas

2005-02-01

382

Conditional squeezing of an atomic alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of the collective alignment of an atomic ensemble in the case of a F?1 spin. We compare the case of purely vectorial and purely tensorial Hamiltonians and show how to achieve conditional squeezing or entanglement of atomic alignment components.

Cviklinski, J.; Dantan, A.; Ortalo, J.; Pinard, M.

2007-09-01

383

Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

2011-01-01

384

Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

Branson, Christopher M.

2008-01-01

385

Evaluating Alignment between Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors (a) discuss the importance of alignment for facilitating proper assessment and instruction, (b) describe the three most common methods for evaluating the alignment between state content standards and assessments, (c) discuss the relative strengths and limitations of these methods, and (d) discuss examples of applications of each…

Martone, Andrea; Sireci, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

386

Automatic alignment of hieroglyphic and transliteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic alignment has important applications in philology, fa- cilitating study of texts on the basis of electronic resources produced by dierent scholars. A simple technique is presented to realise such alignment for Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic and transliteration. Pre- liminary experiments with the technique are reported, and plans for future work are discussed.

Mark-Jan Nederhof

387

X-ray determination of parts alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

Nelson, C. W.

1985-01-01

388

The Two-Mirror Alignment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alignment system consisting of two servoed mirrors is an essential part of many laser systems. The function of these two-mirror alignment systems is to maintain the laser beam fixed in position and direction at some reference plane. Here, an in depth a...

C. J. Albers

1975-01-01

389

Precision aligned split V-block  

DOEpatents

A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

George, Irwin S. (3240 Siringo Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87501)

1984-01-01

390

Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

Polikoff, Morgan S.

2012-01-01

391

Out of Focus: Aligning a Donor's Vision with Institutional Needs Is a Tricky Balancing Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, development officers have cultivated prospective donors by listening to their deepest desires. Now, development officers' work increasingly involves devising a strategy for aligning the donor's desires with the mission, goals, and needs of their institution. It is possible, even amid signs of changing donor agendas and attitudes, but it…

Stuart, Reginald

2011-01-01

392

Strategic relationships between boundary-spanning functions: Aligning customer relationship management with supplier relationship management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the potential impact of enhanced strategic relationships between the boundary-spanning functions in supplier organizations. Specifically, the concern is with alignment between the organizational groups managing: marketing, sales and strategic account management; purchasing and supply strategy; and, collaborations and external partnerships. The topic is framed by the organizational evolution being driven by market change, and the search

Nigel F. Piercy

2009-01-01

393

Children's Reasoning about Spatial Relational Similarity: The Effect of Alignment and Relational Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…

Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

2012-01-01

394

Using multiple sequence alignment editors and formatters.  

PubMed

Sequence alignment editors enable the user to manually edit a multiple sequence alignment (msa) in order to obtain a more reasonable or expected alignment. Editors allow sequences to be reordered and/or modified using the computer's cut and paste commands. They are designed to accept various msa formats and to provide the output file in a suitable user-designated format. Sequence formatters provide various output formatting options, such as color and shading schemes to enhance visualization of residue alignments. The formatters can output files in Postscript, EPS, RTF, and other widely recognized formats, while accepting the standard input formats, such as MSF, ALN, and FASTA. This article introduces a number of sequence alignment editors and formatters, and provides links to sites where they can be found. PMID:20147226

Mount, David W

2009-07-01

395

Local RNA structure alignment with incomplete sequence  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Accuracy of automated structural RNA alignment is improved by using models that consider not only primary sequence but also secondary structure information. However, current RNA structural alignment approaches tend to perform poorly on incomplete sequence fragments, such as single reads from metagenomic environmental surveys, because nucleotides that are expected to be base paired are missing. Results: We present a local RNA structural alignment algorithm, trCYK, for aligning and scoring incomplete sequences under a model using primary sequence conservation and secondary structure information when possible. The trCYK algorithm improves alignment accuracy and coverage of sequence fragments of structural RNAs in simulated metagenomic shotgun datasets. Availability: The source code for Infernal 1.0, which includes trCYK, is available at http://infernal.janelia.org Contact: kolbed@janelia.hhmi.org; eddys@janelia.hhmi.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Kolbe, Diana L.; Eddy, Sean R.

