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“Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy  

PubMed Central

Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

Yang, J S; Malone, R E



Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

ATLAS; Golling, T.



Strategies and tools for whole genome alignments  

SciTech Connect

The availability of the assembled mouse genome makespossible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two largevertebrate genomes. We have investigated different strategies ofalignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that areeffective for different quality assemblies. These strategies were appliedto the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the MouseGenome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediatemouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignmentsexhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90 percent ofknown coding exons in the human genome. We have obtained such coveragewhile preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we havedeveloped a suite of tools and websites for automatically aligning, andsubsequently browsing and working with whole genome comparisons. Wedescribe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regionsbetween the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not beenidentified by other methods.

Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov,Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna



Agile Strategy Execution — Creating Strategic Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sun Tzu’ s Art of War, the Chinese general laid out five simple requirements for victory in battle. Military metaphors do not always translate\\u000a well in the business world, but one of the five will resonate powerfully with any CEO contemplating strategy and execution.\\u000a As Sun Tzu put it: “He will win whose army is animated by the same

Ryan Nichols; Ranga Bodla; Chris Mark


Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.  

SciTech Connect

This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea



An alignment strategy for the optics of LINC-NIRVANA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument to combine the light from both LBT primary mirrors in an imaging Fizeau interferometer. The goals in terms of resolution and field of view are quite ambitious, which leads to a complex instrument consisting of a bunch of subsystems. The layer oriented MCAO system alone is already quite complicated and to get everything working together properly is not a small challenge. As we are reaching the completion of LINC-NIRVANA's subsystems, it becomes more and more important to define a strategy to align all these various subsystems. The specific layout of LINC-NIRVANA imposes some restrictions and difficulties on the sequence and the method of this alignment. The main problem for example is that we have to get two perfectly symmetrical focal planes to be able to properly combine them interferometrically. This is the major step on which all further alignment is based on, since all the subsystems (collimator and camera optics, wavefront sensors, cold IR optics, etc.) rely on these focal planes as a reference. I will give a small introduction on the optics of the instrument and line out the resulting difficulties as well as the strategy that we want to apply in order to overcome these.

Meschke, Daniel; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, Peter



Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative Professional Service Firms  

E-print Network

Page 1 Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative Professional Service Firms. Keywords Professional Service Firm Creative Industries Strategy Talent management Careers halshs-00794891,version1-26Feb2013 #12;Page 3 Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Two Strategies for Sequence Comparison: Profile-preprocessed and Secondary Structure-induced Multiple Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment remains one of the most powerful tools for assessing sequence relateness and the identification of structurally and functionally important protein regions. In this work, two new techniques are introduced to increase the sensitivity of dynamic programming and to enable checks for alignment consistency: Profile-preprocessed and secondary structure-induced alignments. Both strategies are based upon the hierarchical dynamic programming

Jaap Heringa



Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.


Aligning products with supply chain processes and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As supply chain management has become more strategic (rather than transactional) in nature the need for a more integrated perspective of how products, and processes should be aligned with strategic decisions to enhance competitive advantage has been amplified. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of how this alignment should be done. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Euthemia Stavrulaki; Mark Davis



B-SCP: A requirements analysis framework for validating strategic alignment of organizational IT based on strategy, context, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that organizational IT is in alignment with and provides support for an organization's business strategy is critical to business success. Despite this, business strategy and strategic alignment issues are all but ignored in the requirements engineering research literature. We present B-SCP, a requirements engineering framework for organizational IT that directly addresses an organization's business strategy and the alignment of

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June M. Verner; Keith T. Phalp



The exploration of attributes aligning supply chain strategy & resilience execution  

E-print Network

This research aims to characterize and measure hierarchical, functional and geographical alignment within an organization in an effort to understand the individual's attributes of resilience within the broader organization's ...

Cope, Alexander Randon



Aligning Knowledge Sharing Strategy With Organizational and Cultural Contexts: An Information System Perspective  

E-print Network

Aligning Knowledge Sharing Strategy With Organizational and Cultural Contexts: An Information highlights the importance of organizational and cultural contexts in the efficiency of knowledge of the organizational and cultural contexts, information system functionalities to develop or to promote in order

Boyer, Edmond


Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms  

PubMed Central

Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy. PMID:23915467



Decomposition strategies for self-aligned double patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer technology, a self-aligned double patterning (SADP) technique, has been drawing more and more attention due to its less stringent overlay requirements compared to other double-patterning methods. However, use of SADP techniques was previously limited by the lack of flexibility in terms of decomposition options , and significant developments were mainly implemented for 1D-type applications for memory. In this paper,

Yuansheng Ma; Jason Sweis; Chris Bencher; Huixiong Dai; Yongmei Chen; Jason P. Cain; Yunfei Deng; Jongwook Kye; Harry J. Levinson



Electron Beam Alignment Strategy in the LCLS Undulators  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray FEL process puts very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (2 {micro}m rms) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight but less stringent tolerances of 80 {micro}m rms vertical and 140 {micro}m rms horizontally are to be met for the placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through beam-based alignment (BBA) based on electron energy variations. Conventional alignment will set the start conditions for BBA. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders and the use of beam-finder wires (BFW) will satisfy placement tolerances. Girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes will be monitored continuously by an alignment monitoring system (ADS) and remotely corrected. This stabilization of components as well as the monitoring and correction of the electron beam trajectory based on BPMs and correctors will increase the time between BBA applications. Undulator segments will be periodically removed from the undulator Hall and measured to monitor radiation damage and other effects that might degrade undulator tuning.

Nuhn, H.-D.; Emma, P.J.; Gassner, G.L.; LeCocq, C.M.; Peters, E.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC



Decomposition strategies for self-aligned double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacer technology, a self-aligned double patterning (SADP) technique, has been drawing more and more attention due to its less stringent overlay requirements compared to other double-patterning methods. However, use of SADP techniques was previously limited by the lack of flexibility in terms of decomposition options , and significant developments were mainly implemented for 1D-type applications for memory. In this paper, we extend the SADP technique into the logic field. A matrix of design rule extraction structures was created by GLOBALFOUNDRIES, which was then decomposed into 2-mask SADP patterning solutions by Cadence Design Systems, and wafers were manufactured by Applied Materials. The wafers were processed in both positive and negative spacer tones, and then we evaluate the design capabilities of SADP for logic BEOL patterning on pitches from 56nm to 64nm. It shows that the SADP has big advantage over other pitch splitting techniques such as LELE in terms of design rules, overlay, and CD uniformity control. With SADP, the most challenging design rules for BEOL such as tip-to-tip and tip-to-line can be reduced 50% from 80 nm to 40 nm.

Ma, Yuansheng; Sweis, Jason; Bencher, Chris; Dai, Huixiong; Chen, Yongmei; Cain, Jason P.; Deng, Yunfei; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry J.



The role of a security strategy is to align company security and business goals, provide  

E-print Network

within the existing security program (e.g., Incident Management Program or Threat & Vulnerability Management Program) to guide security efforts. This offering provides a solid foundation for a securityThe role of a security strategy is to align company security and business goals, provide a common

Fisher, Kathleen


A data parallel strategy for aligning multiple biological sequences on multi-core computers.  


In this paper, we address the large-scale biological sequence alignment problem, which has an increasing demand in computational biology. We employ data parallelism paradigm that is suitable for handling large-scale processing on multi-core computers to achieve a high degree of parallelism. Using the data parallelism paradigm, we propose a general strategy which can be used to speed up any multiple sequence alignment method. We applied five different clustering algorithms in our strategy and implemented rigorous tests on an 8-core computer using four traditional benchmarks and artificially generated sequences. The results show that our multi-core-based implementations can achieve up to 151-fold improvements in execution time while losing 2.19% accuracy on average. The source code of the proposed strategy, together with the test sets used in our analysis, is available on request. PMID:23414778

Zhu, Xiangyuan; Li, Kenli; Salah, Ahmad



Active reconstruction and alignment strategies for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4m off-axis telescope with a Gregorian front end. At the time of its construction it will be the world's largest solar astronomical telescope. During scientific operations the ATST mirrors and structure will be deformed due to thermal and gravitational loading. The ATST team has developed a quasi-static alignment scheme that utilizes the wavefront sensing signals from at least one and as many as three wavefront sensors in the telescope science field of view, and active figure control of the primary mirror and rigid body control of the secondary mirror to achieve least-squares optical control of the telescope. This paper presents the quasi-static alignment model for the ATST, and three different active alignment schemes that are the damped least-squares control, force optimized control that defines a least-squares aligned state of the telescope subject to minimum primary actuator force, and pivot-point control of the secondary mirror. All three strategies achieve the desired minimum RMS wavefront error, but demonstrate different optimized states of the telescope.

Upton, Robert; Rimmele, Thomas



Societal assessment overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

Bloomquist, C. E.



Work-family boundary strategies: Stability and alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries  

PubMed Central

Are individuals bounding work and family the way they would like? Much of the work-family boundary literature focuses on whether employees are segmenting or integrating work with family, but does not explore the boundaries workers would like to have, nor does it examine the fit between desired and enacted boundaries, or assess boundary stability. In this study, 23 respondents employed at a large Fortune 500 company were interviewed about their work-family boundaries before and after their teams underwent a cultural change initiative that sought to loosen workplace norms and allow employees more autonomy to decide when and where they performed their job tasks. Four distinct boundary strategies emerged from the data, with men and parents of young children having better alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries than women and those without these caregiving duties. Implications for boundary theory and research are discussed.

Ammons, Samantha K.



Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa


The Effect of Aligning Business Strategy and Human Resource Management Practices on Organizational Outcomes.  

E-print Network

??This research explores the relationship between business strategy, human resourcemanagement (HRM) practices, and organizational outcomes through two studies. The first studyprovides a practitioner’s perspective into… (more)

Krone, Samantha



The proactive alignment of sourcing with marketing and branding strategies: a food service case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that a proactive sourcing strategy can be just as important as a proactive marketing strategy in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports on action research carried out in the UK beef industry, with a focus on the food service supply chain. The methodology is inductive and qualitative,

Andrew Cox; Daniel Chicksand; Tong Yang



A Therapeutic Strategy for Spinal Cord Defect: Human Dental Follicle Cells Combined with Aligned PCL/PLGA Electrospun Material  

PubMed Central

Stem cell implantation has been utilized for the repair of spinal cord injury; however, it shows unsatisfactory performance in repairing large scale lesion of an organ. We hypothesized that dental follicle cells (DFCs), which possess multipotential capability, could reconstruct spinal cord defect (SCD) in combination with biomaterials. In the present study, mesenchymal and neurogenic lineage characteristics of human DFCs (hDFCs) were identified. Aligned electrospun PCL/PLGA material (AEM) was fabricated and it would not lead to cytotoxic reaction; furthermore, hDFCs could stretch along the oriented fibers and proliferate efficiently on AEM. Subsequently, hDFCs seeded AEM was transplanted to restore the defect in rat spinal cord. Functional observation was performed but results showed no statistical significance. The following histologic analyses proved that AEM allowed nerve fibers to pass through, and implanted hDFCs could express oligodendrogenic lineage maker Olig2 in vivo which was able to contribute to remyelination. Therefore, we concluded that hDFCs can be a candidate resource in neural regeneration. Aligned electrospun fibers can support spinal cord structure and induce cell/tissue polarity. This strategy can be considered as alternative proposals for the SCD regeneration studies.

Yang, Chao; Li, Lei; Xiong, Jie; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Yu, Mei; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong



Patterns of co-alignment in information-intensive organizations: business performance through integration strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology (IT) has transformed business practices in the last several decades: operations, product strategies, distribution, and customer service have become increasingly dependent on IT. Moreover, IT has changed its orientation from that of pure operational utility in the 1960s and 1970s to that of a competitive weapon in the 1990s and today. These phenomena have affected the way modern

Yannis A. Pollalis



Design as a strategic resource : design's contributions to competitive advantage aligned with strategy models  

E-print Network

48 3.5.1 Diagrams for graphic elicitation in interviews 3.6 Summary of phase 1 54 Chapter 4 Methods and rationale of phase 2 4.1 Introduction 55 4.1.1 Objectives of this phase 4.2 Case selection 56 4.3 Interview procedure 58 4.3.1 Protocol 4... sketches from interviews vi Images from data analysis stage ix Contents x List of Figures Figure 1: Framework for research design [Robson] Figure 2: Research progression and thesis structure Figure 3: Conceptual overlap of literature on strategy...

Stevens, John Simon



DOUGLAS R. WHITE Societal Research Archives System  

E-print Network

DOUGLAS R. WHITE Societal Research Archives System : Retrieval, quality control and analysis of comparative data* I N T R O D U C T I O N The Societal Research Archives System (SRAS) was created worked on the project. The original Societal Research Archive System, at Minnesota, is still operative

White, Douglas R.


The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to

Julie D. Thompson; Toby J. Gibson; Frédéric Plewniak; François Jeanmougin; Desmond G. Higgins



Coping with an emerging market competition through strategy-human resource alignment: case study evidence from five leading Japanese manufacturers in the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how PRC-based Japanese affiliates can align their human resource management (HRM) policies and practices with their business strategies based on in-depth interview surveys of the five leading Japanese manufacturers in China. In particular, using a multiple-informant research design to interview both top and human resource managers in each site, the study has attempted to clarify the strategic

Norihiko Takeuchi; Ziguang Chen; Wing Lam



Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.



Societal health and urban sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.



PRALINE: a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit.  


Profile ALIgNmEnt (PRALINE) is a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit. In its main alignment protocol, PRALINE follows the global progressive alignment algorithm. It provides various alignment optimization strategies to address the different situations that call for protein multiple sequence alignment: global profile preprocessing, homology-extended alignment, secondary structure-guided alignment, and transmembrane aware alignment. A number of combinations of these strategies are enabled as well. PRALINE is accessible via the online server The server facilitates extensive visualization possibilities aiding the interpretation of alignments generated, which can be written out in pdf format for publication purposes. PRALINE also allows the sequences in the alignment to be represented in a dendrogram to show their mutual relationships according to the alignment. The chapter ends with a discussion of various issues occurring in multiple sequence alignment. PMID:24170407

Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap



B-SCP: a requirements analysis framework for validating strategic alignment of organizational IT based on strategy,  

E-print Network

IT based on strategy, context, and process Steven J. Bleistein1 2 , Karl Cox1 2 , June Verner1 2.Bleistein, Karl.Cox, June.Verner}, WORKING PAPER UNSW-CSE-TR-0517 September 17 IT based on strategy, context, and process­ Steven J. Bleistein, Karl Cox, and June Verner - 2 - Abstract

New South Wales, University of


The contingent effects of top management teams on venture performance: Aligning founding team composition with innovation strategy and commercialization environment  

E-print Network

How does the relationship between founding team composition and venture performance depend on the venture's strategy and business environment? Using data from a novel survey of 2,067 firms, we show that while diverse ...

Eesley, Charles E.


Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: Planetary protection and contamination concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both

M. S. Race



Social Movements and Societal Conditions: A Response to Roach and Roach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roach and Roach complain that separatist organizing, particularly in regard to the Black movement, is harmful. This sort of complaint, however, ignores the historically specific circumstances in which social movements emerge and in which strategies and goals and the potential for societal transformation are formed. (Author/EB)

Piven, Frances Fox; Cloward, Richard A.



Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental induce- ments aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are

M. B. Schwartz; R. Puhl



Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit



Future economic damage from tropical cyclones: sensitivities to societal and  

E-print Network

Future economic damage from tropical cyclones: sensitivities to societal and climate changes from tropical cyclones under a range of assumptions about societal change, climate change related to tropical cyclones than efforts to modulate the behaviour of storms through greenhouse gas

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Alignment fixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted

G. C. Bell; O. T. Gibson



Glycoform analysis of recombinant and human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein gp120 via higher energy collisional dissociation and spectral-aligning strategy.  


Envelope protein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is armored with a dense glycan shield, which plays critical roles in envelope folding, immune-evasion, infectivity, and immunogenicity. Site-specific glycosylation profiling of recombinant gp120 is very challenging. Therefore, glycoproteomic analysis of native viral gp120 is still formidable to date. This challenge promoted us to employ a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer to identify low abundant glycopeptides from virion-associated gp120. To search the HCD-MS data for glycopeptides, a novel spectral-aligning strategy was developed. This strategy depends on the observation that glycopeptides and the corresponding deglycosylated peptides share very similar MS/MS pattern in terms of b- and y-ions that do not contain the site of glycosylation. Moreover, glycopeptides with an identical peptide backbone show nearly resembling spectra regardless of the attached glycan structures. For the recombinant gp120, this "copy-paste" spectral pattern of glycopeptides facilitated identification of 2224 spectra using only 18 spectral templates, and after precursor mass correction, 1268 (57%) spectra were assigned to 460 unique glycopeptides accommodating 19 N-linked and one O-linked glycosylation sites (glycosites). Strikingly, we were able to observe five N- and one O-linked glycosites in native gp120. We further revealed that except for Asn276 in the C2 region, glycans were processed to contain both high mannose and hybrid/complex glycans; an additional four N-linked glycosites were decorated with high mannose type. Core 1 O-linked glycan Gal1GalNAc1 was seen for the O-linked glycosite at Thr499. This direct observation of site-specific glycosylation of virion-derived gp120 has implications in HIV glycobiology and vaccine design. PMID:24941220

Yang, Weiming; Shah, Punit; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Shisheng; Ao, Minghui; Rubin, Abigail; Jackson, J Brooks; Zhang, Hui



Aligned-or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary



Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears  

PubMed Central

Background: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. Methods: A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results: In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. Conclusions: ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings, are considered. The cost of an ACL tear over the lifetime of a patient is substantial, and resources should be directed to developing innovations for injury prevention and for altering the natural history of an ACL injury. PMID:24088967

Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Kocher, Mininder S.; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Scott, Daniel J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Spindler, Kurt P.



Alignment validation  

SciTech Connect

The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias



Applications and societal benefits of plastics  

PubMed Central

This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.



Reticular alignment: A progressive corner-cutting method for multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper, we introduce a progressive corner cutting method called Reticular Alignment for multiple sequence alignment. Unlike previous corner-cutting methods, our approach does not define a compact part of the dynamic programming table. Instead, it defines a set of optimal and suboptimal alignments at each step during the progressive alignment. The set of alignments are represented with a network to store them and use them during the progressive alignment in an efficient way. The program contains a threshold parameter on which the size of the network depends. The larger the threshold parameter and thus the network, the deeper the search in the alignment space for better scored alignments. Results We implemented the program in the Java programming language, and tested it on the BAliBASE database. Reticular Alignment can outperform ClustalW even if a very simple scoring scheme (BLOSUM62 and affine gap penalty) is implemented and merely the threshold value is increased. However, this set-up is not sufficient for outperforming other cutting-edge alignment methods. On the other hand, the reticular alignment search strategy together with sophisticated scoring schemes (for example, differentiating gap penalties for hydrophobic and hydrophylic amino acids) overcome FSA and in some accuracy measurement, even MAFFT. The program is available from Conclusions Reticular alignment is an efficient search strategy for finding accurate multiple alignments. The highest accuracy achieved when this searching strategy is combined with sophisticated scoring schemes. PMID:21092255



An Overview of Web Mining in Societal Benefit Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of web mining research related to areas of social benefit is the focus of this paper. We particularly focus on web mining that may help and benefit societal areas in ways of extracting new knowledge, providing support for decision making and empowering valuable management of societal issues. E-commerce and E-business are two fields empowered by web mining having

Georgios Lappas



Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.  


Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications. PMID:11539240

Race, M S



Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms  

SciTech Connect

Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

White, G.B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)



Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

Bluestein, Howard B.



Image alignment  


Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

Dowell, Larry Jonathan



Societal Implications of Fourth Generation Nanotechnology: Molecular Manufacturing  

E-print Network

Societal Implications of Fourth Generation Nanotechnology: Molecular Manufacturing Wednesday Nanotechnology (CRN) New York, NY Predictions for the future of nanotechnology range from the mundane that possibility seriously. Nanotechnology is sometimes called "the next Industrial Revolution," and with good

Fisher, Frank


Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational and management boundaries that must be resolved at local, state, national and international levels to implement and realize free flow of such vital information.

Habib, Shahid



Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%. PMID:23118847

Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.



Strategies and Lessons-Learned for the Successful Alignment of Contract Cost with the Contract Budget Base (CBB) within the First Year of Contract Award - 13154  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide a sound basis and foundation for integrated Project and Contract change management, it is imperative to ensure the alignment of the Negotiated Contract Costs (NCC) with the Contract Budget Base (CBB), where CBB is defined as the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) plus Management Reserve (MR). The achievement of this alignment assures customer and contractor agreement on scope, requirements, quantities, schedule and cost, which facilitates the identification of change conditions and ultimate agreement on the value of changes to the NCC and the CBB. Delays in contract/CBB true up/reconciliation can negatively effect measurement of project progress, limiting owner understanding of liability, and may result in increased contract disagreements and potential claims. The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) and URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) achieved alignment of the NCC with the CBB within 10 months of UCOR taking over work on the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) cleanup contract by: 1. Managing as a discrete project; 2. Establishing expectations and setting tone of interactions; 3. Using personnel experienced with Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR); 4. Partnering; 5. Establishing ombudsmen. (authors)

Mullis, Jay [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rueter, Ken [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)



IUS prerelease alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

Evans, F. A.



The next decade of vaccines: societal and scientific challenges.  


Vaccines against microbial diseases have improved the health of millions of people. In the next decade and beyond, many conceptual and technological scientific advances offer extraordinary opportunities to expand the portfolio of immunisations against viral and bacterial diseases and to pioneer the first vaccines against human parasitic and fungal diseases. Scientists in the public and private sectors are motivated as never before to bring about these innovations in immunisation. Many societal factors threaten to compromise realisation of the public health gains that immunisation can achieve in the next decade and beyond--understanding these factors is imperative. Vaccines are typically given to healthy individuals and safety issues loom high on the list of public concerns. The public needs to regain confidence in immunisation and trust the organisations responsible for the research, development, and implementation of vaccines. In the past, by use of a judicious amalgam of knowledge and empiricism, successful vaccines were largely developed by microbiologists who identified antigens that induced immune responses to conserved pathogen components. In the future, vaccines need to be developed against deadly diseases for which this strategy is often not feasible because of the extensive antigenic variability of relevant pathogens. High microbial diversity means that immunity after natural infection is often ineffective for prevention of disease on subsequent exposure, for example in HIV infection and malaria. Additionally, vaccines need to be generated to protect the people who are most vulnerable because of age or underlying diseases. Thus, in the future, a much deeper understanding of the immunological challenges--including the diversifying role of host genetics and environmental factors, leading perhaps to more personalised approaches-will be the touchstone for rational design and development of adjuvants that result in novel safe and effective vaccines. PMID:21664685

Moxon, E Richard; Siegrist, Claire-Anne



Optimal alignments in linear space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space, not time, is often the limiting factor when computing optimal sequence alignments, and a number of recent papers in the biology literature have proposed space-saving strategies. How- ever, a 1975 computer science paper by Hirschberg presented a method that is superior to the newer proposals, both in theory and in practice. The goal of this note is to give

Eugene W. Myers; Webb Miller



Teacher Perception of the Alignment of Enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) standards for staff development as a framework for measuring specific aspects of the enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) educational technology professional development program, as perceived by eMINTS teachers. The Technology Integration Cycle…

Stanfill, Diana L.



Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles  

PubMed Central

Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

Ulmer, David D.



Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are informed by evidence from a range of sources, including document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and multiple media analyses. Finally, this study highlights a set of cross-cutting, transferable lessons that can be applied as future emerging technologies arise over time. The intention is that the insights gained from this study can help address these pressing issues as they rapidly unfold.

Michelson, Evan S.


DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....


Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris



Increasing Influence of Societal Response Variables in Coastal Evolution Projections (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to project changes in coastal erosion and vulnerability of the state of South Carolina’s (SC’s) oceanfront for different scenarios of future sea level have reinforced the significance of the influence of societal modifications and response to past and anticipated coastal change in these systems. For large reaches of the SC coast human interactions have been a dominant signal driving coastal change across annual to decadal scales. Over the last 20 years, SC’s shoreline has been advanced seawards in many areas due to a combination of sustained societal commitment to beach nourishment and to a lull in atmospheric storms; reversing the long-term erosional trend of shoreline change. Adjacent areas not yet threatened or where coastal defense is unsupported economically have continued to migrate landwards. Locally, efforts focused on stabilizing the subaerial beach have not moderated long-term shoreward migration of the shoreface changing the overall morphology of the coastal boundary waves and currents are operating against. These societal effects, coupled with realistic, substative assessments of future atmospheric storm activity and sea level variability, both over scales of seasons to multi-decades, require consideration to realistically project future coastal behavior across time and spatial scales for planning and resource management. As with future climate and sea level variability effects on the shoreline, the scale and intensity of societal response is not static or precisely projected spatially and temporally into the future. With continued expansion of coastal development and erosion into previously lightly developed and defended coastal areas, societal influences should be expected to increase. Increasing cost of larger scale defenses will likely drive pressure for hardened structures to enhance ”softer” nourishment strategies. However, this strategy would further modify the ability of nature to respond to natural forces. Nourishment programs are strongly cyclic and can act in or out of phase with natural cyclic (inlet migration, sea level variability) or stochastic (storms) drivers with significant effects on coastal response and predictions of coastal behavior. Economic cycles and events may similarly moderate timing and scale of coastal defense relative to natural drivers. Societal decisions to not, enhance and or even abandon and remove existing engineering structures as future forces and costs increase, can result in a disproportional response and potentially failure of a section of coast. Some communities have expressed confidence in the ability to maintain the oceanfront shoreline against most projections of sea level rise over the next 100 years. The long-term trend in sea level change may be less important than naturally occurring regional scale, seasonal to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in sea level; and these are complex but deterministic. There is less confidence, however, in the ability to combat passive submergence and associated flooding issues behind the immediate oceanfront. To the extent that may influence commitment to defend the oceanfront could strongly influence coastal behavior and stability in the long term.

Gayes, P. T.; McCoy, C. A.; Pietrafesa, L. J.