2009-01-01

396

Vane segment support and alignment device  

DOEpatents

A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

1999-07-13

397

Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

2011-01-01

398

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN) [Powell, TN

1993-01-01

399

Vane segment support and alignment device  

DOEpatents

A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Sizemore, John Derek (Orlando, FL)

1999-01-01

400

Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of NASA's Applied Sciences Program is to manifest societal benefits from the vast store of Earth Observations through partnerships with public, private and academic organizations. The SERVIR project represents an early success toward this goal. By combining Earth Observations from NASA missions, results from environmental models and decision support tools from its partners the SERVIR project has produced an integrated systems solution that is yielding societal benefits for the region of Mesoamerica. The architecture of the SERVIR system consists of an operational facility in Panama with regional nodes in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize plus a Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC), located in Huntsville, Alabama. The RPC, funded by NASA's Applied Sciences Division, and developed by the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, produces scientifically strong decision support products and applications. When mature, the products and applications migrate to the operational center in Panama. There, they are available to environmental ministers and decision makers in Mesoamerica. In June 2004, the SERVIR project was contacted by the environmental ministry of El Salvador, which urgently requested remote sensing imagery of the location, direction, and extent of a HAB event off the coast of El Salvador and Guatemala. Using MODIS data the SERVIR team developed a value added product that predicts the location, direction, and extent of HABs. The products are produced twice daily and are used by the El Salvadoran and Guatemalan governments to alert their tourism and fishing industries of potential red tide events. This has enabled these countries to save millions of dollars for their industries as well as improve the health of harvested fish. In the area of short term weather forecasting the SERVIR team, in collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SpoRT) Center, generates 24 hour-forecasts twice daily utilizing the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF). Originally aimed at forecasts for the United States, the SPoRT team extended their work to cover the Mesoamerican region. Following testing at the RPC the system was installed in Panama and is currently producing forecasts that are used by tour guides, boat captains on river and ocean fishing tours, and cruise ship captains. This capability fits perfectly with NASA's goals since an existing project was modified, at minimal cost, to provide societal benefits to the population of a different geographic region. On June 30, 2006 several new applications matured and the inventory of decision support products was significantly expanded. As a result the SERVIR website was reorganized to reflect the changes. The degree of change was sufficient for the developers to designate it as a new release of SERVIR. The applications include a Real-Time Image Viewer, a customized version of NASA World Wind for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR- VIZ (developed by IAGT) and the SERVIR Data Portal (developed by the Water Center of the Humid Tropics Latin America and the Caribbean). The success of the SERVIR project is reflected by its choice by NASA as the decision support system for the Ecological Forecasting National Application. The SERVIR model is also under consideration for other regions of the globe. Potential areas for development are Africa, South America and the Caribbean.

Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.

2006-12-01

401

A Statistical Algorithm for Assessing Cellular Alignment  

PubMed Central

Current statistical techniques for analyzing cellular alignment data in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering are limited due to heuristic and less quantitative approaches. For example, generally a cut-off degree limit (commonly 20 degrees), is arbitrarily defined within which cells are considered ‘aligned.’ The effectiveness of a patterned biomaterial in guiding the alignment of cells, such as neurons, is often critical to predict relationships between the biomaterial design and biological outcomes, both in vitro and in vivo. This becomes particularly important in the case of peripheral neurons, which require precise axon guidance to obtain successful regenerative outcomes. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol for processing cellular alignment data sets, which implicitly determines an ‘angle of alignment.’ This was accomplished as follows: cells ‘aligning’ with an underlying, anisotropic scaffold display uniformly distributed angles up to a cut-off point determined by how effective the biomaterial is in aligning cells. Therefore, this fact was then used to determine where an alignment angle data set diverges from a uniform distribution. This was accomplished by measuring the spacing between the collected, increasingly ordered angles and analyzing their underlying distributions using a normalized cumulative periodogram (NCP)-criterion. The proposed protocol offers a novel way to implicitly define cellular alignment, with respect to various anisotropic biomaterials. This method may also offer an alternative to assess cellular alignment, which could offer improved predictive measures related to biological outcomes. Further, the approach described can be used for a broad range of cell types grown on 2D surfaces, but would not be applicable to 3D scaffold systems in the present format.

Nectow, Alexander R.; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L.; Kilmer, Misha E.

2013-01-01

402

A statistical algorithm for assessing cellular alignment.  

PubMed

Current statistical techniques for analyzing cellular alignment data in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering are limited because of heuristic and less quantitative approaches. For example, generally a cutoff degree limit (commonly 20 degrees) is arbitrarily defined within which cells are considered "aligned." The effectiveness of a patterned biomaterial in guiding the alignment of cells, such as neurons, is often critical to predict relationships between the biomaterial design and biological outcomes, both in vitro and in vivo. This becomes particularly important in the case of peripheral neurons, which require precise axon guidance to obtain successful regenerative outcomes. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol for processing cellular alignment data sets, which implicitly determines an "angle of alignment." This was accomplished as follows: cells "aligning" with an underlying, anisotropic scaffold display uniformly distributed angles up to a cutoff point determined by how effective the biomaterial is in aligning cells. Therefore, this fact was then used to determine where an alignment angle data set diverges from a uniform distribution. This was accomplished by measuring the spacing between the collected, increasingly ordered angles and analyzing their underlying distributions using a normalized cumulative periodogram criterion. The proposed protocol offers a novel way to implicitly define cellular alignment, with respect to various anisotropic biomaterials. This method may also offer an alternative to assess cellular alignment, which could offer improved predictive measures related to biological outcomes. Furthermore, the approach described can be used for a broad range of cell types grown on 2D surfaces, but would not be applicable to 3D scaffold systems in the present format. PMID:23008168

Nectow, Alexander R; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L; Kilmer, Misha E

2013-03-01

403

Phylo: A Citizen Science Approach for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying “crowd sourcing” techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of “human-brain peta-flops” of computation that are spent every day playing games. Phylo is available at: http://phylo.cs.mcgill.ca.

Kam, Alfred; Kwak, Daniel; Leung, Clarence; Wu, Chu; Zarour, Eleyine; Sarmenta, Luis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Waldispuhl, Jerome

2012-01-01

404

Nuclear and cellular alignment of primary corneal epithelial cells on topography  

PubMed Central

The basement membrane of the corneal epithelium presents biophysical cues in the form of topography and compliance that can modulate cytoskeletal dynamics, which, in turn, can result in altering cellular and nuclear morphology and alignment. In this study the effect of topographic patterns of alternating ridges and grooves on nuclear and cellular shape and alignment was determined. Primary corneal epithelial cells were cultured on either planar or topographically patterned (400–4000nm pitch) substrates. Alignment of individual cell-body was correlated with respective nucleus for analysis of orientation and elongation. A biphasic response in alignment was observed. Cell bodies preferentially aligned perpendicular to the 800nm pitch; and with increasing pitch, cells increasingly aligned parallel to the substratum. Nuclear orientation largely followed this trend with the exception of those on 400nm. On this biomimetic size-scale some nuclei oriented perpendicular to the topography while their cytoskeleton elements aligned parallel. Both, nuclei and cell bodies were elongated on topography compared with those on flat surfaces. Our data demonstrate that nuclear orientation and shape are differentially altered by topographic features that is not mandated by alignment of the cell-body. This novel finding suggests that nuanced differences in alignment of the nucleus vs the cell body exist and that these differences could have consequences on gene and protein regulation that ultimately regulate cell behaviors. A full understanding of these mechanisms could disclose novel pathways that would better inform evolving strategies in cell, stem cell and tissue engineering as well as the design and fabrication of improved prosthetic devices.

Raghunathan, Vijay K.; McKee, Clayton T.; Tocce, Elizabeth J.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

405

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

PubMed Central

Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.

2011-01-01

406

Matt: Local Flexibility Aids Protein Multiple Structure Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even when there is agreement on what measure a protein multiple structure alignment should be optimizing, finding the optimal alignment is computationally prohibitive. One approach used by many previous methods is aligned fragment pair chaining, where short structural fragments from all the proteins are aligned against each other optimally, and the final alignment chains these together in geometrically consistent ways.