Interference alignment by motion  

E-print Network

Recent years have witnessed increasing interest in interference alignment which has been demonstrated to deliver gains for wireless networks both analytically and empirically. Typically, interference alignment is achieved ...

Adib, Fadel M.


Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA ( differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation's activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: -How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? -Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? -Are we adapting successfully? -What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? -Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of decisions, but subsets of indicators, or the data supporting the indicator, might be used to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region.

O'Brien, S.; Kenney, M.; Chen, R. S.; Baptista, S. R.; Quattrochi, D. A.



Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1. INTRODUCTION Extreme weather events have captured the in- terest of scientists, the media with an- thropogenic climate change; and how social vulnerability, coping, and adaptation shape the societal impacts of extreme weather. We find four critical gaps where work is needed to improve outcomes

Neff, Jason


Teachers' Conceptions about Their Understanding of Societal Science Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' scientific knowledge about societal science issues must be one of the prerequisites for the process of science teaching. Innovation in science teaching and its implications for students' scientific literacy depends on the understanding that teachers bring with them into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how…

Martins, Isabel P.


Societal Aspects of Bridge Management and Safety in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main reason for the existence of civil infrastructures is public interest. Therefore, various societal aspects should drive an infrastructure program. Civil infrastructures are long-lived as- sets. Bridges and other structures are designed for lifetimes of 50 to 100 years. A bridge can last much longer from a technical point of view, providing the original functionality it is designed for

H. E. Klatter


Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul



Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.



United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

Donoughe, P. L.



Religious Influences on Personal and Societal Well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines religious influences on personal and societal well-being in South Korea by systematically analyzing recent research on the topic, and by comparing the findings with those of other countries, especially those of North America, to assess similarities and differences. In concert with generally accepted findings elsewhere, the paper shows that Koreans with religious faith generally have higher levels

Andrew Eungi Kim



The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair  

PubMed Central

Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost-effective for all populations. The results of this study should not be interpreted as suggesting that all rotator cuff tears require surgery. Rather, the results show that rotator cuff repair has an important role in minimizing the societal burden of rotator cuff disease. PMID:24257656

Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald



Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

Somerville, Mary R.



On the societal nature of praxis and organic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

Roth, Wolff-Michael



Client relations in South Asia: programmatic and societal determinants.  


Client relations constitute a neglected area of research in family planning. Findings from studies in northern India and Bangladesh reveal considerable variation in both the quantity and quality of contacts in programs that function under roughly comparable socioeconomic conditions. Client relations are determined by a complex set of forces in which both programmatic factors and conditions pertaining to the societal environment play a key role. Worker-client exchanges have a net, incremental effect on contraceptive use. PMID:3798489

Simmons, R; Koblinsky, M A; Phillips, J F



Overview of female middle childhood in societal context: implications for research and practice.  


Preadolescence represents a time of becoming and of change less emphasized in popular and empirical literature than adolescence. Yet it is an important period and a critical time to teach children, while they are still sufficiently adult-dependent and adult-centered, to help that learning to persist. These are formative years during which children experience marked increases in development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial) and knowledge and an incremental shaping of values, attitudes, and behaviors that they will carry into adulthood. This period of life can also be called the "tween" years, as children during this period are transitioning to adolescence. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the societal context in which preteen girls are developing and provide some suggestions for testing and implementing health promotion strategies that may contribute toward a safe and successful transition for these children through adolescence to adulthood in this fast-paced society. PMID:12518279

Doswell, Willa M



Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling



Implementation of a parallel protein structure alignment service on cloud.  


Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling



Fast Statistical Alignment  

PubMed Central

We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment—previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches—yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at, and the source code is available at PMID:19478997

Bradley, Robert K.; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior



Integrating Socioeconomic Data into GEOSS to Enable Societal Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving the GEOSS vision of societal benefits from Earth observation data is a multi-faceted challenge. Linking Earth observation systems into an interoperable system of systems is an important first step, but not sufficient on its own to fulfill the ambitious GEOSS goal of improving decision making for disaster mitigation, public health, ecosystem and resource management, agriculture, and the other societal benefit areas. Significant attention needs to be given to interdisciplinary data integration, especially with regard to incorporating data and information on human activities and welfare into monitoring, modeling, and prediction activities. For example, the ability to assess, monitor, and predict the risks posed by different natural hazards is predicated on an understanding of the underlying exposure and vulnerability of different human populations and their economic assets to past, present, and future hazardous events. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) has pioneered the integration of socioeconomic data with remote sensing data within the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and has contributed actively to both phase 1 and 2 of the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot. We present here several use cases for socioeconomic data integration in GEOSS and recent experience in developing an interoperable Web Processing Service (WPS) for estimating population exposure as part of the GEOSS initial operating capability. We also discuss key scientific, technical, and policy challenges to developing GEOSS products and services that will be able to meet the needs of both interdisciplinary and applied users and in so doing help achieve the GEOSS goal of generating significant societal benefits.

Chen, R. S.; Yetman, G.



Societal Statistics by virtue of the Statistical Drake Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drake equation, first proposed by Frank D. Drake in 1961, is the foundational equation of SETI. It yields an estimate of the number N of extraterrestrial communicating civilizations in the Galaxy given by the product N=Ns×fp×ne×fl×fi×fc×fL, where: Ns is the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; fp is the fraction of stars that have planetary systems; ne is the number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life; fl is the fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises; fi is the fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves; fc is the fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops; and fL is the fraction of planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization. The first three terms may be called "the astrophysical terms" in the Drake equation since their numerical value is provided by astrophysical considerations. The fourth term, fl, may be called "the origin-of-life term" and entails biology. The last three terms may be called "the societal terms" inasmuch as their respective numerical values are provided by anthropology, telecommunication science and "futuristic science", respectively. In this paper, we seek to provide a statistical estimate of the three societal terms in the Drake equation basing our calculations on the Statistical Drake Equation first proposed by this author at the 2008 IAC. In that paper the author extended the simple 7-factor product so as to embody Statistics. He proved that, no matter which probability distribution may be assigned to each factor, if the number of factors tends to infinity, then the random variable N follows the lognormal distribution (central limit theorem of Statistics). This author also proved at the 2009 IAC that the Dole (1964) [7] equation, yielding the number of Habitable Planets for Man in the Galaxy, has the same mathematical structure as the Drake equation. So the number of Habitable Planets follows the lognormal distribution as well. But the Dole equation is described by the first FOUR factors of the Drake equation. Thus, we may "divide" the 7-factor Drake equation by the 4-factor Dole equation getting the probability distribution of the last-3-factor Drake equation, i.e. the probability distribution of the SOCIETAL TERMS ONLY. These we study in detail in this paper, achieving new statistical results about the SOCIETAL ASPECTS OF SETI.

Maccone, Claudio



Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008), which was prepared by the Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events: A Workshop. The present document is an expanded summary of that report.



Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.



Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals’ clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured. PMID:23633422

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quénec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michaël; Lacasse, Francis



Physician alignment strategies and real estate.  


When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image. PMID:22734329

Czerniak, Thomas A



Aligning parallel arrays to reduce communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axis and stride alignment is an important optimization in compiling data-parallel programs for distributed-memory machines. We previously developed an optimal algorithm for aligning array expressions. Here, we examine alignment for more general program graphs. We show that optimal alignment is NP-complete in this setting, so we study heuristic methods. This paper makes two contributions. First, we show how local graph transformations can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. Second, we give a heuristic that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. Our algorithms have been implemented; we present experimental results showing their effect on the performance of some example programs running on the CM-5.

Sheffler, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Robert; Gilbert, John R.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha



Validating strategic alignment of organizational IT requirements using goal modeling and problem diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that organizational IT is in alignment with and provides support for an organizations business strategy is critical to business success. We present an integrated approach to requirements engineering for organizational IT. To help validate IT-business strategy alignment, we propose a single model according to Jacksons problem diagram framework to encompass both business strategy and system requirements. We use an

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June M. Verner



Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu



GER 301 (Reading) Course Outcomes and Programmatic Alignment  

E-print Network

GER 301 (Reading) Course Outcomes and Programmatic Alignment Students will be able to Outcomes Assessments Programmatic Alignment Develop numerous reading strategies to enhance comprehension skills; e.g., passive vocabulary, information scanning techniques written quizzes reading portfolio short essays exams 1

Mayfield, John


Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.



Impulsive longitudinal molecular alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on measurements of a rotational wavepacket in diatomic nitrogen created impulsively with a circularly polarized 800 nm ultrfast pulse. This wavepacket differs from those typically produced in impulsive alignment experiments with linearly polarized light in that it exhibits transient alignment along the direction of laser propagation. In this experiment, The initial anisotropy in the angular distribution is torroidal

Douglas Broege; Philip Bucksbaum



Alignment at the ESRF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESRF Survey and Alignment group is responsible for the installation, control and periodic realignment of the accelerators and experiments which produce high quality x-rays used by scientists from Europe and around the world. Alignment tolerances are typically less than one millimetre and often in the order of several micrometers. The group is composed of one engineer, five highly trained

David Martin; N. Levet; G. Gatta; Grenoble France


Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen



Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of national…

Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka



Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

Yin, Hong-biao



Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications  

E-print Network

Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications for Europe that the United States has the greatest number of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes of any nation worldwide natural hazards (not limited to severe thunderstorms and tornadoes) in an effort to reduce the societal

Doswell III, Charles A.


Implementation of computer-based patient records in primary care: the societal health economic effects.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the societal health economic effects occurring during the first year after implementation of Computerised Patient Records (CPRs) at Primary Health Care (PHC) centres. DESIGN: Comparative case studies of practice processes and their consequences one year after CPR implementation, using the constant comparison method. Application of transaction-cost analyses at a societal level on the results. SETTING: Two urban PHC centres under a managed care contract in Ostergötland county, Sweden. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Central implementation issues. First-year societal direct normal costs, direct unexpected costs, and indirect costs. Societal benefits. RESULTS: The total societal effect of the CPR implementation was a cost of nearly 250,000 SEK (USD 37,000) per GP team. About 20% of the effect consisted of direct unexpected costs, accured from the reduction of practitioners' leisure time. The main issues in the implementation process were medical informatics knowledge and computer skills, adaptation of the human-computer interaction design to practice routines, and information access through the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: The societal costs exceed the benefits during the first year after CPR implementation at the observed PHC centres. Early investments in requirements engineering and staff training may increase the efficiency. Exploitation of the CPR for disease prevention and clinical quality improvement is necessary to defend the investment in societal terms. The exact calculation of societal costs requires further analysis of the affected groups' willingness to pay. PMID:8947717

Arias-Vimárlund, V.; Ljunggren, M.; Timpka, T.



Societal Discounting of Health Effects in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses: The Influence of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing marginal valuation of additional QALYs over time may serve as a basis for discounting future health effects from a societal perspective. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that societal time preference for health is related to perceived future life expectancy. Methods: A sample of 223 people from the general population prioritised healthcare programmes with differential

Suzanne Polinder; Willem Jan Meerding; Job van Exel; Werner Brouwer



Novel hybrid genetic algorithm for progressive multiple sequence alignment.  


The family of evolutionary or genetic algorithms is used in various fields of bioinformatics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used for simultaneous comparison of a large pool of DNA or protein sequences. This article explains how the GA is used in combination with other methods like the progressive multiple sequence alignment strategy to get an optimal multiple sequence alignment (MSA). Optimal MSA get much importance in the field of bioinformatics and some other related disciplines. Evolutionary algorithms evolve and improve their performance. In this optimisation, the initial pair-wise alignment is achieved through a progressive method and then a good objective function is used to select and align more alignments and profiles. Child and subpopulation initialisation is based upon changes in the probability of similarity or the distance matrix of the alignment population. In this genetic algorithm, optimisation of mutation, crossover and migration in the population of candidate solution reflect events of natural organic evolution. PMID:24084242

Afridi, Muhammad Ishaq



Precision alignment device  


Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

Jones, N.E.



Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  


A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)



Perception of Societal Stigma and Discrimination Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos, Nigeria: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The perception of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) on how the public feels about them could influence their willingness to seek medical care, interaction with the society and their coping strategies. Material and methods: This study assessed the perception and behavior of PLWHAs towards societal stigma and discrimination in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a qualitative, descriptive cross sectional study among PLWHAs from three of the three senatorial districts in Lagos State selected using simple random sampling. Six focus group discussions (FGDs), consisting of eight eligible respondents each were held using structured FGD guide. Results: Collected data were analyzed using simple content analysis. About three quarter of all the discussants said life had become miserable following episodes of stigma and discrimination against their personality in public, family, health care settings and the work-place. Some had feelings of guilt and depression towards these actions. About three quarter had coped with the situation by living a low-keyed lifestyle, dissociating themselves from the public and avoiding seeking care in HIV care centers. Majority of respondents were not willing to come out to publicly discuss their positive HIV status for fear of discrimination. Conclusion: Discussants recommended continuous awareness campaigns about HIV to further educate the general public towards reduction of societal stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs. PMID:25126015

Olalekan, Adebimpe Wasiu; Akintunde, Akindele Rasaq; Olatunji, Mabayoje Victor



Interference Alignment and Cancellation  

E-print Network

The throughput of existing MIMO LANs is limited by the number of antennas on the AP. This paper shows how to overcome this limit. It presents interference alignment and cancellation (IAC), a new approach for decoding ...

Gollakota, Shyamnath


Alignment of rotational prisms.  


An analytical expression is derived for the alignment of optical elements, such as the Dove or Pechan prism, that are used to rotate optical images. Improper alignment is characterized by a nutation of the system boresight as the prism is rotated. An analytical description is developed for this nutational boresight error in terms of specific misalignments between the prism, mechanical, and optical axes. This error is shown to be similar in form to that given by a mathematical expression commonly known as thelimacon of Pascal. Unique nutation patterns are noted by which one can distinguish and measure specific misalignments. Proper alignment is seen to involve both lateral and angular adjustments. Appropriate adjustment axes are chosen, and suitable alignment procedures are developed. PMID:20119276

Sullivan, D L



Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.



Globalization of water, water solidarity, and societal resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semiarid regions the availability of freshwater resources has historically limited food production and population growth. Although international trade developed early in the history of civilization, until recently the growth of human populations has been constrained for most part by the availability of local resources as well as by other cultural and health-related factors. More recently, the global trade of massive amounts of food has allowed population growth to exceed in some dryland regions the limits posed by the local water budget. Here we show how the uncontrolled trade of food products and of water virtually embedded in these commodities reduces the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Globalization of virtual water may prevent in the short term malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, but in the long run leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failures. We propose a system of water solidarity as an alternative model of global allocation and redistribution of water resources, which limits the effects of drought-induced famine while maintaining societal resilience.

D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.



Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most food production depends, directly or indirectly, on freshwater resources. In the absence of importation of food commodities, population growth is constrained by the availability of local resources—including water—as well as by cultural and health-related factors. The global trade of massive amounts of food makes societies less reliant on locally available water resources, thereby allowing some populations to exceed the limits posed by their local water budget. Thus, international trade implies a virtual transfer of water resources from areas of food production to importing regions. While it is recognized that in the short term this globalization of (virtual) water resources may prevent malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, its long-term effects on the coupled human-natural system remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a minimalist modeling framework to investigate the effect of the uncontrolled trade of food products on the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Our results suggest that in the long run the globalization of water resources reduces the societal resilience with respect to water limitations in that it leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failure.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca



Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.



Societal Adaptation to Decadal Climate Variability in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRCES Workshop on Societal Impacts of Decadal Climate Variability in the United States, 26-28 April 2007, Waikoloa, Hawaii The search for evidence of decadal climatic variability (DCV) has a very long history. In the past decade, a research community has coalesced around a series of roughly biennial workshops that have emphasized description of past DCV events; their causes and their ``teleconnections'' responsible for droughts, floods, and warm and cold spells around the world; and recently, the predictability of DCV events. Researchers studying climate change put great emphasis on prospective impacts, but the DCV community has yet to do so. To begin rectifying this deficiency, a short but ambitious workshop was convened in Waikoloa, near Kona, Hawaii, from 26-28 April 2007. This workshop, sponsored by the Center for Research on the Changing Earth System (CRCES), NOAA, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, brought together climatologists and sectoral specialists representing agriculture, water resources, economics, the insurance industry, and developing country interests.

Rosenberg, Norman J.; Mehta, Vikram M.; Olsen, J. Rolf; von Storch, Hans; Varady, Robert G.; Hayes, Michael J.; Wilhite, Donald



The Jalview Java alignment editor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Multiple sequence alignment remains a crucial method for understanding the function of groups of related nucleic acid and protein sequences. However, it is known that automatic multiple sequence alignments can often be improved by manual editing. Therefore, tools are needed to view and edit multiple sequence alignments. Due to growth in the sequence databases, multiple sequence alignments can often

Michele E. Clamp; James A. Cuff; Stephen M. J. Searle; Geoffrey J. Barton



Near-Optimal Block Alignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal alignment of two given biosequences is mathematically optimal, but it may not be a biologically optimal one. To investigate more possible alignments with biological meaning, one can relax the scoring functions to get near-optimal alignments. Though the near optimal alignments increase the possibility of finding the correct alignment, they may confuse the biologists because the size of candidates is large. In this paper, we present the filter scheme for the near-optimal alignments. An easy method for tracing the near-optimal alignments and an algorithm for filtering those alignments are proposed. The time complexity of our algorithm is O(dmn) in the worst case, where d is the maximum distance between the near-optimal alignments and the optimal alignment, and m and n are the lengths of the input sequences, respectively.

Tseng, Kuo-Tsung; Yang, Chang-Biau; Huang, Kuo-Si; Peng, Yung-Hsing


Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel moisture content, burn scars, and meteorological parameters. Impacts to public health and livelihoods due to food insecurity, algal blooms, and air pollution can be addressed through NRT monitoring of specific events utilizing land cover, atmospheric composition, water quality, and meteorological observations. More broadly, the assessment of water availability for drinking and agriculture and the development of floods and storms rely on continuous feeds of NRT meteorological and atmospheric composition observations. Overall, this multi-disciplinary study of user needs for NRT data and products can inform the design and operation of NRT data systems. Follow-on work for this study will also be presented, focusing on the availability of current and future satellite measurements (including NRT) of the 30 most critical Earth observation priorities, as well as a detailed analysis of users' needs for precipitation data. The results of this study summarize the priorities for critical Earth observations utilized globally for societal benefit.

Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.




E-print Network

may have been propelled through the stages of a natural history. The author concludes that continued research on societal reactions to juvenile delinquents will enable construction of a natural history for those reactions....

Reichel, Philip L.



Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education  

E-print Network

societal systems that impact medicine and medical education include economics, generations, and technology. Change occurs periodically within these systems, producing cyclical or pulsatile patterns of behavior. Numerous studies have analyzed generational...

Kinra, Reva Elaine



Societal impacts of regenerative medicine: reflections on the views of orthopedic professionals.  


As the amount of clinical studies in orthopedic regenerative medicine (RM) is increasing, it is time to take into account its impact on society. A total of 36 biomedical professionals working at the front row of orthopedic RM were interviewed to explore their attitudes, opinions and expectations regarding the societal impacts of RM. Professionals mainly recognized the societal impacts of counteraction of aging, prevention of disease and social justice. The 'soft' sides of these impacts were hardly mentioned. Whereas they did not perceive themselves in the position to mitigate these impacts, professionals should take up their role as actor and become involved in the societal debate. This is important as they can co-shape the societal impacts during the developmental process of technologies and thereby stimulate responsible innovation. PMID:25562349

Niemansburg, Sophie L; Tempels, Tjidde H; Dhert, Wouter Ja; van Delden, Johannes Jm; Bredenoord, Annelien L



On Self-Regulated Swarms, Societal Memory, Speed and Dynamics  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2005 ... ... vital tasks such as foraging or defense without any central decision-making ability. ... In order to test his adaptive response and robustness, we have ... Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Bacterial Foraging strategies (BFOA), as well ...

Vitorino Ramos



Optics Alignment Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

Schroeder, Daniel J.



Void-Supercluster Alignments  

E-print Network

We investigate alignments between the spin axes of cosmic voids and the principal axes of nearby superclusters using the Millennium Run simulation of a LCDM cosmology. The concept of void spin was first introduced by Lee and Park in 2006 to quantify the tidal effect on voids from the surrounding matter distribution. Our numerical analysis reveals that the void spin axes are strongly aligned with the supercluster minor axes, but anti-aligned with the major axes, and have no correlations with the intermediate axes. We provide physical explanations to this numerical results on the basis of tidally induced correlations. It is expected that our work will provide a new insight into the characterization of the cosmic web on the largest scale.

Daeseong Park; Jounghun Lee



Segment alignment control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.



RHIC survey and alignment  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider consists of two interlaced plane rings, a pair of mirror-symmetric beam injection arcs, a spatially curved beam transfer line from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and a collection of precisely positioned and aligned magnets, on appropriately positioned support stands, threaded on those arcs. RHIC geometry is defined by six beam crossing points exactly in a plane, lying precising at the vertices of a regular hexagon of specified size position and orientation of this hexagon are defined geodetically. Survey control and alignment procedures, currently in use to construct RHIC, are described.

Karl, F.X.; Anderson, R.R.; Goldman, M.A.; Hemmer, F.M.; Kazmark, D. Jr.; Mroczkowski, T.T.; Roecklien, J.C.



Feedback algorithm and web-server for protein structure alignment.  


We have developed a feedback algorithm for protein structure alignment that uses a series of phases to improve the global alignment between two protein backbones. The method implements a self-improving learning strategy by sending the output of one phase, the global alignment, to the next phase as an input. A web portal implementing this method has been constructed and is freely available for use at Based on hundreds of test cases, we compare our algorithm with three other, commonly used methods: CE, Dali, and SSM. Our results show that, in most cases, our algorithm outputs a larger number of aligned positions when the (C(alpha)) RMSD is comparable. Also, in many cases where the number of aligned positions is larger or comparable to the other methods, our learning method is able to achieve a smaller (C(alpha)) RMSD than the other methods tested. PMID:18549304

Zhao, Zhiyu; Fu, Bin; Alanis, Francisco J; Summa, Christopher M



Alignment methods for the OPERA drift tube detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the OPERA experiment is to give the first direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel ?????. The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in the originally pure muon neutrino CNGS beam. An important part of the magnetic spectrometer is the Precision Tracker (PT), a drift tube detector consisting of 9504 drift tubes. Its main task is the determination of the muon charge and momentum. The alignment strategy for the PT consists of two parts: the hardware measurement by theodolite and the software alignment using long muon tracks. In this paper, the hardware and the software alignment are described, and the track-based alignment methods are explained in detail. Results of the software alignment are presented with a focus on the analysis of cosmic particles.

Büttner, B.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Göllnitz, C.; Goloubkov, D.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Rostovtseva, I.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zaitsev, Y.



AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server  

PubMed Central

We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at PMID:24753425

Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.



Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of each potential infrastructure investment using these criteria would allow funding of investments that produce the largest expected net benefit over time.

Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure StrategyU. S. Ocean Research in 2030



Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.  


Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and development, and highlights the salience of good communication. The Working Group suggests establishing an advisory board to the dean and school, including lay persons and other external stakeholders, as one way of separating governance and management to some extent and providing some checks and balances within a dental school. Several other suggestions and recommendations are made about governance, management and leadership issues, including the need for schools to promote an awareness of their roles by good communication and thereby influence perceptions of others about their roles and values. PMID:18289276

Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M



4. The transectional structure of society: the basic societal functions.  


For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a society is organised into 13 basic societal functions (BSFs) within an overall Coordination and Control system. This organisation facilitates transectional descriptions of society or a component of a society for assessment at any given time across the longitudinal phases of a disaster. An assessment results in a picture or description of function(s) limited to the point in time of the assessment. Together with simultaneous assessments of the functional status of all, some, or one of the other BSFs, such assessments deliver a transectional picture of the situation of a society. Since no function operates in isolation from the other functions, information of the concomitant status of several BSFs is crucial to gain a better understanding of functional losses and of the effects and side effects of an intervention. The 13 BSFs include: (1) Public Health (dominantly preventive); (2) Medical Care (dominantly curative); (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supplies; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structure; (9) Logistics And Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12); Economy; and (13) Education. These BSFs relate with each other through the Coordination and Control function. Many functions of the BSFs and their respective subfunctions and elements overlap (they share some common subfunctions and elements). However, for the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign subfunctions and elements to only one of the BSFs. Just as in the practice of clinical medicine, the sum of assessments provides the transectional description of the status of each of these BSFs at a given time. From this information, compared to the pre-event description of the society, interventions are selected that are likely to meet the defined objectives and their overarching goal(s), and respective plans are developed and implemented. The effects of each intervention are evaluated in reference to these goals and objectives and to their eventual effects on other BSFs or subfunctions of a BSF. PMID:24785801



Evolutionary Explanations for Societal Differences in Single Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new research strategy presented in this paper, Evolutionary Social Science, is designed to bridge the gap between evolutionary psychology that operates from the evolutionary past and social science that is bounded by recent history. Its core assumptions are (1) that modern societies owe their character to an interaction of hunter-gatherer adaptations with the modern environment; (2) that changes in

Nigel Barber


GASOLINE: a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignment of PPI networks  

PubMed Central

Comparing protein interaction networks can reveal interesting patterns of interactions for a specific function or process in distantly related species. In this paper we present GASOLINE, a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignments of PPI (protein-protein interaction) networks. The app is based on the homonymous greedy and stochastic algorithm. GASOLINE starts with the identification of sets of similar nodes, called seeds of the alignment. Alignments are then extended in a greedy manner and finally refined. Both the identification of seeds and the extension of alignments are performed through an iterative Gibbs sampling strategy. GASOLINE is a Cytoscape app for computing and visualizing local alignments, without requiring any post-processing operations. GO terms can be easily attached to the aligned proteins for further functional analysis of alignments. GASOLINE can perform the alignment task in few minutes, even for a large number of input networks. PMID:25324964

Micale, Giovanni; Continella, Andrea; Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo



Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration  


An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R



MUSE alignment onto VLT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 ?m). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success of the MUSE alignment is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE image quality and throughput directly onto the sky.

Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure



Polymeric templating and alignment of fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fullerene research has advanced to elevated levels in a short period of time due to the unique chemical and physical properties of the caged molecule that have been utilized in numerous applications. Due to the spherical shape of the fullerene molecule which allows for a hollow cavity, encapsulation of atoms or small molecules can occur within the ball structure. This encapsulation creates an endohedral component that is limited from interacting with other molecules which creates potential of control over electronic information of the isolated molecule. Endohedral fullerenes have the potential as serving as the base unit in a quantum computer if control over global alignment is attained. Thus, by using the inherent self-assembling capabilities of some organic materials, ordered endohedral fullerenes can be achieved. This dissertation investigates the ability to use self-assembling strategies to obtain alignment which include ordering within a morphologically controlled copolymer matrix, forming a supramolecular polymer complex with cyclodextrin, and encapsulation within the helical wrap of polymer chains. The ultimate goal is to understand the dynamics that control association and orientation of varying fullerene-based molecules in each strategy in order to maximize control over the final alignment of endohedral elements.

Kincer, Matthew Ryan


Alignment Uncertainty and Genomic Analysis  

E-print Network

in the evolutionary biology literature, to perform phylogeny estimation or to identify individual amino acid residues different alignment programs--Clustal W, Muscle, T-Coffee, Dialign 2, Mafft, Dca, and ProbCons (5­11)--aligning data by amino acid sequence under default program settings and using the aligned amino acid

Suchard, Marc A.


Basic local alignment search tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST),directly approsimates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (3ISP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an anallrsis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm

Stephen F. Altschul; Warren Gish; Webb C. Miller; Eugene W. Myers; David J. Lipman



The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara



On the alignment space.  


Sequences with generalized errors which are called mutations in bioinformatics and generalized error-correcting codes are studied in this paper. In the areas of bioinformatics, computer science and information theory, sequences with generalized errors are discussed respectively for different aims. Firstly, we give the definitions of alignment distance and Levenshtein distance by expansion sequences and discuss their properties and relations. Then the modular structure theory is introduced for strictly describe the expansion sequences. We show that the expansion modular structures of sequences form a Boolean algebra. As applications of the modular structure theory, we give a new and more strict proof of triangle inequality for alignment distance. At last, the definition and construction of generalized error-correcting codes are studied, and some optimal codes with small length are listed. PMID:17282158

Shen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Kui; Hu, Gang; Chen, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Shu-Tao



Alignment reference device  


An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)



MROI's Automated Alignment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) will be a reconfigurable (7.5-345 meter baselines) 10 element optical/near-infrared imaging interferometer atop Magdalena Ridge, 30 miles west of Socorro, NM. Depending on the location of each unit telescope, light can travel distances ranging from 460 to 660 meters via several reflections that redirect the beam's path through the beam relay trains, delay lines, beam reducing telescope, switchyards and finally to the beam combiners. All of these sub-systems comprise the three major optical axes of the MROI defined by the unit telescope (UT), the delay lines and the beam reducer (DL/BR), and the beam combiners (BC). The purpose of the alignment system is to provide a method of coaligning these three axes. One major obstacle in designing the automated alignment system (AAS) is the required simultaneous measurements from the visible through near-IR wavelengths. Another difficulty is making it fully automated, which has not been accomplished at other optical/near-IR interferometers. The conceptual design of the AAS has been completed and is currently in its preliminary design phase with some prototyping already commenced. Here is presented the current outline and progress of MROI's automated alignment system design and some results of the prototyping.

Shtromberg, Alisa V.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Paz, M. T.; Steenson, J. M.; Berger, L.



Reconciling societal and scientific definitions for the monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science defines the monsoon in numerous ways. We can apply these definitions to forecast data, reanalysis data, observations, GCMs and more. In a basic research setting, we hope that this work will advance science and our understanding of the monsoon system. In an applied research setting, we often hope that this work will benefit a specific stakeholder or community. We may want to inform a stakeholder when the monsoon starts, now and in the future. However, what happens if the stakeholders cannot relate to the information because their perceptions do not align with the monsoon definition we use in our analysis? We can resolve this either by teaching the stakeholders or learning from them about how they define the monsoon and when they perceive it to begin. In this work we reconcile different scientific monsoon definitions with the perceptions of agricultural communities in Bangladesh. We have developed a statistical technique that rates different scientific definitions against the people's perceptions of when the monsoon starts and ends. We construct a probability mass function (pmf) around each of the respondent's answers in a questionnaire survey. We can use this pmf to analyze the time series of monsoon onsets and withdrawals from the different scientific definitions. We can thereby quantitatively judge which definition may be most appropriate for a specific applied research setting.

Reeve, Mathew; Stephenson, David



Societal influences on body image dissatisfaction in younger and older women.  


Few studies have examined older women's body image. This study compared body image dissatisfaction (BID) and weight control practices; evaluated associations among BID, societal influences and concern for appropriateness (CFA); and identified the most important correlate of BID among younger (19-23) and older women (65-74). Questionnaires obtained information on demographics, weight control practices, societal influences (SATAQ-3), CFA and BID using the Figure Rating Scale. Findings revealed no difference in the prevalence of BID. The number of weight control practices and SATAQ-3 and CFA scores were correlated to BID. Pressure from the media was the most significant correlate of BID. PMID:16635949

Bedford, Jennifer L; Johnson, C Shanthi



Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.


Alignement de squences biologiques  

E-print Network

: · La distance d'édition ou de Levenshtein (1966) D(v, w) = 2. · D(v, w) = MIN d'opération élémentaires que A[1,j]=A[2,j]="-". AT CT GATG T GCAT A C v : w : m = 8 n = 7 #12;Alignement sans indels- Distance de Hamming Deux séquences d' ADN v et w : v : · Distance de Hamming : dH(v, w) = 8 C'est beaucoup

El-Mabrouk, Nadia


TSGC and JSC Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

Sanchez, Humberto



A Vision for E-Government Enabling Societal Networking Transforming Government Services How Governments Can Act In recent years, we have seen the beginnings of a societal shift brought about by information  

E-print Network

A Vision for E-Government Enabling Societal Networking Transforming Government Services How Governments Can Act In recent years, we have seen the beginnings of a societal shift brought about of government, as the central role of social media in the 2008 United States presidential election and other

Narasayya, Vivek


Alignment of the SPHERE-ZIMPOL imaging polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZIMPOL is the high contrast imaging polarimeter subsystem of the ESO SPHERE instrument. ZIMPOL is dedicated to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extrasolar planets. ZIMPOL is located behind an extreme AO system (SAXO) and a stellar coronagraph. SPHERE is foreseen to have first light at the VLT early 2013. ZIMPOL is currently integrated in the SPHERE system and in testing phase. We describe the alignment strategy and the results of the ZIMPOL system and the related alignment of ZIMPOL into SPHERE by the aid of an alignment unit. The field selecting tip/tilt mirror alignment and it's requirement for perpendicularity to the two detectors is described. The test setup of the polarimetric components is described. SPHERE is an instrument designed and built by a consortium consisting of IPAG, MPIA, LAM, LESIA, Fizeau, INAF, Observatoire de Genève, ETH, NOVA, ONERA and ASTRON in collaboration with ESO.

Pragt, Johan; Roelfsema, Ronald; Gisler, Daniel; Wildi, Francois; Schmid, Hans M.; Rigal, Florence; Elswijk, Eddy; de Haan, Menno; Bazzon, Andreas; Dohlen, Kjetil; Costille, A.; Dominik, Carsten



Alignment method of self-aligned double patterning process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double patterning technology (DPT) is the best alternative to achieve 3x NAND flash node by 193nm immersion lithography before entering EUV regime. Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) process is one of several DPT approaches, and most likely be introduced into NAND flash manufacture. The typical single exposure process in 40nm node flash will become into multiple exposure job in 32nm node by DPT or SADP, and the overlay control among these multiple exposure will be highly restricted than single exposure process. To reach tight overlay spec. mainly relies on the contribution of alignment system of scanner, but the well alignment mark design with high contrast signal and outstanding sustainability are essential factor as well. Typically, the feature size patterned in SADP around 3x nm that is too narrow to form essential signals that is qualified to be the alignment mark and the overlay mark either. This paper, we will discuss 1. the performance of alignment algorithm on direct alignment and indirect alignment 2. different alignment mark design and 3. film scheme dependence (layer dependence). And experiment result show the new mark design performs sufficient contrast and signal for subsequent layer aligning process.

Tsai, Meng-Feng; Lai, Jun-Cheng; Chang, Yi-Shiang; Lin, Chia-Chi



Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.



A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon



Alignment to visual speech information.  


Speech alignment is the tendency for interlocutors to unconsciously imitate one another's speaking style. Alignment also occurs when a talker is asked to shadow recorded words (e.g., Shockley, Sabadini, & Fowler, 2004). In two experiments, we examined whether alignment could be induced with visual (lipread) speech and with auditory speech. In Experiment 1, we asked subjects to lipread and shadow out loud a model silently uttering words. The results indicate that shadowed utterances sounded more similar to the model's utterances than did subjects' nonshadowed read utterances. This suggests that speech alignment can be based on visual speech. In Experiment 2, we tested whether raters could perceive alignment across modalities. Raters were asked to judge the relative similarity between a model's visual (silent video) utterance and subjects' audio utterances. The subjects' shadowed utterances were again judged as more similar to the model's than were read utterances, suggesting that raters are sensitive to cross-modal similarity between aligned words. PMID:20675805

Miller, Rachel M; Sanchez, Kauyumari; Rosenblum, Lawrence D



Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration  

SciTech Connect

An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)



Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in small spacecraft and emerging information technologies, and how sensor web options may be realized and made affordable. Specialized detector subsystems and precision flying techniques may still require substantial innovation, development time and cost: we have presented the considerations for these issues. Finally, data and information gathering and compression techniques are also briefly described.

Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.



Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) layout decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double patterning lithography (DPL) is the most likely manufacturing process for sub-32nm technology nodes; however, there are several double patterning strategies each of which exhibits different layout decomposition challenges. Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) has attracted much interest due to its robustness against overlay errors, but SADP compliance depends strongly on the characteristics of the individual masks generated during the layout

Minoo Mirsaeedi; J. Andres Torres; Mohab Anis



An Alignment-Free Approach for Eukaryotic ITS2 Annotation and Phylogenetic Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ITS2 gene class shows a high sequence divergence among its members that have complicated its annotation and its use for reconstructing phylogenies at a higher taxonomical level (beyond species and genus). Several alignment strategies have been implemented to improve the ITS2 annotation quality and its use for phylogenetic inferences. Although, alignment based methods have been exploited to the top

Guillermin Agüero-Chapin; Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez; Pedro I. Hidalgo-Yanes; Yunierkis Pérez-Castillo; Reinaldo Molina-Ruiz; Kathleen Marchal; Vítor Vasconcelos; Agostinho Antunes



A rank-based sequence aligner with applications in phylogenetic analysis.  


Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing [Formula: see text]-mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391

Dinu, Liviu P; Ionescu, Radu Tudor; Tomescu, Alexandru I



A Rank-Based Sequence Aligner with Applications in Phylogenetic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing -mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391



Title: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that  

E-print Network

Title: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social characteristics on brand equity. In this paper we draw on Keller's (2003) brand equity framework to derive communication supports brand equity building, which also depends on the perceived congruency between the firm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

UNIVERSITE PARIS 7 ­ DENIS DIDEROT U.F.R. DE GEOGRAPHIE, HISTOIRE, ET SCIENCES DE LA SOCIETE Thèse CADENE Professeur de Géographie, Paris VII Denis Diderot Pr Noëlle DEMYK Professeur de Géographie, Paris VII Denis Diderot Pr Micheline HOTYAT Directrice UFR de Géographie, Paris IV La Sorbonne Dr Christian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Toward Societal Scale Sensing using Mobile Phones Andrew T. Campbell and Tanzeem Choudhury Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Toward Societal Scale Sensing using Mobile Phones Andrew T. Campbell and Tanzeem Choudhury. His group developed a number of early sensing systems and applications for sensorenabled mobile phones trend of incorporating an increasing number of sensors into mobile phones opens up a new research

Campbell, Andrew T.


Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan



Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim



The environmental, economic and societal consequences of inadequate nitrogen pollution controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because adequate nutrient controls were not established in the USA and other countries when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economic and societal impacts. The root problem is that

C. W. Randall



Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.



Citizens of the Academic Community? A Societal Perspective on Leadership in UK Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a societal perspective on academic leadership by exploring the preoccupations of academics as citizens rather than as employees, managers or individuals. It uses a listening post methodology to ask "what is it like to be a citizen of an academic institution in contemporary Britain?" Three listening posts, comprising…

Bolden, Richard; Gosling, Jonathan; O'Brien, Anne



Structural Determinants of the Divorce Rate: A Cross-Societal Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a sample of 66 countries were analyzed to investigate 4 hypothesized societal-level correlates of the divorce rate: socioeconomic development, female labor participation, the sex ratio, and dominant religion. Regression analyses revealed that all factors except religion had a significant effect on the crude divorce rate. Theoretical…

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.



Societal Learning in Epidemics: Intervention Effectiveness during the 2003 SARS Outbreak in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Rapid response to outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases is impeded by uncertain diagnoses and delayed communication. Understanding the effect of inefficient response is a potentially important contribution of epidemic theory. To develop this understanding we studied societal learning during emerging outbreaks wherein patient removal accelerates as information is gathered and disseminated. Methods and Findings. We developed an extension of

M. Drake; Suok Kai Chew; Stefan Ma


Societal Effects and the Transfer of Business Practices to Britain and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to reconcile the notion of a 'societal effect' in business organisation with the considerable evidence that competitive pressures continuously lead national producers to emulate the business practices of other nations, which are perceived as providing a basis for superior economic performance. The paper identifies three sources of national specificity in the process of emulation giving rise to

Edward Lorenz



Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.



Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit



Legalization of Prostitution in Thailand: A Challenge to Feminism and Societal Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thai society and the feminist movement have been bombarded with the (ir)rationality of economic greed, social ignorance and a patriarchal frame of thinking on the legalization of prostitution. Feminist ideology and societal conscience are hence being tested all over again. The issue of prostitution has been reduced to an issue of taxation for state income generation. Basically, the issue of

Virada Somswasdi




SciTech Connect

This grant covered several areas of significant societal interest. It included an evaluation of the validity of scientific claims; developed an approach for stakeholder participation; and demonstrated the validity of the developed methods through the performance of a number of independent peer reviews.




Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students Through Science Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of technology assessment and even more difficult to consider it

Rosalyn W. Berne; Joachim Schummer



Information System for Societal Cost and Benefit Analysis of Vocational and Manpower Programs. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was directed toward developing a manual for establishing societal benefits and costs of vocational and manpower programs in Wisconsin. After first outlining the background of benefit-cost analysis, problems in establishing cost functions in education are presented along with some important cost concepts and uses of cost information in…

Arora, Mehar


Union of Science and Societal Objectives: Why Did CLARREO Resonate with NRC Decadal Survey Priorities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRC Decadal Survey prioritization process for the Earth sciences involved eight criteria: (1) Contribution to the most important scientific questions facing Earth sciences today (scientific merit, discovery, exploration). (2) Contribution to applications and policy making (societal benefits). (3) Contribution to long-term observational record of the Earth. (4) Ability to complement other observational systems, including national and international plans. (5)

J. G. Anderson; J. A. Dykema; J. Gero; S. S. Leroy; H. E. Revercomb; D. C. Tobin; F. A. Best



A low tension between individual and societal time aspects in health improved outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review intertemporal choices, involving decisions with a trade-off between something now and something later. These choices are common in health both at an individual and societal level. Methods: The present value of an outcome, for example, the amount of money or the health outcomes in various aspects, is equivalent to the value of a future outcome discounted with

Monica Ortendahl; James F. Fries


Predicted Fire Behavior and Societal Benefits in Three Eastern Sierra Nevada Vegetation Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential fire behavior and various societal benefits (air pollution remov - al, carbon sequestration, and carbon storage) provided by woodlands of pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus californica), shrublands of Great Basin sage- brush (Artemisia tridentata) and rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa), and recently burned annual grasslands near a wildland-urban interface (WUI) community in the high desert of the

Christopher A. Dicus; Kenneth Delfino; David R. Weise



Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

González-García, A. César


Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.



Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.



Alignment of Moleculs in Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various physical methods for achieving partial alignment of dissolved molecules have been briefly reviewed. They include the use of external magnetic or electric fields, electromagnetic or acoustic waves, flow, pressure, electric current, stretching or straining of microporous matrices, various liquid crystalline phases, and solutions of anisotropic disc- or rod-like particles. SR sources can be used in all stages of this research; for the study of partially aligning medium itself, the study of structure and properties of aligned solute molecules, and finally, SR radiation can be used as aligning agent.

Shahkhatuni, Aleksan


Alignment sensing and control in advanced LIGO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced LIGO detectors are currently in their final design stage, and the installation phase will start at the end of 2010: they will have about 10 times better sensitivity than initial LIGO, with a sensitive band ranging from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. As compared with previous LIGO detectors, there will be increased complexity in the optical configuration, improved seismic isolation system and significantly higher power circulating in the arm cavities. In the new detectors, the control of the angular orientation of the mirrors will be particularly challenging. The advanced LIGO (aLIGO) mirrors need to have a residual angular motion of the order of 1 nrad RMS in order to achieve high sensitivity. In the high power regime, the torque induced by radiation pressure effects will be comparable with the restoring torque of the mirror suspension, such that we must think of the opto-mechanical response, instead of just the mechanical response. These modifications have to be considered in order to design the control strategy for keeping the mirrors well aligned. Moreover, to meet the sensitivity target the alignment control noise coupled to the gravitational-wave channel must be well below 6\\times 10^{-18}\\; \\m/{\\\\sqrtHz} at 10 Hz. We developed a model of the alignment sensing and control scheme of aLIGO which takes into account radiation pressure effects and meets the noise target.

Barsotti, L.; Evans, M.; Fritschel, P.



Optimization of PSA Screening Policies: a Comparison of the Patient and Societal Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. Method A partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. We considered age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes. Our model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient’s probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient’s complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. Data Sources The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Perspective and Outcome Measures Patients’ perspective: maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies and treatment. Results From the patient perspective the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective, and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. Conclusions PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker. PMID:21933990

Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T.; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D.; Inman, Brant A.



Aligning Multiple Genomic Sequences With the Threaded Blockset Aligner  

PubMed Central

We define a “threaded blockset,” which is a novel generalization of the classic notion of a multiple alignment. A new computer program called TBA (for “threaded blockset aligner”) builds a threaded blockset under the assumption that all matching segments occur in the same order and orientation in the given sequences; inversions and duplications are not addressed. TBA is designed to be appropriate for aligning many, but by no means all, megabase-sized regions of multiple mammalian genomes. The output of TBA can be projected onto any genome chosen as a reference, thus guaranteeing that different projections present consistent predictions of which genomic positions are orthologous. This capability is illustrated using a new visualization tool to view TBA-generated alignments of vertebrate Hox clusters from both the mammalian and fish perspectives. Experimental evaluation of alignment quality, using a program that simulates evolutionary change in genomic sequences, indicates that TBA is more accurate than earlier programs. To perform the dynamic-programming alignment step, TBA runs a stand-alone program called MULTIZ, which can be used to align highly rearranged or incompletely sequenced genomes. We describe our use of MULTIZ to produce the whole-genome multiple alignments at the Santa Cruz Genome Browser. PMID:15060014

Blanchette, Mathieu; Kent, W. James; Riemer, Cathy; Elnitski, Laura; Smit, Arian F.A.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Baertsch, Robert; Rosenbloom, Kate; Clawson, Hiram; Green, Eric D.; Haussler, David; Miller, Webb



Aligned Defrosting Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.



Flake alignment in composite coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer coatings containing aligned mica flakes can reduce solute permeability by more than an order of magnitude. This permeability reduction can be used to inhibit corrosion of aluminum coupons coated with mica-filled epoxy. The extent of permeability reduction, which depends on the flakes’ volume fraction, shape, and alignment, varies with volume fraction squared, as predicted by some published theories. The

Chuanfang Yang; W. H. Smyrl; E. L. Cussler



Alignment Tolerances for ALMA Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tolerance analysis of the alignment of the ALMA FE optics is presented. The following performance criteria are taken into account: a) loss of on- axis efficiency from aperture plane misalignment; b) focal plane co- alignment of the two beams of each band; c) aberrations when off-axis mirrors operate between wavefronts not centered on the foci of the ellipsoid; d)

B. Lazareff


Well-pump alignment system  


An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)



Joint Bayesian Estimation of Alignment and Phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel model and algorithm for simultaneously estimating multiple molecular sequence alignments and the phylogenetic trees that relate the sequences. Unlike current techniques that base phylogeny estimates on a single estimate of the alignment, we take alignment uncertainty into account by considering all possible alignments. Furthermore, because the alignment and phylogeny are constructed simultaneously, a guide tree is




Interstellar Grain Alignment: Observational Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar polarization in the optical/infrared has long been known to be due to asymmetrical dust grains aligned with the magnetic field and can potentially provide a resource effective way to probe both the topology and strength of the magnetic-field. However, to do so with confidence, the physics and variability of the alignment mechanisms must be quantitatively understood. The last 15 years has seen major advancements in both the theoretical and observational understanding of this problem. I here review the current state of the observational constraints on the grain alignment physics. While none of the three classes of proposed grain alignment theories: mechanical, paramagnetic relaxation and radiative alignment torque, can be viewed as having been empirically confirmed, the first two have failed some critical observational tests, whereas the latter has recently been given specific observational support and must now be viewed as the leading candidate.

Andersson, B.-G.


Stellar Alignments - Identification and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fortuitous stellar alignments can be fitted to structural orientations with relative ease by the unwary. Nonetheless, cautious approaches taking into account a broader range of cultural evidence, as well as paying due attention to potential methodological pitfalls, have been successful in identifying credible stellar alignments—and constructing plausible assessments of their cultural significance—in a variety of circumstances. These range from single instances of alignments upon particular asterisms where the corroborating historical or ethnographic evidence is strong to repeated instances of oriented structures with only limited independent cultural information but where systematic, data-driven approaches can be productive. In the majority of cases, the identification and interpretation of putative stellar alignments relates to groups of similar monuments or complex single sites and involves a balance between systematic studies of the alignments themselves, backed up by statistical analysis where appropriate, and the consideration of a range of contextual evidence, either derived from the archaeological record alone or from other relevant sources.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.


Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments  

PubMed Central

Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. Availability: and PMID:24813445

Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas



Smolign: a spatial motifs-based protein multiple structural alignment method.  


Availability of an effective tool for protein multiple structural alignment (MSTA) is essential for discovery and analysis of biologically significant structural motifs that can help solve functional annotation and drug design problems. Existing MSTA methods collect residue correspondences mostly through pairwise comparison of consecutive fragments, which can lead to suboptimal alignments, especially when the similarity among the proteins is low. We introduce a novel strategy based on: building a contact-window based motif library from the protein structural data, discovery and extension of common alignment seeds from this library, and optimal superimposition of multiple structures according to these alignment seeds by an enhanced partial order curve comparison method. The ability of our strategy to detect multiple correspondences simultaneously, to catch alignments globally, and to support flexible alignments, endorse a sensitive and robust automated algorithm that can expose similarities among protein structures even under low similarity conditions. Our method yields better alignment results compared to other popular MSTA methods, on several protein structure data sets that span various structural folds and represent different protein similarity levels. A web-based alignment tool, a downloadable executable, and detailed alignment results for the data sets used here are available at http://sacan.biomed. and PMID:21464513

Sun, Hong; Sacan, Ahmet; Ferhatosmanoglu, Hakan; Wang, Yusu



Space Mirror Alignment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.



Alignment positioning mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

Fantasia, Peter M. (inventor)



Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.



Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

Roberge, Wayne G.



Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment  

PubMed Central

The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO2 nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO2 containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia



Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System  

PubMed Central

Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren



Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask aligners were the dominating lithography tool for the first 20 years of semiconductor industry. In the 1980s industry changed over to projection lithography. However, mask aligners were never sorted out and still today hundreds of new mask aligners are sold each year. This continuing success of mask aligner lithography is due to two basic trends in lithography: (a) Costs for leading-edge lithography tools double approximately every 4.4 years; and (b) the number of lithography steps per wafer was increasing from a few litho layers to more than 35 layers now. This explains why mask aligners, a very cost-effective solution for uncritical litho layers, are still widely used today. In over 50 years of semiconductor industry the mask aligner system has changed tremendously. However, only little effort was undertaken to improve the shadow printing process itself. We now present a new illumination system for mask aligners, the MO Exposure Optics (MOEO), which is based on two microlens-type Köhler integrators located in Fourier-conjugated planes. The optics stabilizes the illumination against misalignment of the lamp-to-ellipsoid position. It provides improved light uniformity, telecentric illumination and allows freely shaping the angular spectrum of the illumination light by spatial filtering. It significantly improves the CD uniformity, the yield in production and opens the door to a new era of Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH), where customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), Talbot-lithography, phase shift masks (AAPSM) and source mask optimization (SMO) are introduced to mask aligner lithography.

Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Weichelt, Tina; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Motzek, Kristian; Erdmann, Andreas; Hornung, Michael; Zoberbier, Ralph



Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  


An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)



Hostile and Favorable Societal Climates for Self-Change: Some Lessons for Policymakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When individuals vote, decide on what to wear or what to eat, they do not do so in a societal vacuum; rather, their actions\\u000a are influenced and affected by society’s values, trends, commercials, and campaigns. From our daily experience, it seems plausible\\u000a that social and cognitive processes are intertwined. However, in the area of natural recovery research, decisional processes\\u000a of

Harald Klingemann; Justyna Klingemann


SYNBIOSAFE e-conference: online community discussion on the societal aspects of synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the SYNBIOSAFE project, we carried out an open electronic conference (e-conference), with the aim to stimulate\\u000a an open debate on the societal issues of synthetic biology in a proactive way. The e-conference attracted 124 registered participants\\u000a from 23 different countries and different professional backgrounds, who wrote 182 contributions in six different categories:\\u000a (I) Ethics; (II) Safety; (III)

Markus Schmidt; Helge Torgersen; Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra; Alexander Kelle; Anna Deplazes; Nikola Biller-Andorno



Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

PubMed Central

Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways environment, health and disease are conceptualised; this may lead to an individualisation of responsibilities for health risks and preventive action. Attention to the conditions of scientific knowledge generation and to their broader societal context is critical in order to make HBM contribute to environmental justice. PMID:18541064

Bauer, Susanne



Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral,\\u000a ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution.\\u000a The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the\\u000a above-mentioned disciplines had been involved

Reuven Lazarowitz; Ilit Bloch



Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

Gianchandani, Yogesh B.