Matthew Menke; Bonnie Berger; Lenore Cowen

2008-01-01

407

Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

O'Daniel, Jennifer C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org; Zhang Lifei; Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-05-01

408

Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

409

Engineering of aligned skeletal muscle by micropatterning  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has tremendous potential for the treatment of muscular injury or muscular dysfunction. However, in vitro methods to generate skeletal muscle with physiologically aligned myofiber structure remains limited. To develop a robust in vitro model that resembles the physiologically aligned structure of muscle fibers, we fabricated micropatterned polymer membranes of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with parallel microgrooves, and then examined the effect of micropatterning on myoblast cellular organization and the cell fusion process. In comparison to the myoblasts on non-patterned PDMS films, myoblasts on micropatterned PDMS films had well-organized F-actin assembly in close proximity to the direction of microgrooves, along with enhanced levels of myotube formation at early time points. The increase of cell cycle regulator p21WAF/Cip1 and the organized interactions of N-cadherin in myoblasts on micropatterned surfaces may contribute to the enhanced formation of myotubes. Similar results of cellular alignment was observed when myoblasts were cultured on microfluidically patterned poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) microgrooves, and the micropatterns were found to detach from the Petri dish over time. To apply this technology for generating aligned tissue-like muscle constructs, we developed a methodology to transfer the aligned myotubes to biodegradable collagen gels. Histological analysis revealed the persistence of aligned cellular organization in the collagen gels. Together, these results demonstrate that micropatterned PDMS or pHEMA can promote cell alignment and fusion along the direction of the microgrooves, and this platform can be utilized to transfer aligned myotubes on biodegradable hydrogels. This study highlights the importance of spatial cues in creating aligned skeletal muscle for tissue engineering and muscular regeneration applications.

Huang, Ngan F; Lee, Randall J; Li, Song

2010-01-01

410

Good governance and good health: The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Only governments sensitive to the demands of their citizens appropriately respond to needs of their nation. Based on Professor Amartya Sen's analysis of the link between famine and democracy, the following null hypothesis was tested: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is not associated with governance". Methods Governance has been divided by a recent World Bank paper into six dimensions. These include Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and the Control of Corruption. The 2002 adult HIV prevalence estimates were obtained from UNAIDS. Additional health and economic variables were collected from multiple sources to illustrate the development needs of countries. Results The null hypothesis was rejected for each dimension of governance for all 149 countries with UNAIDS HIV prevalence estimates. When these nations were divided into three groups, the median (range) HIV prevalence estimates remained constant at 0.7% (0.05 – 33.7%) and 0.75% (0.05% – 33.4%) for the lower and middle mean governance groups respectively despite improvements in other health and economic indices. The median HIV prevalence estimates in the higher mean governance group was 0.2% (0.05 – 38.8%). Conclusion HIV prevalence is significantly associated with poor governance. International public health programs need to address societal structures in order to create strong foundations upon which effective healthcare interventions can be implemented.

Menon-Johansson, Anatole S

2005-01-01

411

Measuring the patient health, societal and economic benefits of US pediatric therapeutics legislation.  

PubMed

Through at least the mid-1990s, children were often referred to as 'therapeutic orphans' for whom many treatments were administered without the benefit of appropriate studies to guide drug labeling for dosing and other critical therapeutic decisions. At that time, there were no incentives for manufacturers to pursue such work, nor regulatory requirements to compel these studies. Congress addressed this by including an important provision titled the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization and Accountability Act. This was complemented by another key piece of legislation, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) in 2003. The former Act and its successors created an incentive for firms to study on-patent drugs in pediatric populations by extending the market exclusivity of a medicine by 6 months. The latter was a requirement that provided the US FDA with the authority to require studies of drugs in children if an adult indication also occurs in children. In the current paper, we consider the effects of both pieces of legislation in terms of the health, societal, and economic benefits they have likely imparted and will continue to provide in the future. We conclude that the gains have been substantial - both in terms of safer and more effective use of medicines in children and in terms of new research that has been incentivized by the BPCA exclusivity provision. We estimate the gross economic benefits from the latter alone to be approximately $US360?billion. PMID:22775493

Vernon, John A; Shortenhaus, Scott H; Mayer, Mark H; Allen, Albert J; Golec, Joseph H

2012-10-01

412

Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

Drell, D.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research, Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Division; Metting, F.B. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wuy, L.D. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-11-01

413

The Feasibility of Societal Cost Equivalence between Robotic Hysterectomy and Alternate Hysterectomy Methods for Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assess whether it is feasible for robotic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer to be less expensive to society than traditional laparoscopic hysterectomy or abdominal hysterectomy. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patient characteristics, operative times, complications, and hospital charges from all (n = 234) endometrial cancer patients who underwent hysterectomy in 2009 at our hospital. Per patient costs of each hysterectomy method were examined from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed using a cost-minimization model. Results. 40 (17.1%) of hysterectomies for endometrial cancer were robotic, 91 (38.9%), were abdominal, and 103 (44.0%) were laparoscopic. 96.3% of the variation in operative cost between patients was predicted by operative time (R = 0.963, P < 0.01). Mean operative time for robotic hysterectomy was significantly longer than other methods (P < 0.01). Abdominal hysterectomy was consistently the most expensive while the traditional laparoscopic approach was consistently least expensive. The threshold in operative time that makes robotic hysterectomy cost equivalent to the abdominal approach is within the range of our experience. Conclusion. It is feasible for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than abdominal hysterectomy, but unlikely for robotic hysterectomy to be less expensive than traditional laparoscopy.

Shah, Neel T.; Wright, Kelly N.; Jonsdottir, Gudrun M.; Jorgensen, Selena; Einarsson, Jon I.; Muto, Michael G.

2011-01-01

414

FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-02

415

Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

2012-01-01

416

A note on the depreciation of the societal perspective in economic evaluation of health care.  

PubMed

It is common in cost-effectiveness analyses of health care to only include health care costs, with the argument that some fictive 'health care budget' should be used to maximize the health effects. This paper provides a criticism of the 'health care budget' approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of health care. It is argued that the approach is ad hoc and lacks theoretical foundation. The approach is also inconsistent with using a fixed budget as the decision rule for cost-effectiveness analysis. That is the case unless only costs that fall into a single annual actual budget are included in the analysis, which would mean that any cost paid by the patients should be excluded as well as any future cost changes and all costs that fall on other budgets. Furthermore the prices facing the budget holder should be used, rather than opportunity costs. It is concluded that the 'health care budget' perspective should be abandoned and the societal perspective reinstated in economic evaluation of health care. PMID:10143700

Johannesson, M

1995-07-01

417

Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

Hearn, Paul P., Jr.

2009-01-01

418

Optical Alignment Device For Laser Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical alignment device under development enables continuous tracking and coalignment of two beams of light. Intended primarily for laser-communication station, in which transmitted beam must be aligned with received beam to ensure transmitted beam falls on receiver at other station. Expected to consume less power and be smaller and less complicated than alignment shutter and drive previously used. Prism and filter separate two overlapping collimated light beams of different wavelength or polarization. Coordinates of two beams tracked on charge-coupled device to determine degree of directional misalignment between two beams.

Casey, William L.

1988-01-01

419

Alignment and stability of future machines  

SciTech Connect

Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions.

Shiltsev, V.D.

1996-06-01

420

HETDEX: VIRUS Spectrographs Assembly and Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the assembly and optical alignment process used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the accuracy, interchangeability, time and cost constraints, a production line will be set up to construct and test modular subassemblies in parallel. To facilitate the VIRUS production, fixtures and adjustment mechanisms have been designed to aid in assembly and alignment. This poster describes the details and operations of the camera mirror, collimator mirror and grating adjustment mechanisms, as well as the fold flat mirror alignment fixture.

Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Boster, E.; Meador, W.; Allen, R.; Hill, G. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

421

Switchable Fresnel lens based on micropatterned alignment.  

PubMed

In this Letter we disclose a method to fabricate a liquid crystal (LC) Fresnel zone lens (FZL) with higher efficiency. The LCFZL, based on alternate twisted nematic (TN) and planar aligned (PA) regions, has been prepared by means of a two-step photo-alignment process. The FZL profile for both optical regimes, i.e., in TN and PA alignment domains, generates the same focal length (f). Thus, the proposed LCFZL manifests double light intensity at the focal point and therefore offers double the efficiency of existing FZLs. Moreover, because of lower driving voltage and fast response, these elements could find application in many modern devices. PMID:23722740

Wang, Xiao-Qian; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

2013-06-01

422

Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor  

SciTech Connect

An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm{sup -1} is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiation parameters)

Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2012-11-30

423

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOEpatents

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

424

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOEpatents

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18

425

Alignment design for a cryogenic telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the alignment approach for the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) optical subsystem from initial design to acceptance testing. The constraints imposed by the requirement of maintaining alignment at 300K and 2K, in a 1-g and 0-g gravitational field, during warm and cold vibration, and during various stages of assembly, are discussed. The paper concludes with the methodology of applying NASTRAN finite element analyses to the alignment design, followed by the verification of the accuracy of the design with the test results.