The societal integration of individuals with epilepsy: perspectives for the 21st century.  


Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder seen throughout the world. Advances in therapy have made it possible for persons with epilepsy (PWEs) to have improved seizure control and a better quality of life. However, it is not entirely clear whether this has resulted in their successful integration into society. This review examines the societal integration of PWEs, identifying both the progress made and the challenges that continue to hamper further advances. In general, PWEs are more integrated in western-oriented cultures. However, there continue to be ongoing difficulties due to poor education and intellectual functioning, poor social and family support, the undertreatment of coexisting psychiatric conditions, transportation and mobility limitations, and problems obtaining employment. This review also discusses the effects of low socioeconomic status on integration and the persisting prejudices that affect certain racial groups. Most importantly, this review underscores the fact that societal stigma towards PWEs is still very much alive. At the beginning of the 21st century, PWEs still encounter difficulties in their quest for full societal integration. Along with medical advances being made to improve seizure control, much still has to be done to bring about the reforms necessary to help PWEs live more meaningful and productive lives. PMID:24798409

Bautista, Ramon Edmundo D; Shapovalov, Denys; Saada, Fahed; Pizzi, Michael A



Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have recently stimulated significant research interest to achieve better material functionality or multifunctionalities. In VAN thin films, both phases grow epitaxially in parallel on given...

Bi, Zhenxing



Sequence Alignment Tools: One Parallel Pattern to Rule Them All?  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we advocate high-level programming methodology for next generation sequencers (NGS) alignment tools for both productivity and absolute performance. We analyse the problem of parallel alignment and review the parallelisation strategies of the most popular alignment tools, which can all be abstracted to a single parallel paradigm. We compare these tools to their porting onto the FastFlow pattern-based programming framework, which provides programmers with high-level parallel patterns. By using a high-level approach, programmers are liberated from all complex aspects of parallel programming, such as synchronisation protocols, and task scheduling, gaining more possibility for seamless performance tuning. In this work, we show some use cases in which, by using a high-level approach for parallelising NGS tools, it is possible to obtain comparable or even better absolute performance for all used datasets. PMID:25147803



Well-pump alignment system  


An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.



An API for Ontology Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontologies are seen as the solution to data heterogeneity on the web. However, the available ontologies are themselves source\\u000a of heterogeneity. This can be overcome by aligning ontologies, or finding the correspondence between their components. These\\u000a alignments deserve to be treated as objects: they can be referenced on the web as such, be completed by an algorithm that\\u000a improves a

Jérôme Euzenat; INRIA Rhone-Alpes



Development of a Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety  

SciTech Connect

The safety-goal policy of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has never included a true societal-risk goal. The NRC did acknowledge that the original goal for the risk of latent cancer facilities “was an individual risk goal not related to the number of people involved,” and stated that “a true societal risk goal would place a limit on the aggregate number of people affected.” However, this limitation was never satisfactorily addressed. Moreover, the safety goal has historically focused primarily on fatalities and latent health effects, while experience with actual nuclear accidents has shown that societal disruption can be significant even in accidents that yield only small to modest numbers of fatalities. Therefore, we have evaluated the social disruption effects from severe reactor accidents as a basis to develop a societal-risk goal for nuclear power plants, considering both health effects and non-health concerns such as property damage and land interdiction. Our initial analysis considered six different nuclear power plant sites in the U.S. for Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors. The accident sequences considered for these two reactor types were station blackout sequences (both short-term and long-term SBO) as well as an STSBO with RCIC failure for the BWR and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture for the PWR. The source term release was an input in a RASCAL calculation of the off-site consequences using actual site-based weather data for each of the six plant sites randomly selected over a two-year period. The source term release plumes were then compared to Geographical Information System data for each site to determine the population affected and that would need to be evacuated to meet current emergency preparedness regulations. Our results to date suggest that number of people evacuated to meet current protective action guidelines appears to be a good proxy for disruption -- and, unlike other measures of disruption, has the advantage of being relatively straightforward to calculate for a given accident scenario and a given geographical location and plant site. Revised safety goals taking into account the potential for societal disruption could in principle be applied to the current generation of nuclear plants, but could also be used in evaluating and siting new technologies, such as small modular light water reactors, advanced Gen-IV high-temperature reactors, as well as reactor designs with passive safety features such as filtered vented containments.

Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu



Projection-based volume alignment.  


When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael



BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks  

PubMed Central

The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and infection. PMID:24266981



From simulation to characterization - integrated approach for Self Aligned Double Patterning defectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SADP (Self Aligned Double Patterning) is one of the major options to be implemented to bridge the lithography resolution gaps for 40 nm half pitch nodes and below. A natural concern for IC manufacturers when developing and\\/or implementing this kind of module is defectivity control strategy to ensure all defect sources are understood and an appropriate inspection strategy can be

Amiad Conley; Doron Meshulach; Guy Gichon; Ido Dolev; Renana Perlovitch; Niv Landwer; Chris Ngai; Man-Ping Cai; Liyan Miao



Alignments anchored on genomic landmarks can aid in the identification of regulatory elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The transcription start site (TSS) has been located for an increasing number of genes across several organisms. Statistical tests have shown that some cis-acting regulatory elements have positional preferences with respect to the TSS, but few strategies have emerged for locating ele- ments by their positional preferences. This paper elaborates such a strategy. First, we align promoter regions without

Kannan Tharakaraman; Leonardo Mariño-ramírez; Sergey Sheetlin; David Landsman; John L. Spouge



Self-aligned double-patterning (SADP) friendly detailed routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst the possible double patterning strategies for sub 32nm processes, self-aligned double patterning (SADP) has moved from Flash-only processes to more general purpose devices. The reason is that while litho-etch- litho-etc (LELE) process was originally preferred due to its simplicity and relative low cost, its sensitivity to overlay error has prompted the search for other methods. Although the basic SADP

Minoo Mirsaeedi; J. Andres Torres; Mohab Anis



Encouraging Spontaneous Synchronisation with D-Jogger, an Adaptive Music Player That Aligns Movement and Music  

PubMed Central

In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance. PMID:25489742

Moens, Bart; Muller, Chris; van Noorden, Leon; Fran?k, Marek; Celie, Bert; Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan; Leman, Marc



Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

Uddin, Waheed



Grain Alignment in Starless Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to {{A}V}˜ 48. We find that {{P}K}/{{? }K} continues to decline with increasing AV with a power law slope of roughly -0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by {{A}V}? 20 the slope for P versus ? becomes ˜-1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than {{A}V}˜ 20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.



Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions  

PubMed Central

A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.



Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.  


Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues. PMID:23579470

Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia



Meeting the societal need for new antibiotics: the challenges for the pharmaceutical industry.  


The rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to clinicians being increasingly faced with clinical failure due to the lack of effective and safe treatment options. New antibiotics are needed now for current multi-drug resistant infections but also in preparation for emerging and anticipated threats. There are significant challenges for the pharmaceutical industry to discover and develop new antibiotics including a business model that balances reasonable reimbursement with appropriate use. This summary reviews the key challenges and collaborative interventions that may contribute to addressing a societal problem. PMID:25601037

O'Brien, Seamus




E-print Network

A VILLAGE IN INDIA: AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF INCREASING SCALE OF SOCIETAL ORGANIZATION D. Stanley Eitzen University of Kansas Introduction1 The problem. The discipline of sociology has been and is limited by the paucity of sociological theory..., it is the specific problem of this paper to explore the relevance of the theory of increasing scale of society to a particular village in India. Our question: Are the social changes observed in this village from Time I to Time II explained by the increasing scale...

Eitzen, D. Stanley



Measurements of magnetic field alignment  

SciTech Connect

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.



XUV ionization of aligned molecules  

SciTech Connect

New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)



DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li


Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. Design Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. Results More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. Conclusion More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways. PMID:19898651

Dodge, Kenneth A.



National Health Strategies to Reduce Sun Exposure in Australia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has developed a national health care policy that has made prevention of the occurrence of skin cancer a societal responsibility. Its strategies for skin cancer control have included careful documentation of the incidence of skin cancer over the last two decades. After realizing that the magnitude of sun exposure during childhood is a major risk factor in the development

Richard F. Edlich; Kathryne L. Winters; Mary Jude Cox; Daniel G. Becker; Jed H. Horowitz; Larry S. Nichter; L. D. Britt; Theodore J. Edlich III; William B. Long



Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

O'Neill, B. C.



Optimizing Societal Benefit using a Systems Engineering Approach for Implementation of the GEOSS Space Segment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim



Role of liability preferences in societal technology choices: results of a pilot study  

SciTech Connect

At the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Steve Rayner presented a paper that challenged the conventional wisdom of risk management research. In that paper, he argued that resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough.'' Adopting the fairness question as the concern of risk management would imply that the process of technology choice explicitly recognize the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. This paper discusses a recent empirical pilot study which explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of nuclear power. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted to examine whether or not preferred principles for liability distributions were consistent with those suggested by the cultural characteristics of the constituency. The results suggest that for this type of societal technology choice, violation of these preferred principles may be a major source of the conflict between different constituencies. Additionally, the study contributes towards the development of a new approach in risk management that combines the cultural model of risk perceptions with the decision-theoretic approaches found in economics and psychology.

Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.; Braid, B.



Addressing elder abuse: review of societal responses in India and selected Asian countries.  


In India, during the last two decades, significant developments in societal responses to address elder abuse have emerged. There is greater emphasis on recognizing that older people may be subjected to abuse and neglect by family members and the community as well. Although there is growing interest in the collection of valid statistics on the incidence and prevalence of elder abuse, there is still a need for bringing better clarity on the conceptual understanding and refining definitions of elder abuse. The government, academic community, and the civil society are working toward understanding the underlying causes of elder abuse and neglect and are focusing on appropriate interventions to address it. This paper notes the developments in recognizing elder abuse and reviews the responses in addressing the issue from a legal, social, and public health perspective in India compared with some of the Asian countries, namely China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. While the paper highlights the Indian experience, it is also put in an Asian context where emerging demographics are raising many concerns related to the aging of the population, and the new dynamics of relationships at the family, community, and societal levels demand fresh approaches and thoughts toward improving the quality of life of older people and reducing their vulnerability toward the risk of abuse and neglect. PMID:23731939

Shankardass, Mala Kapur



Alignment in Second Language Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella



Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe




PubMed Central

We develop a Bayesian model for the alignment of two point configurations under the full similarity transformations of rotation, translation and scaling. Other work in this area has concentrated on rigid body transformations, where scale information is preserved, motivated by problems involving molecular data; this is known as form analysis. We concentrate on a Bayesian formulation for statistical shape analysis. We generalize the model introduced by Green and Mardia for the pairwise alignment of two unlabeled configurations to full similarity transformations by introducing a scaling factor to the model. The generalization is not straight-forward, since the model needs to be reformulated to give good performance when scaling is included. We illustrate our method on the alignment of rat growth profiles and a novel application to the alignment of protein domains. Here, scaling is applied to secondary structure elements when comparing protein folds; additionally, we find that one global scaling factor is not in general sufficient to model these data and, hence, we develop a model in which multiple scale factors can be included to handle different scalings of shape components. PMID:24052809

Mardia, Kanti V.; Fallaize, Christopher J.; Barber, Stuart; Jackson, Richard M.; Theobald, Douglas L.



Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.

Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.



Organizational Structure and Strategy. Symposium 30. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains four papers on organizational structure and strategy from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Exploring Alignment: A Comparative Case Study of Alignment in Two Organizations" (Steven W. Semler), reports on a case study that compared the results of an alignment measurement instrument with an…



Building multiple sequence alignments with a flavor of HSSP alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Homology-derived secondary ,structure of proteins (HSSP) is a well-known ,database of multiple ,sequence ,alignments (MSAs) which merges information of protein sequences and their three- dimensional structures. It is available for all proteins whose structure is deposited in the PDB. It is also used by STING and,, - database of se- quences homologue,to the query [structure-having] sequence). Our main interest

Roberto Hiroshi Higa; Sergio Aparecido Braga da Cruz; Paula Regina Kuser; Michel Eduardo; Beleza Yamagishi; Ivan Mazoni; Edgard Henrique dos Santos; Adauto Luiz Mancini; Goran Neshich



Alignment method of self-aligned double patterning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double patterning technology (DPT) is the best alternative to achieve 3x NAND flash node by 193nm immersion lithography before entering EUV regime. Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) process is one of several DPT approaches, and most likely be introduced into NAND flash manufacture. The typical single exposure process in 40nm node flash will become into multiple exposure job in 32nm node

Meng-Feng Tsai; Jun-Cheng Lai; Yi-Shiang Chang; Chia-Chi Lin



Haploid to diploid alignment for variation calling assessment  

PubMed Central

Motivation Variation calling is the process of detecting differences between donor and consensus DNA via high-throughput sequencing read mapping. When evaluating the performance of different variation calling methods, a typical scenario is to simulate artificial (diploid) genomes and sample reads from those. After variation calling, one can then compute precision and recall statistics. This works reliably on SNPs but on larger indels there is the problem of invariance: a predicted deletion/insertion can differ slightly from the true one, yet both make the same change to the genome. Also exactly correct predictions are rare, especially on larger insertions, so one should consider some notion of approximate predictions for fair comparison. Results We propose a full genome alignment-based strategy that allows for fair comparison of variation calling predictions: First, we apply the predicted variations to the consensus genome to create as many haploid genomes as are necessary to explain the variations. Second, we align the haploid genomes to the (aligned) artificial diploid genomes allowing arbitrary recombinations. The resulting haploid to diploid alignments tells how much the predictions differ from the true ones, solving the invariance issues in direct variation comparison. In an effort to make the approach scalable to real genomes, we develop a simple variant of the classical edit distance dynamic programming algorithm and apply the diagonal doubling technique to optimise the computation. We experiment with the approach on simulated predictions and also on real prediction data from a variation calling challenge. PMID:24564537



MACSE: Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences Accounting for Frameshifts and Stop Codons  

PubMed Central

Until now the most efficient solution to align nucleotide sequences containing open reading frames was to use indirect procedures that align amino acid translation before reporting the inferred gap positions at the codon level. There are two important pitfalls with this approach. Firstly, any premature stop codon impedes using such a strategy. Secondly, each sequence is translated with the same reading frame from beginning to end, so that the presence of a single additional nucleotide leads to both aberrant translation and alignment. We present an algorithm that has the same space and time complexity as the classical Needleman-Wunsch algorithm while accommodating sequencing errors and other biological deviations from the coding frame. The resulting pairwise coding sequence alignment method was extended to a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithm implemented in a program called MACSE (Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences accounting for frameshifts and stop codons). MACSE is the first automatic solution to align protein-coding gene datasets containing non-functional sequences (pseudogenes) without disrupting the underlying codon structure. It has also proved useful in detecting undocumented frameshifts in public database sequences and in aligning next-generation sequencing reads/contigs against a reference coding sequence. MACSE is distributed as an open-source java file executable with freely available source code and can be used via a web interface at: PMID:21949676

Ranwez, Vincent; Harispe, Sébastien; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.



Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.  


Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic. PMID:22974260

Ben Othman, Mohamed Tahar; Abdel-Azim, Gamil



Active optical alignment of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a complex off-axis Gregorian design to be used for solar astronomy. In order the counteract the effects of mirror and telescope structure flexure, the ATST requires an active optics alignment strategy. This paper presents an active optics alignment strategy that uses three wavefront sensors distributed in the ATST field-of-view to form a least-squares alignment solution with respect to RMS wavefront error. The least squares solution is realized by means of a damped least squares linear reconstructor. The results of optical modelling simulations are presented for the ATST degrees-of-freedom subject to random perturbations. Typical results include residual RMS wavefront errors less than 20 nm. The results quoted include up to 25 nm RMS wavefront sensor signal noise, random figure errors on the mirrors up to 500 nm amplitude, random decenter range up to 500 ?m, and random tilts up to 10e - 03 degrees (36 arc-secs) range.

Upton, Robert; Rimmele, Thomas; Hubbard, Robert



Alignment mechanisms of paramagnetic grains revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking into account the tight coupling of grain axis with angular momentum due to effective dissipation of rotation energy, the alignment of spheroidal grains was investigated by paramagnetic relaxation. Alignment degree will be significantly improved in diffuse clouds. The inclusions of superparamagnetic (SPM) substances may play a key role in grain alignment in dark clouds as well as in diffuse clouds.

Seki, Munezo



Alignment vs N framework for active matter  

E-print Network

Alignment vs N framework for active matter and collective motion Commission for Atomic Energy of effective alignment constitute one of the simplest active matter. I will first argue that despite/Coffee at Seminar Hall, TCIS Colloquium Alignment vs Noise: Minimal but non-trivial framework for active matter

Shyamasundar, R.K.


Overlay Alignment Using Two Photonic Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we proposed a novel overlay alignment method using two sets of identical photonic crystals (PhCs). In this method the reflection or transmission spectrum of the two overlaid photonic crystals is measured to help wafer tilt, yaw rotation, and translation aligning. The initial testing results with two 1D photonic crystals and analysis of the alignment accuracy are presented.

Can Peng; Keith Morton; Zhaoning Yu; Stephen Y. Chou



An API for ontology alignment Jrme Euzenat  

E-print Network

1 An API for ontology alignment Jérôme Euzenat INRIA Rhône-Alpes, Montbonnot, France, Jerome an implementation of this format as an Alignment API, which can be seen as an extension of the OWL API and shares some design goals with it. We show how this API can be used for effectively aligning ontologies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Quick Check Of Butt-Weld Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed tool measures alignments of plates before butt-welded. Provides nearly instantaneous check on alignment, thereby facilitating repetitive measurements along length of weld joint. Reduces risk of contamination of weld from dirty measuring tools. Middle photodetector indicates acceptable alignment when position of transmitter fiber preciously matches that of center receiver fiber. If plates offset, other photodetectors signal misalignment.

Smith, Matthew A.



Multiposition alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that the stationary alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) can be improved by employing the multiposition\\/technique. Using an observability analysis, it is shown that an optimal two-position alignment not only satisfies complete observability conditions but also minimizes alignment errors. This is done by analytic rank testing of the stripped observability matrix and numerical calculation of the

J. G. Lee; C. G. Park; H. W. Park



Prism Window for Optical Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

Tang, Hong



A Critical Evaluation of Multiple Sequence Alignment Programs in Aligning Domains of the Bcl-2 Family  

E-print Network

. When only two proteins need to be aligned, it is possible to compare each amino acid of one sequence sequence alignment programs ­ ClustalW, MultAlin, T-Coffee, MAP, and ProAlign ­ to properly align the Bcl-2


Semantic alignment and number comparison.  


Are the quantity representations activated by Arabic digits influenced by semantic context? We developed a novel paradigm to examine semantic alignment effects (e.g., Bassok et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34:343-352, 2008) in number comparison. A horizontal word pair (either less more or few many) appeared for 480 ms to prime either relative magnitude (less more) or quantity (few many). Then a horizontal pair of single digits that were either successors (near) or differed by at least four (far) appeared above the word pair. Participants indicated verbally whether or not the word and digit pairs were congruent with respect to left-to-right ascending or descending relative magnitude. The RT advantage for far number pairs compared to near pairs (the distance effect) was greater with magnitude primes (81 ms) than quantity primes (17 ms), demonstrating a semantic alignment effect. This effect disappeared in Experiment 2 in which participants received identical stimuli but named the larger of the two digits and were free to ignore the primes. Nonetheless, mean RT in Experiment 2 was faster with prime and target pairs both ascending or both descending, but only with quantity primes. This prime-dependent order-congruity effect suggests that semantic alignment with respect to numerical order affected number comparison in Experiment 2. The results thereby demonstrate that number comparison exhibits task-dependent semantic alignment effects and recruits distinct numerical representations as a function of semantic context (e.g., Cohen Kadosh and Walsh in Behav Brain Sci 32:313-373, 2009). PMID:21461771

Campbell, Jamie I D; Sacher, Sean G



Fiber alignment apparatus and method  


A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V



Fiber alignment apparatus and method  


A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)



Structural analysis of aligned RNAs.  


The knowledge about classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is growing very fast and it is mainly the structure which is the common characteristic property shared by members of the same class. For correct characterization of such classes it is therefore of great importance to analyse the structural features in great detail. In this manuscript I present RNAlishapes which combines various secondary structure analysis methods, such as suboptimal folding and shape abstraction, with a comparative approach known as RNA alignment folding. RNAlishapes makes use of an extended thermodynamic model and covariance scoring, which allows to reward covariation of paired bases. Applying the algorithm to a set of bacterial trp-operon leaders using shape abstraction it was able to identify the two alternating conformations of this attenuator. Besides providing in-depth analysis methods for aligned RNAs, the tool also shows a fairly well prediction accuracy. Therefore, RNAlishapes provides the community with a powerful tool for structural analysis of classes of RNAs and is also a reasonable method for consensus structure prediction based on sequence alignments. RNAlishapes is available for online use and download at PMID:17020924

Voss, Björn



Visions for the north sea: the societal dilemma behind specifying good environmental status.  


We augment discussions about the Good Environmental Status of the North Sea by developing two extreme visions and assessing their societal benefits. One vision ('Then') assumes restoration of benthic functioning; we contend that trawling had already degraded the southern North Sea a century ago. Available information is used to speculate about benthic functioning in a relatively undisturbed southern North Sea. The second vision ('Now') draws on recent benthic functioning. The supply of five ecosystem services, supported by benthic functioning, is discussed. 'Then' offers confidence in the sustainable supply of diverse services but restoration of past function is uncertain and likely to be paired with costs, notably trawling restraints. 'Now' delivers known and valued services but sustained delivery is threatened by, for example, climate change. We do not advocate either vision. Our purpose is to stimulate debate about what society wants, and might receive, from the future southern North Sea. PMID:24859919

Gilbert, Alison J; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Langmead, Olivia; Mee, Laurence; Vermaat, Jan



When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.



The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

Dick, Steven J.


Societal transformation in response to global environmental change: A review of emerging concepts.  


The study of societal transformation in response to environmental change has become established, yet little consensus exists regarding the conceptual basis of transformation. This paper aims to provide structure to the dialog on transformation, and to reflect on the challenges of social research in this area. Concepts of transformation are identified through a literature review, and examined using four analytical criteria. It is found that the term 'transformation' is frequently used merely as a metaphor. When transformation is not used as a metaphor, eight concepts are most frequently employed. They differ with respect to (i) system conceptualization, (ii) notions of social consciousness (deliberate/emergent), and (iii) outcome (prescriptive/descriptive). Problem-based research tends to adopt concepts of deliberate transformation with prescriptive outcome, while concepts of emergent transformation with no prescriptive outcome tend to inform descriptive-analytical research. Dialog around the complementarities of different concepts and their empirical testing are priorities for future research. PMID:25431335

Feola, Giuseppe



Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel



The Societal Impacts of a Mars Mission in the Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human race has evolved, grown and expanded through the exploration of Earth. After initial steps on the Moon, our next challenge is to explore the solar system. From the Mars mission viewpoint stepping on this planet will bring social impacts which may influence the society to a great extent. Never before have there been so complex mission settings. This implies as an inherent impediment for the future of space exploration since it is most likely to be scrutinized and challenged by the public. The goal of this paper is to outline the societal impacts of a Mars mission in the future of space exploration by first introducing the existing challenges and then identifying the primary groups that form public opinion and concludes where efforts should be focused.

Shaghaghi, Azam; Antonakopoulos, Konstantinos


Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included), and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios. PMID:18786247

Pervin, Tanjima; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus



Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided inputs through in-depth discussion in breakout sessions, plenary sessions on break-out results, and several panels that provided key insights about indicators, lessons learned through experience with developing and implementing indicators, and thoughts on how the NCA could proceed to develop indicators for the NCA.

Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale



Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Ruland, R.E.



Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.



Individual, Organizational, and Societal Influences on Media Role Perceptions: A Comparative Study of Journalists in China, Taiwan, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that the societal factor has the strongest impact on journalists' views about media roles, the organizational factor has a significant but weak impact, and individual factor has virtually no impact. Contrasts two competing models within the societal factor (political determinism vs. cultural determinism) and provides clear-cut evidence in…

Zhu, Jian-Hua; And Others



Alignment method for solar collector arrays  


The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

Driver, Jr., Richard B



Target alignment in the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Accurate placement of hundreds of focused laser beams on target is necessary to achieve success in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The current system requirement is {le}7 {mu}rad error in output pointing and {le}1 mm error in focusing. To accommodate several system shots per day, a target alignment system must be able to align the target to chamber center, inject an alignment beam to represent each shot beam, and point and focus the alignment beams onto the target in about one hour. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed a target alignment concept and built a prototype to validate the approach. The concept comprises three systems: the chamber center reference, target alignment sensor, and target alignment beams.

Vann, C.S.; Bliss, E.S.; Murray, J.E.



Maturational and Societal Changes in the Sexual Double-Standard: A Panel Analysis (1967-1971; 1970-1974)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two consecutive and partially overlapping panels measured both maturational and societal changes in the attitudinal and behavioral bases of a double/single-standard of premarital sexual permissiveness. In regard to behavior, both panels consistently moved toward more permissive behavior-maturational effect. (Author)

Ferrell, Mary Z.; And Others



The Evolution of English Language Teaching during Societal Transition in Finland--A Mutual Relationship or a Distinctive Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the evolution of English language teaching in Finland and looks into the connections of the societal and educational changes in the country as explanatory factors in the process. The results of the study show that the language teaching methodology and the status of foreign languages in Finland are clearly connected to the…

Jaatinen, Riitta; Saarivirta, Toni



Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen



September 2009AmerICAN meteOrOLOGICAL SOCIetY | 1277 AFFILIATIONS: Palmer, Biggerstaff, Chilson, and g. Zhang--  

E-print Network

September 2009AmerICAN meteOrOLOGICAL SOCIetY | 1277 AFFILIATIONS: Palmer, Biggerstaff, Chilson, and g. Zhang-- School of Meteorology, Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; droegemeier--School of Meteorology, University

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.


Societal trends, mobility behaviour and sustainable transport in Europe and North America: the European Union network STELLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution introduces the work of the European Union network Sustainable Transport in Europe and Links and Liaisons to America (STELLA) in the first section and examines especially social and behavioural aspects of sustainable transport from a transatlantic perspective in the second section. One of the most significant societal trends, the ageing of societies, is surveyed and its implications for

Georg Rudinger; Kieran Donaghy; Stefan Poppelreuter



Boarding Schools at the Crossroads of Change: The Influence of Residential Education Institutions on National and Societal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines how boarding schools have influenced their societal contexts. It shows that the view of boarding schools as agencies stabilizing or conserving social status and cultural traditions is not always valid. On the contrary, boarding schools may be educationally integrative and socially innovative, breaking up social structures by…

Kashti, Yitzhak


Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show that it is possible using optical photolithography to obtain micron and submicron features for periodic structures in non-contact using the Talbot effect. In order for this effect to work it is important to have good control of the illumination light and here we show that the MO Exposure Optics (MOEO) developed by SUSS MicroOptics provides uniform and well collimated illumination light suitable for Talbot lithography. The MOEO can easily be incorporated into a standard mask aligner. Here we show 1?m and 0.65?m diameter holes in a hexagonal array in photoresist made in large-gap proximity printing.

Dunbar, L. A.; Bergonzi, G.; Vogler, U.; Angeloni, S.; Kirner, R.; Bramati, A.; Timotijevic, B.; Voelkel, R.; Stanley, R. P.



Vacuum alignment and lattice artifacts  

E-print Network

When a subgroup of the flavor symmetry group of a gauge theory is weakly coupled to additional gauge fields, the vacuum tends to align such that the gauged subgroup is unbroken. At the same time, the lattice discretization typically breaks the flavor symmetry explicitly, and can give rise to new lattice-artifact phases with spontaneously broken symmetries. We discuss the interplay of these two phenomena, using chiral lagrangian techniques. Our first example is two-flavor Wilson QCD coupled to electromagnetism. We also consider examples of theories with staggered fermions, and demonstrate that recent claims in the literature based on the use of staggered fermions are incorrect.

Maarten Golterman; Yigal Shamir



Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P., E-mail:; Managadze, A. K., E-mail:; Snigirev, A. M., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)



Alignment System For Docking Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept for alignment of vehicle approaching station based on generation of coherent, polarized light or microwave beam by station and measurement of beam propagation and polarization axes by vehicle. Intended for use in docking of spacecraft in flight and in robotics. Conical and corner-cube reflectors on vehicle disperse portions of incident light beam to sensors on vehicle and station, respectively. Station uses return signal for ranging and tracking. Known mathematical relationship among direction of beam and positions of reflected light on photodetector arrays used to calculate orientation of vehicle.

Iwasaki, Richard S.



The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis.  


The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides researchers with quality-controlled bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA alignments and analysis tools. An improved alignment strategy uses the Infernal secondary structure aware aligner to provide a more consistent higher quality alignment and faster processing of user sequences. Substantial new analysis features include a new Pyrosequencing Pipeline that provides tools to support analysis of ultra high-throughput rRNA sequencing data. This pipeline offers a collection of tools that automate the data processing and simplify the computationally intensive analysis of large sequencing libraries. In addition, a new Taxomatic visualization tool allows rapid visualization of taxonomic inconsistencies and suggests corrections, and a new class Assignment Generator provides instructors with a lesson plan and individualized teaching materials. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at PMID:19004872

Cole, J R; Wang, Q; Cardenas, E; Fish, J; Chai, B; Farris, R J; Kulam-Syed-Mohideen, A S; McGarrell, D M; Marsh, T; Garrity, G M; Tiedje, J M



The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis  

PubMed Central

The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides researchers with quality-controlled bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA alignments and analysis tools. An improved alignment strategy uses the Infernal secondary structure aware aligner to provide a more consistent higher quality alignment and faster processing of user sequences. Substantial new analysis features include a new Pyrosequencing Pipeline that provides tools to support analysis of ultra high-throughput rRNA sequencing data. This pipeline offers a collection of tools that automate the data processing and simplify the computationally intensive analysis of large sequencing libraries. In addition, a new Taxomatic visualization tool allows rapid visualization of taxonomic inconsistencies and suggests corrections, and a new class Assignment Generator provides instructors with a lesson plan and individualized teaching materials. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at PMID:19004872

Cole, J. R.; Wang, Q.; Cardenas, E.; Fish, J.; Chai, B.; Farris, R. J.; Kulam-Syed-Mohideen, A. S.; McGarrell, D. M.; Marsh, T.; Garrity, G. M.; Tiedje, J. M.



Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.



AIMFAST : an alignment tool based on fringe reflection methods applied to dish concentrators.  

SciTech Connect

The proper alignment of facets on a dish engine concentrated solar power system is critical to the performance of the system. These systems are generally highly concentrating to produce high temperatures for maximum thermal efficiency so there is little tolerance for poor optical alignment. Improper alignment can lead to poor performance and shortened life through excessively high flux on the receiver surfaces, imbalanced power on multicylinder engines, and intercept losses at the aperture. Alignment approaches used in the past are time consuming field operations, typically taking 4-6 h per dish with 40-80 facets on the dish. Production systems of faceted dishes will need rapid, accurate alignment implemented in a fraction of an hour. In this paper, we present an extension to our Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Technique mirror characterization system that will automatically acquire data, implement an alignment strategy, and provide real-time mirror angle corrections to actuators or labor beneath the dish. The Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing using Fringe Analysis Slope Technique (AIMFAST) has been implemented and tested at the prototype level. In this paper we present the approach used in AIMFAST to rapidly characterize the dish system and provide near-real-time adjustment updates for each facet. The implemented approach can provide adjustment updates every 5 s, suitable for manual or automated adjustment of facets on a dish assembly line.

Yellowhair, Julius; Stone, Brad (Stirling Energy Systems, Scottsdale, AZ); Myer, Brian (Appalachian State University, Boone, NC); Hunt, Kirby (Stirling Energy Systems, Scottsdale, AZ); Trapeznikov, Kirill; Andraka, Charles E.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.



MM-align: a quick algorithm for aligning multiple-chain protein complex structures using iterative dynamic programming  

E-print Network

. Compared with a naïve extension of the monomer alignment program of TM-align, the alignment accuracy of MM-align is significantly higher as judged by the average TM-score of the physically-aligned residues. MM-align is about two times faster than TM...

Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang



Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of NASA's Applied Sciences Program is to manifest societal benefits from the vast store of Earth Observations through partnerships with public, private and academic organizations. The SERVIR project represents an early success toward this goal. By combining Earth Observations from NASA missions, results from environmental models and decision support tools from its partners the SERVIR project has produced an integrated systems solution that is yielding societal benefits for the region of Mesoamerica. The architecture of the SERVIR system consists of an operational facility in Panama with regional nodes in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize plus a Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC), located in Huntsville, Alabama. The RPC, funded by NASA's Applied Sciences Division, and developed by the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, produces scientifically strong decision support products and applications. When mature, the products and applications migrate to the operational center in Panama. There, they are available to environmental ministers and decision makers in Mesoamerica. In June 2004, the SERVIR project was contacted by the environmental ministry of El Salvador, which urgently requested remote sensing imagery of the location, direction, and extent of a HAB event off the coast of El Salvador and Guatemala. Using MODIS data the SERVIR team developed a value added product that predicts the location, direction, and extent of HABs. The products are produced twice daily and are used by the El Salvadoran and Guatemalan governments to alert their tourism and fishing industries of potential red tide events. This has enabled these countries to save millions of dollars for their industries as well as improve the health of harvested fish. In the area of short term weather forecasting the SERVIR team, in collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SpoRT) Center, generates 24 hour-forecasts twice daily utilizing the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF). Originally aimed at forecasts for the United States, the SPoRT team extended their work to cover the Mesoamerican region. Following testing at the RPC the system was installed in Panama and is currently producing forecasts that are used by tour guides, boat captains on river and ocean fishing tours, and cruise ship captains. This capability fits perfectly with NASA's goals since an existing project was modified, at minimal cost, to provide societal benefits to the population of a different geographic region. On June 30, 2006 several new applications matured and the inventory of decision support products was significantly expanded. As a result the SERVIR website was reorganized to reflect the changes. The degree of change was sufficient for the developers to designate it as a new release of SERVIR. The applications include a Real-Time Image Viewer, a customized version of NASA World Wind for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR- VIZ (developed by IAGT) and the SERVIR Data Portal (developed by the Water Center of the Humid Tropics Latin America and the Caribbean). The success of the SERVIR project is reflected by its choice by NASA as the decision support system for the Ecological Forecasting National Application. The SERVIR model is also under consideration for other regions of the globe. Potential areas for development are Africa, South America and the Caribbean.

Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.



Measuring alignment of loading fixture  


An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)



Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

PubMed Central

Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility. PMID:21672210



Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates. PMID:21665927

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David



Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  


A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

Maxey, L.C.



Laminar silk scaffolds for aligned tissue fabrication  

PubMed Central

3D biomaterial scaffolds with aligned architecture are of vital importance in tissue regeneration to mimic native tissue hierarchy and hence function. We demonstrate a generic method to produce aligned biomaterial scaffolds using the physics of directional ice freezing. Homogeneously aligned 3D silk scaffold with high porosity and alignment was demonstrated. The method can be adapted to a wide range of polymers and is devoid of any chemical reactions, thus avoiding potential complications associated with by-products and purification procedures. Subsequently, the 3D aligned system was tested for mechanical properties and cellular responses with chondrocytes and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells, assessing survival, proliferation and differentiation. In vivo tests suggested biocompatibility of the matrices for future tissue engineering applications, specifically in areas where high cellular alignment is needed. PMID:23161731

Mandal, Biman B.; Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.




Microsoft Academic Search

With business performance, global trade, and worldwide communications now dependent on effective use of Information Technology (IT), organizations aspire to achieve return on IT investment and to capture IT value. Research shows that alignment between business and IT strategies is a prerequisite to capturing IT value. This case study is about Africa-Israel Hotels (AIH), a centralized hotel chain that has

Pliskin Nava



Optoelectronic Alignment And Ultrasonic Ranging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beam of light guides alignment, then range measured by use of ultrasound. Optoelectronic/ultrasonic apparatus facilitates three-dimensional alignment of spot on one object with respect to facing (but not touching) spot on another nearby object. Designed to help in positioning external tank of space shuttle between two solid rocket boosters. Useful in other applications to align large components to be locked together in assemblies.

Collins, J. David; Rivera, Jorge; Youngquist, Robert; Moerk, J. Steven; Haskell, William; Cox, Robert; Rose, Kenneth



The office of strategy management.  


There is a disconnect in most companies between strategy formulation and strategy execution. On average, 95% of a company's employees are unaware of, or do not understand, its strategy. If employees are unaware of the strategy, they surely cannot help the organization implement it effectively. It doesn't have to be like this. For the past 15 years, the authors have studied companies that achieved performance breakthroughs by adopting the Balanced Scorecard and its associated tools to help them better communicate strategy to their employees and to guide and monitor the execution of that strategy. Some companies, of course, have achieved better, longer-lasting improvements than others. The organizations that have managed to sustain their strategic focus have typically established a new corporate-level unit to oversee all activities related to strategy: an office of strategy management (OS M). The OSM, in effect, acts as the CEO's chief of staff. It coordinates an array of tasks: communicating corporate strategy; ensuring that enterprise-level plans are translated into the plans of the various units and departments; executing strategic initiatives to deliver on the grand design; aligning employees' plans for competency development with strategic objectives; and testing and adapting the strategy to stay abreast of the competition. The OSM does not do all the work, but it facilitates the processes so that strategy is executed in an integrated fashion across the enterprise. Although the companies that Kaplan and Norton studied use the Balanced Scorecard as the framework for their strategy management systems, the authors say the lessons of the OSM are applicable even to companies that do not use it. PMID:16250626

Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P



Optimal Network Alignment with Graphlet Degree Vectors  

PubMed Central

Important biological information is encoded in the topology of biological networks. Comparative analyses of biological networks are proving to be valuable, as they can lead to transfer of knowledge between species and give deeper insights into biological function, disease, and evolution. We introduce a new method that uses the Hungarian algorithm to produce optimal global alignment between two networks using any cost function. We design a cost function based solely on network topology and use it in our network alignment. Our method can be applied to any two networks, not just biological ones, since it is based only on network topology. We use our new method to align protein-protein interaction networks of two eukaryotic species and demonstrate that our alignment exposes large and topologically complex regions of network similarity. At the same time, our alignment is biologically valid, since many of the aligned protein pairs perform the same biological function. From the alignment, we predict function of yet unannotated proteins, many of which we validate in the literature. Also, we apply our method to find topological similarities between metabolic networks of different species and build phylogenetic trees based on our network alignment score. The phylogenetic trees obtained in this way bear a striking resemblance to the ones obtained by sequence alignments. Our method detects topologically similar regions in large networks that are statistically significant. It does this independent of protein sequence or any other information external to network topology. PMID:20628593

Milenkovi?, Tijana; Ng, Weng Leong; Hayes, Wayne; Pržulj, Nataša



Aligning carbon nano fibers using magnetic nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oleic acid coated magnetic nano particles and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) coated carbon nano fibers are suspended in an aqueous medium. Under the application of very low magnetic field (˜500 Oe), the physically adsorbed magnetic nanoparticles with carbon nanofibers are spatially aligned. The external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moment of the particles and consequent body forces align the carbon nanofibers. This alignment is studied using a microscope attached with computer and using a capillary viscometry. This form of orientation may be very useful for various nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

Parmar, Mayur A.; Virpura, Hiral A.; Dave, Vishaka; Patel, Rajesh J.



Anisotropic light emission from aligned luminophores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of aligned dichroic dyes in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) illuminated from one side with collimated light results in a non-isotropic light distribution. We develop a model to describe emission profiles for dichroic dyes aligned at a general tilt angle with respect to a lightguide surface (including planar and homeotropic alignments) for various order parameters. We compare calculations with experimental results, demonstrating the dichroic nature of the dyes can have significant impact on the surface loss of luminescent solar concentrators. Including this dichroic nature is essential in correctly simulating the preferred edge emissions demonstrated experimentally in dyes aligned planarly on the surface of a lightguide.

Verbunt, Paul P. C.; de Jong, Ties M.; de Boer, Dick K. G.; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.



Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings fabricated by a soft lithography embossing process derived from PRINTTM (Pattern Replication In Nonwetting Template) is influenced by mold removal (peel-off direction). This indicates the existence of two competing alignment mechanisms: (1) topography (i.e., the Beremann mechanism) and (2) surface modification during peel-off. The degree to which mold removal influenced liquid crystal alignment was found to be dependent on the primary structures of the embossed polymer, and the chemical composition of the mold. These findings suggest alternate ways to affect liquid crystal alignment in roll-to-roll manufacturing.

Schenck, Walter; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Samulski, Edward



Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko



Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.  


We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy. PMID:25331643

Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko



Learning Peptide-Spectrum Alignment Models for Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

We present a peptide-spectrum alignment strategy that employs a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for the identification of spectra produced by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our method is fundamentally generative in that it models peptide fragmentation in MS/MS as a physical process. The model traverses an observed MS/MS spectrum and a peptide-based theoretical spectrum to calculate the best alignment between the two spectra. Unlike all existing state-of-the-art methods for spectrum identification that we are aware of, our method can learn alignment probabilities given a dataset of high-quality peptide-spectrum pairs. The method, moreover, accounts for noise peaks and absent theoretical peaks in the observed spectrum. We demonstrate that our method outperforms, on a majority of datasets, several widely used, state-of-the-art database search tools for spectrum identification. Furthermore, the proposed approach provides an extensible framework for MS/MS analysis and provides useful information that is not produced by other methods, thanks to its generative structure. PMID:25298752

Halloran, John T.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William S.



Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems  

PubMed Central

The most expensive aspects in producing high quality miniature optical systems are the component costs and long assembly process. A new approach for fabricating these systems that reduces both aspects through the implementation of self-aligning LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, or x-ray lithography, electroplating, and molding) optomechanics with high volume plastic injection molded and off-the-shelf glass optics is presented. This zero alignment strategy has been incorporated into a miniature high numerical aperture (NA = 1.0W) microscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope. Tight alignment tolerances of less than 10 ?m are maintained for all components that reside inside of a small 9 gauge diameter hypodermic tubing. A prototype system has been tested using the slanted edge modulation transfer function technique and demonstrated to have a Strehl ratio of 0.71. This universal technology is now being developed for smaller, needle-sized imaging systems and other portable point-of-care diagnostic instruments. PMID:19543344

Kester, Robert T.; Christenson, Todd; Kortum, Rebecca Richards; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.



Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

Drell, D.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research, Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Division; Metting, F.B. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wuy, L.D. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)



Good governance and good health: The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Only governments sensitive to the demands of their citizens appropriately respond to needs of their nation. Based on Professor Amartya Sen's analysis of the link between famine and democracy, the following null hypothesis was tested: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is not associated with governance". Methods Governance has been divided by a recent World Bank paper into six dimensions. These include Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and the Control of Corruption. The 2002 adult HIV prevalence estimates were obtained from UNAIDS. Additional health and economic variables were collected from multiple sources to illustrate the development needs of countries. Results The null hypothesis was rejected for each dimension of governance for all 149 countries with UNAIDS HIV prevalence estimates. When these nations were divided into three groups, the median (range) HIV prevalence estimates remained constant at 0.7% (0.05 – 33.7%) and 0.75% (0.05% – 33.4%) for the lower and middle mean governance groups respectively despite improvements in other health and economic indices. The median HIV prevalence estimates in the higher mean governance group was 0.2% (0.05 – 38.8%). Conclusion HIV prevalence is significantly associated with poor governance. International public health programs need to address societal structures in order to create strong foundations upon which effective healthcare interventions can be implemented. PMID:15850480

Menon-Johansson, Anatole S



Societal Projection: Beliefs Concerning the Relationship between Development and Inequality in China  

PubMed Central

We examine how the relationship between development and inequality at the societal level is perceived and evaluated by ordinary Chinese people. We hypothesize that because the Chinese have recently experienced rapid increases in both economic growth and social inequality, they tend to view economic development as a driving force of social inequality. To address this question, we conducted a social survey in 2006 in six Chinese provinces (n = 4,898). The survey data reveal that a large proportion of Chinese people have internalized a causal model in which they project high levels of inequality onto countries they view as more developed and low levels of inequality onto countries they see as less developed. However, results also show that a smaller proportion of Chinese believe in a negative relationship between development and inequality. Hence, the study reveals heterogeneity among ordinary Chinese in their perceptions of the causal relationship between development and inequality. Surprisingly, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics provide no explanatory power in explaining this heterogeneity. PMID:23017918

Xie, Yu; Thornton, Arland; Wang, Guangzhou; Lai, Qing



FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.



Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

Hearn, Paul P.



Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark



Lies, Damn Lies, and Alignment: Important Alignment Issues in the Common Core Era  

E-print Network

in the Common Core Era Guest Lecture by Morgan Polikoff Assistant Professor lays out important alignment issues in the Common Core era, presenting results from a series of studies on the alignment among standards, assessments, textbooks

Loudon, Catherine


A Semi-supervised Word Alignment Algorithm with Partial Manual Alignments  

E-print Network

We present a word alignment framework that can incorporate partial manual alignments. The core of the approach is a novel semi-supervised algorithm extending the widely used IBM Models with a constrained EM algorithm. The partial manual alignments can be obtained by human labelling or automatically by high-precision-low-recall heuristics. We demonstrate the usages of both methods by selecting alignment links from manually aligned corpus and apply links generated from bilingual dictionary on unlabelled data. For the first method, we conduct controlled experiments on Chinese-English and Arabic-English translation tasks to compare the quality of word alignment, and to measure effects of two different methods in selecting alignment links from manually aligned corpus. For the second method, we experimented with moderate-scale Chinese-English translation task. The experiment results show an average improvement of 0.33 BLEU point across 8 test sets. 1

Qin Gao; Nguyen Bach; Stephan Vogel


FOB Undergoing Test and Alignment in FAS at Ball Aerospace OPTICAL TESTS AND ALIGNMENTS  

E-print Network

to RAS/HOMS for system level testing. The "final" ground adjustment of the PAM to get the system focusedFOB Undergoing Test and Alignment in FAS at Ball Aerospace OPTICAL TESTS AND ALIGNMENTS After the FOB alignment is complete, and it passes environmental tests, it will be checked out in a second HST

Schneider, Glenn


Phylo: A Citizen Science Approach for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying “crowd sourcing” techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of “human-brain peta-flops” of computation that are spent every day playing games. Phylo is available at: PMID:22412834

Kam, Alfred; Kwak, Daniel; Leung, Clarence; Wu, Chu; Zarour, Eleyine; Sarmenta, Luis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Waldispühl, Jérôme



Assessing Societal Impacts When Planning Restoration of Large Alluvial Rivers: A Case Study of the Sacramento River Project, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase\\u000a important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence\\u000a many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider\\u000a this in a comprehensive manner. Most

Gregory H. Golet; Michael D. Roberts; Eric W. Larsen; Ryan A. Luster; Ron Unger; Gregg Werner; Gregory G. White



SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

Dickinson, R. M.



A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.



Graph matching through entropic manifold alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we cast the problem of graph matching as one of non-rigid manifold alignment. The low dimensional manifolds are from the commute time embedding and are matched though coherent point drift. Although there have been a number of attempts to realise graph matching in this way, in this paper we propose a novel informationtheoretic measure of alignment, the

Francisco Escolano; Edwin Hancock; Miguel Lozano



MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 ? m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas



Aligning Protein Sequences with Predicted Secondary Structure  

E-print Network

the amino acid sequence alone often does not provide enough information to obtain accurate alignments under in regions that may be in the structural core, and are employed by CLUSTAL W (Thompson et al., 1994), T-Coffee favors matches in the alignment that have high support, and is employed by T-Coffee, MAFFT, Prob

Wheeler, Travis


Boosting Relational Sequence Alignments Andreas Karwath  

E-print Network

. For this task, dynamic program- ming (DP) has become the standard model. Classical DP approaches, however such as in web communities evolving over time. In contrast, relational se- quences alignment aims at exploiting as follows. We start off by discussing re- lated work. Afterwards, we briefly review DP-based align- ment

Kersting, Kristian


Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers with Medical Contexts  

E-print Network

Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers with Medical Contexts Linda C. van der Gaag Silja Renooij Ad University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers- ble performance. For Bayesian network classifiers to become more widely accepted within the medical

Utrecht, Universiteit


Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the ?18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, ?18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for ?18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the ?18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic ?18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's ?18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that the modeling of musical knowl- edge within alignment algorithms results in a successful similarity approach to melodies. The score of the align- ment of two melodies is taken as a measure of similarity. We introduce a number of scoring functions that model the influence of different musical parameters. The evalua- tion of their retrieval

Peter van Kranenburg; Anja Volk; Frans Wiering; Remco C. Veltkamp


Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments  

SciTech Connect

Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.



Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak  

E-print Network

Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak Department of Computing Science April 4, 2003 Abstract. The computation of the optimal phonetic alignment and the phonetic similarity be that employs a scoring scheme for computing phonetic similarity between phonetic segments on the basis

Kondrak, Greg


Micro actuators for aligning optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two microactuators to align fiber optics are described. One, an actuator using a thin strand of shape memory alloy, is used to align an input fiber with one of two output fibers. This component is useful for switching fiber-optic signals. The second is an electrostatic actuator capable of switching optical fibers and making fine adjustments to correct for misalignments. Single-point

R. Jebens; W. Trimmer; J. Walker



CARNA--alignment of RNA structure ensembles.  


Due to recent algorithmic progress, tools for the gold standard of comparative RNA analysis, namely Sankoff-style simultaneous alignment and folding, are now readily applicable. Such approaches, however, compare RNAs with respect to a simultaneously predicted, single, nested consensus structure. To make multiple alignment of RNAs available in cases, where this limitation of the standard approach is critical, we introduce a web server that provides a complete and convenient interface to the RNA structure alignment tool 'CARNA'. This tool uniquely supports RNAs with multiple conserved structures per RNA and aligns pseudoknots intrinsically; these features are highly desirable for aligning riboswitches, RNAs with conserved folding pathways, or pseudoknots. We represent structural input and output information as base pair probability dot plots; this provides large flexibility in the input, ranging from fixed structures to structure ensembles, and enables immediate visual analysis of the results. In contrast to conventional Sankoff-style approaches, 'CARNA' optimizes all structural similarities in the input simultaneously, for example across an entire RNA structure ensemble. Even compared with already costly Sankoff-style alignment, 'CARNA' solves an intrinsically much harder problem by applying advanced, constraint-based, algorithmic techniques. Although 'CARNA' is specialized to the alignment of RNAs with several conserved structures, its performance on RNAs in general is on par with state-of-the-art general-purpose RNA alignment tools, as we show in a Bralibase 2.1 benchmark. The web server is freely available at PMID:22689637

Sorescu, Dragos Alexandru; Möhl, Mathias; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf; Will, Sebastian



Conditional squeezing of an atomic alignment  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the possibility to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of the collective alignment of an atomic ensemble in the case of a F{>=}1 spin. We compare the case of purely vectorial and purely tensorial Hamiltonians and show how to achieve conditional squeezing or entanglement of atomic alignment components.

Cviklinski, J.; Ortalo, J.; Pinard, M. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dantan, A. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C. (Denmark)



X-ray determination of parts alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

Nelson, C. W.



Adaptive optical alignment in microgravity environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgravity researchers use optical measurement techniques to study fluid samples undergoing crystallization, solidification, separation, mixing, and other processes. However, optical systems are often environmentally sensitive, and can be difficult to keep aligned in space. We have developed a system that autonomously maintains alignment with a software controller and electronic feedback loops that adjust optical components. The project goal was to

Robert B. Owen



Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

Polikoff, Morgan S.



Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

Branson, Christopher M.



The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system  

SciTech Connect

Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ``Alignment Test Stand`` (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS.

Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Paradiso, J.A. [Draper (Charles Stark) Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)



Improved Alignment Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe improved alignment models for statistical machine translation. The statistical translation approach uses two types of information: a translation model and a lan- guage model. The language model used is a bigram or general m-gram model. The transla- tion model is decomposed into a lexical and an alignment model. We describe two different ap- proaches for

Franz Josef Och; Christoph Tillmann; Hermann Ney



Vane segment support and alignment device  


A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Sizemore, John Derek (Orlando, FL)



Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  


A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)



Optimization of ribosomal RNA profile alignments  

E-print Network

are maintained at various sites. New sequences are added to these alignments using a combination of manual and automatic methods. We examine the use of profile alignment methods for rRNA alignment and try to optimize the choice of parameters and sequence weights. Results: Using a large alignment of eukaryotic SSU rRNA sequences as a test case, we empirically compared the performance of various sequence weighting schemes over a range of gap penalties. We developed a new weighting scheme which gives most weight to the sequences in the profile that are most similar to the new sequence. We show that it gives the most accurate alignments when combined with a more traditional sequence weighting scheme. Availability: The source code of all software is freely available by anonymous ftp from in the directory /home/ftp/pub/emmet, in the compressed file PRNAA.tar. Contact:

unknown authors


Vane segment support and alignment device  


A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.



The Growth of Hydrological Understanding: Observations, Theories and Societal Influences that have Shaped the Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Progress in science depends on new techniques, new discoveries and new ideas, probably in that order.” Sydney Brenner (1980). ______________ Science never progresses smoothly or uniformly on all fronts. History of science tells us that progress cannot be meticulously planned, and elaborate plans do not always end up at their intended targets. Breakthroughs tend to happen by themselves through human ingenuity, which cannot be precisely predicted nor pre-planned. All sciences go through periods of euphoria, stagnation, pessimism and then recovery. New theories/ideas, or new measurements/data sources or new analysis techniques have alternated in generating vital breakthroughs. Progress in science is also not immune from other societal and technological influences, including wars. Hydrology is no exception. However, at this point in time it is not clear if hydrologic science is limited by data (and our ability to measure or monitor water cycle dynamics) or by theories or vital ideas that can help us understand how the hydrologic system works and will evolve. We can map the surface of Mars in search of the presence of water, but cannot close the water balance here on Earth. We have instruments that can help us observe pore scale processes in the laboratory, but still cannot predict how these will evolve in time in real places, at much larger scales. We are dealing with a complex adaptive system that evolves at all time and space scales. There is a great need for data to close the water balance, but there is an even greater need to understand and predict in all places in such a dynamic environment. It sometimes happens that every time a new measurement technology or data analysis technique is introduced we get excited and pour enormous resources on their development only to be disappointed that we have gone down a narrow alley. In spite of occasional breakthroughs in our measurement capability, the bigger challenge remains our inability to extrapolate beyond the measurement points to ungauged, unmapped and unmeasured points, in a rapidly changing environment. Which path should we therefore pursue? Should we be guided by deeper questions, and then use appropriate instruments that fit the task in a balanced way? Or should we follow the opportunistic path provided by the potential of new measurement technologies or new forms of data analysis, and then hope for the best? In this talk I will trace the history of theory development, measurements and data, and model diagnostics in hydrology over the past 80 years, from the time of Robert Horton, to illustrate how the interactions and feedbacks between theories and measurements, on a broad front characterized by other societal and technological influences, including the 1991 Opportunities in the Hydrological Sciences Report (Blue Book), have shaped the development of hydrology as an earth science.

Sivapalan, M.



Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and hea  

E-print Network

Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health

Zürich, Universität


Lau vs. Nichols 40 Years Later - Where Are We Now? A Study of Philosophical, Political, Cultural and Societal Issues Impacting Bilingual Education in the Early 21st Century  

E-print Network

Bilingual education in the United States has been at the forefront of educational politics and debates since its inception. Arguments over language of instruction and program goals overshadow the deeper philosophical, political and societal issues...

Everling, Kathleen M.



A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382



Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged???14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease load and societal inequalities contributed to societal burden. Pain measurements in epidemiology research of chronic pain should include chronic pain grades and disease load. PMID:24725286



Compagnie des Forges et Aciries de la Marine et d'Homcourt (1855-1919) BILANS -SOCIETE PROFITS & PERTES -C.L.  

E-print Network

Compagnie des Forges et Aciéries de la Marine et d'Homécourt (1855-1919) BILANS - SOCIETE PROFITS & PERTES - C.L. DEPENSES D'INVESTISSEMENT - C.L. EXPLOITATION ET PROFITS & PERTES - SOCIETE TABLEAU DE société Compte de Profits et Pertes établi selon la méthode des études financières Calcul des travaux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.  


Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods. PMID:25291733

Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming



Scalable global alignment for multiple biological networks  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in high-throughput technology has led to an increased amount of available data on protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Detecting and extracting functional modules that are common across multiple networks is an important step towards understanding the role of functional modules and how they have evolved across species. A global protein-protein interaction network alignment algorithm attempts to find such functional orthologs across multiple networks. Results In this article, we propose a scalable global network alignment algorithm based on clustering methods and graph matching techniques in order to detect conserved interactions while simultaneously attempting to maximize the sequence similarity of nodes involved in the alignment. We present an algorithm for multiple alignments, in which several PPI networks are aligned. We empirically evaluated our algorithm on three real biological datasets with 6 different species and found that our approach offers a significant benefit both in terms of quality as well as speed over the current state-of-the-art algorithms. Conclusion Computational experiments on the real datasets demonstrate that our multiple network alignment algorithm is a more efficient and effective algorithm than the state-of-the-art algorithm, IsoRankN. From a qualitative standpoint, our approach also offers a significant advantage over IsoRankN for the multiple network alignment problem. PMID:22536895



Galaxy alignment on large and small scales  

E-print Network

Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A



Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.



“Doing” strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most of today's conversations around crafting business strategy center on which strategic framework is most appropriate for a firm, its strategist, or CEO to use. This opinion piece seeks to argue that the focus on frameworks is inappropriate and distracts businesses from crafting holistic and adaptive strategies. To rectify the situation, it aims to offer a more inclusive

Jonathan Pugh; L. Jay Bourgeois III



Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor  

SciTech Connect

An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm{sup -1} is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiation parameters)

Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)



Bias Alignment of the VERITAS Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mirror facets on the VERITAS telescopes, which are of Davies-Cotton design, are aligned with the telescope axis in the horizontal position using a laser projector at the radius of curvature. The instrument used will be described. The mechanical design of the Optical Support Structure permits some gravitational slumping with elevation which can be counteracted by bias alignment (deliberate misalignment at 0 degree elevation). In practice this allows the optimum Point Spread Function (PSF) to be attained over an elevation range from 50 to 85 degree. The on and off axis PSFs, before and after bias alignment, will be presented.

Toner, J. A.; Acciari, V. A.; Cesarini, A.; et al.


Self-aligning biaxial load frame  


An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID)



Optical Alignment Device For Laser Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical alignment device under development enables continuous tracking and coalignment of two beams of light. Intended primarily for laser-communication station, in which transmitted beam must be aligned with received beam to ensure transmitted beam falls on receiver at other station. Expected to consume less power and be smaller and less complicated than alignment shutter and drive previously used. Prism and filter separate two overlapping collimated light beams of different wavelength or polarization. Coordinates of two beams tracked on charge-coupled device to determine degree of directional misalignment between two beams.

Casey, William L.



Proper alignment of the microscope.  


The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. PMID:23931502

Rottenfusser, Rudi



Epidemiological characteristics and societal burden of varicella zoster virus in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Varicella and herpes zoster are both caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection or reactivation and may lead to complications associated with a (severe) societal burden. Because the epidemiology of VZV-related diseases in the Netherlands remains largely unknown or incomplete, the main objective of this study was to study the primary care incidence, associated complications and health care resource use. Methods We investigated the incidence of VZV complications in the Dutch general practitioner (GP) practices and pharmacies in a retrospective population-based cohort study (2004–2008) based on longitudinal GP data including free text fields, hospital referral and discharge letters from approximately 165,000 patients. Results The average annual incidence of varicella GP-consultations was 51.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 44.4-58.7) overall; 465.5 per 10,000 for 0–1?year-olds; 610.8 per 10,000 for 1–4?year-olds; 153.5 per 10,000 for 5–9?year-olds; 8,3 per 10,000 for >10?year olds. When only ICPC coded diagnoses were analyzed the incidence was 27% lower. The proportion of complications among varicella patients was 34.9%. Most frequently complications were upper respiratory tract infections. Almost half of the varicella patients received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 1.7%. The average annual incidence of herpes zoster GP-consultations was 47.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 40.6-54.4). The incidence increased with age; 32.8 per 10,000 for <60?year-olds; 93.1 per 10,000 for 60–64?year-olds and 113.2 per 10,000 for >65?year olds. When estimating herpes zoster incidence only on ICPC coded information, the incidence was 28% lower. The complication rate of herpes zoster was 32.9%. Post herpetic neuralgia was seen most often. Of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster 67.8% received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 3.5%. Conclusions For varicella the highest incidence of GP-consultations was found in 1–4?year-olds, for herpes zoster in the >65?years olds. The occurrence of complications was not age-dependent but varies per complication. When estimating incidence of VZV-related diseases in primary care, based on diagnostic codes only, one should be aware of a gross underestimation of the incidence. Our analysis may have important implications for the outcomes of upcoming cost-effectiveness analyses on VZV vaccination. PMID:22574722



The Subread aligner: fast, accurate and scalable read mapping by seed-and-vote  

PubMed Central

Read alignment is an ongoing challenge for the analysis of data from sequencing technologies. This article proposes an elegantly simple multi-seed strategy, called seed-and-vote, for mapping reads to a reference genome. The new strategy chooses the mapped genomic location for the read directly from the seeds. It uses a relatively large number of short seeds (called subreads) extracted from each read and allows all the seeds to vote on the optimal location. When the read length is <160 bp, overlapping subreads are used. More conventional alignment algorithms are then used to fill in detailed mismatch and indel information between the subreads that make up the winning voting block. The strategy is fast because the overall genomic location has already been chosen before the detailed alignment is done. It is sensitive because no individual subread is required to map exactly, nor are individual subreads constrained to map close by other subreads. It is accurate because the final location must be supported by several different subreads. The strategy extends easily to find exon junctions, by locating reads that contain sets of subreads mapping to different exons of the same gene. It scales up efficiently for longer reads. PMID:23558742

Liao, Yang; Smyth, Gordon K.; Shi, Wei



Societal-Equity-Enhancing Criteria and Facility-Host Incentives Supporting Five Key Elements in the January 2012 Blue Ribbon Commission Report - 13015  

SciTech Connect

In February 2009, the Obama Administration announced it would abandon USA's only candidate SNF/HLW-disposal facility since 1987. In 2010, all related activities were stopped and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future was established 'to recommend a new strategy for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle', which it did in January 2012, emphasizing eight key elements. However, Key Element 1, 'A new, consent-based approach to siting future nuclear facilities', is qualitative/indeterminate rather than quantitative/measurable. It is thus highly-susceptible to semantic permutations that could extend rather than, as intended, expedite the siting of future nuclear facilities unless it also defines: a) Whose consent is needed?; and b) What constitutes consent? The following 'generic', radiation-risk- and societal-equity-based criteria address these questions: 1. Identify areas affected by projected radiation and other health risks from: a. The proposed nuclear facility (facility stakeholders); and b. The related nuclear-materials-transportation routes (transportation stakeholders); then 2. Surround each stakeholder area with a buffer zone and use this enlarged foot print to identify: a. Stakeholder hosts; and b. Areas not hosting any stakeholder category (interested parties). 3. Define 'consent-based' as being at least 60 percent of the 'population' in the respective stakeholder category and apply this yardstick to both 'in favor' and 'against' votes. Although criteria 1 and 2 also need facility-based definitions to make Key Element 1 measurable, the described siting approach, augmented by related facility-host incentives, would expedite the schedule and reduce the cost for achieving Key Elements 4-6 and 8, politics permitting. (authors)

Eriksson, Leif G. [Nuclear Waste Dispositions, 535 N. Interlachen Avenue, Unit 303, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States)] [Nuclear Waste Dispositions, 535 N. Interlachen Avenue, Unit 303, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); Dials, George E. [B and W Conversion Services LLC, 1020 Monarch Road, Suite 300, Lexington, Kentucky 40513 (United States)] [B and W Conversion Services LLC, 1020 Monarch Road, Suite 300, Lexington, Kentucky 40513 (United States); George, Critz H. [Retired DOE and Consultant, 1218 Countryside Lane, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87114 (United States)] [Retired DOE and Consultant, 1218 Countryside Lane, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87114 (United States)



Improving the quality of multiple sequence alignment  

E-print Network

Multiple sequence alignment is an important bioinformatics problem, with applications in diverse types of biological analysis, such as structure prediction, phylogenetic analysis and critical sites identification. In recent years, the quality...

Lu, Yue



Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.



Prosodic alignment in human-computer interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Androids that replicate humans in form also need to replicate them in behaviour to achieve a high level of believability or lifelikeness. We explore the minimal social cues that can induce in people the human tendency for social acceptance, or ethopoeia, toward artifacts, including androids. It has been observed that people exhibit a strong tendency to adjust to each other, through a number of speech and language features in human-human conversational interactions, to obtain communication efficiency and emotional engagement. We investigate in this paper the phenomena related to prosodic alignment in human-computer interactions, with particular focus on human-computer alignment of speech characteristics. We found that people exhibit unidirectional and spontaneous short-term alignment of loudness and response latency in their speech in response to computer-generated speech. We believe this phenomenon of prosodic alignment provides one of the key components for building social acceptance of androids.

Suzuki, N.; Katagiri, Y.



Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs), sometimes called forests or carpets, are a promising material due to their unique physical and scale-dependent physical properties [1-3]. Continuous production of VACNTs is ...

Guzman de Villoria, R.


Cloud Optimization Expanding Capabilities, while Aligning  

E-print Network

Cloud Optimization ­ Expanding Capabilities, while Aligning Computing and Business Needs A framework for making business decisions about cloud computing. Sean R. Cunningham President June 1, 2010 #12 Computing Introduction Cloud computing provides improved resource optimization and enhanced capabilities

Narasayya, Vivek


Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations  

E-print Network

Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations from Biomedical Text Dana Movshovitz · Definitions change with context ­APC matches over 100 unique abbreviations in MEDLINE #12;Two Main Uses of Abbreviations · Common acid > ­ Often

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal


Training manual on optical alignment instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training Manual RQA/M5 provides a basic course of instruction in the use of optical instruments for precise dimensional control and alignment of structural elements and assemblies, such as associated with space vehicles, aircraft, ships, and buildings.



Alignment of Rods and Partition of Integers  

E-print Network

Alignment of Rods and Partition of Integers Eli Ben-Naim Los Alamos National Laboratory Poster possible for arbitrary averaging rates E. Ben-Naim and P.L. Krapivsky, Phys. Rev. E 73, 031109 (2006) #12;

Ben-Naim, Eli


RNA-Seq read alignments with PALMapper.  


Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized genome and transcriptome sequencing. RNA-Seq experiments are able to generate huge amounts of transcriptome sequence reads at a fraction of the cost of Sanger sequencing. Reads produced by these technologies are relatively short and error prone. To utilize such reads for transcriptome reconstruction and gene-structure identification, one needs to be able to accurately align the sequence reads over intron boundaries. In this unit, we describe PALMapper, a fast and easy-to-use tool that is designed to accurately compute both unspliced and spliced alignments for millions of RNA-Seq reads. It combines the efficient read mapper GenomeMapper with the spliced aligner QPALMA, which exploits read-quality information and predictions of splice sites to improve the alignment accuracy. The PALMapper package is available as a command-line tool running on Unix or Mac OS X systems or through a Web interface based on Galaxy tools. PMID:21154708

Jean, Géraldine; Kahles, André; Sreedharan, Vipin T; De Bona, Fabio; Rätsch, Gunnar




SciTech Connect

Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r {sub vir} of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Park, Changbom [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Yang Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Partner Group of MPA, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Choi, Yun-Young, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astrophysical Research Center for the Structure and Evolution of the Cosmos, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)



Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for

Matthew J. Pietryka; Michael L. Gaydosh



Facilitating Interdisciplinary Geosciences and Societal Impacts Research and Education via Dynamically Adaptive, Interoperable Data and Forecasting Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems monitoring, predicting, and responding to coastal inundation and inland flooding situations are inherently multidisciplinary. Predicting precipitation and streamflow require expertise in meteorology and hydrology. Oceanography also enters the picture in the cases where the severe storm occurs in a coastal area. Appropriate responses to such natural hazards requires integration of infrastructure and demographics data systems associated with the societal impacts community. Building and disseminating a system that will address this problem in a comprehensive and coherent manner can only be done by a team with the a broad range of technological and scientific expertise and community connections. Efforts are underway to develop interoperable data systems among the atmospheric science, hydrology, coastal oceans, and societal impacts communities, so they may conveniently and rapidly share data among their systems in cases where hazardous events threaten infrastructure and human health. The basic approach is to build on a dynamically adaptive data access and high resolution, local forecasting system being developed for the LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) project. At present, the LEAD technology is confined to local weather forecasts automatically steered by algorithms analyzing data from national forecasts. But efforts are underway to develop an expanded team that would include expertise in coupling atmospheric forecast models with hydrological and storm surge forecast models and, in turn, to coordinate those data systems with those of the GIS (Geographic Information System) community which contain most of the demographic and infrastructure information related to societal impacts. The paper will provide an update on the status of these efforts and a demonstration of how such a dynamically adaptive forecasting system focused high resolution local forecast model runs on Hurricane Katrina.

Weber, J.; Domenico, B.; Chiswell, S.; Baltzer, T.



Assessing societal impacts when planning restoration of large alluvial rivers: a case study of the Sacramento River project, California.  


Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider this in a comprehensive manner. Most river restoration projects also fail to take into account opportunities for revitalization of large-scale river processes, focusing instead on opportunities presented at individual parcels. In an effort to avoid these pitfalls while planning restoration of the Sacramento River, we conducted a set of coordinated studies to evaluate societal impacts of alternative restoration actions over a large geographic area. Our studies were designed to identify restoration actions that offer benefits to both society and the ecosystem and to meet the information needs of agency planning teams focusing on the area. We worked with local partners and public stakeholders to design and implement studies that assessed the effects of alternative restoration actions on flooding and erosion patterns, socioeconomics, cultural resources, and public access and recreation. We found that by explicitly and scientifically melding societal and ecosystem perspectives, it was possible to identify restoration actions that simultaneously improve both ecosystem health and the services (e.g., flood protection and recreation) that the Sacramento River and its floodplain provide to people. Further, we found that by directly engaging with local stakeholders to formulate, implement, and interpret the studies, we were able to develop a high level of trust that ultimately translated into widespread support for the project. PMID:16523370

Golet, Gregory H; Roberts, Michael D; Larsen, Eric W; Luster, Ryan A; Unger, Ron; Werner, Gregg; White, Gregory G



Addressing Contemporary Issues, Lifelong Learning, and the Impact of Engineering on Global and Societal Issues in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whenever there is a discussion of outcomes a-k for ABET EC 2000, the outcomes least understood are those involving knowledge of contemporary issues, lifelong learning, and the impact of engineering on global and societal issues. Most faculty believe they understand the intent of these topics, but to identify where these criteria are supported in a curriculum is often difficult. A separate course or seminar is not necessarily the answer as most programs cannot afford the addition of more classroom hours. A simple method of addressing these issues used by the author for the past three years is to have students accomplish short presentations on topics of their choice related to the course. In the last year, explicitly adding a requirement to present on a topic related to contemporary issues and/or the impact of engineering on global and societal issues yielded more focused presentations. Having the students pick their own topics allowed them to pursue something that they find personally interesting and wished to present to the class. For the first two years, additional credit was given to students who have a range of reference materials, especially materials found in the library. This developed research skills beyond that of the worldwide web. Topics were very different and students were not allowed to give a presentation on a topic that had already been given. Many of the presentations naturally addressed topics dealing with contemporary, global or societal issues and this gave the opportunity for further discussion. For the heat transfer class in which this was implemented, topics have included energy production, biomedical applications, safety issues, and the impact of heat transfer on day-to-day living. Students clearly enjoyed the presentations and everyone, including the author, was exposed to topics that might not normally be included in the classroom.

Van Treuren, Kenneth



HSA: A Heuristic Splice Alignment Tool  

PubMed Central

Background RNA-Seq methodology is a revolutionary transcriptomics sequencing technology, which is the representative of Next generation Sequencing (NGS). With the high throughput sequencing of RNA-Seq, we can acquire much more information like differential expression and novel splice variants from deep sequence analysis and data mining. But the short read length brings a great challenge to alignment, especially when the reads span two or more exons. Methods A two steps heuristic splice alignment tool is generated in this investigation. First, map raw reads to reference with unspliced aligner - BWA; second, split initial unmapped reads into three equal short reads (seeds), align each seed to the reference, filter hits, search possible split position of read and extend hits to a complete match. Results Compare with other splice alignment tools like SOAPsplice and Tophat2, HSA has a better performance in call rate and efficiency, but its results do not as accurate as the other software to some extent. Conclusions HSA is an effective spliced aligner of RNA-Seq reads mapping, which is available at PMID:24564867



Aligning Biomolecular Networks Using Modular Graph Kernels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative analysis of biomolecular networks constructed using measurements from different conditions, tissues, and organisms offer a powerful approach to understanding the structure, function, dynamics, and evolution of complex biological systems. We explore a class of algorithms for aligning large biomolecular networks by breaking down such networks into subgraphs and computing the alignment of the networks based on the alignment of their subgraphs. The resulting subnetworks are compared using graph kernels as scoring functions. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit. Our experiments using Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository of protein-protein interaction data demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithms (as measured by % GO term enrichment of subnetworks identified by the alignment) is competitive with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms for pair-wise alignment of large protein-protein interaction networks. Our results also show that the inter-species similarity scores computed based on graph kernels can be used to cluster the species into a species tree that is consistent with the known phylogenetic relationships among the species.

Towfic, Fadi; Greenlee, M. Heather West; Honavar, Vasant


An advanced method for flood risk analysis in river deltas, applied to societal flood fatality risks in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the new method developed to analyse flood risks in river deltas. Risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and since the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risks must be taken into account. A Monte Carlo based flood risk analysis framework for policy making was developed, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes hydrodynamic interaction effects on flood risks. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risks (the probability of events with more than N fatalities) in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.



An advanced method for flood risk analysis in river deltas, applied to societal flood fatality risk in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a new method for flood risk assessment in river deltas. Flood risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risk must be taken into account. This paper presents a Monte Carlo-based flood risk analysis framework for policy making, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes effects from hydrodynamic interaction on flood risk. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risk in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.



A clinical comparison of three aligning archwires in terms of alignment efficiency: A prospective clinical trial.  


Abstract Objectives: To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of three orthodontic aligning archwires in relation to tooth alignment speed during the initial alignment stage of treatment. Materials and Methods: A consecutive sample of 74 patients requiring lower only or upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly allocated into three different archwires (0.014-inch superelastic nickel-titanium [NiTi], 0.014-inch thermoelastic NiTi, or 0.014-inch conventional NiTi). Good quality impressions were taken of the lower arch before archwire placement (T0) and at designated serial stages of alignment (every 2 weeks: T2, T4, T6, …, T16). The change in tooth alignment was measured in millimeters from the resultant casts using Little's irregularity index. Demographic and clinical differences among the three groups were compared with the chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The difference in the change of lower anterior tooth alignment over time among the three groups was explored with a Split Plot ANOVA (SPANOVA, or within- and between-groups ANOVA). The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test was used when data were not normally distributed. Results: The SPANOVA and Wilks Lambda Multivariate test confirmed that the wire type had no influence on the rate of change in alignment (P ?=? .98). Conclusion: The three forms of NiTi wires were similar in terms of their alignment efficiency during the initial aligning stage of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy. PMID:25090135

Abdelrahman, Reem Sh; Al-Nimri, Kazem S; Al Maaitah, Emad F



Protein sequence-structure alignment based on site-alignment probabilities.  


A protein sequence-structure alignment method for database searches is examined on how effectively this method together with a simple scoring function previously developed can identify compatibilities between sequences and structures of proteins. The scoring function consists of pairwise contact energies, repulsive packing potentials of residues for overly dense arrangement and short-range potentials for secondary structures. Pairwise contact interactions in a sequence-structure alignment are evaluated in a mean field approximation on the basis of probabilities of site pairs to be aligned. Gap penalties are assumed to be proportional to the number of contacts at each residue position, and as a result gaps will be more frequently placed on protein surfaces than in cores. In addition to minimum energy alignments, we use probability alignments made by successively aligning site pairs in order by pairwise alignment probabilities. Results show that the present energy function and alignment method can detect well both folds compatible with a given sequence and, inversely, sequences compatible with a given fold. Probability alignments consisting of most reliable site pairs only can yield small root mean square deviations, and including less reliable pairs increases the deviations. Remarkably, by this method some individual sequence-structure pairs are detected having only 5-20% sequence identity. PMID:11700595

Miyazawa, S



Haematological and infectious complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease: consensus definitions from the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease.  


A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval.The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the haematological system and to infectious complications. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases.The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a near-exhaustive list of haematological and infectious complications. Within each subgroup, complications are presented in alphabetical order. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, quality improvement initiatives, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies for treatment. PMID:19063796

Checchia, Paul A; Karamlou, Tara; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Ohye, Richard G; Bronicki, Ronald; Dodge-Khatami, Ali



Children's reasoning about spatial relational similarity: the effect of alignment and relational complexity.  


We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line. Moreover, children were rewarded for two different mapping strategies. Half of the children needed to choose a cup that held the same relative position as the rewarded cup in the other array; they needed to map left-left, middle-middle, and right-right cups together (aligned mapping), which required encoding and mapping of two relations (e.g., the cup left of the middle cup and left of the right cup). The other half needed to map together the cups that held the same relation to the table's spatial features-the cups at the edges, the middle cups, and the cups in the middle of the table (landmark mapping)-which required encoding and mapping of one relation (e.g., the cup at the table's edge). Results showed that children's success was constellation dependent; performance was higher when the arrays were aligned one behind the other in two rows than when they were placed side by side. Furthermore, children showed a preference for landmark mapping over aligned mapping. PMID:22154959

Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B M; Call, Josep



Stabilization Strategies for Unstable Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background When humans are faced with an unstable task, two different stabilization mechanisms are possible: a high-stiffness strategy, based on the inherent elastic properties of muscles/tools/manipulated objects, or a low-stiffness strategy, based on an explicit positional feedback mechanism. Specific constraints related to the dynamics of the task and/or the neuromuscular system often force people to adopt one of these two strategies. Methodology/Findings This experiment was designed such that subjects could achieve stability using either strategy, with a marked difference in terms of effort and control requirements between the two strategies. The task was to balance a virtual mass in an unstable environment via two elastic linkages that connected the mass to each hand. The dynamics of the mass under the influence of the unstable force field and the forces applied through the linkages were simulated using a bimanual, planar robot. The two linkages were non-linear, with a stiffness that increased with the amount of stretch. The mass could be stabilized by stretching the linkages to achieve a stiffness that was greater than the instability coefficient of the unstable field (high-stiffness), or by balancing the mass with sequences of small force impulses (low-stiffness). The results showed that 62% of the subjects quickly adopted the high-stiffness strategy, with stiffness ellipses that were aligned along the direction of instability. The remaining subjects applied the low-stiffness strategy, with no clear preference for the orientation of the stiffness ellipse. Conclusions The choice of a strategy was based on the bimanual coordination of the hands: high-stiffness subjects achieved stability quickly by separating the hands to stretch the linkages, while the low-stiffness subjects kept the hands close together and took longer to achieve stability but with lower effort. We suggest that the existence of multiple solutions leads to different types of skilled behavior in unstable environments. PMID:22279580

Saha, Devjani J.; Morasso, Pietro



Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. Discusses some methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment is not only a methodological requirement but also an ethical requirement.…

La Marca, Paul M.



Alignment system for a high-energy laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alignment system is being developed to align the feedback leg of a high energy laser resonator. The system uses a low energy visible laser, and a two axis position detector to compare the relative tilt of two alignment reference surfaces at either end of the feedback leg. Preliminary tests of the system in the lab have demonstrated subarcsecond alignment

Paul H. Dickinson; Steven H. Bowersox



Consensus alignment server for reliable comparative modeling with distant templates  

E-print Network

Consensus alignment server for reliable comparative modeling with distant templates Jahnavi C; Accepted April 26, 2004 ABSTRACT Consensus is a server developed to produce high- quality alignments different align- ment methods, the server produces a consensus alignment, with a reliability measure

Vajda, Sandor


Status report on the survey and alignment activities at Fermilab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surveying and alignment activities at Fermilab are the responsibility of the Alignment and Metrology Group. The Group supports and interacts with physicists and engineers working on any particular project, from the facility construction phase to the installation and final alignment of components in the beam line. One of the goals of the Alignment and Metrology Group is to upgrade

Babatunde OSheg Oshinowo



HMM-Based Word Alignment in Statistical Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a new model for word alignment in statistical translation and present experimental results. The idea of the model is to make the alignment probabilities dependent on the differences in the alignment positions rather than on the absolute positions. To achieve this goal, the approach uses a first-order Hidden Markov model (HMM) for the word alignment

Stephan Vogel; Hermann Ney; Christoph Tillmann



RandAL: a randomized approach to aligning DNA sequences to reference genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The alignment of short reads generated by next-generation sequencers to genomes is an important problem in many biomedical and bioinformatics applications. Although many proposed methods work very well on narrow ranges of read lengths, they tend to suffer in performance and alignment quality for reads outside of these ranges. Results We introduce RandAL, a novel method that aligns DNA sequences to reference genomes. Our approach utilizes two FM indices to facilitate efficient bidirectional searching, a pruning heuristic to speed up the computing of edit distances, and most importantly, a randomized strategy that enables effective estimation of key parameters. Extensive comparisons showed that RandAL outperformed popular aligners in most instances and was unique in its consistent and accurate performance over a wide range of read lengths and error rates. The software package is publicly available at Conclusions RandAL promises to align effectively and accurately short reads that come from a variety of technologies with different read lengths and rates of sequencing error. PMID:25081493



Magnetic tri-axial grain alignment in misfit-layered bismuth-based cobaltites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tri-axial grain alignment of thermoelectric Bi-based cobaltites with a misfit-layered structure by a modulated rotation magnetic field (MRF) of 10 tesla (T) was demonstrated. To maximize the degrees of tri-axial grain alignment in [(Bi2-xPbx)(AE2-yREy)O4]pCoO2 powder samples aligned under the MRF of 10 T, the following three crystallochemical approaches are important: doping of Pb into the Bi site, appropriate choice of an alkali earth (AE) ion, and doping of the appropriate rare earth (RE) ion into an AE site. Namely, simultaneous introduction of the relaxation effect of the misfit structure, creation of a domain structure with shear-type discontinuity, and single-ion magnetic anisotropy, which are induced by doping of Pb, Sr, and RE (Pr and Nd), respectively, into the Bi-based cobaltite achieved high degrees of tri-axial grain alignment below 4°. The present study provides a crystallochemical strategy for the fabrication of grain-aligned ceramics of misfit-layered Bi-based cobaltites with high thermoelectric performance by the magneto-scientific technique using MRF.

Horii, Shigeru; Okamoto, Natsuki; Aoki, Keisuke; Haruta, Masakazu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji



3D microband boundary alignments and transitions in a cold rolled commercial purity aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

In the study of microband formation during plastic deformation of face centered cubic metals and alloys, two theories have been proposed regarding the orientations of their boundaries: (i) they are aligned parallel to crystallographic planes associated with dislocation glide (i.e. (111) planes in FCC metals), or (ii) they are aligned in accordance with the macroscopic stress state generated during deformation. In this study, high resolution 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD) was used to investigate the morphology and crystallographic nature of microband boundaries within a 19 × 9 × 8.6 ?m volume of a deformed grain in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to 22% reduction. It was found that microband boundaries correspond to both theories of orientation. Additionally, a single surface may contain both crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. Misorientations across boundaries in the regions of microband triple junctions have been identified for both boundary alignments. - Highlights: ? Reconstruction of a 3D volume of crystallographic orientations from EBSD data ? Subgrain features accurately reconstructed using specially designed strategies. ? Microband boundaries contain crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. ? Boundaries form by crystallographic process but rotate to non-crystallographic.

George, C.; Soe, B.; King, K. [Department of Engineering, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Quadir, M.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Ferry, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Bassman, L., E-mail: [Department of Engineering, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia)



GASOLINE: a Greedy And Stochastic algorithm for Optimal Local multiple alignment of Interaction NEtworks  

PubMed Central

The analysis of structure and dynamics of biological networks plays a central role in understanding the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Biological networks have been considered a suitable formalism to extend evolutionary and comparative biology. In this paper we present GASOLINE, an algorithm for multiple local network alignment based on statistical iterative sampling in connection to a greedy strategy. GASOLINE overcomes the limits of current approaches by producing biologically significant alignments within a feasible running time, even for very large input instances. The method has been extensively tested on a database of real and synthetic biological networks. A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the art algorithms clearly shows that GASOLINE yields the best results in terms of both reliability of alignments and running time on real biological networks and results comparable in terms of quality of alignments on synthetic networks. GASOLINE has been developed in Java, and is available, along with all the computed alignments, at the following URL: PMID:24911103

Giugno, Rosalba; Ferro, Alfredo



Creating polymer hydrogel microfibres with internal alignment via electrical and mechanical stretching.  


Hydrogels have been widely used for 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue regeneration due to their tunable biochemical and physicochemical properties as well as their high water content, which resembles the aqueous microenvironment of the natural extracellular matrix. While many properties of natural hydrogel matrices are modifiable, their intrinsic isotropic structure limits the control over cellular organization, which is critical to restore tissue function. Here we report a generic approach to incorporate alignment topography inside the hydrogel matrix using a combination of electrical and mechanical stretching. Hydrogel fibres with uniaxial alignment were prepared from aqueous solutions of natural polymers such as alginate, fibrin, gelatin, and hyaluronic acid under ambient conditions. The unique internal alignment feature drastically enhances the mechanical properties of the hydrogel microfibres. Furthermore, the facile, organic solvent-free processing conditions are amenable to the incorporation of live cells within the hydrogel fibre or on the fibre surface; both approaches effectively induce cellular alignment. This work demonstrates a versatile and scalable strategy to create aligned hydrogel microfibres from various natural polymers. PMID:24439410

Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Xi; Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F; Yu, Yixuan; Ginn, Brian P; DeSantis, Nicholas A; Hutton, Daphne L; Grayson, Warren L; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Korgel, Brian A; Gerecht, Sharon; Mao, Hai-Quan



RNA-Seq Alignment to Individualized Genomes Improves Transcript Abundance Estimates in Multiparent Populations  

PubMed Central

Massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has yielded a wealth of new insights into transcriptional regulation. A first step in the analysis of RNA-seq data is the alignment of short sequence reads to a common reference genome or transcriptome. Genetic variants that distinguish individual genomes from the reference sequence can cause reads to be misaligned, resulting in biased estimates of transcript abundance. Fine-tuning of read alignment algorithms does not correct this problem. We have developed Seqnature software to construct individualized diploid genomes and transcriptomes for multiparent populations and have implemented a complete analysis pipeline that incorporates other existing software tools. We demonstrate in simulated and real data sets that alignment to individualized transcriptomes increases read mapping accuracy, improves estimation of transcript abundance, and enables the direct estimation of allele-specific expression. Moreover, when applied to expression QTL mapping we find that our individualized alignment strategy corrects false-positive linkage signals and unmasks hidden associations. We recommend the use of individualized diploid genomes over reference sequence alignment for all applications of high-throughput sequencing technology in genetically diverse populations. PMID:25236449

Munger, Steven C.; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Choi, Kwangbom; Simons, Allen K.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Hinerfeld, Douglas A.; Svenson, Karen L.; Keller, Mark P.; Attie, Alan D.; Hibbs, Matthew A.; Graber, Joel H.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Churchill, Gary A.



RNA-Seq alignment to individualized genomes improves transcript abundance estimates in multiparent populations.  


Massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has yielded a wealth of new insights into transcriptional regulation. A first step in the analysis of RNA-seq data is the alignment of short sequence reads to a common reference genome or transcriptome. Genetic variants that distinguish individual genomes from the reference sequence can cause reads to be misaligned, resulting in biased estimates of transcript abundance. Fine-tuning of read alignment algorithms does not correct this problem. We have developed Seqnature software to construct individualized diploid genomes and transcriptomes for multiparent populations and have implemented a complete analysis pipeline that incorporates other existing software tools. We demonstrate in simulated and real data sets that alignment to individualized transcriptomes increases read mapping accuracy, improves estimation of transcript abundance, and enables the direct estimation of allele-specific expression. Moreover, when applied to expression QTL mapping we find that our individualized alignment strategy corrects false-positive linkage signals and unmasks hidden associations. We recommend the use of individualized diploid genomes over reference sequence alignment for all applications of high-throughput sequencing technology in genetically diverse populations. PMID:25236449

Munger, Steven C; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Choi, Kwangbom; Simons, Allen K; Gatti, Daniel M; Hinerfeld, Douglas A; Svenson, Karen L; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Hibbs, Matthew A; Graber, Joel H; Chesler, Elissa J; Churchill, Gary A



Alignment issues of the SLC linac accelerating structure  

SciTech Connect

The accelerating structure of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is required to be aligned to 100--200 {mu}m rms. Alignment at such a level will reduce transverse wakefield effects sufficiently so that only a small emittance enlargement of the beam is expected during acceleration to 50 GeV with up to 7 {times} 10{sup 10} particles per bunch. This report describes many aspects of the alignment including global alignment, local alignment, construction of the accelerating cavities, active controls of the structure alignment, external constraints, temperature and airflow effects, and alignment stability. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Seeman, J.T.; Adolphsen, C.; Decker, F.J.; Fischer, G.; Hodgson, J.; Pennacchi, R.; Perkins, C.; Pietryka, M.



Developing a theory of the societal lifecycle of cigarette smoking : explaining and anticipating trends using information feedback.  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking presented the most significant public health challenge in the United States in the 20th Century and remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in this country. A number of System Dynamics models exist that inform tobacco control policies. We reviewed them and discuss their contributions. We developed a theory of the societal lifecycle of smoking, using a parsimonious set of feedback loops to capture historical trends and explore future scenarios. Previous work did not explain the long-term historical patterns of smoking behaviors. Much of it used stock-and-flow to represent the decline in prevalence in the recent past. With noted exceptions, information feedbacks were not embedded in these models. We present and discuss our feedback-rich conceptual model and illustrate the results of a series of simulations. A formal analysis shows phenomena composed of different phases of behavior with specific dominant feedbacks associated with each phase. We discuss the implications of our society's current phase, and conclude with simulations of what-if scenarios. Because System Dynamics models must contain information feedback to be able to anticipate tipping points and to help identify policies that exploit leverage in a complex system, we expanded this body of work to provide an endogenous representation of the century-long societal lifecycle of smoking.

Brodsky, Nancy S.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Richardson, George P.



Explaining the subjective well-being of urban and rural Chinese: Income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations.  


This study makes an integrated investigation of how subjective well-being is associated with income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations and how these social and psychological correlates of subjective well-being are contextualized within a country. Data used for the empirical analysis come from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in China in 2009. It is found that subjective well-being is independently linked to income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations. Comparisons of urban and rural Chinese further reveal that income, structural attributions of inequality, and evaluations of governance are related to subjective well-being among both groups. Nevertheless, different sets of other evaluative correlates of subjective well-being between urban and rural people stand out, which is conjectured to be related to the long-time institutional, economic, and social segmentation of the two groups. This study has contributed to both the subjective well-being theories and the understanding of the consequences of social inequality. PMID:25432612

Han, Chunping




E-print Network

de Tours en Sciences de Gestion LES EFFETS DES STRATEGIES D'ENRICHISSEMENT DE PRODUITS SUR LA VALEUR PER�UE D'UN BIEN COMPLEXE UNE APPLICATION AU SECTEUR AUTOMOBILE TH�SE dirigée par : Madame ZOLLINGER recherche (colloque doctoral de l'AFM en 2007, 12èmes Journées de Recherche en Marketing de Bourgogne en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Efficient pairwise RNA structure prediction and alignment using sequence alignment constraints  

PubMed Central

Background We are interested in the problem of predicting secondary structure for small sets of homologous RNAs, by incorporating limited comparative sequence information into an RNA folding model. The Sankoff algorithm for simultaneous RNA folding and alignment is a basis for approaches to this problem. There are two open problems in applying a Sankoff algorithm: development of a good unified scoring system for alignment and folding and development of practical heuristics for dealing with the computational complexity of the algorithm. Results We use probabilistic models (pair stochastic context-free grammars, pairSCFGs) as a unifying framework for scoring pairwise alignment and folding. A constrained version of the pairSCFG structural alignment algorithm was developed which assumes knowledge of a few confidently aligned positions (pins). These pins are selected based on the posterior probabilities of a probabilistic pairwise sequence alignment. Conclusion Pairwise RNA structural alignment improves on structure prediction accuracy relative to single sequence folding. Constraining on alignment is a straightforward method of reducing the runtime and memory requirements of the algorithm. Five practical implementations of the pairwise Sankoff algorithm – this work (Consan), David Mathews' Dynalign, Ian Holmes' Stemloc, Ivo Hofacker's PMcomp, and Jan Gorodkin's FOLDALIGN – have comparable overall performance with different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:16952317

Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R



Aligning Vision, ValuesAligning Vision, Values And Choices ForAnd Choices For  

E-print Network

Aligning Vision, ValuesAligning Vision, Values And Choices ForAnd Choices For Sustainable. Broaden the context for choiceBroaden the context for choice ­­ scenario planning, visioning.scenario planning, visioning. Seek integration of disparate needsSeek integration of disparate needs­­ how can

Kyte, Michael


Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar



Align-m-a new algorithm for multiple alignment of highly divergent sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Multiple alignment of highly divergent sequences is a challenging problem for which available programs tend to show poor performance. Generally, this is due to a scor- ing function that does not describe biological reality accurately enough or a heuristic that cannot explore solution space effi- ciently enough. In this respect, we present a new program, Align-m, that uses a

Ivo Van Walle; Ignace Lasters; Lode Wyns



Business-IT Alignment: A Current-State Evaluation of Strategic Alignment within the Hospital Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than thirty years of research has shown that the practical value of business-IT alignment is significant and that its importance derives from strategic impact on business outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the current-state of business-IT alignment maturity within the hospital organization. Data for this study was…

Evers, Kevin W.



An active alignment method for post launch co-alignment of laser beam combiner systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser transmitter for high bandwidth geosynchronous satellite communications is described. High optical power is achieved by combining semiconductor laser diodes. An active alignment scheme is proposed for achieving the +/- 20 microrad post launch multiple laser angular co-alignment requirement.

Yu, A. W.; Green, J. W.; Maynard, W. L.; Minott, P. O.; Krainak, M. A.



Dust Grain Alignment in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first observations of interstellar polarization at visible wavelengths over 60 years ago were quickly attributed to the net alignment of irregular dust grains with local magnetic fields. This mechanism provides a method to measure the topology and strength of the magnetic field and to probe the physical characteristics of the dust (e.g., material, size, and shape). However, to do so with confidence, the physics and variability of the alignment mechanism(s) must be quantitatively understood. The description of the physical alignment mechanism has a long history with key contributions spanning decades; the last 15 years have seen major advances in both the theoretical and observational understanding of the problem. For example, it is now clear that the canonical process of paramagnetic relaxation, in which grain rotational components perpendicular to the magnetic field are damped out, is inadequate to align grains on the necessary timescales (compared to damping via collisions) for typical interstellar medium conditions. However, the modern theory of radiative alignment has been more successful; in this theory grains are aligned with respect to the magnetic field via photon-grain interactions that impart the necessary torques to the rotation axes of grains. Here we highlight key observational tests of these alignment mechanisms, especially those involving spectropolarimetry of both dust extinction at near-optical wavelengths and dust emission at far-infrared through millimeter wavelengths. Observations in both these regimes can place limits on such grain aspects as their size and temperature. To date, most observations of the polarized emission have been in the densest regions of the interstellar medium where interpretation in terms of grain alignment models is complicated by regions containing embedded stars and a wide range of temperatures. Additionally, direct comparison of the optical extinction polarization (AV . 10 magnitudes) with dust emission polarization (AV . 25 magnitudes) has not been possible. Future observations with increased sensitivity and spectral coverage in the far-infrared may reach the lower extinction levels necessary to allow more definitive tests of grain alignment models.

Vaillancourt, J.; Andersson, B. G.; Lazarian, A.


DoSA: Database of Structural Alignments  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment is a crucial step in protein structure–function analysis. Despite the advances in protein structure alignment algorithms, some of the local conformationally similar regions are mislabeled as structurally variable regions (SVRs). These regions are not well superimposed because of differences in their spatial orientations. The Database of Structural Alignments (DoSA) addresses this gap in identification of local structural similarities obscured in global protein structural alignments by realigning SVRs using an algorithm based on protein blocks. A set of protein blocks is a structural alphabet that abstracts protein structures into 16 unique local structural motifs. DoSA provides unique information about 159 780 conformationally similar and 56 140 conformationally dissimilar SVRs in 74 705 pairwise structural alignments of homologous proteins. The information provided on conformationally similar and dissimilar SVRs can be helpful to model loop regions. It is also conceivable that conformationally similar SVRs with conserved residues could potentially contribute toward functional integrity of homologues, and hence identifying such SVRs could be helpful in understanding the structural basis of protein function. Database URL: PMID:23846594

Mahajan, Swapnil; Agarwal, Garima; Iftekhar, Mohammed; Offmann, Bernard; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy



Protein structure alignment based on internal coordinates.  


Protein structure alignment provides an effective way to detect and analyze fold mechanism, evolutionary history and biological function of proteins. In this work, we introduced a novel method named SABIC for protein structure alignment based on the internal coordinates (i.e. bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) of structure representation. SABIC provides multi-alignments as the output, from which various aspects of structural similarities between proteins can be identified. The experimental results on benchmark datasets show that SABIC performs better than other popular algorithms, such as DALI, CE and SSM. Using a new defined mQ-score of alignment, SABIC performs consistently better in detecting structural classifications of proteins. In addition, we detected the extreme value distribution form statistics of mQ-score, and then the statistical significance P-value of alignment can be obtained simultaneously. The presented SABIC algorithm has been implemented in C(++) and the software is available ( ). PMID:21153777

Shen, Yue-Feng; Li, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Ping



Alignment of the CMS silicon tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16 588 modules, embedded in a solenoidal magnet providing a field of B = 3.8 T. The targeted performance requires that the software alignment tools determine the module positions with a precision of a few micrometers. Ultimate local precision is reached by the determination of sensor curvatures, challenging the algorithms to determine about 200 000 parameters simultaneously. The main remaining challenge for alignment are the global distortions that systematically bias the track parameters and thus physics measurements. They are controlled by adding further information into the alignment work-flow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances or track data taken with B = 0T. To make use of the latter and also to integrate the determination of the Lorentz angle into the alignment procedure, the alignment framework has been extended to treat position sensitive calibration parameters. This is relevant since due to the increased LHC luminosity in 2012, the Lorentz angle exhibits time dependence. Cooling failures and ramping of the magnet can induce movements of large detector sub-structures. These movements are now detected in the CMS prompt calibration loop to make the corrections available for the reconstruction of the data for physics analysis. The geometries are finally carefully validated. The monitored quantities include the basic track quantities for tracks from both collisions and cosmic ray muons and physics observables.

Lampén, Tapio; Cms Collaboration



Alignments of Voids in the Cosmic Web  

E-print Network

We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large scale matter distribution of a LCDM cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel WVF void finder technique. The identified voids are quite nonspherical and slightly prolate, with axis ratios in the order of c:b:a approx. 0.5:0.7:1. Their orientations are strongly correlated with significant alignments spanning scales >30 Mpc/h. We also find an intimate link between the cosmic tidal field and the void orientations. Over a very wide range of scales we find a coherent and strong alignment of the voids with the tidal field computed from the smoothed density distribution. This orientation-tide alignment remains significant on scales exceeding twice the typical void size, which shows that the long range external field is responsible for the alignment of the voids. This confirms the view that the large scale tidal force field is the main agent for the large scale spatial organization of the Cosmic Web.

Erwin Platen; Rien van de Weygaert; Bernard J. T. Jones



Suspended photonic waveguide arrays for submicrometer alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new alignment concept for the alignment of multichannel photonic intergrated circuits (PICs) using flexible photonic waveguides on one of the PICs that are positionable by integrated micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) actuators. The concept aims for high precision and high degree of assembly process automation. The proposed concept includes pre-alignment of both PICs on a common substrate followed by fine-alignment using the on-chip flexible waveguides and MEMS functionality. This paper introduces the alignment approach and reports on the development and fabrication of suspended and mechanically flexible photonic waveguides. Single suspended waveguide beams and suspended arrays with two and four coupled parallel waveguide beams of different lengths (250 ?m to 1000 ?m) and different widths (18 ?m to 34 ?m) are designed and fabricated. After fabrication, waveguide beam fracturing is observed. The fabrication process has been extended by an additional under-etching step in order to reduce beam fracturing. The static out-of-plane deflection of the fabricated devices follows a specific profile with a dominating upward curvature resulting in a measured maximum out-of-plane deflection of 2% of the length. The beam stiffness of the fabricated devices is measured and proves to be within the available force of microactuators.

Peters, Tjitte-Jelte; Tichem, Marcel; Staufer, Urs



Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

Chavez, Melissa A.



Spent fuel container alignment device and method  


An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

Jones, Stewart D. (Mechanicville, NY); Chapek, George V. (Scotia, NY)



Contextual Alignment of Cognitive and Neural Dynamics.  


Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (N = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri



Carbon nanotube alignment in a thermosetting resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering aspects associated with nanocomposite development involves either their final properties either their processability. Both are affected by the distribution of nanofiller in the matrix, or in other words by its dispersion. Mechanical and rheological properties of nanocomposites are directly affected by the aspect ratio of the nanofiller. A nanofilled thermosetting polymer can be exploited as a matrix for continuous fibers when alignment of a high aspect ratio nanofiller is achieved: in this case a hierarchical composite is obtained. A new approach base in two-step is proposed. First the alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved in a fiber spinning process where an amorphous thermoplastic polymer filled with carbon nanotubes or graphene stacks is used. Then these fibers are aligned and impregnated with the target thermosetting matrix where they ar soluble. After dissolution the nanofillers remained oriented in the thermosetting matrix.

Lionetto, Francesca; Greco, Antonio; Pisignano, Dario; Maffezzoli, Alfonso



LumiCal alignment system - Status report  

E-print Network

The paper describes the status of the laser-based alignment-system for the luminosity detector, LumiCal, taking into considerations the conditions of the International Large Detector in the International Linear Collider project. The design of the system comprises two parts: the first one containing semi-transparent silicon sensors used to deliver simultaneous position measurements in the X,Y directions of the monitored object, and the second one in which the interferometric technique, i.e. the Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI), is proposed. Two laboratory prototypes for both components of the system were built and the preliminary measurements of the DUT displacements demonstrated their utility in the design of the final alignment system. The alignment of the LumiCal detector will allow us to monitor the detector displacements and possible deformations in its internal structure. Lack of information of the displacements will introduce a systematic effect which will have an impact on the accuracy of the fi...

Daniluk, W.; Lesiak, T.; Moszczy?ski, A.; Pawlik, B.; Wojto?, T.; Zawiejski, L.



On the alignment for precession electron diffraction  

PubMed Central

Precession electron diffraction has seen a fast increase in its adoption as a technique for solving crystallographic structures as well as an alternative to conventional selected-area and converged-beam diffraction methods. One of the key issues of precession is the pivot point alignment, as a stationary apparent beam does not guarantee a fixed pivot point. A large precession tilt angle, along with pre-field and post-field misalignment, induces shift in the image plane. We point out here that the beam should be aligned to the pre-field optic axis to keep the electron illumination stationary during the rocking process. A practical alignment procedure is suggested with the focus placed on minimizing the beam wandering on the specimen, and is demonstrated for a (110)-oriented silicon single crystal and for a carbide phase (~20 nm in size) within a cast cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy. PMID:22634134

Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D.



Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

Szczepek Reed, Beatrice



Technology Through Time: Ancient Astronomical Alignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others. Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day.


Magnetic Field Measurement with Ground State Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies of magnetic fields are crucial. We introduce a process "ground state alignment" as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1 G ? B ? 10^{-15} G). In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this chapter, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields in the Epoch of Reionization.

Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.


Laboratory simulation of field-aligned currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of progress during the period Apr. 1992 to Mar. 1993 is provided. Objectives of the research are (1) to simulate, via laboratory experiments, the three terms of the field-aligned current equation; (2) to simulate auroral-arc formation processes by configuring the boundary conditions of the experimental chamber and plasma parameters to produce highly localized return currents at the end of a field-aligned current system; and (3) to extrapolate these results, using theoretical and computational techniques, to the problem of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to compare them with published literature signatures of auroral-arc phenomena.

Wessel, Frank J.; Rostoker, Norman



Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory  

SciTech Connect

The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC



Alignment of a two-beam interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two beam interferometers have been proposed for space applications such as sensing the shape of a large antenna. Since alignment and adjustment of interferometers have long been considered difficult laboratory tasks, the question of making their operation sufficiently automatic for space applications is a serious one. As a first step in addressing this question certain manual procedures, which may not be well known, have been collected from widely scattered sources. These techniques are illustrated by two examples: (1) the alignment of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the adjustment of fringe location. (2) The adjustment of a Michelson interferometer for zero path difference (white light fringes).

Tubbs, E. F.



Questioning Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article from the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin the best practices of questioning strategies are explained. The author illustrates the difference between an open and a closed question and provides examples of the five categories of questions that teachers should be asking. A bibliography of additional resources is included for further study.



To develop a geometric matching method for precision mold alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop a high accuracy optical alignment system for precision molding machine, a geometric matching method was developed in this paper. The alignment system includes 4 high magnification lenses, 4 CCD cameras and 4 LED light sources. In the precision molding machine, a bottom metal mold and a top glass mold are used to produce a micro lens. The two molds combination does not use any pin or alignment part. They only use the optical alignment system to alignment. In this optical alignment system, the off-axis alignment method was used. The alignment accuracy of the alignment system is about 0.5 ?m. There are 2 cross marks on the top glass mold and 2 cross marks on the bottom metal mod. In this paper did not use edge detection to recognize the mask center because the mask easy wears when the combination times increased. Therefore, this paper develops a geometric matching method to recognize mask center.

Chen, Chun-Jen; Chang, Chun-Li; Jywe, Wenyuh



Enumerating suboptimal alignments of multiple biological sequences efficiently  

SciTech Connect

The multiple sequence alignment problem is very applicable and important in various fields in molecular biology. Because the optimal alignment that maximizes the score is not always biologically most significant, providing many suboptimal alignments as alternatives for the optimal one is very useful. As for the alignment of two sequences, this suboptimal problem is well-studied, but for the alignment of multiple sequences, it has been considered impossible to investigate such suboptimal alignments because of the enormous size of the problem. The optimal multiple alignment can be obtained with an A* algorithm, and an efficient algorithm for the k shortest paths problem on general graphs was discovered recently. We extend these algorithms for computation of a set of all aligned groups of residues in optimal and suboptimal alignments and for enumeration of suboptimal alignments. The suboptimal alignments are numerous. Thus we discuss what kind of suboptimal alignment is unnecessary to enumerate, and propose an efficient technique to enumerate only necessary alignments. The practicality of these algorithms are demonstrated through experiments. Moreover, the property of suboptimal alignments of multiple sequences are also examined through experiments. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Shibuya, Tetsuo; Imai, Hiroshi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)



Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview methodology showing how it is possible to reduce complex alignment directions into a simplified set of instructions for layman service engineers.

Lizotte, Todd E.



Minimizing critical layer systematic alignment errors during non-dedicated processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 150 nm and smaller half-pitch geometries, many DRAM manufacturers frequently employ dedicated exposure tool strategy for processing of most critical layers. Individual die tolerances of less than 40 nm are not uncommon for such compact geometries and a method is needed to reduce systematic overlay errors. The dedication strategy relies on the premise that a component of the systematic error induced by the inefficiencies in the exposure tool encountered at a specific layer can be diminished by re-exposing subsequent layer(s) on the same tool thus canceling out a large component of this error. In the past this strategy has, in general, resulted in better overall alignment performance, better exposure tool modeling and in decreased residual modeling errors. Increased alignment performance due to dedication does not come without its price. In such a dedicated strategy wafers are committed to process on the same tool at subsequent lithographic layers thus decreasing manufacturing flexibility and in turn affecting cost through increased processing cycle time. Tool down-events and equipment upgrades requiring significant downtime can also have a significant negative impact on running of a factory. This paper presents volume results for the 140 nm and 110 nm half-pitch geometries using 248 nm and 193 nm respective exposure wavelength state-of-art systems that show that dedicated processing still produces superior overlay and device performance results when compared blindly against non-dedicated processing. Results are also shown that at a given time an acceptable match may be found producing near equivalent results for non-dedicated processing. Changes in alignment capability are also observed after major equipment maintenance and component replacement. A point-in-time predictor strategy utilizing residual modeling errors and a set of modified performance specifications is directly compared against measured overlay data after patterning, against within field AFOV measurements after etching of the pattern and to final device performance.

Jekauc, Igor; Roberts, William R.



TE10 resonant iris with angular alignment  

E-print Network

TE10 resonant iris with angular alignment TE101 mode cavities TM110 mode cavities TE01 (TE10) resonant iris 1a 1b Fig. 1: Filter configurations utilizing cavity and iris resonances. Resonant irises and resonant irises. Two different configurations, which allow precise control of the direct couplings between

Bornemann, Jens


Efficient alignment-free DNA barcode analytics  

PubMed Central

Background In this work we consider barcode DNA analysis problems and address them using alternative, alignment-free methods and representations which model sequences as collections of short sequence fragments (features). The methods use fixed-length representations (spectrum) for barcode sequences to measure similarities or dissimilarities between sequences coming from the same or different species. The spectrum-based representation not only allows for accurate and computationally efficient species classification, but also opens possibility for accurate clustering analysis of putative species barcodes and identification of critical within-barcode loci distinguishing barcodes of different sample groups. Results New alignment-free methods provide highly accurate and fast DNA barcode-based identification and classification of species with substantial improvements in accuracy and speed over state-of-the-art barcode analysis methods. We evaluate our methods on problems of species classification and identification using barcodes, important and relevant analytical tasks in many practical applications (adverse species movement monitoring, sampling surveys for unknown or pathogenic species identification, biodiversity assessment, etc.) On several benchmark barcode datasets, including ACG, Astraptes, Hesperiidae, Fish larvae, and Birds of North America, proposed alignment-free methods considerably improve prediction accuracy compared to prior results. We also observe significant running time improvements over the state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion Our results show that newly developed alignment-free methods for DNA barcoding can efficiently and with high accuracy identify specimens by examining only few barcode features, resulting in increased scalability and interpretability of current computational approaches to barcoding. PMID:19900305

Kuksa, Pavel; Pavlovic, Vladimir



Scalable cell alignment on optical media substrates.  


Cell alignment by underlying topographical cues has been shown to affect important biological processes such as differentiation and functional maturation in vitro. However, the routine use of cell culture substrates with micro- or nano-topographies, such as grooves, is currently hampered by the high cost and specialized facilities required to produce these substrates. Here we present cost-effective commercially available optical media as substrates for aligning cells in culture. These optical media, including CD-R, DVD-R and optical grating, allow different cell types to attach and grow well on them. The physical dimension of the grooves in these optical media allowed cells to be aligned in confluent cell culture with maximal cell-cell interaction and these cell alignment affect the morphology and differentiation of cardiac (H9C2), skeletal muscle (C2C12) and neuronal (PC12) cell lines. The optical media is amenable to various chemical modifications with fibronectin, laminin and gelatin for culturing different cell types. These low-cost commercially available optical media can serve as scalable substrates for research or drug safety screening applications in industry scales. PMID:23601659

Anene-Nzelu, Chukwuemeka G; Choudhury, Deepak; Li, Huipeng; Fraiszudeen, Azmall; Peh, Kah-Yim; Toh, Yi-Chin; Ng, Sum Huan; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry



Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor

Y J Lee; K H Chang; J C Chon; C Y Oh



Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution  

E-print Network

4 Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution Carl Shapiro, University of California the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social with the patent system and discourage in- novation by others. Economic efficiency is promoted if rewards to patent

Sadoulet, Elisabeth


Alignment of an Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction are designed to detect small perturbations in the relative lengths of their kilometer-scale arms which would be induced by passing gravitational radiation. An analysis of the effects of imperfect optical alignment on the strain sensitivity of such an interferometer shows that in order to achieve maximum strain sensitivity in LIGO, the angular orientations

Gabriela Gonzalez; Nergis Mavalvala; David Shoemaker; Michael Zucker



Aligned genomic data compression via improved modeling.  


With the release of the latest Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) machine, the HiSeq X by Illumina, the cost of sequencing the whole genome of a human is expected to drop to a mere $1000. This milestone in sequencing history marks the era of affordable sequencing of individuals and opens the doors to personalized medicine. In accord, unprecedented volumes of genomic data will require storage for processing. There will be dire need not only of compressing aligned data, but also of generating compressed files that can be fed directly to downstream applications to facilitate the analysis of and inference on the data. Several approaches to this challenge have been proposed in the literature; however, focus thus far has been on the low coverage regime and most of the suggested compressors are not based on effective modeling of the data. We demonstrate the benefit of data modeling for compressing aligned reads. Specifically, we show that, by working with data models designed for the aligned data, we can improve considerably over the best compression ratio achieved by previously proposed algorithms. Our results indicate that the pareto-optimal barrier for compression rate and speed claimed by Bonfield and Mahoney (2013) [Bonfield JK and Mahoneys MV, Compression of FASTQ and SAM format sequencing data, PLOS ONE, 8(3):e59190, 2013.] does not apply for high coverage aligned data. Furthermore, our improved compression ratio is achieved by splitting the data in a manner conducive to operations in the compressed domain by downstream applications. PMID:25395305

Ochoa, Idoia; Hernaez, Mikel; Weissman, Tsachy



Continuous Optimization Methods for Structure Alignments  

E-print Network

Jan 30, 2006 ... Structural Alignment is an important tool for fold identification of .... algorithms that rely on the atom sequence are not robust in terms of the input received. ...... Transcription Factor 4; (8) 1Q2HA, Adaptor Protein with Pleckstrin ...



Self-Aligning Truss-Joint Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-aligning truss-joint mechanism actuated by single motor or manual rotary drive. Each subassembly connected permanently to one of two structural components to be joined. Mechanism facilitates quick assembly and disassembly and suitable for robotic operation. Features include automatic latching and redundant manual drive.

Wesselski, Clarence



Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition  

E-print Network

in interactive video games as well. In order to enhance the interaction and attractiveness of the games - recogLearning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 and within this framework learns the desired shape metric parameters from la- beled training samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Further solar alignments of Greek Byzantine churches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the recent work on the solar alignment of Greek byzantine churches (Liritzis and Vassiliou 2006 a,b,c) the solar orientations of twenty one more churches are presented. The question examined is if the day of solar rise across the eastern direction of the church is related with the feast day of Patron Saint. Measurements were carried out with magnetic compass, inclinometer, portable GPS and appropriate corrections for the solar declination. The alignments towards eastern sunrise were examined for various angular altitudes of the perceptible horizon. At least for all Rhodean churches the patron's day is met when sun oblique path crosses horizon a few degrees beyond the intersection of extrapolated eastern axis of the church with horizons skyline. Therefore, taken the orientation as the glitter of first sunrays -early dawn- correlation of thirteen present churches are aligned near the autumnal equinox, three have relation with the feast of patron saint, four are related to the other important feast of Christianity and one seem orientated randomly. However accounting for a due east sun position a few degrees above horizon in early liturgy hours (6:30 - 9:30 am) all the Rhodean alignments coincides with Saint's name day.

Liritzis, I.; Vasiliou, H.


Equivalence and Efficiency of Image Alignment Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two major formulations of image alignment us- ing gradient descent. The first estimates an additive incre- ment to the parameters (the additive approach), the second an incremental warp (the compositionalapproach). We first prove that these two formulations are equivalent. A very ef- ficient algorithm was recently proposed by Hager and Bel- humeur using the additive approach that unfortunately

Simon Baker; Iain Matthews



Bayesian Protein Structure Alignment Abel Rodriguez  

E-print Network

and Statistics University of California Santa Cruz Scott C. Schmidler Department of Statistical Science Duke specific choices of prior distributions and error models. Our probabilistic framework is also easily a long history of providing valuable insights. For example, the alignment of a putative human colon

Schmidler, Scott


Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment and Tensegrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will review the objectives and current status of two Small Business Innovative Research being performed by the Sirius Group, under the direction of MSFC. They all relate to the development of advanced optical systems technologies for automated segmented mirror alignment techniques and fundamental design methodologies for ultralight structures. These are important to future astronomical missions in space.

Zeiders, Glenn W.; Montgomery, Edward E, IV (Technical Monitor)



Alignment microscope for rotating laser scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic assembly for alignment of rotary laser focuses on small film area along scan line at oblique angle. Suitable choice of angle and location of optical components project laser beam line as X coordinate reticle. Coordination with horizontal recticle line included microscope facilitates Y coordinate position indexing.

Maciel, A., Jr.; Beck, J. C.



Community Alignment Creating campus community by  

E-print Network

Meeting Oregon State Police Station Command selection Response Teams and Health and Wellness Alignment Religious and Spiritual Advisors Quiet space and spiritual development Student group dialogues and outreach takers Highlights Remote captioning/remote interpreting ­ in class Captioned videos New process for e

Escher, Christine


Prosody and Alignment: A Sequential Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes…

Reed, Beatrice Szczepek



Survey and alignment at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET`` and STAR*NET`` software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS``). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S&A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper.

Krebs, G.F.; Lauritzen, T.; Thur, W.



Simple method of theodolite alignment using laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple identification method of theodolite axes is presented. By directing a laser beam along the theodolite optical axis a diffraction figure of the cross hairs is generated. An analysis of the figure reveals the main and secondary axes. Interferential alignment is also used for precise identification of the optical axis. This method is easily applied by visual inspection. It

Marcelo Silva Sthel; Rodolfo Moreira de Castro



Rounding And Aligning Tubes For Butt Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use tool helps to ensure solid, reliable joint. Tool similar to automobile-tailpipe expander corrects out-of-roundness in tubes before butt-welded and holds tubes in position during welding. Two tubes rounded and aligned with each other by expansion shoes. After use, shoes retracted so tool withdrawn, even through tube narrower than its mate.

Burley, Richard H.; Burow, Glenn H.



The Nonlinear Evolution of Galaxy Intrinsic Alignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-Gaussian contribution to the intrinsic halo spin alignments is analytically modeled and numerically detected. Assuming that the growth of non-Gaussianity in the density fluctuations caused the tidal field to have a nonlinear-order effect on the orientations of the halo angular momentum, we model the intrinsic halo spin alignments as a linear scaling of the density correlations on large scales, which is different from the previous quadratic scaling model based on the linear tidal torque theory. Then, we analyze the halo catalogs from the recent high-resolution Millenium Run simulation at four different redshifts (z=0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and measure quantitatively the degree of the nonlinear effect on the halo spin alignments and its changes with redshifts. A clear signal of spin correlations is found on scales as large as 10 h-1 Mpc at z=0, which marks a detection of the nonlinear tidal effect on the intrinsic halo alignments. We also investigate how the nonlinear effect depends on the intrinsic properties of the halos. It is found that the degree of the nonlinear tidal effect increases as the halo mass scale decreases, the halo specific angular momentum increases, and the halo peculiar velocity decreases. We discuss the implications of our results for weak gravitational lensing.

Lee, Jounghun; Pen, Ue-Li



A new analysis of quasar polarization alignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method to analyse the alignment of optical polarization vectors from quasars. This method leads to a definition of intrinsic preferred axes and to a determination of the probability p? that the distribution of polarization directions is random. This probability is found to be as low as 3.0 × 10-5 for one of the regions of redshift.

Pelgrims, V.; Cudell, J. R.



Rigorous electromagnetic simulation applied to alignment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to provide benchmark data and understanding of key parameters in the design of topographical features of alignment marks. Periodic large silicon trenches are analyzed as a function of wavelength (530-800 nm), duty cycle, depth, slope and angle of incidence. The signals are well behaved except when the trench width becomes about 1 micrometers

Yunfei Deng; Thomas V. Pistor; Andrew R. Neureuther



A multiple sequence alignment algorithm for homologous proteins using secondary structure information and optionally keying alignments to functionally important sites.  


The programs described herein function as part of a suite of programs designed for pairwise alignment, multiple alignment, generation of randomized sequences, production of alignment scores and a sorting routine for analysis of the alignments produced. The sequence alignment programs penalize gaps (absences of residues) within regions of protein secondary structure and have the added option of 'fingerprinting' structurally or functionally important protein-residues. The multiple alignment program is based upon the sequence alignment method of Needleman and Wunsch and the multiple alignment extension of Barton and Sternberg. Our application includes the feature of optionally weighting active site, monomer--monomer, ligand contact or other important template residues to bias the alignment toward matching these residues. A sum-score for the alignments is introduced, which is independent of gap penalties. This score more adequately reflects the character of the alignments for a given scoring matrix than the gap-penalty-dependent total score described previously in the literature. In addition, individual amino acid similarity scores at each residue position in the alignments are printed with the alignment output to enable immediate quantitative assessment of homology at key sections of the aligned chains. PMID:2751764

Henneke, C M



Ground-based Instrumentations in Africa and its Scientific and Societal Benefits to the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of what we know about equatorial physics is based on Jicamarca Incoherent Scattering Radar (ISR) observations. However, Jicamarca is in the American sector where the geomagnetic equator dips with a fairly large excursion between the geomagnetic and geodetic equator. On the other hand, in the African sector the geomagnetic equator is fairly well aligned with the geodetic equator. Satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, DMSP, C/NOFS) observations have also indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. However, these satellite observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in the region. Thus, the question of what causes or drives these unique density irregularities in the region is still not yet fully understood, leading the investigation of the physics behind each effect into speculative dead ends. During the past couple of years very few (compared to the land-mass that Africa covers) small instruments, like GPS receivers, magnetometers, VHF, and VLF have been either deployed in the region or in process. However, to understand the most dynamic region in terms of ionospheric irregularities, those few instruments are far from enough. Recently, significant progress has been emerging in securing more ground-based instrument into the region, and thus three ionosondes are either deployed or in process. In this paper, results from AMBER magnetometer network, ionosonde, and GPS receivers will be presented. By combining the multi instrument independent observations, this paper will show a cause and effect of space weather impact in the region for the first time. While the magnetometer network, such as those operated under the umbrella of AMBER project, estimates the fundamental electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionospheric motion, the GPS receivers will track the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere. In addition to the scientific importance, the ground-based instrumentations have also direct impact in advancing space science research by establishing and furthering sustainable research/training infrastructure within Africa so that more young scientists will be educated in their own country. The paper will present research results performed by graduate students who utilize data from the recently deployed instruments within the African universities.

Yizengaw, Endawoke



Societal preferences for distributive justice in the allocation of health care resources: a latent class discrete choice experiment.  


Economic theory suggests that resources should be allocated in a way that produces the greatest outputs, on the grounds that maximizing output allows for a redistribution that could benefit everyone. In health care, this is known as QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) maximization. This justification for QALY maximization may not hold, though, as it is difficult to reallocate health. Therefore, the allocation of health care should be seen as a matter of distributive justice as well as efficiency. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to test consistency with the principles of QALY maximization and to quantify the willingness to trade life-year gains for distributive justice. An empirical ethics process was used to identify attributes that appeared relevant and ethically justified: patient age, severity (decomposed into initial quality and life expectancy), final health state, duration of benefit, and distributional concerns. Only 3% of respondents maximized QALYs with every choice, but scenarios with larger aggregate QALY gains were chosen more often and a majority of respondents maximized QALYs in a majority of their choices. However, respondents also appeared willing to prioritize smaller gains to preferred groups over larger gains to less preferred groups. Marginal analyses found a statistically significant preference for younger patients and a wider distribution of gains, as well as an aversion to patients with the shortest life expectancy or a poor final health state. These results support the existence of an equity-efficiency tradeoff and suggest that well-being could be enhanced by giving priority to programs that best satisfy societal preferences. Societal preferences could be incorporated through the use of explicit equity weights, although more research is required before such weights can be used in priority setting. PMID:25145575

Skedgel, Chris; Wailoo, Allan; Akehurst, Ron



SWAMP: Sliding Window Alignment Masker for PAML  

PubMed Central

With the greater availability of genetic data, large genome-wide scans for positive selection increasingly incorporate data from a range of sources. These data sets may be derived from different sequencing methods, each of which has potential sources of error. Sequencing errors, compounded by alignment errors, greatly increase the number of false positives in tests for adaptive evolution. Genome-wide analyses often fail to fully address these issues or to provide sufficient detail on postalignment masking/filtering. Here, we introduce a Sliding Window Alignment Masker for Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (SWAMP) that scans multiple-sequence alignments for short regions enriched with unreasonably high rates of nonsynonymous substitutions caused, for example, by sequence or alignment errors. SWAMP prevents their inclusion in downstream evolutionary analyses and therefore increases the reliability of downstream analyses. It is able to effectively mask short stretches of erroneous sequence, particularly prevalent in low-coverage genomes, which may not be detected by existing methods based on filtering by sitewise conservation or alignment confidence. SWAMP offers a flexible masking approach, and the user can apply different masking regimens to specific branches or sequences in the phylogeny allowing the stringency of masking to vary according to branch length, expected divergence levels, or assembly quality. We exemplify SWAMPs effectiveness on a dataset of 6,379 protein-coding genes from primate species, including data of variable quality. Full reporting of the software parameters will further improve the reproducibility of genome-wide analyses, as well as reduce false-positive rates.

Harrison, Peter W; Jordan, Gregory E; Montgomery, Stephen H



Taxonomy of information technology strategy and its impact on the performance of third-party logistics (3PL) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a taxonomy of information technology strategies used by third-party logistics (3PL) firms in China based on a cluster analysis of survey data from 105 of these 3PL firms. The information technology strategies have been classified into three major groups: supportive, technological, and aligned. The paper also investigates the effect of information technology strategies on information technology advantage,

F. Lai; X. Zhao; Q. Wang



Alteration of hindfoot alignment after total knee arthroplasty using a novel hindfoot alignment view.  


This study examined the coronal alignment of the hindfoot in varus osteoarthritis of the knee before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in 100 legs using a novel imaging method. We categorized the preoperative hindfoot alignment into varus (30 legs) and valgus (70 legs) groups; imaging of the hindfoot was conducted preoperatively and postoperatively, and the varus-valgus angle (VVA) was measured as the hindfoot alignment. The femorotibial angle improved significantly after TKA. We found that the VVA improved significantly after TKA in the hindfoot valgus group (P<0.001), but not in the varus group (P=0.554), and we speculate that the hindfoot alignment in the valgus group improved as a result of a residual compensatory capacity in the hindfoot. PMID:25155238

Hara, Yusuke; Ikoma, Kazuya; Arai, Yuji; Ohashi, Suzuyo; Maki, Masahiro; Kubo, Toshikazu



5 strategies for improving performance of academic medical centers.  


Academic medical centers should consider five strategies for becoming more cost-efficient and profitable as reforms are implemented: Make faculty responsible for cost and quality. Explore opportunities to collaborate with community hospitals. Extend care and education beyond the walls of the organization, employing technology and innovative teaching practices. Maximize healthcare IT investment by sharing data-rich patient records with other medical centers and research institutes. Align research with business strategy. PMID:23795389

Valletta, Robert M; Harkness, Alicia



Total Rewards Strategy: The Best Foundation of Pay for Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful pay-for-performance design and implementation begins with solid total reward strategy. This gives the company a structured platform from which future program decisions can be made consistently across the company, even as the environments change. It can also contribute to ensuring that human resource programs are aligned with the overall business strategy and the company’s direction. This article defines a

Frank H. Lyons; Dan Ben-Ora



Bringing the Body Back: The (Mis)Languaging of Bodies in Bio-Medical, Societal and Poststructuralist Discourses on Diabetes and Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent scholarship on "disabilities" and bodies has tended to be extreme in its orientation and has, on the whole, not been able to speak of chronic disabilities and bodily breakdown in humanistic ways. In its verve toward finding "cures," biomedical discourses, from which societal discourses draw their strength, have emphasized malfunctioning…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi; Makoni, Sinfree



Can Ambition Help Overcome Social Inequality in the Transition to Adulthood? Individual Agency and Societal Opportunities in Germany and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of human development requires the selection of developmental goals and focused investment of resources in their pursuit. Societally institutionalized and normative conceptions about developmental tasks and deadlines regulate some of this selectivity, but in modern societies with their substantial social mobility an important part is played by the individual agent. Societies and their educational systems differ in the

Jutta Heckhausen; Esther S. Chang