Young, P.; Schreibman, M.

1980-01-01

426

Natural hazards science strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory and nonstatutory roles regarding floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, coastal erosion, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and magnetic storms - the hazards considered in this plan. There are numerous other hazards of societal importance that are considered either only peripherally or not at all in this Strategy because they are either in another of the USGS strategic science plans (such as drought) or not in the overall mission of the USGS (such as tornados).

Holmes, Robert R., Jr.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

2012-01-01

427

Directed 3D Cell Alignment and Elongation in Microengineered Hydrogels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized...

A. L. Sieminski C. B. Hutson H. Aubin H. Bae J. W. Nichol

2010-01-01

428

Alignment error model of subaperture stitching interferometry for aspheric surface based on wavefront aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel strategies and a prototype for large optical surfaces test with subaperture stitching. The kinematics model with six degrees of freedom is built to determine the initial configuration of each subaperture, according to the records of nulling motion. An alignment error model based on wavefront aberrations is established for compensation and error separation. Subapertures are primarily stitched by homogeneous coordinate transformation, least square method and Zernike polynomial fitting. Then an error-separation matrix of stitching model is developed to analysis the characteristics and effects of alignment error on test results. The expressions of the alignment errors for aspheric surface testing are built based on motion structure and wavefront aberrations theory. So the alignment errors can be separated and compensated efficiently. Subapertures are then simultaneously stitched by minimizing deviations among the overlapping region, as well as deviations from the nominal surface. As a result, precise prior knowledge of the nulling and alignment motion, which is of six degrees of freedom, is no longer required. Simulations and experiments are given to verify the validity and precision of the proposed algorithm. The result shows that the proposed method with alignment compensation is quite efficient.

Wang, Weibo; Tan, Jiubin; Zhu, Liming; Ge, Zhenggui

2009-05-01

429

Using multiple structure alignments, fast model building, and energetic analysis in fold recognition and homology modeling.  

PubMed

We participated in the fold recognition and homology sections of CASP5 using primarily in-house software. The central feature of our structure prediction strategy involved the ability to generate good sequence-to-structure alignments and to quickly transform them into models that could be evaluated both with energy-based methods and manually. The in-house tools we used include: a) HMAP (Hybrid Multidimensional Alignment Profile)-a profile-to-profile alignment method that is derived from sequence-enhanced multiple structure alignments in core regions, and sequence motifs in non-structurally conserved regions. b) NEST-a fast model building program that applies an "artificial evolution" algorithm to construct a model from a given template and alignment. c) GRASP2-a new structure and alignment visualization program incorporating multiple structure superposition and domain database scanning modules. These methods were combined with model evaluation based on all atom and simplified physical-chemical energy functions. All of these methods were under development during CASP5 and consequently a great deal of manual analysis was carried out at each stage of the prediction process. This interactive model building procedure has several advantages and suggests important ways in which our and other methods can be improved, examples of which are provided. PMID:14579332

Petrey, Donald; Xiang, Zhexin; Tang, Christopher L; Xie, Lei; Gimpelev, Marina; Mitros, Therese; Soto, Cinque S; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Kernytsky, Andrew; Schlessinger, Avner; Koh, Ingrid Y Y; Alexov, Emil; Honig, Barry

2003-01-01

430

Assessing Societal Impacts When Planning Restoration of Large Alluvial Rivers: A Case Study of the Sacramento River Project, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase\\u000a important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence\\u000a many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider\\u000a this in a comprehensive manner. Most

Gregory H. Golet; Michael D. Roberts; Eric W. Larsen; Ryan A. Luster; Ron Unger; Gregg Werner; Gregory G. White

2006-01-01

431

Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents’ Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents’ positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in

Zuway R. Hong; Huann-Shyang Lin; Frances P. Lawrenz

2011-01-01

432

Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents’ Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents’ positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in

Zuway R. Hong; Huann-Shyang Lin; Frances P. Lawrenz

2012-01-01

433

Societal Costs of Risky Driving: An Economic Analysis of High-Risk Patients Visiting an Urban Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We estimated the societal costs imposed by and the relative contributions of risky driving, drinking–driving, and substance use among young adults visiting a large urban emergency department who exhibited both high-risk driving and problem drinking.Methods: Emergency department patients aged 18 to 44 who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking (n = 275) were surveyed regarding driving behaviors,

Benjamin D. Sommers; Jamison D. Fargo; Michael S. Lyons; Jean T. Shope; Marilyn S. Sommers

2011-01-01

434

Optical Alignment Device for Binocular Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates generally to the field of optical alignment systems and more particaularly to a novel optical device for detecting misalignment in a binocular display by superimposition of the two binocular display images. The present invention pro...

H. L. Task

1982-01-01

435

Training manual on optical alignment instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training Manual RQA/M5 provides a basic course of instruction in the use of optical instruments for precise dimensional control and alignment of structural elements and assemblies, such as associated with space vehicles, aircraft, ships, and buildings.

1968-01-01

436

HETDEX: Optical Alignment Of The Virus Spectrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical alignment procedure for the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) collimator. Texas A&M is helping to build the VIRUS spectrographs, designed in collaboration with The University of Texas at Austin. The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use as many as 192 units of this instrument to search for answers regarding Dark Energy. Texas A&M is currently assembling the collimators for VIRUS and designing alignment fixtures to aid in the assembly. We used ZEMAX models of VIRUS optics made by UT engineers to analyze various alignment methods we have considered. Our current plan uses two steps to properly align the collimator within the tolerance of 0.1-degrees. This will permit interchangeability among the various VIRUS parts.

Martin, Emily; Marshall, J.; Rheault, J.; DePoy, D.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Hill, G.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

437

Alignment Stage for a Cryogenic Dilatometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-degree-of-freedom alignment stage has been designed and built for use in a cryogenic dilatometer that is used to measure thermal strains. The alignment stage enables precise adjustments of the positions and orientations of optical components to be used in the measurements and, once adjustments have been completed, keeps the components precisely aligned during cryogenic-dilatometer operations that can last as long as several days. The alignment stage includes a case, a circular tilt/tip platform, and a variety of flexural couplings between the case and the platform, all machined from a single block of the low-thermal-expansion iron/nickel alloy Invar, in order to minimize effects of temperature gradients and to obtain couplings that are free of stiction and friction. There are three sets of flexural couplings clocked at equal angles of 120 degrees around the platform, constituting a three-point kinematic support system.

Dudik, Matthew; Moore, Donald

2005-01-01

438

Broadband terahertz lasing in aligned molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

No broadband lasing medium like Ti:Saph has been demonstrated yet for terahertz radiation. We show that laser-aligned molecules can amplify broadband terahertz radiation, allowing high-energy chirped-pulse amplification at terahertz frequencies.

Andrew G. York; Howard Milchberg

2008-01-01

439

Attachment alignment measurement system, method and device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides an Attachment alignment measurement system, method and tool, for identifying the level of Attachment Variance in a relationship between a caregiver and a subject (e.g. new member) in the social structure. Attachment Variance is the degree of alignment (or misalignment) between a subject's (e.g. new member) actual Attachment to the social structure compared with the Attachment of the subject as perceived by the caregiver. The Attachment alignment measurement method for measuring attachment variance in social structure, including the steps of measuring a Subject's actual Attachment to a social structure (Actual Attachment), measuring a primary carer's perception of the Subject's Attachment to a social structure (Perceived Attachment), and comparing Actual Attachment and Perceived Attachment such that Attachment Variance is assessable, wherein Attachment Variance provides an indication of alignment between a Subject's Actual Attachment the Perceived Attachment and the programming instructions for performing the steps.

2014-04-01

440

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

441

A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-15

442

Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays  

SciTech Connect

We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly