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1

Future Earth observation strategy for societal benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invited paper presents the future intelligent earth observing system (FIEOS) and event-driven earth observation concepts as well as their connections to societal benefits for both decision-makers and the general public. The elucidated linkage and flow of information from FIEOS to societal benefits is interoperable. With the envisioned FIEOS, this paper places an emphasis on (i) How to apply the

Guoqing Zhou; Oktay Baysal

2005-01-01

2

Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

2010-01-01

3

Personal and societal intervention strategies for successful ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores contemporary and future options for better personal and societal ageing. The phenomena of significantly\\u000a more present and projected elders, especially the upcoming diverse American baby boomers, have generated peaked interest in\\u000a ageing-related issues from academic, practicing professional, business, governmental, and adult constituencies. Although much\\u000a of ageing-related theory, research, and practice remains discipline-specific, an integration of physical, psychological,

Douglas Friedrich

2003-01-01

4

Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

ATLAS; Golling, T.

2007-09-23

5

Green consumerism and the societal marketing concept: Marketing strategies for the 1990's  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of these trends on the role of the marketing department in the J990's. Essentially, when the buying habits of consumers are being strangely influenced by green and other environmental issues, the paper argues that the marketing concept and subsequent strategies need to be rethought. The paper then imaginatively develops the concept of societal marketing within

Andrea Prothero

1990-01-01

6

Strategies and tools for whole genome alignments  

SciTech Connect

The availability of the assembled mouse genome makespossible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two largevertebrate genomes. We have investigated different strategies ofalignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that areeffective for different quality assemblies. These strategies were appliedto the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the MouseGenome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediatemouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignmentsexhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90 percent ofknown coding exons in the human genome. We have obtained such coveragewhile preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we havedeveloped a suite of tools and websites for automatically aligning, andsubsequently browsing and working with whole genome comparisons. Wedescribe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regionsbetween the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not beenidentified by other methods.

Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov,Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna

2002-11-25

7

The alignment of market research with business strategy and CRM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the alignment between market research, business strategy and customer relationship management (CRM). With the introduction of advanced IT systems which collect and model internal customer data (CRM), marketing managers face new choices when seeking information to facilitate their particular business strategy. A survey of market research (MR) and CRM usage was conducted among 207 marketing managers. The

Michael John Valos; David H. B. Bednall

2010-01-01

8

Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.  

SciTech Connect

This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

2010-09-01

9

Strategies and Tools for Whole-Genome Alignments  

PubMed Central

The availability of the assembled mouse genome makes possible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two large vertebrate genomes. We investigated different strategies of alignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that are effective for assemblies of different quality. These strategies were applied to the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediate mouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignments exhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90% of known coding exons in the human genome. We obtained such coverage while preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we developed a suite of tools and Web sites for automatically aligning and subsequently browsing and working with whole-genome comparisons. We describe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regions between the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not been identified by other methods. PMID:12529308

Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov, Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna

2003-01-01

10

Improving nuclear plant management effectiveness: Aligning strategy, systems, and people  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of any organization requires alignment of the appropriate financial, physical, and human resources. The manager's role is to efficiently utilize the right combination of these resources to achieve organizational objectives. In-depth studies of the nuclear programs of three major investor-owned utilities using a culture assessment process called the communication, values, and rewards (CVR) assessment have shown significant misalignments in those organizations' strategies, systems and people management. The CVR assessment related employees' perceptions of what drives their company's culture with the stated company strategic direction and management philosophies. Specifically, CVR provides a comparison of employee-held work-related values with those desired by management. Data obtained by a CVR assessment can be used to understand organizational misalignment and make changes to bring systems into alignment with corporate strategy and culture.

Price, K.F.

1991-11-01

11

Presentation, analysis, and simulation of active alignment strategies for the James Webb Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three characteristics in the simulated active alignment strategy of the James Webb Space Telescope. The first includes the analysis and comparison of a baseline active alignment strategy with a damped least squares strategy. This baseline utilizes prior knowledge by means of direct human operator interaction to engage sets of telescope compensators to target specific aberration signatures. The

Robert S. Upton

2009-01-01

12

Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative Professional Service Firms  

E-print Network

Page 1 Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative Professional Service Firms. Keywords Professional Service Firm Creative Industries Strategy Talent management Careers halshs-00794891,version1-26Feb2013 #12;Page 3 Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.

14

B-SCP: A requirements analysis framework for validating strategic alignment of organizational IT based on strategy, context, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that organizational IT is in alignment with and provides support for an organization's business strategy is critical to business success. Despite this, business strategy and strategic alignment issues are all but ignored in the requirements engineering research literature. We present B-SCP, a requirements engineering framework for organizational IT that directly addresses an organization's business strategy and the alignment of

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June M. Verner; Keith T. Phalp

2006-01-01

15

A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies  

SciTech Connect

Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m{sup 2} flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The optimal approach can vary with the application.

Jones, S.A.

1996-03-01

16

Managing the Right Projects: Best Practices to Align Project and Corporate Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If there's a human endeavor that exemplifies teamwork, it is space exploration. And that teamwork absolutely cannot happen effectively if the boots on the ground the people doing the work - don't understand how their work aligns with the larger goal. This presentation will discuss some best management practices from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that have succeeded in helping employees become informed, engaged and committed to the space agency's important missions. Specific topics include: Alignment Criteria: Linking Projects To Corporate Strategy. Resource Management: Best Practices For Resource Management. Strategic Analysis: Supporting Decision Making In A Changing Environment. Communication Strategies: Best Practices To Communicate Change. Benefits Achieved And Lessons Learned.

Watkins, Bobby

2012-01-01

17

Understanding Value Creation in Social Entrepreneurship: The Importance of Aligning Mission, Strategy and Impact Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores and clarifies the significance of aligning mission, objectives and strategy with impact measurement in social entrepreneurship. We present a framework for understanding the value created by social entrepreneurs, presenting theoretical and practical insights into impact measurement. Drawing on case studies in Latin America, we suggest the presence of a ‘mission measurement paradox’ that affects social entrepreneurs in

Jarrod Ormiston; Richard Seymour

2011-01-01

18

Enabling the business strategy of SMEs through e-business capabilities: A strategic alignment perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present study aims at a deeper understanding of the performance outcomes of the alignment between the e-business capabilities of manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their business strategy in terms of Miles and Snow's recognised strategic typology that includes prospectors, analyzers, and defenders. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From a contingency theory perspective, a survey of 107 Canadian manufacturers

Louis Raymond; François Bergeron

2008-01-01

19

Examining the effect of strategic alignment on business performance: Knowledge management, information technology, and human resource management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, evidences indicate that knowledge management (KM) strategy and human resource management (HRM) strategy are interdependent and must be integrated with information technology (IT) as a whole to improve the business performance. Empirical data for hypotheses testing are collected from top-ranked companies in Taiwan; yielding 161 valid samples. Performance implications of strategic alignment are examined using matching approaches. The generated

Y. Y. Chen; H. L. Huang

2008-01-01

20

Societal assessment overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

Bloomquist, C. E.

1980-01-01

21

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

22

What Drives Societal Collapse?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The archaeological and historical record shows many instances of societal collapse. These events have traditionally been explained by a combination of social, political, and economic factors. In their Perspective, Weiss and Bradley argue that there is increasing evidence for climate as the primary agent in the collapse of prehistoric and early historic societies. They also consider the possible effects of future anthropogenic climate change.

Harvey Weiss (Yale University;Departments of Anthropology); Raymond S. Bradley (University of Massachusetts;Department of Geosciences)

2001-01-26

23

Alignment of a firm's competitive strategy and information technology management sophistication: the missing link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for establishing a link between information technology (IT) management strategies and a firm's competitive strategy has been identified and discussed in the literature. In this paper, factors for measuring IT management sophistication are identified first. Then the effects of the competitive strategy on IT management sophistication are tested empirically. According to a survey of 213 managers, this study

Yash P. Gupta; Jahangir Karimi; Toni M. Somers

1997-01-01

24

Alignment Between Business and Knowledge Management Strategies: The Key to a Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of knowledge economy, the necessity of recognizing knowledge as a key and intangible asset makes the effective management of knowledge a priority. Business strategy is the most important context for guiding effective knowledge management. And, knowledge management (KM) is also a dimension of business competitive strategy. Based on Miles and Snow’s (1978) business strategy typology, as well

Hsiu-Hua Chang; Chun-Po Yin; Huey-Wen Chou

2009-01-01

25

Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

2014-01-01

26

Electrical Stimulation: A Societal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the

D. R. Gater; S. M. McDowell; J. J. Abbas

2000-01-01

27

Technology Education and Societal Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens in a democracy should understand the relationship of technological development to societal change. The rationale for universal technological education stems from the ideals of cultural education, the responsibilities of democratic life, and the need for economic security. Technology education furthers understanding of our technological…

Gilberti, Anthony F.

1994-01-01

28

Societal Development and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares and contrasts the theories of three major writers on societal change: Chirot discusses the economic power struggles within and among core, peripheral, and semiperipheral societies, Toffler exposes a future in which major power shifts could have cataclysmic results, and Bruner emphasizes the importance of education to temper…

Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

2008-01-01

29

1 INTRODUCTION Increasing environmental and societal concerns about  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Increasing environmental and societal concerns about rising levels of CO2 for combating the inexorable rise of CO2. Among the considered strategies is carbon cap- ture and storage (CCS mineral- weathering is more effective at removing atmospheric CO2 than carbonate mineral weathering

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

The Interplay of Psychology and Societal Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the International Journal of Group Tensions examines the contribution of psychology to societal transformation worldwide and the impact of societal transformation on psychology. In this introduction, I review the aims and scope of the journal and the focus of the special issue. Second, I identify several key consequences of societal transformation that are not bounded by

Michael J. Stevens

2002-01-01

31

Plans for the Societal Impact of Spaceflight  

E-print Network

FROM THE CHIEF HISTORIAN Plans for the Societal Impact of Spaceflight Conference, first highlighted://history.nasa.gov/. Planning for this meeting has been very interest- ing. "Societal Impact of Spaceflight" is an enormous/Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Societal Impact of Spaceflight Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

32

Coping with an emerging market competition through strategy-human resource alignment: case study evidence from five leading Japanese manufacturers in the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how PRC-based Japanese affiliates can align their human resource management (HRM) policies and practices with their business strategies based on in-depth interview surveys of the five leading Japanese manufacturers in China. In particular, using a multiple-informant research design to interview both top and human resource managers in each site, the study has attempted to clarify the strategic

Norihiko Takeuchi; Ziguang Chen; Wing Lam

2009-01-01

33

Practical study on the electron-beam-only alignment strategy for the electron beam direct writing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to introduce of electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology into the volume production lines for the 65 nm process technology are shown and discussed. In order to apply these techniques in a harmonious way, partial modifications to the current production line infrastructures are required, because those infrastructures have been optimized for the conventional photolithography technology. One of the large differences is with the alignment. For the gate layer, the appropriate solution is to have an additional process step to remove SiO2 material filled in the shallow trench isolation alignment marks before the patterning. For the dual damascene process at the metal layers, careful consideration of the choice between the indirect alignment or the direct alignment is necessary, when the metal layer is aligned to the previous via layer underneath. We expect that these techniques can be used for the advanced node devices as well, while some new structures would be applied on these devices. In addition to the optimizing the alignment mark structures, the appropriate adjustment of EBDW system parameters by advanced process control (APC) is required, in order to have enough overlay accuracy at the actual production use. Although such process control systems are normally optimized to photolithography, we have confirmed that APC system can be also used for the EBDW technology for appropriate overlay accuracy control. Furthermore, the alignment budget in our systems is created and the alignment accuracy in our future system is estimated based on it. Based on the findings from these discussions, we expect that the EBDW with e-beam-only alignment will be applicable for the production of the 11 nm half-pitch process technology node and the beyond.

Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Kon, Junichi

2013-03-01

34

Societal responses to the Anthropocene.  

PubMed

This article discusses the societal responses to the Anthropocene. First we need to confront the effects of our own population proliferation in all its aspects; next to look again at economics and replace consumerism as a goal; then to work out new ways of generating energy; to manage and adapt to what is in effect climate destabilization; to give higher priority to conservation of the natural world; and last to create the necessary institutional means of coping with global problems in a world in which society is more integrated than ever before. PMID:21282154

Tickell, Crispin

2011-03-13

35

Societal entrepreneurs in the health sector: crossing the frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore societal entrepreneurship in the turbulent health-care sector in a changing welfare state, Sweden. Empirically oriented questions about the businesses explored in this paper are: how do the entrepreneurs see combining “health-driven” and profit-driven enterprises? What mindset and strategies guide their enterprises? What organizatorial solutions are used? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper

Malin Tillmar

2009-01-01

36

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

2007-01-01

37

The Alignment of Partnering Strategy, Governance and Management in R&D Projects: The Role of Contract Choice  

E-print Network

Firms increasingly look outside their organizational boundaries to identify partners that can improve the effectiveness of R&D projects. The strategy for using partners, however, varies significantly across projects. In ...

MacCormack, Alan

38

The contingent effects of top management teams on venture performance: Aligning founding team composition with innovation strategy and commercialization environment  

E-print Network

How does the relationship between founding team composition and venture performance depend on the venture's strategy and business environment? Using data from a novel survey of 2,067 firms, we show that while diverse ...

Eesley, Charles E.

39

Integrating Societal Culture and Corporate Culture through Workplace Design .  

E-print Network

??This study examines the connections between societal culture, corporate culture, and workplace design, highlighting the importance of employees' societal culture to the effectiveness of design… (more)

Khambaty, Lulua

2005-01-01

40

Societal health and urban sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

1996-08-27

41

The Alignment Between Social Responsibility and Business Strategy: Implications for Social Responsibility Value Creation in Spanish SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study we empirically analyse the integration of Social Responsibility\\u000a (SR) practices in business strategy\\u000a and its effect over the creation of value for the business itself in the small and medium enterprise (SME\\u000a context. We consider that SR must contribute to the firm’s core activities and help the firm to achieve its mission. Moreover,\\u000a we believe that this

Cristina Iturrioz; Cristina Aragón; Lorea Narvaiza; Asunción Ibañez

42

Alienation, Participation and Increasing Societal Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides definitions of the three concepts in the title and explores their interrelationships. Distinguishes six alienation dimensions – powerlessness; meaninglessness; normlessness; social isolation; cultural estrangement; self-estrangement – and combines them with three kinds of participation: spontaneous, negative, and compensatory. Describes increasing societal complexity from a general systems perspective. Explores the psycho- and sociogenesis of unalienated as well as alienated participation.

Felix Geyer

1994-01-01

43

1 INTRODUCTION Increasing environmental and societal concerns  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Increasing environmental and societal concerns about rising levels of CO2 for combating the inexorable rise of CO2. Among the considered strat- egies is carbon capture and storage (CCS mineralwea- thering is more effective at removing atmospheric CO2 than carbonate mineral weathering (Berner

44

Societal Factors in the Teaching of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to show that societal problems such as energy and pollution should be included as a central and underlying theme in a college chemistry course. A questionnaire was administered to 156 college students in science and technology to determine whether the students felt that they would be more highly motivated in chemistry…

Cheek, William Edward

45

Kant's Moral Grounding of Societal Duties  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the knowledge of brutal acts like the mutilation of female genitalia, the search for an antidote to cultural relativism has begun. A logical place to turn would be Kant since his deontological moral theory is a serious contender to individual relativism. However, in the Metaphysics of Morals , Kant provides a confusing description of duties of Right (societal duties).

Joyce Lazier

2008-01-01

46

Simulation Validation for Societal Systems September 2006  

E-print Network

Simulation Validation for Societal Systems Alex Yahja September 2006 CMU-ISRI-06-119 School management, causality, hypothesis building, hypothesis testing, experiment, empirical artificial intelligence of personnel needed. This thesis proposes such a tool. It advances the state of the art of simulation

47

Simulation Validation for Societal Systems September 2006  

E-print Network

Simulation Validation for Societal Systems Alex Yahja September 2006 CMU­ISRI­06­119 School management, causality, hypothesis building, hypothesis testing, experiment, empirical artificial intelligence of personnel needed. This thesis proposes such a tool. It advances the state of the art of simulation

48

Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental induce- ments aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are

M. B. Schwartz; R. Puhl

2003-01-01

49

Alignment validation  

SciTech Connect

The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

2008-09-06

50

NSF Awards New Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology  

NSF Publications Database

... rholland@nsf.gov NSF Awards New Grants to Study Societal Implications of Nanotechnology The ... that greatly expand its ongoing commitment to study the societal implications of nanotechnology: the ...

51

Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino-Alto Adige and Campania, and societal flood risk is highest in Piedmont and Sicily.

Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

2010-03-01

52

Improvement of the Thermostability and Activity of a Pectate Lyase by Single Amino Acid Substitutions, Using a Strategy Based on Melting-Temperature-Guided Sequence Alignment? †  

PubMed Central

In the vast number of random mutagenesis experiments that have targeted protein thermostability, single amino acid substitutions that increase the apparent melting temperature (Tm) of the enzyme more than 1 to 2°C are rare and often require the creation of a large library of mutated genes. Here we present a case where a single beneficial mutation (R236F) of a hemp fiber-processing pectate lyase of Xanthomonas campestris origin (PLXc) produced a 6°C increase in Tm and a 23-fold increase in the half-life at 45°C without compromising the enzyme's catalytic efficiency. This success was based on a variation of sequence alignment strategy where a mesophilic amino acid sequence is matched with the sequences of its thermophilic counterparts that have established Tm values. Altogether, two-thirds of the nine targeted single amino acid substitutions were found to have effects either on the thermostability or on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, evidence of a high success rate of mutation without the creation of a large gene library and subsequent screening of clones. Combination of R236F with another beneficial mutation (A31G) resulted in at least a twofold increase in specific activity while preserving the improved Tm value. To understand the structural basis for the increased thermal stability or activity, the variant R236F and A31G R236F proteins and wild-type PLXc were purified and crystallized. By structure analysis and computational methods, hydrophobic desolvation was found to be the driving force for the increased stability with R236F. PMID:18156340

Xiao, Zhizhuang; Bergeron, Helene; Grosse, Stephan; Beauchemin, Manon; Garron, Marie-Line; Shaya, David; Sulea, Traian; Cygler, Miroslaw; Lau, Peter C. K.

2008-01-01

53

Curriculum Alignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum alignment (CA) refers to the congruence of all the elements of a school's curriculum: curriculum goals; instructional program--what is taught and the materials used; and tests used to judge outcomes. CA can be a very powerful can be a very powerful factor in improving schools. Although further research is needed on CA, there is…

Crowell, Ronald; Tissot, Paula

54

Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears  

PubMed Central

Background: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. Methods: A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results: In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. Conclusions: ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings, are considered. The cost of an ACL tear over the lifetime of a patient is substantial, and resources should be directed to developing innovations for injury prevention and for altering the natural history of an ACL injury. PMID:24088967

Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Kocher, Mininder S.; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Scott, Daniel J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Spindler, Kurt P.

2013-01-01

55

IUS prerelease alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

Evans, F. A.

1978-01-01

56

Applications and societal benefits of plastics  

PubMed Central

This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.

2009-01-01

57

Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

58

Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous thirteen-year, high-quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2008, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, the ocean surface topography mission, will be launched. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data have many societal benefits and have proven invaluable in many practical applications including; -Climate research and forecasting -Hurricane forecasting and tracking -Ocean forecasting systems -Ship routing and marine operations -Marine mammal habitat monitoring -Education The data have been cited in over 2,100 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight new societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

Srinivasan, M.; Leben, R.

2006-07-01

59

Newborn jaundice and kernicterus--health and societal perspectives.  

PubMed

Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per CDCs Financial Burden of Disability study, 1992), but also results in profound and uncompromising grief for the family and loss to siblings of healthy, talkative playmates. And for the child with kernicterus (usually remarkably intelligent, but trapped in an uncontrollable body), grief and frustration are enormous. In 2001 national healthcare organizations, including Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued alerts to all accredited hospitals and public health professionals in the United States that all healthy infants are at potential risk of kernicterus if their newborn jaundice is unmonitored and inadequately treated. The re-emergence of kernicterus in the United States is the result of interacting phenomena including (a) Early hospital discharge (before extent of jaundice is known and signs of impending brain damage have appeared); (b) Lack of adequate concern for the risks of severe jaundice in healthy term and near newborns; (c) An increase in breast feeding; (d) Medical care cost constraints; (e) Paucity of educational materials to enable parents to participate in safeguarding their newborns; and (f) Limitations within in healthcare systems to monitor the outpatient progression of jaundice. A multidisciplinary approach that encompasses both healthcare and societal needs should be evaluated at a national level for practical and easy to implement strategies. An approach that is based on principles of evidence-based medicine, patient-safety and family centeredness is presented in this article. These strategies should also be based on public awareness campaign such that the healthcare providers can attempt to achieve a "Zero Tolerance of Kernicterus" and thereby decrease both childhood disabilities and infant mortality within the community. PMID:12841402

Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H

2003-05-01

60

Strategies and Lessons-Learned for the Successful Alignment of Contract Cost with the Contract Budget Base (CBB) within the First Year of Contract Award - 13154  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide a sound basis and foundation for integrated Project and Contract change management, it is imperative to ensure the alignment of the Negotiated Contract Costs (NCC) with the Contract Budget Base (CBB), where CBB is defined as the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) plus Management Reserve (MR). The achievement of this alignment assures customer and contractor agreement on scope, requirements, quantities, schedule and cost, which facilitates the identification of change conditions and ultimate agreement on the value of changes to the NCC and the CBB. Delays in contract/CBB true up/reconciliation can negatively effect measurement of project progress, limiting owner understanding of liability, and may result in increased contract disagreements and potential claims. The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) and URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) achieved alignment of the NCC with the CBB within 10 months of UCOR taking over work on the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) cleanup contract by: 1. Managing as a discrete project; 2. Establishing expectations and setting tone of interactions; 3. Using personnel experienced with Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR); 4. Partnering; 5. Establishing ombudsmen. (authors)

Mullis, Jay [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management, U. S. Department of Energy, EM-90, Post Office Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rueter, Ken [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, Post Office Box 4699, K-1225, MS-7294, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)

2013-07-01

61

Global alignment: Finding rearrangements during alignment  

SciTech Connect

Motivation: To compare entire genomes from different species, biologists increasingly need alignment methods that are efficient enough to handle long sequences, and accurate enough to correctly align the conserved biological features between distant species. The two main classes of pairwise alignments are global alignment, where one string is transformed into the other, and local alignment, where all locations of similarity between the two strings are returned. Global alignments are less prone to demonstrating false homology as each letter of one sequence is constrained to being aligned to only one letter of the other. Local alignments, on the other hand, can cope with rearrangements between non-syntenic, orthologous sequences by identifying similar regions in sequences; this, however, comes at the expense of a higher false positive rate due to the inability of local aligners to take into account overall conservation maps.

Brudno, Michael; Malde, Sanket; Poliakov, Alexander; Do, Chuong B.; Couronne, Olivier; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim

2003-01-06

62

Quality assessment of multiple alignment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewed interest in the multiple sequence alignment problem has given rise to several new algorithms. In contrast to traditional progressive methods, computationally expensive score optimization strategies are now predominantly employed. We systematically tested four methods (Poa, Dialign, T-Coffee and ClustalW) for the speed and quality of their alignments. As test sequences we used structurally derived alignments from BAliBASE and

Timo Lassmann; Erik L. L. Sonnhammer

2002-01-01

63

Optimal alignments in linear space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space, not time, is often the limiting factor when computing optimal sequence alignments, and a number of recent papers in the biology literature have proposed space-saving strategies. How- ever, a 1975 computer science paper by Hirschberg presented a method that is superior to the newer proposals, both in theory and in practice. The goal of this note is to give

Eugene W. Myers; Webb Miller

1988-01-01

64

Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms  

SciTech Connect

Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

White, G.B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

65

Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.  

PubMed

In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:12608527

Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

2003-02-01

66

Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology  

SciTech Connect

Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

Wilhite, D.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). International Drought Information Center

1995-12-31

67

Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

Hovden, J.; Rausand, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Sergeev, G.

1995-12-31

68

Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%. PMID:23118847

Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

2012-01-01

69

Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational and management boundaries that must be resolved at local, state, national and international levels to implement and realize free flow of such vital information.

Habib, Shahid

2010-01-01

70

SOCIETE, CONFLITS ET RELATIONS DE TRAVAIL EN GUYANE  

E-print Network

SOCIETE, CONFLITS ET RELATIONS DE TRAVAIL EN GUYANE De quelques discours sur les faits et les............................... A ­ LE DIT ET LE NON-DIT DES CONFLITS.............................................................36 1 - Le particularisme relatif des conflits du travail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Teacher Perception of the Alignment of Enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) standards for staff development as a framework for measuring specific aspects of the enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) educational technology professional development program, as perceived by eMINTS teachers. The Technology Integration Cycle…

Stanfill, Diana L.

2010-01-01

72

Strategis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.

1998-01-01

73

Asking the Right Questions: Atmospheric Sciences Research and Societal Needs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, those who conduct federally funded research in the United States have been asked by their patrons, the public and their elected representatives, to demonstrate more efficacy with respect to societal needs. Although there is a long record of efforts to improve connections of research with societal needs, a problem exists in that in recent decades the production of scientific knowledge seems to have outrun its effective use by society. Current debate asks questions such as the following: In what different ways has society understood the connections of research with societal needs? What are the implications of such understandings for the structure and conduct of atmospheric sciences research? How can society (and especially sponsors of science) accurately and meaningfully assess the contributions of the atmospheric sciences to societal needs? This paper seeks to shed light on dimensions of these questions through discussion of the relationship of atmospheric sciences research with societal problems. Because the atmospheric sciences have an extended record of experience in connecting research with practical problems, the lessons of that experience have significance for current efforts to improve the relation of the atmospheric sciences with society's needs. In addition, these lessons have broader relevance for more general understandings of the evolving relationship of science and society.

Pielke, Roger A., Jr.

1997-02-01

74

Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

2014-01-01

75

Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.  

PubMed

A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

Hay, T; Jones, L

1994-01-01

76

Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.  

PubMed

Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating. PMID:19910270

Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

2010-01-01

77

Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

2009-01-01

78

Fast statistical alignment.  

PubMed

We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

Bradley, Robert K; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

2009-05-01

79

Fast Statistical Alignment  

PubMed Central

We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment—previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches—yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

Bradley, Robert K.; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

2009-01-01

80

Control rod housing alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for

R. C. Dixon; G. A. Deaver; J. R. Punches; G. E. Singleton; J. G. Erbes; H. P. Offer

1990-01-01

81

Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles  

PubMed Central

Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

Ulmer, David D.

1984-01-01

82

Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are informed by evidence from a range of sources, including document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and multiple media analyses. Finally, this study highlights a set of cross-cutting, transferable lessons that can be applied as future emerging technologies arise over time. The intention is that the insights gained from this study can help address these pressing issues as they rapidly unfold.

Michelson, Evan S.

83

Broader Impacts: Meaningful Links between Research and Societal Benefits  

E-print Network

Broader Impacts: Meaningful Links between Research and Societal Benefits October 17, 2013 Julie Risien I Center for Research on Lifelong STEM Learning I Julie.Risien@oregonstate.edu #12;Broader Impacts and technically competent society. · Training the next generation of professionals and academics especially

Escher, Christine

84

The societal value of vaccination in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vaccination of children against childhood illnesses not only carries the obvious medical and economic benefits, but there exists numerous indirect and often far reaching added societal benefits.In developing countries, vaccination forms the basis of village operated primary health care (PHC) activities leading to a sustained PHC programme. Vaccination programmes provide an opportunity for the provision of other primary care

Adelaide E Shearley

1999-01-01

85

Societal Complexity and Familial Complexity: Evidence for the Curvilinear Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis is supported that the most extended, complex familial systems should be found among societies in an intermediate range of societal complexity, particularly among settled agricultural peoples. Among the simple hunting-gathering groups and in modern industrial states is found the nuclear family system: small, independent, nonextended…

Blumberg, Rae Lesser; Winch, Robert F.

1972-01-01

86

Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

87

Fructose: Metabolic, Hedonic, and Societal Parallels with Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of fructose consumption continue to rise nationwide and have been linked to rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Because obesity has been equated with addiction, and because of their evolutionary commonalities, we chose to examine the metabolic, hedonic, and societal similarities between fructose and its fermentation byproduct ethanol. Elucidation of fructose metabolism in liver and

Robert H. Lustig

2010-01-01

88

Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

89

White University Students' Responses to Societal Racism: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to extend earlier conceptual and empirical literature on the ways in which White individuals respond to societal racism. To this end, the authors conducted in-depth interviews to examine 11 midwestern, non-Hispanic, White university students' reactions and experiences related to individual and institutional…

Spanierman, Lisa A.; Oh, Euna; Poteat, V. Paul; Hund, Anita R.; McClair, Vetisha L.; Beer, Amanda M.; Clarke, Alexis M.

2008-01-01

90

Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a  

E-print Network

Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a Changing Climate: An Integrated Perspective Despite hazard mitigation efforts and scientific and technological ad- vances, extreme weather events continue to cause substantial losses. The impacts of extreme weather result from complex interactions among

Neff, Jason

91

Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 6 Europe in a changing world  

E-print Network

5. Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials 6. Europe in a changing world ActionChallenge: research on cultural, behavioural, socio economic and institutional change needed+ Horizon 2020 ­ Societal Challenge 6 Europe in a changing world ­ Inclusive, Innovative

Schettini, Raimondo

92

Increasing Influence of Societal Response Variables in Coastal Evolution Projections (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to project changes in coastal erosion and vulnerability of the state of South Carolina’s (SC’s) oceanfront for different scenarios of future sea level have reinforced the significance of the influence of societal modifications and response to past and anticipated coastal change in these systems. For large reaches of the SC coast human interactions have been a dominant signal driving coastal change across annual to decadal scales. Over the last 20 years, SC’s shoreline has been advanced seawards in many areas due to a combination of sustained societal commitment to beach nourishment and to a lull in atmospheric storms; reversing the long-term erosional trend of shoreline change. Adjacent areas not yet threatened or where coastal defense is unsupported economically have continued to migrate landwards. Locally, efforts focused on stabilizing the subaerial beach have not moderated long-term shoreward migration of the shoreface changing the overall morphology of the coastal boundary waves and currents are operating against. These societal effects, coupled with realistic, substative assessments of future atmospheric storm activity and sea level variability, both over scales of seasons to multi-decades, require consideration to realistically project future coastal behavior across time and spatial scales for planning and resource management. As with future climate and sea level variability effects on the shoreline, the scale and intensity of societal response is not static or precisely projected spatially and temporally into the future. With continued expansion of coastal development and erosion into previously lightly developed and defended coastal areas, societal influences should be expected to increase. Increasing cost of larger scale defenses will likely drive pressure for hardened structures to enhance ”softer” nourishment strategies. However, this strategy would further modify the ability of nature to respond to natural forces. Nourishment programs are strongly cyclic and can act in or out of phase with natural cyclic (inlet migration, sea level variability) or stochastic (storms) drivers with significant effects on coastal response and predictions of coastal behavior. Economic cycles and events may similarly moderate timing and scale of coastal defense relative to natural drivers. Societal decisions to not, enhance and or even abandon and remove existing engineering structures as future forces and costs increase, can result in a disproportional response and potentially failure of a section of coast. Some communities have expressed confidence in the ability to maintain the oceanfront shoreline against most projections of sea level rise over the next 100 years. The long-term trend in sea level change may be less important than naturally occurring regional scale, seasonal to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in sea level; and these are complex but deterministic. There is less confidence, however, in the ability to combat passive submergence and associated flooding issues behind the immediate oceanfront. To the extent that may influence commitment to defend the oceanfront could strongly influence coastal behavior and stability in the long term.

Gayes, P. T.; McCoy, C. A.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

2010-12-01

93

Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

2013-01-01

94

Advances in understanding societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss of life and property damage from future tsunamis can be reduced if officials develop risk-reduction strategies and education programs that address how at-risk populations and communities are specifically vulnerable to tsunamis. Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, information concerning societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the U.S. was largely limited to state-level summaries of the number of residents within one kilometer of the coast. Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey has furthered the Nation’s understanding of societal vulnerability to tsunamis with several studies that describe the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of at-risk populations in tsunami-hazard zones. Community-level assessments have been completed in Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington to document variations in the number and types of people, businesses, and critical facilities in tsunami-prone areas. A method using midresolution satellite imagery was developed to identify community variations in the amount of developed land in tsunami-prone areas. Factor analysis and geospatial analysis were integrated to model variations in demographic sensitivity to tsunamis. Public workshops have been held to examine community sensitivity, adaptive capacity and post-tsunami recovery. Results demonstrate that social vulnerability to tsunamis varies throughout a community or region and that certain areas are likely to suffer disproportionately due to differences in pre-tsunami socioeconomic conditions and other demographic attributes. This presentation will summarize advances in understanding societal vulnerability in the U.S. to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as discuss opportunities and needs for further work.

Wood, N. J.

2009-12-01

95

Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.

1996-01-01

96

Gold alignment & internal dissipation  

E-print Network

The measures of mechanical alignment were obtained for both prolate and oblate grains when their temperature is comparable with grain kinetic energy devided by k, the Boltzmann constant. For such grains, the alignment of angular momentum, J, with the axis of maximal inertia, a, is only partial. This substantially alters the alignment as compared with the results in Lazarian (1995) and Roberge, Hanany & Messinger (1996) obtained on the assumption of perfect alignment. We also describe the Gold alignment when the Barnett dissipation is suppressed and derive an analytical expression which relates the measure of alignment with parameters of grain nonsphericity and the direction of the gas - grain drift. This solution provides the lower limit for the alignment measure, while the upper limit is given by the analytics derived in Lazarian (1994). Using results of a recent study of incomplete internal relaxation in Lazarian & Roberge (1996), we find measures of alignment for the whole range of ratios of grain rotational energy to k over T_s, where T_s is the grain temperature. To describe alignment for mildly supersonic drifts, we suggest an analytical approach which provides good correspondence with the results of direct numerical simulations in Roberge, Hanany & Messinger (1995). We also extend our approach to account for the simultaneous action of the Gold and Davis-Greenstein mechanisms.

A. Lazarian

1997-02-16

97

The societal gain of medical development and innovation in gastroenterology  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroenterology has over the past 30 years evolved very rapidly. The societal benefits to which this has led are incompletely determined, yet form a mandate to determine the need for future innovations and further development of the field. A more thorough understanding of societal benefits may help to determine future goals and improve decision making. Aims The objective of this article is to determine the societal gains of medical innovations in the field of gastroenterology in the past and future, using peptic ulcer disease as an example of past innovation and the implementation of colorectal cancer screening as an illustration of future gains. Methods Literature searches were performed for data on peptic ulcer and colorectal cancer epidemiology, treatment outcomes, and costs. National and governmental databases in the Netherlands were searched to obtain the input for calculations of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE), and the corresponding societal benefit. Results Since 1980 the improvements in peptic ulcer treatment have had a limited impact on life expectancy, rising from 83.6 years to 83.7 years, but have led to a yearly gain of 46,000 QALYs, caused by improved quality of life. These developments in the field of peptic ulcer translated into a yearly gain of 1.8 billion to 7.8 billion euros in 2008 compared with the 1980s. Mortality due to colorectal cancer is high, with 21.6 deaths per 100,000 per year in the Netherlands (European Standardized Rate (ESR)). The future implementation of a nationwide call-recall colorectal cancer screening by means of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is expected to result in a 50%–80% mortality reduction and thus a gain of an estimated 35,000 life years per year, corresponding to 26,000 QALYs per year. The effects of the implementation of FIT screening can be translated to a future societal gain of 1.0 billion to 4.4 billion euro. Conclusions The innovations and developments in the field of gastroenterology have led to significant societal gains in the past three decades. This process will continue in the near future as a result of further developments. These calculations provide a template for calculations on the need for specialist training as well as research and implementation of new developments in our field. PMID:24917981

Isendoorn, Kees; Klinkhamer, Wouter; Gupta, Anshu; Kuipers, Ernst J

2013-01-01

98

Aligning parallel arrays to reduce communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axis and stride alignment is an important optimization in compiling data-parallel programs for distributed-memory machines. We previously developed an optimal algorithm for aligning array expressions. Here, we examine alignment for more general program graphs. We show that optimal alignment is NP-complete in this setting, so we study heuristic methods. This paper makes two contributions. First, we show how local graph transformations can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. Second, we give a heuristic that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. Our algorithms have been implemented; we present experimental results showing their effect on the performance of some example programs running on the CM-5.

Sheffler, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Robert; Gilbert, John R.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

1994-01-01

99

On the societal nature of praxis and organic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2014-09-01

100

Climate Change, Societal Transitions and Changing Infectious Disease Burdens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human health is directly and indirectly influenced by the effects of climate change – air and sea temperatures, rainfall and\\u000a more frequent and severe climate extremes. These effects do not impact on human populations uniformly, however, and this chapter\\u000a looks at the interplay between climate and the different lifestyles that follow societal transitions, from hunting and gathering,\\u000a through agriculture, industrialisation

Emily Fearnley; Philip Weinstein; John Dodson

101

Newborn jaundice and kernicterus—health and societal perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public\\u000a and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid\\u000a cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per\\u000a CDC’s Financial Burden of Disability

Vinod IC Bhutani; Lois H. Johnson

2003-01-01

102

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

103

STRUCTURE COMPARISON AND ALIGNMENT  

E-print Network

16 STRUCTURE COMPARISON AND ALIGNMENT Marc A. Marti-Renom, Emidio Capriotti, Ilya N. Shindyalov) comparing binding sites of known enzyme structures, the comparison and alignment of protein structures has come to be a fundamental and widely used task in computational structure biology. Three main steps

Bourne, Philip E.

104

Alignment of whole genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse

Arthur L. Delcher; Simon Kasif; Robert D. Fleischmann; Jeremy Peterson; Owen White; Steven L. Salzberg

1999-01-01

105

Predicting alignment performance Lars Ahrenberg  

E-print Network

. With millions of aligned sentence pairs available, it is a good choice to use word aligners that employ statis features. There are a number of features that are known to affect word alignment systems negatively of different word aligners under different conditions. We want to be able to choose the best word aligner

Ahrenberg, Lars

106

Alignment of Human Resource Practices and Teacher Performance Competency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we argue that human resource (HR) management practices are important components of strategies for improving student achievement in an accountability environment. We present a framework illustrating the alignment of educational HR management practices to a teacher performance competency model, which in turn is aligned with student…

Heneman III, Herbert G.; Milanowski, Anthony T.

2004-01-01

107

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

Jones, Nelson E. (Huntington Beach, CA)

1990-01-01

108

Practical Multiple Sequence Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple sequence alignment as a means of comparing DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequences is an essential precondition for various analyses, including structure prediction, modeling binding sites, phylogeny, or function prediction. This range of applications implies a demand for versatile, flexible, and specialized methods to compute accurate alignments. This chapter summarizes the key algorithmic insights gained in the past years to facilitate an easy understanding of the current multiple sequence alignment literature and to enable the readers to use and apply current tools in their own research.

Rausch, Tobias; Reinert, Knut

109

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

Jones, N.E.

1988-03-10

110

Orthodontics and Clear Aligners  

MedlinePLUS

... spacing. While the aligners can correct a mild malocclusion, patients with severe underbites, overbites or crossbites may require more advanced orthodontic treatment. Unlike traditional braces, the trays can be removed ...

111

Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the GDSS have demonstrated the benefits of utilizing science for policy decisions. Investment in science reduces decision-making uncertainty and reducing that uncertainty has economic value.

Bernknopf, R.L.

2005-01-01

112

Patient and Societal Value Functions for the Testing Morbidities Index  

PubMed Central

Background We developed preference-based and summated scale scoring for the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI) classification, which addresses short-term effects on quality of life from diagnostic testing before, during and after a testing procedure. Methods The two TMI value functions utilize multiattribute value techniques; one is patient-based and the other has a societal perspective. 206 breast biopsy patients and 466 (societal) subjects informed the models. Due to a lack of standard short-term methods for this application, we utilized the visual analog scale (VAS). Waiting trade-off (WTO) tolls provided an additional option for linear transformation of the TMI. We randomized participants to one of three surveys: the first derived weights for generic testing morbidity attributes and levels of severity with the VAS; a second developed VAS values and WTO tolls for linear transformation of the TMI to a death-healthy scale; the third addressed initial validation in a specific test (breast biopsy). 188 patients and 425 community subjects participated in initial validation, comparing direct VAS and WTO values to the TMI. Alternative TMI scoring as a non-preference summated scale was included, given evidence of construct and content validity. Results The patient model can use an additive function, while the societal model is multiplicative. Direct VAS and the VAS-scaled TMI were correlated across modeling groups (r=0.45 to 0.62) and agreement was comparable to the value function validation of the Health Utilities Index 2. Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) calculations showed a range of 0.07–0.10 in patients and 0.11–0.17 in subjects. MAD for direct WTO tolls compared to the WTO-scaled TMI varied closely around one quality-adjusted life day. Conclusions The TMI shows initial promise in measuring short-term testing-related health states. PMID:23689044

Swan, John Shannon; Kong, Chung Yin; Lee, Janie M.; Akinyemi, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Lee, Pablo; Vavinskiy, Sergey; Williams, Olubunmi; Zoltick, Emilie S.; Donelan, Karen

2013-01-01

113

Hierarchical Alignment of Timelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hierarchical alignment activity, students are given multiple opportunities to align time to space in a linear representation. They begin by scaling a familiar amount of time (e.g. a personal time line) to a spatial representation (e.g. a meter stick), and progressively align increasing/decreasing amounts until completing the target unfamiliar time line (e.g. geologic time). For example, in the hierarchical alignment of geologic time, students can work through 10 time lines: personal, human lifespan, American history, Recorded history, human evolution, Cenozoic, Phanerozoic, Proterozoic, Archean, and then Hadean. While the amount of time varies, the amount of space remains constant: in this example, students align all new temporal scales to one meter. For each time line, students are asked to locate specific events, hierarchicaly organized divisions of time, and the length of the time line in order to engage the students in thinking about that temporal scale. Additionally, every time students align a new temporal scale to space, they locate all previous scales relative to the current scale.

Resnick, Ilyse

114

The Societal Impact of Single Versus Bilateral Lung Transplantation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) improves survival compared with single lung transplantation (SLT) for some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which strategy optimally uses this scarce societal resource. Objectives: To compare the effect of SLT versus BLT strategies for COPD on waitlist outcomes among the broader population of patients listed for lung transplantation. Methods: We developed a Markov model to simulate the transplant waitlist using transplant registry data to define waitlist size, donor frequency, the risk of death awaiting transplant, and disease- and procedure-specific post-transplant survival. We then applied this model to 1,000 simulated patients and compared the number of patients under each strategy who received a transplant, the number who died before transplantation, and total post-transplant survival. Measurements and Main Results: Under baseline assumptions, the SLT strategy resulted in more patients transplanted (809 vs. 758) and fewer waitlist deaths (157 vs. 199). The strategies produced similar total post-transplant survival (SLT = 4,586 yr vs. BLT = 4,577 yr). In sensitivity analyses, SLT always maximized the number of patients transplanted. The strategy that maximized post-transplant survival depended on the relative survival benefit of BLT versus SLT among patients with COPD, donor interval, and waitlist size. Conclusions: In most circumstances, a policy of SLT for COPD improves access to organs for other potential recipients without significant reductions in total post-transplant survival. However, there may be substantial geographic variations in the effect of such a policy on the balance between these outcomes. PMID:21868502

Christie, Jason D.; Halpern, Scott D.

2011-01-01

115

Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21949564

Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

2011-01-01

116

Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis  

SciTech Connect

Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

Richardson, J.M.

1982-03-01

117

libgapmis: extending short-read alignments  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. Results In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. Conclusions We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We show that libgapmis is better-suited and more efficient than existing algorithms for this task. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any short-read alignment pipeline. The open-source code of libgapmis is available at http://www.exelixis-lab.org/gapmis. PMID:24564250

2013-01-01

118

Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals' clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured. PMID:23633422

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Melanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quenec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michael; Lacasse, Francis

2013-01-01

119

Optics Alignment Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

Schroeder, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

120

Alignment of the Atlas Inner Detector  

E-print Network

ATLAS is one of the two general purpose detectors at the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will be colliding proton beams at a center of mass energy {\\surd}s= 14 TeV and is currently operating at {\\surd}s = 7 TeV. During the commissioning phase since September 2008, the ATLAS recorded cosmic-rays data and proton-proton collisions at {\\surd}s = 0.9 TeV. This data has extensively been used for the alignment and calibration of various sub-detectors. The ATLAS detector has a precision tracking system installed around the beam pipe for the measurements of the position and momentum of charged particles emerging from the collisions. The precise knowledge of misalignments of the tracking devices is crucial for the important physics measurements. At the time of writing the alignment corrections were obtained from the cosmic-rays and 0.9 TeV proton-proton collisions data, while the large statistics of proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV was used to check the performance of the alignment. This article gives an overview of the alignment strategy and the alignment performance using the data collected from proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV.

Mahsana Ahsan

2010-10-08

121

Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

2013-12-01

122

(Reverse) Engineering Vacuum Alignment  

E-print Network

In the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the alignment of the vacuum with respect to the gauge group is often controlled by quadratically divergent operators in the low energy non-linear sigma model. In principle the magnitudes and signs of these operators can be changed by making different assumptions about the ultraviolet physics, but in practice all known ways of regulating these theories preserve the naive vacuum alignment. We show that by "integrating in" different sets of heavy spin-one fields, it is possible to UV extend certain non-linear sigma models into two distinct UV insensitive theories. These UV extensions have identical low energy degrees of freedom but different radiative potentials, making it possible to engineer two different vacuum alignments for the original non-linear sigma model. Our construction employs "non-square" theory spaces which generically violate the common lore that the preferred vacuum alignment preserves the maximal gauge symmetry. By UV extending the SO(9)/(SO(4) X SO(5)) little Higgs model, we find a radiative potential that deviates from the naive expectation but does not stabilize the correct vacuum for proper electroweak symmetry breaking.

Clifford Cheung; Jesse Thaler

2006-04-28

123

AlignMe--a membrane protein sequence alignment web server  

PubMed Central

We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, Rene; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

2014-01-01

124

Investigating business-IT alignment through multi-disciplinary goal concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alignment of information technology (IT) with business strategies is optimal when harmony exists between organizational\\u000a and system goals. Empirical evidence reveals that effective strategic alignment leads to superior financial performance for\\u000a organizations. This observation has spurred extensive research into business-IT alignment. Yet, the issue of alignment remains\\u000a a top concern for CIOs. We argue that the parochial view undertaken

Sase Narine Singh; Carson Woo

2009-01-01

125

Repeatable alignment--Part II: Consistent photographic alignment accuracy.  

PubMed

Predictable aesthetic results necessitate the implementation of various dental principles for tooth display, alignment, and relative proportion. In order to ensure accurate communication, clinicians must clearly document visual information regarding violations of these tooth arrangement principles via dental photography. Accuracy in the alignment of photographs is crucial for subsequent treatment planning and evaluation. This article discusses several alignment complications that may be encountered while capturing diagnostic dental photographs. A technique for repeatable alignment accuracy is proposed. PMID:14509098

Snow, Stephen R

2003-08-01

126

Parametric alignment of Drosophila genomes.  

PubMed

The classic algorithms of Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman find a maximum a posteriori probability alignment for a pair hidden Markov model (PHMM). To process large genomes that have undergone complex genome rearrangements, almost all existing whole genome alignment methods apply fast heuristics to divide genomes into small pieces that are suitable for Needleman-Wunsch alignment. In these alignment methods, it is standard practice to fix the parameters and to produce a single alignment for subsequent analysis by biologists. As the number of alignment programs applied on a whole genome scale continues to increase, so does the disagreement in their results. The alignments produced by different programs vary greatly, especially in non-coding regions of eukaryotic genomes where the biologically correct alignment is hard to find. Parametric alignment is one possible remedy. This methodology resolves the issue of robustness to changes in parameters by finding all optimal alignments for all possible parameters in a PHMM. Our main result is the construction of a whole genome parametric alignment of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. This alignment draws on existing heuristics for dividing whole genomes into small pieces for alignment, and it relies on advances we have made in computing convex polytopes that allow us to parametrically align non-coding regions using biologically realistic models. We demonstrate the utility of our parametric alignment for biological inference by showing that cis-regulatory elements are more conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura than previously thought. We also show how whole genome parametric alignment can be used to quantitatively assess the dependence of branch length estimates on alignment parameters. PMID:16789815

Dewey, Colin N; Huggins, Peter M; Woods, Kevin; Sturmfels, Bernd; Pachter, Lior

2006-06-23

127

MUSE alignment onto VLT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 ?m). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success of the MUSE alignment is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE image quality and throughput directly onto the sky.

Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

2014-07-01

128

The Societal Dimension in German Science Education--From Tradition towards Selected Cases and Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reflects the theory and practice of societal-oriented science education in the past and present of German science teaching. Starting from a quite unique German justification for more thorough societal-oriented science education and some historical reflections a model for socio-scientific issues-based science teaching will be presented.…

Marks, Ralf; Stuckey, Marc; Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo

2014-01-01

129

Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications  

E-print Network

Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications for Europe that the United States has the greatest number of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes of any nation worldwide natural hazards (not limited to severe thunderstorms and tornadoes) in an effort to reduce the societal

Doswell III, Charles A.

130

Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

Yin, Hong-biao

2013-01-01

131

EE x96 Writing Assignment Global, Societal, and Contemporary Issues Galen Sasaki August 26, 2010  

E-print Network

profession. (E.g., current domestic economy, globalization of the economy, global warming, energyEE x96 Writing Assignment Global, Societal, and Contemporary Issues Galen Sasaki August 26 solutions in a global and societal context. It is important for engineers to understand these impacts so

Sasaki, Galen H.

132

Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of national…

Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka

2008-01-01

133

Impulsive longitudinal molecular alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of a rotational wavepacket in diatomic nitrogen created impulsively with a circularly polarized 800 nm ultrfast pulse. This wavepacket differs from those typically produced in impulsive alignment experiments with linearly polarized light in that it exhibits transient alignment along the direction of laser propagation. In this experiment, The initial anisotropy in the angular distribution is torroidal within the plane of polarization, wheras the time averaged anisotropy lies perpendicular to this plane. This is in stark contrast to the linearly polarized case where both the initial and time averaged anisotropies lie along the electric field vector. In order to probe the wavepacket evolution in a co-propagating geometry, we use an interferometric measurement of the time varying index of refraction.

Broege, Douglas; Coffee, Ryan; Bucksbaum, Philip

2009-05-01

134

Alignment reference device  

DOEpatents

An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)

1987-01-01

135

Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very high emission scenarios appears weaker, due partially to uncertainty in the trajectories of ecosystem change and societal issues. For high emission scenarios (e.g. SRES A1F1, A2; 900 ppm CO2, 4.2 oC global temperature increase by 2100), the mitigation effect of ocean sequestration is still ~ -0.4 oC, with a reduction of atmospheric CO2 near 50 ppm. However, under such high emissions, the effects of large global temperature on societal issues such as disease, hunger, and water are expected to be severe, with an unknown incremental benefit from ocean sequestration. These results indicate the importance of a careful consideration of the benefits and liabilities of ocean sequestration, in terms of ecosystem health for global ecosystems and terrestrial concerns. A cautionary approach to ocean carbon sequestration in consideration of the global consequences of anthropogenic climate change may differ from an approach considering deep-ocean ecosystems alone.

Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

2005-12-01

136

Dynamic Alignment at SLS  

SciTech Connect

The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

Ruland, Robert E.

2003-04-23

137

Multiple protein structure alignment.  

PubMed Central

A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

1994-01-01

138

Alignment methods for the OPERA drift tube detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the OPERA experiment is to give the first direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel ?????. The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in the originally pure muon neutrino CNGS beam. An important part of the magnetic spectrometer is the Precision Tracker (PT), a drift tube detector consisting of 9504 drift tubes. Its main task is the determination of the muon charge and momentum. The alignment strategy for the PT consists of two parts: the hardware measurement by theodolite and the software alignment using long muon tracks. In this paper, the hardware and the software alignment are described, and the track-based alignment methods are explained in detail. Results of the software alignment are presented with a focus on the analysis of cosmic particles.

Büttner, B.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Göllnitz, C.; Goloubkov, D.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Rostovtseva, I.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zaitsev, Y.

2014-05-01

139

Alignment as a Teacher Variable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

2007-01-01

140

K-vec: A New Approach for Aligning Parallel Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods have been proposed for aligning texts in two or more languages such as the Canadian Parliamentary Debates (Hansards). Some of these methods generate a bilingual lexicon as a by-product. We present an alternative alignment strategy which we call K-vec, that starts by estimating the lexicon. For example, it discovers that the English word in the French. K-vec does

Pascale Fung; Kenneth Ward Church

1994-01-01

141

Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.

1995-01-01

142

Real-Time data for Societal Benefits (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite Direct Broadcast (DB) has existed since the early 60's, and since then ground Direct Readout (DR) has been the cornerstone of real-time environmental monitoring. Beginning in the mid 80's NASA's primary interest in DR has been in the demonstration of practical applications of DR ground system technologies, including real-time data distribution, data mining, distributed processing and data archiving, and dynamic data management. These technologies combined with access to DR science processing algorithms (SPA)s have been playing an increasing role in temporal studies and tactical applications such as volcanic eruptions and plume tracking, sand storm dust distribution, snow and ice distributions, fire detection, weather now-casting and polar winds, to mention a few. In the evolution of direct readout three things need to be in place in order to provide societal benefits: availability of freely transmitted instrument direct broadcast (from space or Ethernet), access to direct readout science application algorithms and a decision-making infrastructure that makes use of DR results. These areas will be discussed in this presentation along with the necessary supporting technologies. Additionally, this presentation will highlight DR's increasing role in temporal remote sensing research and tactical remote sensing.

Coronado, P.

2010-12-01

143

Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains  

E-print Network

It is shown, that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfv\\'{e}nic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown, that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider that it is generally accepted and it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and reexamine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H$_{2}$ formation in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To have a more comprehensive picture of alignment we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and caused by grain magnetic moments.

A. Lazarian

1995-08-15

144

Alignement automatise de fibres optiques amorces monomodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these jette les bases necessaires au developpement d'algorithmes a base de modele pour l'automatisation de l'alignement de fibres amorces monomodes. A partir de la methode de l'integrale de recouvrement et de deux solutions approximatives existantes, un modele analytique d'efficacite de couplage optique permettant d'estimer la puissance transmise entre un composant et une fibre amorce monomode est d'abord formule. Avec celui-ci, sept proprietes pouvant etre utiles au developpement d'algorithmes a base de modele sont ensuite identifiees et validees. Enfin, a l'aide de ces proprietes, une strategie d'alignement a base de modele est developpee et validee experimentalement. Les resultats obtenus demontrent clairement la repetitivite, la robustesse, la precision et la rapidite de la strategie proposee. Ils demontrent aussi qu'il est possible de realiser un alignement complet sans l'utilisation de systemes auxiliaires tels des systemes de vision, des cameras infrarouges, des capteurs de contact ou des systemes de fixation hautement precis.

St-Amant, Yves

145

Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups  

PubMed Central

The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the future, accountability and advocacy. This quantitative approach to assess societal quality in a quantitative sense is based on indicators that function as proxies for society quality on different levels, based on the communication of researchers with their societal stakeholders (i.e. knowledge production, knowledge exchange and knowledge use). The methodology presented is just a first attempt to compare scientific quality scores (publication and citation scores) with societal quality scores in a quantitative way. This comparison can be used by organisations (e.g. university medical centres) in their planning and control cycle. PMID:20939915

2010-01-01

146

GASOLINE: a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignment of PPI networks  

PubMed Central

Comparing protein interaction networks can reveal interesting patterns of interactions for a specific function or process in distantly related species. In this paper we present GASOLINE, a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignments of PPI (protein-protein interaction) networks. The app is based on the homonymous greedy and stochastic algorithm. GASOLINE starts with the identification of sets of similar nodes, called seeds of the alignment. Alignments are then extended in a greedy manner and finally refined. Both the identification of seeds and the extension of alignments are performed through an iterative Gibbs sampling strategy. GASOLINE is a Cytoscape app for computing and visualizing local alignments, without requiring any post-processing operations. GO terms can be easily attached to the aligned proteins for further functional analysis of alignments. GASOLINE can perform the alignment task in few minutes, even for a large number of input networks.

Micale, Giovanni; Continella, Andrea; Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2014-01-01

147

GASOLINE: a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignment of PPI networks.  

PubMed

Comparing protein interaction networks can reveal interesting patterns of interactions for a specific function or process in distantly related species. In this paper we present GASOLINE, a Cytoscape app for multiple local alignments of PPI (protein-protein interaction) networks. The app is based on the homonymous greedy and stochastic algorithm. GASOLINE starts with the identification of sets of similar nodes, called seeds of the alignment. Alignments are then extended in a greedy manner and finally refined. Both the identification of seeds and the extension of alignments are performed through an iterative Gibbs sampling strategy. GASOLINE is a Cytoscape app for computing and visualizing local alignments, without requiring any post-processing operations. GO terms can be easily attached to the aligned proteins for further functional analysis of alignments. GASOLINE can perform the alignment task in few minutes, even for a large number of input networks. PMID:25324964

Micale, Giovanni; Continella, Andrea; Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2014-01-01

148

Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel moisture content, burn scars, and meteorological parameters. Impacts to public health and livelihoods due to food insecurity, algal blooms, and air pollution can be addressed through NRT monitoring of specific events utilizing land cover, atmospheric composition, water quality, and meteorological observations. More broadly, the assessment of water availability for drinking and agriculture and the development of floods and storms rely on continuous feeds of NRT meteorological and atmospheric composition observations. Overall, this multi-disciplinary study of user needs for NRT data and products can inform the design and operation of NRT data systems. Follow-on work for this study will also be presented, focusing on the availability of current and future satellite measurements (including NRT) of the 30 most critical Earth observation priorities, as well as a detailed analysis of users' needs for precipitation data. The results of this study summarize the priorities for critical Earth observations utilized globally for societal benefit.

Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

2011-12-01

149

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

SciTech Connect

The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean�an expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean�s role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)�s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council�s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation�s attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions�enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure � autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating

National Research Council

2011-04-22

150

AMISR in the Africa: Scientific and Societal Importance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our understanding of equatorial electrodynamics is primarily based on observations from the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observatory (JRO), the only ISR in the equatorial region. The JRO is located in the American sector that is characterized by the large off-set in the magnetic to geodectic equators and the shift of the magnetic equator from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere. In the African sector, the geomagnetic and geodetic equators are approximately parallel, separated by at most 10 degrees. Data from satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, C/NOFS, DMSP) have indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. For example, ionospheric bubbles have been observed to be much deeper and to occur more frequently in the African sector. It has also been reported that ionospheric depletions more frequently rise to higher altitudes (up to 1000+ km) in the African sector than those in other longitude sectors. However, these observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in Africa. Thus, the causes or driving mechanisms of the unique density irregularities, bubbles, and depletions in the African sector remain unresolved. To address these issues, the U.S. National Science Foundation recently sponsored a workshop that held at Boston College to consider the possibility of relocating an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) to Ethiopia. Adding the ISR to the recently growing number of ground-based space science instruments on the continent, such as GPS, magnetometers, VHF, and Ionosonde, would be of significant scientific benefit and have a huge societal impact on the African space science community in particular and the science and engineering fields in general. The primary purpose of this workshop was to define the science goals motivating such a move and to examine the technical and logistical issues involved. This talk will summarize the findings of this workshop.

Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.

2012-12-01

151

Towards societal applications of satellite measurements of fire strength (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) provides a vital means of distinguishing fires of different strengths or intensities. Analysis of 1-km resolution fire data, acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, showed instantaneous FRP values ranging from less than 1 MW to about 2000 MW per pixel. By applying a set of simple thresholds to this wide range of FRP values, it has been possible to classify fires into five categories, thereby facilitating simplified fire rating by strength, similar to the scales used for categorizing the strengths of earthquakes and hurricanes. Over 90% of all fires occurring in most regions of the world fall into category 1. However, when larger category fires occur, their strengths need to be recognized and monitored in near real-time, so that appropriate urgent measures may be taken to mitigate their devastating impacts on life and property. It is also important to monitor the impacts of the generated smoke on the air quality, human health, weather, and eventually climate. In a number of recent studies, FRP has been found to be directly proportional to both the rate of biomass consumption and the rate of smoke aerosol emission. Indeed, a simple coefficient to convert FRP (or FRE) to smoke aerosol emissions is being derived for different parts of the world. These coefficients can be easily applied to air-quality models together with satellite FRP measurements to monitor smoke impacts even in near real time. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of our studies on using satellite measurements of FRP for fire disaster monitoring and smoke emission source characterization applicable in different parts of the globe for societal benefit.

Ichoku, C. M.

2009-12-01

152

NINETEENTH CENTURY SOCIETAL REACTIONS TO JUVENILE DELINQUENTS: PRELIMINARY NOTES FOR A NATURAL HISTORY  

E-print Network

may have been propelled through the stages of a natural history. The author concludes that continued research on societal reactions to juvenile delinquents will enable construction of a natural history for those reactions....

Reichel, Philip L.

1979-01-01

153

Title: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that  

E-print Network

, definitions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) abound. In this research, we adopt the broad perspectiveTitle: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms

Boyer, Edmond

154

Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education  

E-print Network

As medical educators strive to produce qualified physicians who are able to meet societal needs, the medical education system must continually reform itself to meet the demands of that changing society. Understanding the interactions between...

Kinra, Reva Elaine

2013-02-22

155

The Effect of Aligned Core–Shell Nanofibres Delivering NGF on the Promotion of Sciatic Nerve Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In this study, we incorporated nerve growth factor (NGF) into aligned core–shell nanofibres by coaxial electrospinning, and reeled the scaffold into aligned fibrous nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) for nerve regeneration study. This aligned PLGA\\/NGF NGC combined physical guidance cues and biomolecular

Chun-Yang Wang; Jun-Jian Liu; Cun-Yi Fan; Xiu-Mei Mo; Hong-Jiang Ruan; Feng-Feng Li

2012-01-01

156

Societal institutions and HRM practices: an analysis of four European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ‘societal-effect’ approach, a variant of the institutional theory developed and tested in Europe, this study investigates the impact of societal institutions on human resource management (HRM) practices of European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh, which is now on the list of the Next-11 economies of the world. In-depth case studies of four European multinational subsidiaries revealed the presence of

Shamsud D. Chowdhury; Monowar H. Mahmood

2011-01-01

157

Societal institutions and HRM practices: an analysis of four European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ‘societal-effect’ approach, a variant of the institutional theory developed and tested in Europe, this study investigates the impact of societal institutions on human resource management (HRM) practices of European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh, which is now on the list of the Next-11 economies of the world. In-depth case studies of four European multinational subsidiaries revealed the presence of

Shamsud D. Chowdhury; Monowar H. Mahmood

2012-01-01

158

Alignment system for encoders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

159

Aligning Multiple Genomic Sequences With the Threaded Blockset Aligner  

PubMed Central

We define a “threaded blockset,” which is a novel generalization of the classic notion of a multiple alignment. A new computer program called TBA (for “threaded blockset aligner”) builds a threaded blockset under the assumption that all matching segments occur in the same order and orientation in the given sequences; inversions and duplications are not addressed. TBA is designed to be appropriate for aligning many, but by no means all, megabase-sized regions of multiple mammalian genomes. The output of TBA can be projected onto any genome chosen as a reference, thus guaranteeing that different projections present consistent predictions of which genomic positions are orthologous. This capability is illustrated using a new visualization tool to view TBA-generated alignments of vertebrate Hox clusters from both the mammalian and fish perspectives. Experimental evaluation of alignment quality, using a program that simulates evolutionary change in genomic sequences, indicates that TBA is more accurate than earlier programs. To perform the dynamic-programming alignment step, TBA runs a stand-alone program called MULTIZ, which can be used to align highly rearranged or incompletely sequenced genomes. We describe our use of MULTIZ to produce the whole-genome multiple alignments at the Santa Cruz Genome Browser. PMID:15060014

Blanchette, Mathieu; Kent, W. James; Riemer, Cathy; Elnitski, Laura; Smit, Arian F.A.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Baertsch, Robert; Rosenbloom, Kate; Clawson, Hiram; Green, Eric D.; Haussler, David; Miller, Webb

2004-01-01

160

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of each potential infrastructure investment using these criteria would allow funding of investments that produce the largest expected net benefit over time.

Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure StrategyU. S. Ocean Research in 2030

2011-12-01

161

4. The transectional structure of society: the basic societal functions.  

PubMed

For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a society is organised into 13 basic societal functions (BSFs) within an overall Coordination and Control system. This organisation facilitates transectional descriptions of society or a component of a society for assessment at any given time across the longitudinal phases of a disaster. An assessment results in a picture or description of function(s) limited to the point in time of the assessment. Together with simultaneous assessments of the functional status of all, some, or one of the other BSFs, such assessments deliver a transectional picture of the situation of a society. Since no function operates in isolation from the other functions, information of the concomitant status of several BSFs is crucial to gain a better understanding of functional losses and of the effects and side effects of an intervention. The 13 BSFs include: (1) Public Health (dominantly preventive); (2) Medical Care (dominantly curative); (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supplies; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structure; (9) Logistics And Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12); Economy; and (13) Education. These BSFs relate with each other through the Coordination and Control function. Many functions of the BSFs and their respective subfunctions and elements overlap (they share some common subfunctions and elements). However, for the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign subfunctions and elements to only one of the BSFs. Just as in the practice of clinical medicine, the sum of assessments provides the transectional description of the status of each of these BSFs at a given time. From this information, compared to the pre-event description of the society, interventions are selected that are likely to meet the defined objectives and their overarching goal(s), and respective plans are developed and implemented. The effects of each intervention are evaluated in reference to these goals and objectives and to their eventual effects on other BSFs or subfunctions of a BSF. PMID:24785801

2014-05-01

162

Well-pump alignment system  

DOEpatents

An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1998-01-01

163

Global range alignment for ISAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique is developed for range alignment in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. The shifts made to the echoes are modeled as a polynomial, and the coefficients of this polynomial are chosen to optimize a global quality measure of range alignment. This technique is robust against noise and target scintillation, and avoids error accumulation. In addition, the shift

Junfeng Wang; D. Kasilingam

2003-01-01

164

The Intractable Nature of Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

IS\\/business alignment has been a major concern of IT managers for many years but we seem to be little closer to a solution. This paper extends earlier research that developed a theory of alignment that clearly demonstrates that the actions of both business and IT managers are bound by organisational factors. This bounding tends to reinforce the status quo making

Bruce Campbell

165

Transformation and Alignment in Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

2009-01-01

166

Evolutionary Explanations for Societal Differences in Single Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new research strategy presented in this paper, Evolutionary Social Science, is designed to bridge the gap between evolutionary psychology that operates from the evolutionary past and social science that is bounded by recent history. Its core assumptions are (1) that modern societies owe their character to an interaction of hunter-gatherer adaptations with the modern environment; (2) that changes in

Nigel Barber

167

Paramagnetic alignment of fractal grains  

E-print Network

Paramagnetic alignment of fractal suprathermally rotating grains is discussed. It is shown that if the concentration of H$_{2}$formation sites is low and resurfacing is active, fractal structure of grains enhances their alignment. Studying the influence of grain surface physics and chemistry on the alignment we found that there exist two critical values of grain sizes, and the alignment of smaller grains is expected to decrease as compared to the predictions of the Purcell's theory (1979). One of the critical sizes is due to intensified poisoning of active sites, while the other is a result of a finite value of the imaginary part of magnetic susceptibility in the limit of high angular velocities. On the contrary, if active sites completely cover grain surface, suprathermal rotation, and therefore efficient alignment, is possible only for a limited range of grain sizes.

A. Lazarian

1994-08-23

168

Alignment of the MINOS FD  

SciTech Connect

The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

Becker, B.; /Minnesota U.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

169

Automated Whole-Genome Multiple Alignment of Rat, Mouse, and Human  

PubMed Central

We have built a whole-genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline that combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes, and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human, and 97% of all alignments with human sequence >100 kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently, using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment, and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present. PMID:15060011

Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

2004-01-01

170

Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments  

PubMed Central

Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. Availability: http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. PMID:24813445

Gille, Christoph; Fahling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

2014-01-01

171

Alignment robustness for 90 nm and 65 nm node through copper alignment mark integration optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, methods for stacking ASML scribe lane alignment marks (SPM) and improving the mark performance at initial copper metal levels are discussed. The new mark designs and the theoretical reasons for mark design and/or integration change are presented. In previous joint publications between ASML and Freescale Semiconductor [1], improved overlay performance and alignment robustness for Back End Of Line (BEOL) layers by the application of stacked scribe lane marks (SPM) was presented. In this paper, further improvements are demonstrated through the use of optimized Versatile Scribe Lane Mark design (VSPM). With the application of stacked optimized VSPM-marks, the alignment signal strength of marks in the copper metal layer is increased compared to stacked SPM marks. The gains in signal strength stability, which is typical for stacked marks, as well as significantly reduced scribe lane usage, are also maintained. Through the placement of specially designed orthogonal scatter-bars in selected layers under the VSPM-marks, the alignment performance of initial inlaid metal layers is improved as well. The integration of these marks has been evaluated for the 90 nm and 65 nm technology nodes as part of a joint development program between the Crolles2 Alliance and ASML. A measured overlay improvement of ~10-15% was obtained by a strategy change from floating copper marks to stacked optimized VSPM marks.

Warrick, Scott; Hinnen, Paul; Morton, Rob; Cooper, Kevin; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Depre, Jerome; Navarro, Ramon; van Haren, Richard; Browning, Clyde; Reber, Doug; Megens, Henry

2005-05-01

172

Alignment positioning mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

Fantasia, Peter M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

173

Space Mirror Alignment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

2011-01-01

174

Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment  

SciTech Connect

Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},?), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},?) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2?) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ?> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McQuinn, Matthew, E-mail: blazek@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-05-01

175

A rank-based sequence aligner with applications in phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing [Formula: see text]-mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at http://lrd.herokuapp.com/aligners. The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391

Dinu, Liviu P; Ionescu, Radu Tudor; Tomescu, Alexandru I

2014-01-01

176

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01

177

Laser beam alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

178

Integration of a new alignment sensor for advanced technology nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper alignment and overlay results of the advanced technology nodes are presented. These results were obtained on specially generated wafers as well as on regular manufacturing-type wafers. For this purpose, a new alignment sensor was integrated and evaluated in three generations of lithography tools, placed in R&D and mass manufacturing facilities. The capability of the sensor to align on marks with varying layout was evaluated. Long term overlay stability less than 11 nm was obtained on two different mark types: a standard ASML calibration mark and a flexible Toshiba mark design. The ability to align on low-contrast marks was validated by a dedicated experiment: typical alignment repeatability values of ~1 nm (3sigma) on shallow etch depth mark features of 25 nm are obtained for various mark designs, including flexible pitch alignment marks. From these results, design directions for improved mark detect ability were defined. The jointly developed mark designs were validated for their alignment robustness by an evaluation of manufacturing wafer alignment performance. On-product overlay results on manufacturing wafers were measured for three different process layers of the current technology node. The used alignment strategies were based on new mark capture and fine wafer alignment mark designs, thereby making optimal use of the mark design flexibility potential of the alignment sensor. Typical on-product overlay values obtained were less than 17 nm for the Active Area process layer, less than 12 nm for the Gate Conductor process layer, and less than 19 nm for the Metal-1 process layer; after applying batch corrections, as determined on a set of 2 send-ahead wafers. All results are based on full batch readout on an offline metrology tool. By applying optimal batch process corrections for linear terms, typical overlay values range between 10-14 nm, depending on the layer measured. Finally the sensor's infrared wavelengths were used to demonstrate a robust alignment solution for wafers containing a semi-transparent hard-mask layer.

Hinnen, Paul; Depre, Jerome; Tanaka, Shinichi; Lim, Ser-Yong; Brioso, Omar; Shahrjerdy, Mir; Ishigo, Kazutaka; Kono, Takuya; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

2007-03-01

179

The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

2010-01-01

180

Strategies for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Training" magazine taps 2011 Training Top 125 winners to provide their learning and development best practices in each issue. This article looks at strategies for aligning training with business goals and creating models to measure return-on-investment (ROI) and other financial metrics pertaining to training.

Pruitt, Lisa; McGeough, David

2011-01-01

181

An API for Ontology Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontologies are seen as the solution to data heterogeneity on the web. However, the available ontologies are themselves source\\u000a of heterogeneity. This can be overcome by aligning ontologies, or finding the correspondence between their components. These\\u000a alignments deserve to be treated as objects: they can be referenced on the web as such, be completed by an algorithm that\\u000a improves a

Jérôme Euzenat; INRIA Rhone-Alpes

2004-01-01

182

Well-pump alignment system  

DOEpatents

An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1998-10-20

183

FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System  

SciTech Connect

The FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System is used in a high radiation environment to adjust an optical assembly. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the hardware used and to present the system configuration. Use of the system has increased the reliability and reproducibility of data as well as significantly reducing personnel radiation exposure. Based upon measured radiation dose, radiation exposure was reduced by at least a factor of two after implementing the remote alignment system.

Hamilton, T.W.; Hebner, G.A.

1993-02-01

184

FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System  

SciTech Connect

The FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System is used in a high radiation environment to adjust an optical assembly. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the hardware used and to present the system configuration. Use of the system has increased the reliability and reproducibility of data as well as significantly reducing personnel radiation exposure. Based upon measured radiation dose, radiation exposure was reduced by at least a factor of two after implementing the remote alignment system.

Hamilton, T.W.; Hebner, G.A.

1993-01-01

185

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

2010-01-01

186

Development of deterrence strategies  

SciTech Connect

The development of deterrence strategies requires an in-depth understanding of the characteristics and decision-making processes of all categories of potential adversaries to DOE facilities and programs. A second component needed is recognition of the strengths and vulnerabilities of the safeguards system surrounding the target since each contributes significantly to the adversaries' perception of risk and attractiveness associated with that target. An understanding of the local and national societal conditions which might create or exacerbate terrorism, criminal activity or other types of malevolent action is a third analytic element necessary to support develoment of deterrents. Knowledge of the dynamics of these three components provides the analytical basis upon which initial definition of the types and approaches to deterrence can be arrived at. The analyses and results described in this report address each of these components and provide a solid conceptual, qualitative and quantitative base from which to develop specific deterrence strategies. 16 figures, 8 tables.

Pilgrim, M.K.; Fineberg, M.L.; Ely, R.S.; Smith, M.A.; Mengel, R.W.

1981-09-01

187

Smolign: a spatial motifs-based protein multiple structural alignment method.  

PubMed

Availability of an effective tool for protein multiple structural alignment (MSTA) is essential for discovery and analysis of biologically significant structural motifs that can help solve functional annotation and drug design problems. Existing MSTA methods collect residue correspondences mostly through pairwise comparison of consecutive fragments, which can lead to suboptimal alignments, especially when the similarity among the proteins is low. We introduce a novel strategy based on: building a contact-window based motif library from the protein structural data, discovery and extension of common alignment seeds from this library, and optimal superimposition of multiple structures according to these alignment seeds by an enhanced partial order curve comparison method. The ability of our strategy to detect multiple correspondences simultaneously, to catch alignments globally, and to support flexible alignments, endorse a sensitive and robust automated algorithm that can expose similarities among protein structures even under low similarity conditions. Our method yields better alignment results compared to other popular MSTA methods, on several protein structure data sets that span various structural folds and represent different protein similarity levels. A web-based alignment tool, a downloadable executable, and detailed alignment results for the data sets used here are available at http://sacan.biomed. drexel.edu/Smolign and http://bio.cse.ohio-state.edu/Smolign. PMID:21464513

Sun, Hong; Sacan, Ahmet; Ferhatosmanoglu, Hakan; Wang, Yusu

2012-01-01

188

A Greedy Algorithm for Aligning DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

For aligning DNA sequences that differ only by sequencing errors, or by equivalent errors from other sources, a greedy algorithm can be much faster than traditional dynamic pro- gramming approaches and yet produce an alignment that is guaranteed to be theoretically optimal. We introduce a new greedy alignment algorithm withparticularly good performance and show that it computes the same alignment

Scott Schwartz; Lukas Wagner; Webb Miller

2000-01-01

189

Gene order alignment on trees with multiOrthoAlign  

PubMed Central

We relate the comparison of gene orders to an alignment problem. Our evolutionary model accounts for both rearrangement and content-modifying events. We present a heuristic based on dynamic programming for the inference of the median of three genomes and apply it in a phylogenetic framework. multiOrthoAlign is shown accurate on simulated and real datasets, and shown to significantly improve the running-time of DupLoCut, an "almost" exact algorithm based on linear programming, developed recently for the same problem.

2014-01-01

190

Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density (greater than 100 mA/per square centimeters) field emission capabilities of CNTs can be exploited for construction of electron gun for electron microscopy and X-ray tubes for spectrometers and baggage screening. A CNT pillar array configuration has been demonstrated, not only meeting the high current density needs but more importantly providing long term emitter stability. Finally, supercapacitors hold the promise to combine the high energy density of a battery with the high power density of capacitors. Traditional graphite electrodes have not delivered this promise yet. A novel design and processing approach using MWCNTs has shown a record 550 F/g capacitance along with significant device endurance. This supercapacitor is suitable for railgun launch application for NASA, powering rovers and robots, consumer electronics and future hybrid vehicles.

Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

2011-01-01

191

Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in small spacecraft and emerging information technologies, and how sensor web options may be realized and made affordable. Specialized detector subsystems and precision flying techniques may still require substantial innovation, development time and cost: we have presented the considerations for these issues. Finally, data and information gathering and compression techniques are also briefly described.

Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

192

Science Fiction Prototyping and Security Education: Cultivating Contextual and Societal Thinking in Computer  

E-print Network

.g., [1]. Outside the classroom there have also emerged undergraduate and graduate cyber-security technical computer security defenses ­ but it could be that the omitted information is exactly whatScience Fiction Prototyping and Security Education: Cultivating Contextual and Societal Thinking

Matsuoka, Yoky

193

Change in Work Values and Norms among Dutch Young Adults: Ageing or Societal Trends?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, data were analysed longitudinally on the basis of lifespan developmental psychology to determine if work values and norms change as a result of ageing\\/maturation or societal trends (i.e. period effects between two measurement waves). Moreover, data were collected to determine if the younger participants showed more change than the older participants. Participants were three age groups,

Jan A. Feij; Hetty van Emmerik

1998-01-01

194

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

2008-01-01

195

The Inter-Temporal Aspect of Well-Being and Societal Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptions on well-being and societal progress are influenced also by the quantitative indicators and measures used in the measurement, presentation and semantics of discussing these issues. The article presents a novel generic statistical measure S-time-distance, with clear interpretability that delivers a broader concept to look at data, to…

Sicherl, Pavle

2007-01-01

196

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIETAL LEVEL FACTORS ON MEN'S AND WOMEN'S ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To identify the pattern of gender differences in drinking across societies, and to its association with other societal characteristics. Methods: The aggregated results of GENACIS project surveys in 29 countries were examined and were compared with other characteristics of these societies. Results: In all the participating societies men's drinking was more prevalent and heavier than women's drinking. Differences between

GIORA RAHAV; RICHARD WILSNACK; KIM BLOOMFIELD; GERHARD GMEL; SANDRA KUNTSCHE

2006-01-01

197

Information System for Societal Cost and Benefit Analysis of Vocational and Manpower Programs. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was directed toward developing a manual for establishing societal benefits and costs of vocational and manpower programs in Wisconsin. After first outlining the background of benefit-cost analysis, problems in establishing cost functions in education are presented along with some important cost concepts and uses of cost information in…

Arora, Mehar

198

A low tension between individual and societal time aspects in health improved outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review intertemporal choices, involving decisions with a trade-off between something now and something later. These choices are common in health both at an individual and societal level. Methods: The present value of an outcome, for example, the amount of money or the health outcomes in various aspects, is equivalent to the value of a future outcome discounted with

Monica Ortendahl; James F. Fries

199

Churches as Societal Veto Players: Religious Influence in Actor-Centred Theories of PolicyMaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues that the study of western democracies benefits from a conceptualisation of Christian churches as societal veto players characterised by three features: their power, which depends on their potential for mobilisation; their preferences, which can be deduced from churches' official statements and which are often outside the political spectrum; and their coherence, which determines the size of their

Simon Fink

2009-01-01

200

Connections, Dislocations and Displacements: Personal and Societal Relationships in Nilo Cruz's Anna in the Tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Bakhtin's chronotope lens, this paper examines the connection between personal and societal relationships to be found at the confluence of Nilo Cruz's play Anna in the Tropics and Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina . The paper takes a brief look at what Bakhtin meant by the chronotope and then tries to establish just how effective that concept is for

Leo Tolstoy; Anna Karenina; Oswald Yuan; Chin Chang

201

Citizens of the Academic Community? A Societal Perspective on Leadership in UK Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a societal perspective on academic leadership by exploring the preoccupations of academics as citizens rather than as employees, managers or individuals. It uses a listening post methodology to ask "what is it like to be a citizen of an academic institution in contemporary Britain?" Three listening posts, comprising…

Bolden, Richard; Gosling, Jonathan; O'Brien, Anne

2014-01-01

202

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing

Susanne Bauer

2008-01-01

203

Eur-Oceans Consortium (EOC) "Ocean Deoxygenation" Flagship Programme Scientific and societal issues  

E-print Network

of the oceans dissolved oxygen content, or trend towards hypoxia, which can reach levels that are detrimental a reduced oxygen consumption) in a more stratified ocean. Currently we do not know if the two processesEur-Oceans Consortium (EOC) "Ocean Deoxygenation" Flagship Programme Scientific and societal issues

204

NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

205

Societal Education, Direct Action, and Working-Class Gains: An Anarchist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an anarchist theoretical framework, it is argued that the working class would obtain greater gains through militant direct action modeled on the labor movement of the past. The history of the 8-hour workday is reviewed as a case study showing that it was won because of radical leaders who challenged existing legal institutional frameworks through societal education, militant ideology,

John Asimakopoulos

2007-01-01

206

L'INTRODUCTION DES SOCIETES INTERNET EN BOURSE : OPPORTUNISME OU NECESSITE POUR  

E-print Network

1 L'INTRODUCTION DES SOCIETES INTERNET EN BOURSE : OPPORTUNISME OU NECESSITE POUR LES ACTIONNAIRES la COB et tout particulièrement Madame Anne-Lucie VERDEM pour son aide et sa coopération. La valeur tente de répondre à cette question. Mots-clés : Internet, nouveau marché, valeurs technologiques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Societal Issues as Organizers for Science Education in the '80s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is noted science education is in a major period of transition, largely because of major problems facing society today. The feeling expressed is that science teaching designed to respond to societal demands of the 1960's is inappropriate for the demands of the 1980's. Possible directions for new programs are discussed. (MP)

Hofstein, Avi; Yager, Robert E.

1982-01-01

208

National contexts influencing principals' time use and allocation: economic development, societal culture, and educational system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional leadership, administration, and management of relationships with parents and community.

Moosung Lee; Philip Hallinger

2012-01-01

209

Predicted Fire Behavior and Societal Benefits in Three Eastern Sierra Nevada Vegetation Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential fire behavior and various societal benefits (air pollution remov - al, carbon sequestration, and carbon storage) provided by woodlands of pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus californica), shrublands of Great Basin sage- brush (Artemisia tridentata) and rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa), and recently burned annual grasslands near a wildland-urban interface (WUI) community in the high desert of the

Christopher A. Dicus; Kenneth Delfino; David R. Weise

2009-01-01

210

Technologies for Sustainable Cities A sustainable urban environment demands efficient societal flows  

E-print Network

#12;#12;THE GREENTECH PROJECT A virtual organisation CMOCorporate functions Aeronautics Electronic environmental impact for the societal flows. · Including: · Intelligent Transport Solutions (air, land and sea · Chemical management · Water protection · Communication systems · Efficient and Secure information flows

Zhao, Yuxiao

211

Piecing Together the Puzzle: Development of the Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in the prevalence of autism creates a need for a reliable and valid measure of attitudes towards autism. The current study describes the development of a brief 16-item measure of Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) that exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between expert and general…

Flood, Luci N.; Bulgrin, Amanda; Morgan, Betsy L.

2013-01-01

212

Title: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that  

E-print Network

;1- Purpose of the Research As a multi-disciplinary concept, definitions of Corporate Social ResponsibilityTitle: Societal Communication and Brand Equity Abstract: Previous research on corporate social responsibility generally acknowledges that consumers develop more favourable perceptions of responsible firms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

2005-01-01

214

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Societal and Legal Constraints - Module 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is an introduction to the legal and societal considerations which must be appraised when land application systems are being designed. It serves as an introduction to the federal legislation and state guidelines pertaining to land treatment. The main thrust of this module is to point out some of the concerns which a community is likely…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

215

Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on

Tanjima Pervin; Ulf-G Gerdtham; Carl Hampus Lyttkens

2008-01-01

216

The Influence of Societal Values on Organizational Culture at Company Level –the Romanian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to analyze the influence of societal values in modelling the organizational culture at company level. Studies conducted by different researchers highlighted the differences of perception between peoples’ values in their society in relation with the values of their colleagues of different nationalities. Finally, these values influence the importance that people grants to work, leisure, family and

Mihai Ovidiu CERCEL

2011-01-01

217

APPLICATION OF BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE TO SOCIETAL DECISIONS: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BASED ON BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This grant covered several areas of significant societal interest. It included an evaluation of the validity of scientific claims; developed an approach for stakeholder participation; and demonstrated the validity of the developed methods through the performance of a number of independent peer reviews.

MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

2007-06-30

218

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

219

The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal oppo- sition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically,it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto mora- torium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the

Yann Devos; Dirk Reheul; Danny De Waele; Linda Van Speybroeck

2006-01-01

220

Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism: Introducing the Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present several concepts related to integrated analysis of societal metabolism across scales. First we introduce the concept of “dynamic energy budget” of human societies, which is based on the distinction between exosomatic and endosomatic energy flows and the possibility of establishing autocatalytic loops (egg-chicken patterns) among them. Second, we discuss the nature of the dramatic changes

Mario Giampietro; Kozo Mayumi

2000-01-01

221

Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

2013-01-01

222

Internalized Societal Attitudes Moderate the Impact of Weight Stigma on Avoidance of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as

Lenny R. Vartanian; Sarah A. Novak

2011-01-01

223

2012-2015 Work Plan Revision 1 3 INFORMATION FOR SOCIETAL BENEFITS  

E-print Network

2012-2015 Work Plan Revision 1 25 / 82 3 INFORMATION FOR SOCIETAL BENEFITS SB-01 Oceans and Society: Blue Planet Task implementation is supported by the Coastal Zone Community of Practice and Ocean of Earth observations for fisheries and aquaculture. Biodiversity: Increased routine collection of long

224

Sequence Alignment Tools: One Parallel Pattern to Rule Them All?  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we advocate high-level programming methodology for next generation sequencers (NGS) alignment tools for both productivity and absolute performance. We analyse the problem of parallel alignment and review the parallelisation strategies of the most popular alignment tools, which can all be abstracted to a single parallel paradigm. We compare these tools to their porting onto the FastFlow pattern-based programming framework, which provides programmers with high-level parallel patterns. By using a high-level approach, programmers are liberated from all complex aspects of parallel programming, such as synchronisation protocols, and task scheduling, gaining more possibility for seamless performance tuning. In this work, we show some use cases in which, by using a high-level approach for parallelising NGS tools, it is possible to obtain comparable or even better absolute performance for all used datasets. PMID:25147803

2014-01-01

225

Paramagnetic alignment of thermally rotating dust  

E-print Network

Paramagnetic alignment of thermally rotating oblate dust grains is studied analytically for finite ratios of grain to gas temperatures. For such ratios, the alignment of angular momentum J in respect to the grain axis of maximal inertia is only partial. We treat the alignment of J using perturbative methods and disentangle the problem of J alignment in grain body axes from that of J alignment in respect to magnetic field. This enables us to find the alignment of grain axes to magnetic field and thus relate our theory to polarimetric observations.Our present results are applicable to the alignment of both paramagnetic and superparamagnetic grains.

A. Lazarian

1997-02-16

226

Parametric analysis of alignment and phylogenetic uncertainty.  

PubMed

To infer a phylogenetic tree from a set of DNA sequences, typically a multiple alignment is first used to obtain homologous bases. The inferred phylogeny can be very sensitive to how the alignment was created. We develop tools for analyzing the robustness of phylogeny to perturbations in alignment parameters in the NW algorithm. Our main tool is parametric alignment, with novel improvements that are of general interest in parametric inference. Using parametric alignment and a Gaussian distribution on alignment parameters, we derive probabilities of optimal alignment summaries and inferred phylogenies. We apply our method to analyze intronic sequences from Drosophila flies. We show that phylogeny estimates can be sensitive to the choice of alignment parameters, and that parametric alignment elucidates the relationship between alignment parameters and reconstructed trees. PMID:21409513

Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Nicholas; Huggins, Peter

2011-04-01

227

Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering.  

PubMed Central

An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c. PMID:2849754

Corpet, F

1988-01-01

228

Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

2009-12-01

229

Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: An application to conventional and organic dairy farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected attributes of physical health (working conditions) and societal sustainability (food safety, animal welfare and health, and landscape quality). Second, possible sustainability

K. J. van Calker; P. B. M. Berentsen; I. J. M. de Boer; G. W. J. Giesen; R. B. M. Huirne

2007-01-01

230

Impact of Public Policy and Societal Risk Perception on U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

Impact of Public Policy and Societal Risk Perception on U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Plant permit applications for 26 new nuclear power reactors. However, the previous generation of U.S. civilian of nuclear plants. Results point to the critical role societal perceptions of nuclear power risk play

Ford, David N.

231

Cultural–Societal Roots of Violence: The Examples of Genocidal Violence and of Contemporary Youth Violence in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread violence in a society must have its origins in cultural characteristics, current societal conditions, or both. In this article, the cultural, societal, and psychological origins of two very different forms of violence are examined. A conception of the origins of genocide and mass killing is briefly presented, with the Holocaust and the violence in the former Yugoslavia as supporting

Ervin Staub

1996-01-01

232

Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using “culture” as the unit of analysis. Design. Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time.

Jennifer E. Lansford; Kenneth A. Dodge

2008-01-01

233

DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li

234

The alignment-distribution graph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

1993-01-01

235

The alignment-distribution graph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

1993-01-01

236

Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

Snyder, Gary L.

1991-01-01

237

XUV ionization of aligned molecules  

SciTech Connect

New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

2011-11-15

238

The (mis)Alignment of the Earth Science Literacy Principles to the National Science Education Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiative to develop the Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) was an effort to encourage community consensus about the Big Ideas in the Earth Sciences, especially in the solid-earth and hydrologic geosciences. The Principles have been aligned to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) in order to make them more useable for curriculum developers, textbook writers and K-12 educators. The alignment demonstrates that much of the content that is highly valued in the NSES involving Earth and Space Science is not related to the fundamental concepts in the ESLP. Surprisingly, the greatest alignment of concepts in the ESLP is to standards related to Personal and Societal Perspectives in the NSES. Analysis of the alignment demonstrates the highly interdisciplinary nature of the Earth sciences in addressing standards related to Physical Science, Life Science, and Science and Technology in addition to those previously mentioned. An in-depth analysis will follow to examine content valued by the NSES that has been left out of the ESLP, as well as the converse.

Ladue, N.; Clark, S.; Thompson, J.; Beckendorf, K.; Wysession, M. E.

2009-12-01

239

Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.

Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

1995-01-01

240

Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and environmental observa-tion systems into the 9 GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas, identifying EO-MINERS contributions to existing GEOSS targets and defining new, EO-MINERS activities in support of GEOSS. EO-MINERS will run a minerals workshop with GEO members and/or the GEO Secretariat.

Chevrel, Stephane

241

Hybrid Alignment Strategy for Anatomical Ontologies: Results of the 2007 Ontology Alignment Contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is a need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with and reasoning across these ontologies. The objective of this paper is to present our

Songmao Zhang; Olivier Bodenreider

2007-01-01

242

Alignment 2.0: Strategic use of new internet technologies in government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges the view that strategies for using Web 2.0 should primarily be based upon technological characteristics. The value of the organizational strategic alignment approach for developing specific operational Web 2.0 strategies for government organizations is explored both theoretically and empirically. On the basis of a review of the literature we conclude that there are no a priori reasons

Albert Meijer; Marcel Thaens

2010-01-01

243

Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment  

PubMed Central

The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO2 nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO2 containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

2010-01-01

244

Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development: a comparison of four cultures.  

PubMed

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children's play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development. PMID:19930342

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L

2009-01-01

245

Media use and children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability.  

PubMed

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats (i.e., crime, terrorism, earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods). An interactive model of television use and child anxiety in accounting for children's personal threat perceptions was supported, in which the strength of television consumption in predicting children's personal threat perceptions was greater for children with greater anxiety. Relationships were found neither between children's Internet use and threat perceptions nor between media use and perceptions of societal threat. PMID:18645752

Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Beidas, Rinad S; Babyar, Heather M; Kendall, Philip C

2008-07-01

246

Incorporating evolution of transcription factor binding sites into annotated alignments.  

PubMed

Identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is essential to elucidate putative regulatory mechanisms. A common strategy is to combine cross-species conservation with single sequence TFBS annotation to yield "conserved TFBSs". Most current methods in this field adopt a multi-step approach that segregates the two aspects. Again, it is widely accepted that the evolutionary dynamics of binding sites differ from those of the surrounding sequence. Hence, it is desirable to have an approach that explicitly takes this factor into account. Although a plethora of approaches have been proposed for the prediction of conserved TFBSs, very few explicitly model TFBS evolutionary properties, while additionally being multi-step. Recently, we introduced a novel approach to simultaneously align and annotate conserved TFBSs in a pair of sequences. Building upon the standard Smith-Waterman algorithm for local alignments, SimAnn introduces additional states for profiles to output extended alignments or annotated alignments. That is, alignments with parts annotated as gaplessly aligned TFBSs (pair-profile hits)are generated. Moreover,the pair- profile related parameters are derived in a sound statistical framework. In this article, we extend this approach to explicitly incorporate evolution of binding sites in the SimAnn framework. We demonstrate the extension in the theoretical derivations through two position-specific evolutionary models, previously used for modelling TFBS evolution. In a simulated setting, we provide a proof of concept that the approach works given the underlying assumptions,as compared to the original work. Finally, using a real dataset of experimentally verified binding sites in human-mouse sequence pairs,we compare the new approach (eSimAnn) to an existing multi-step tool that also considers TFBS evolution. Although it is widely accepted that binding sites evolve differently from the surrounding sequences, most comparative TFBS identification methods do not explicitly consider this.Additionally, prediction of conserved binding sites is carried out in a multi-step approach that segregates alignment from TFBS annotation. In this paper, we demonstrate how the simultaneous alignment and annotation approach of SimAnn can be further extended to incorporate TFBS evolutionary relationships. We study how alignments and binding site predictions interplay at varying evolutionary distances and for various profile qualities. PMID:17914226

Bais, Abha S; Grossmann, Stefen; Vingron, Martin

2007-08-01

247

Alignment strategies for drug product process development and manufacturing  

E-print Network

The transfer of information between the drug product development and manufacturing organizations is fundamental to drug product commercialization. This information is used to characterize the product-process interaction ...

Garvin, Christopher John

2012-01-01

248

Aligning supply chain design with manufacturing strategies in developing regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing supply chains effectively is a complex and challenging task, due to the current business trends of increasing outsourcing of manufacturing activities to developing regions to gain competitive advantage from being close to customers, making available low and\\/or high skilled labour, participating in local government initiatives, and reducing transportation cost and production delivery lead times. This paper explores how a

S. B. Taps; K. Steger-Jensen

2007-01-01

249

Aligning marketing and manufacturing strategies with the market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In strategic marketing decisions substantial emphasis is placed on market seg- mentation and product\\/service differentiation. This follows from separate, inten- sive analyses of customers and competitors. Based on these analyses, the resultant segmentation and differentiation schema, and an intensive review of the firm's own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, the firm makes one of its most important and critical decisions:

T. HILLt; J. E. KLOMPMAKER

1999-01-01

250

Aligning BPR to strategy: a framework for analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Process Change is maturing. Gone are the days of unbridled “Greenfield” re-engineering. Future benefits in process change will have to be carefully “mined” through planning and the use of sophisticated methods and techniques. While much has been learned to prevent re-engineering failures, firms are still looking for proven approaches and measures. Based on a study of 25 leading business

William J. Kettinger; James T. C. Teng

1998-01-01

251

Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

2012-01-01

252

Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

1975-01-01

253

Hostile and Favorable Societal Climates for Self-Change: Some Lessons for Policymakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When individuals vote, decide on what to wear or what to eat, they do not do so in a societal vacuum; rather, their actions\\u000a are influenced and affected by society’s values, trends, commercials, and campaigns. From our daily experience, it seems plausible\\u000a that social and cognitive processes are intertwined. However, in the area of natural recovery research, decisional processes\\u000a of

Harald Klingemann; Justyna Klingemann

254

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats

Jonathan S. Comer; Jami M. Furr; Rinad S. Beidas; Heather M. Babyar; Philip C. Kendall

2008-01-01

255

SOCIETATES PUBLICANORUM : EXISTAIT-IL UNE BOURSE OU UN RSEAU DE  

E-print Network

ARTICLE SOCIETATES PUBLICANORUM : EXISTAIT-IL UNE BOURSE OU UN R�SEAU DE COURTIERS SOUS LA R achet�es et vendues par l'interm�diaire d'une Bourse ou d'un r�seau de courtiers. Elle examine les �l conclut qu'il n'y a aucun �l�ment de preuve confirmant qu'il existait une Bourse ou un r�seau de courtiers

Spino, Claude

256

Dying in Germany - consequences of societal changes for palliative care and the health care system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the way people die and the new challenges in dealing with dying and death have not been realized to their full\\u000a extent or discussed in respect to their implications and consequences for end-of-life care in Germany. The purpose of this\\u000a problem analysis paper is to provide an overview of the most important societal changes and to address

Michael Ewers; Doris Schaeffer

2007-01-01

257

SYNBIOSAFE e-conference: online community discussion on the societal aspects of synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the SYNBIOSAFE project, we carried out an open electronic conference (e-conference), with the aim to stimulate\\u000a an open debate on the societal issues of synthetic biology in a proactive way. The e-conference attracted 124 registered participants\\u000a from 23 different countries and different professional backgrounds, who wrote 182 contributions in six different categories:\\u000a (I) Ethics; (II) Safety; (III)

Markus Schmidt; Helge Torgersen; Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra; Alexander Kelle; Anna Deplazes; Nikola Biller-Andorno

2008-01-01

258

The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

1975-01-01

259

Call for Papers Optical System Alignment, Tolerancing,  

E-print Network

. Malone, National Security Technologies, LLC (United States); Maria D. Nowak, Raymond G. Ohl IV, NASA loosening tolerances using active elements alignment in electro-optical systems alignment in metrology

Jahns, Jürgen

260

Individual and societal impact on earnings associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China  

PubMed Central

To evaluate individual-level and societal-level losses of income associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China, a multi-stage probability survey was administered to adults aged 18–70 in Beijing and Shanghai. We used data to estimate individual-level expected earnings from a model that included information about the respondents’ education level, marital status, age, and gender. Expected earnings were compared to observed earnings among respondents with mental illness and serious disability. The result shows that the 12-month prevalence of such serious mental illness was 0.6%. Its impact on earnings was significant in the total sample and was higher for males (76% of gender-specific expected salary was lost) than females (32%). When projected to societal level, the annual impact was estimated to be 466 million Renminbi (RMB 8.27= USD 1), less than 0.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the two cities. Serious mental illness was associated with a substantial decrease in individual-level earnings, but the burden that resulted from societal-level loss of earnings was not large enough to help drive mental health policy and programs in China. PMID:20493555

Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Huang, Yue-qin; He, Yan-ling; Liu, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Ming-yuan; Shen, Yu-cun; Kessler, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

261

Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2010-02-01

262

Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA)

2011-03-01

263

Managerial strategies to conflict management of not- for-profit organizations in Nigeria: A study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the managerial strategies to conflict management in non-profit making organizations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The essences of this study are to device effective strategies to conflict management and make appropriate recommendations for an effective conflict resolution, aimed at ensuring organizational development, productivity and societal growth. The study adopted the descriptive study pattern

Austin O. Oparanma; Donald I. Hamilton; John Ohaka

264

Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies  

PubMed Central

An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper. PMID:18974854

Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

2008-01-01

265

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

266

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

267

Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

1989-01-01

268

Radial Alignment in Simulated Clusters  

E-print Network

Observational evidence for the radial alignment of satellites with their dark matter host has been accumulating steadily in the past few years. The effect is seen over a wide range of scales, from massive clusters of galaxies down to galaxy-sized systems, yet the underlying physical mechanism has still not been established. To this end, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the shapes and orientations of dark matter substructures in high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations. We find a strong tendency for radial alignment of the substructure with its host halo: the distribution of halo major axes is very anisotropic, with the majority pointing towards the center of mass of the host. The alignment peaks once the sub-halo has passed the virial radius of the host for the first time, but is not subsequently diluted, even after the halos have gone through as many as four pericentric passages. This evidence points to the existence of a very rapid dynamical mechanism acting on these systems and we argue that tidal torquing throughout their orbits is the most likely candidate.

Maria J. Pereira; Greg L. Bryan; Stuart P. D. Gill

2007-07-12

269

Multiposition alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that the stationary alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) can be improved by employing the multiposition\\/technique. Using an observability analysis, it is shown that an optimal two-position alignment not only satisfies complete observability conditions but also minimizes alignment errors. This is done by analytic rank testing of the stripped observability matrix and numerical calculation of the

J. G. Lee; C. G. Park; H. W. Park

1993-01-01

270

An API for ontology alignment Jrme Euzenat  

E-print Network

1 An API for ontology alignment Jérôme Euzenat INRIA Rhône-Alpes, Montbonnot, France, Jerome an implementation of this format as an Alignment API, which can be seen as an extension of the OWL API and shares some design goals with it. We show how this API can be used for effectively aligning ontologies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Aligning Multiple Anatomical Ontologies through a Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of deriving an indirect alignment between two on- tologies from the two direct alignments of these ontologies to a reference ontology. The three anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary (MA), the NCI Thesaurus (NCI) and the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). Methods: The di- rect alignment employs a combination of lexical

Songmao Zhang; Olivier Bodenreider

2006-01-01

272

Alignment mechanisms of paramagnetic grains revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking into account the tight coupling of grain axis with angular momentum due to effective dissipation of rotation energy, the alignment of spheroidal grains was investigated by paramagnetic relaxation. Alignment degree will be significantly improved in diffuse clouds. The inclusions of superparamagnetic (SPM) substances may play a key role in grain alignment in dark clouds as well as in diffuse clouds.

Seki, Munezo

1989-01-01

273

Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance  

E-print Network

Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance Sebastian B¨ocker1, Hans-Michael Kaltenbach2 1 Research, Universit¨at Bielefeld B¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein

Lonardi, Stefano

274

Peak alignment using restricted edit distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peak is a pair of real values (x,y), where x is the time when peak of height y is registered. In the peak alignment problem, we are given two sequences of peaks, and our task is to align the sequences allowing some basic edit operations on the peaks. We study an instance of the peak alignment problem that arises

Veli Mäkinen

2007-01-01

275

Surface Modification of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excellent optoelectronic, mechanical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotubes have made them very attractive for a wide range of potential applications. However, many applications require the growth of aligned carbon nanotubes with desirable surface characteristics. We have developed a simple pyrolytic method for large-scale production of aligned carbon nanotube arrays perpendicular to the substrate. These aligned carbon nanotube arrays

Liming Dai; Ajeeta Patil; Richard A. Vaia

2003-01-01

276

The chief strategy officer.  

PubMed

They're nominally and ultimately responsible for strategy, but today's CEOs have less and less time to devote to it. As a result, CEOs are appointing "chief strategy officers"--executives specifically tasked with creating, communicating, executing, and sustaining a company's strategic initiatives. In this article, three authors from Accenture share the results of their research on this emerging organizational role. The typical CSO or top strategy executive is not a pure strategist, conducting long-range planning in relative isolation. Most CSOs consider themselves doers first, with the mandate, credentials, and desire to act as well as advise. They are seasoned executives with a strong strategy orientation who have usually worn many operations hats before taking on the role. Strategy executives are charged with three critical jobs that together form the very definition of strategy execution. First, they must clarify the company's strategy for themselves and for every business unit and function, ensuring that all employees understand the details of the strategic plan and how their work connects to corporate goals. Second, CSOs must drive immediate change. The focus of the job almost always quickly evolves from creating shared alignment around a vision to riding herd on the ensuing change effort. Finally, a CSO must drive decision making that sustains organizational change. He or she must be that person who, in the CEO's stead, can walk into any office and test whether the decisions being made are aligned with the strategy and are creating the desired results. When decisions below the executive suite aren't being made in accordance with strategy, much of the CSO's job involves learning why and quickly determining whether to stay the course or change tack. PMID:17972497

Breene, R Timothy S; Nunes, Paul F; Shill, Walter E

2007-10-01

277

Self-alignment of microparts using liquid surface tension—behavior of micropart and alignment characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to establish a self-alignment technique for microparts assembly using liquid surface tension. The factors that influence alignment performance are examined and ways of performance improvement are discussed experimentally and theoretically. First, the relationship between the alignment accuracy and the behavior of the micropart and the water droplet is examined in the alignments with six

Kaiji Sato; Kentaro Ito; Seiichi Hata; Akira Shimokohbe

2003-01-01

278

A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students’ Ideas About Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students\\u000a (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students’ ideas were explored using\\u000a the Questionnaire for exploring Students’ ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues (QSETS). The QSETS questionnaire\\u000a gave students the opportunity to

Chokchai Yuenyong; Alister Jones; Naruemon Yutakom

2008-01-01

279

Strategy-as-Practice: Taking Social Practices Seriously  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research in Strategy-as-Practice (SAP) and suggests directions for its development. The power of this perspective lies in its ability to explain how strategy-making is enabled and constrained by prevailing organizational and societal practices. Our review shows how SAP research has helped to advance social theories in strategic management, offered alternatives to performance-dominated analyzes, broadened the scope in

Eero Vaara; Richard Whittington

2012-01-01

280

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

281

Design and analysis of hologram alignment mark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing an off-axis aspheric surface using Computer Generated Hologram (CGH), multiple combined CGH can not only test the off-axis aspheric surface but also align every element in test system. The alignment transmission CGH with a rectangle aperture, which produces an alignment mark at the designated point, can be used to align the off-axis aspheric surface and CGH. Hologram alignment mark is introduced firstly, then the design of hologram alignment mark is deduced in detail and a formula of calculating the position coordinate of every point on fringes is got. After that its diffraction characteristics are analyzed based on Fresnel diffraction theory, which is in line with Fraunhofer diffraction, and the effects of different length-width ratio of rectangle aperture are simulated. Finally an example of hologram alignment mark and its corresponding actual mark picture are given.

Li, Shijie; Wu, Fan; Chen, Qiang

2012-10-01

282

MACSE: Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences Accounting for Frameshifts and Stop Codons  

PubMed Central

Until now the most efficient solution to align nucleotide sequences containing open reading frames was to use indirect procedures that align amino acid translation before reporting the inferred gap positions at the codon level. There are two important pitfalls with this approach. Firstly, any premature stop codon impedes using such a strategy. Secondly, each sequence is translated with the same reading frame from beginning to end, so that the presence of a single additional nucleotide leads to both aberrant translation and alignment. We present an algorithm that has the same space and time complexity as the classical Needleman-Wunsch algorithm while accommodating sequencing errors and other biological deviations from the coding frame. The resulting pairwise coding sequence alignment method was extended to a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithm implemented in a program called MACSE (Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences accounting for frameshifts and stop codons). MACSE is the first automatic solution to align protein-coding gene datasets containing non-functional sequences (pseudogenes) without disrupting the underlying codon structure. It has also proved useful in detecting undocumented frameshifts in public database sequences and in aligning next-generation sequencing reads/contigs against a reference coding sequence. MACSE is distributed as an open-source java file executable with freely available source code and can be used via a web interface at: http://mbb.univ-montp2.fr/macse. PMID:21949676

Ranwez, Vincent; Harispe, Sébastien; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.

2011-01-01

283

Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P., E-mail: lokhtin@mail.cern.ch; Managadze, A. K., E-mail: akmanag48@mail.ru; Snigirev, A. M., E-mail: snigirev@lav01.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

284

Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P.; Managadze, A. K.; Snigirev, A. M.

2013-05-01

285

The linkage of technology strategy and overall strategy of multi business diversified groups: Literature review and theoritical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with technology strategy and its linkage with overall strategy at multi-business, diversified groups. In the last two decades, the alignment of technology and business strategy has been one of the important research fields in strategy and technology management scopes. These researchs has been concentrated on single companies through which different frameworks, models & decision support tools have

Mohammad R. Arasti; Mahdi Khaleghi; Javad Noori

2010-01-01

286

Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

Uddin, Waheed

2006-01-01

287

Hydrogen Vehicles: Impacts of DOE Technical Targets on Market Acceptance and Societal Benefits  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen vehicles (H2V), including H2 internal combustion engine, fuel cell and fuel cell plugin hybrid, could greatly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The U.S. Department of Energy has adopted targets for vehicle component technologies to address key technical barriers towidespread commercialization of H2Vs. This study estimates the market acceptance of H2Vs and the resulting societal benefits and subsidy in 41 scenarios that reflect a wide range of progress in meeting these technical targets. Important results include: (1) H2Vs could reach 20e70% market shares by 2050, depending on progress in achieving the technical targets.With a basic hydrogen infrastructure (w5% hydrogen availability), the H2V market share is estimated to be 2e8%. Fuel cell and hydrogen costs are the most important factors affecting the long-term market shares of H2Vs. (2) Meeting all technical targets on time could result in about an 80% cut in petroleumuse and a 62% (or 72% with aggressive electricity de-carbonization) reduction in GHG in 2050. (3) The required hydrogen infrastructure subsidy is estimated to range from $22 to $47 billion and the vehicle subsidy from $4 to $17 billion. (4) Long-term H2V market shares, societal benefits and hydrogen subsidies appear to be highly robust against delay in one target, if all other targets are met on time. R&D diversification could provide insurance for greater societal benefits. (5) Both H2Vs and plug-in electric vehicles could exceed 50% market shares by 2050, if all targets are met on time. The overlapping technology, the fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, appears attractive both in the short and long runs, but for different reasons.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University; Greene, David L [ORNL

2013-01-01

288

Aligning Business Motivations in a Services Computing Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difficulty in aligning business strategies with the design of enterprise systems has been recognised as a major inhibitor of successful IT initiatives. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) initiatives imply an entirely new approach to enterprise process enablement and require significant architectural redesign. Successful SOA deployments are highly dependent on the degree to which flexible support for evolving business strategies is embedded into their designs. This chapter addresses the challenge of modelling business strategies in support of SOA designs. The proposed framework is derived from conceptual elements introduced in the OMG business motivation model and delivers an architectural view for business stakeholders in a computational-independent model (CIM). This model represents the first of three layers that will define a complete reference architecture for a service-based computing model.

Roach, T.; Low, G.; D'Ambra, J.

289

ARYANA: Aligning Reads by Yet Another Approach  

PubMed Central

Motivation Although there are many different algorithms and software tools for aligning sequencing reads, fast gapped sequence search is far from solved. Strong interest in fast alignment is best reflected in the $106 prize for the Innocentive competition on aligning a collection of reads to a given database of reference genomes. In addition, de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing long reads requires fast overlap-layout-concensus algorithms which depend on fast and accurate alignment. Contribution We introduce ARYANA, a fast gapped read aligner, developed on the base of BWA indexing infrastructure with a completely new alignment engine that makes it significantly faster than three other aligners: Bowtie2, BWA and SeqAlto, with comparable generality and accuracy. Instead of the time-consuming backtracking procedures for handling mismatches, ARYANA comes with the seed-and-extend algorithmic framework and a significantly improved efficiency by integrating novel algorithmic techniques including dynamic seed selection, bidirectional seed extension, reset-free hash tables, and gap-filling dynamic programming. As the read length increases ARYANA's superiority in terms of speed and alignment rate becomes more evident. This is in perfect harmony with the read length trend as the sequencing technologies evolve. The algorithmic platform of ARYANA makes it easy to develop mission-specific aligners for other applications using ARYANA engine. Availability ARYANA with complete source code can be obtained from http://github.com/aryana-aligner PMID:25252881

2014-01-01

290

Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions  

PubMed Central

A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

2008-01-01

291

A VILLAGE IN INDIA: AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF INCREASING SCALE OF SOCIETAL ORGANIZATION  

E-print Network

A VILLAGE IN INDIA: AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF INCREASING SCALE OF SOCIETAL ORGANIZATION D. Stanley Eitzen University of Kansas Introduction1 The problem. The discipline of sociology has been and is limited by the paucity of sociological theory..., it is the specific problem of this paper to explore the relevance of the theory of increasing scale of society to a particular village in India. Our question: Are the social changes observed in this village from Time I to Time II explained by the increasing scale...

Eitzen, D. Stanley

1968-07-01

292

The imperative for hospital-based palliative care: patient, institutional, and societal benefits.  

PubMed

Challenges in societal demographics, finances, and human suffering are pushing us towards a new paradigm in health care delivery. The palliative care paradigm is a necessary complement to existing acute care and chronic care paradigms. Palliative care does not replace prior paradigms; instead, it adds value and provides a shift in focus when appropriate. Baylor University Medical Center has all of the components needed for an effective palliative care program, including expertise in palliative medicine, pain management, ethics, geriatrics, oncology, other medical specialties, nursing, social work, and pastoral care. The palliative care consultation service will enhance patient care and improve financial performance in patients with serious life-limiting illnesses. PMID:16200109

Fine, Robert L

2004-07-01

293

CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP  

SciTech Connect

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

TAKACS, P.Z.

2005-07-26

294

Laminar silk scaffolds for aligned tissue fabrication  

PubMed Central

3D biomaterial scaffolds with aligned architecture are of vital importance in tissue regeneration to mimic native tissue hierarchy and hence function. We demonstrate a generic method to produce aligned biomaterial scaffolds using the physics of directional ice freezing. Homogeneously aligned 3D silk scaffold with high porosity and alignment was demonstrated. The method can be adapted to a wide range of polymers and is devoid of any chemical reactions, thus avoiding potential complications associated with by-products and purification procedures. Subsequently, the 3D aligned system was tested for mechanical properties and cellular responses with chondrocytes and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells, assessing survival, proliferation and differentiation. In vivo tests suggested biocompatibility of the matrices for future tissue engineering applications, specifically in areas where high cellular alignment is needed. PMID:23161731

Mandal, Biman B.; Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.

2013-01-01

295

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

Maxey, L.C.

1993-09-28

296

Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: l findings are applicable to automaticdatabase searches.Keywords: alignment quality analysis\\/evolutionary conservation\\/genome analysis\\/protein sequence alignment\\/sequence spacehoppingIntroductionProtein sequence alignments in twilight zoneProtein sequences fold into unique three-dimensional (3D)structures. However, proteins with similar sequences adoptsimilar structures (Zuckerkandl and Pauling, 1965; Doolittle,1981; Doolittle, 1986; Chothia and Lesk, 1986). Indeed, mostprotein...

Burkhard Rost

1999-01-01

297

Online music tracking with global alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make audio monitoring, the state of the art in this area makes use of local alignment algorithms between the objective\\u000a audio and musical interpretation.The inductive hypothesis of a local alignment tool is that the alignment is correct to the\\u000a current position of an error this is drag and accumulate to subsequent errors which do not recover unless elaborate heuristics

Edgar Chávez

298

Towards a complexity theory of strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the creation of a complexity theory of strategy by integrating a number of ideas that have previously been explored independently in the strategy literature, namely improvisation, minimal structures, simple rules, dynamic capabilities, bricolage, and organizational resilience. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Organizations are taken as complex adaptive systems that align with their

Miguel Pina e Cunha; Joao Vieira da Cunha

2006-01-01

299

Life is Getting Better: Societal Evolution and Fit with Human Nature.  

PubMed

Human society has changed much over the last centuries and this process of 'modernization' has profoundly affected the lives of individuals; currently we live quite different lives from those forefathers lived only five generations ago. There is difference of opinion as to whether we live better now than before and consequently there is also disagreement as to whether we should continue modernizing or rather try to slow the process down. Quality-of-life in a society can be measured by how long and happy its inhabitants live. Using these indicators I assess whether societal modernization has made life better or worse. Firstly I examine findings of present day survey research. I start with a cross-sectional analysis of 143 nations in the years 2000-2008 and find that people live longer and happier in today's most modern societies. Secondly I examine trends in modern nations over the last decade and find that happiness and longevity have increased in most cases. Thirdly I consider the long-term and review findings from historical anthropology, which show that we lived better in the early hunter-gatherer society than in the later agrarian society. Together these data suggest that societal evolution has worked out differently for the quality of human life, first negatively, in the change from a hunter-gatherer existence to agriculture, and next positively, in the more recent transformation from an agrarian to an industrial society. We live now longer and happier than ever before. PMID:20390030

Veenhoven, Ruut

2010-05-01

300

The twilight zone of cis element alignments.  

PubMed

Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein-DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein-DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments. PMID:23268451

Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

2013-02-01

301

Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings fabricated by a soft lithography embossing process derived from PRINTTM (Pattern Replication In Nonwetting Template) is influenced by mold removal (peel-off direction). This indicates the existence of two competing alignment mechanisms: (1) topography (i.e., the Beremann mechanism) and (2) surface modification during peel-off. The degree to which mold removal influenced liquid crystal alignment was found to be dependent on the primary structures of the embossed polymer, and the chemical composition of the mold. These findings suggest alternate ways to affect liquid crystal alignment in roll-to-roll manufacturing.

Schenck, Walter; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Samulski, Edward

2011-03-01

302

Aligning carbon nano fibers using magnetic nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oleic acid coated magnetic nano particles and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) coated carbon nano fibers are suspended in an aqueous medium. Under the application of very low magnetic field (˜500 Oe), the physically adsorbed magnetic nanoparticles with carbon nanofibers are spatially aligned. The external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moment of the particles and consequent body forces align the carbon nanofibers. This alignment is studied using a microscope attached with computer and using a capillary viscometry. This form of orientation may be very useful for various nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

Parmar, Mayur A.; Virpura, Hiral A.; Dave, Vishaka; Patel, Rajesh J.

2014-04-01

303

Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Maryland's Vulnerability to Climate Change. Phase 2: Building Societal, Economic, and Ecological Resilience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 20, 2007, Governor Martin O'Malley signed an Executive Order establishing the Maryland Commission on Climate Change (MCCC) and charging them with developing an action plan to address the causes of climate change and prepare for the likely impacts...

2011-01-01

304

The Upper San Pedro Partnership: A Case Study of Successful Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper San Pedro Partnership (USPP) (http://www.usppartnership.com/) has been in existence since 1998. Its purpose is to coordinate and cooperate in the implementation of comprehensive policies and projects to meet the long-term water needs of residents within the U.S. side of the basin and of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. The Partnership consists of 21 local, state, and Federal agencies, NGO's and a private water company. In 2004 it was recognized by Congress in Section 321 of Public Law 108-136 and required to make annual reports to Congress on its progress in bringing the basin water budget into balance by 2011. The Partnership is dedicated to science-based decision making. This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of natural resources research in the binational (U.S.-Mexico) San Pedro Basin into a mature example of integrated science and decision making embodied in the USPP. It will discuss the transition through science and research for understanding; to science for addressing a need; to integrated policy development and science. At each stage the research conducted becomes more interdisciplinary, first across abiotic disciplines (hydrology, remote sensing, atmospheric science), then a merging of abiotic and biotic disciplines (adding ecology and plant physiology), and finally a further merging with the social sciences and policy and decision making for resource management. Federal, university, and NSF SAHRA Science and Technology Center research has been planned and conducted directly with the USPP. Because of the success the San Pedro has been designated as an operational HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) demonstration basin—the most advanced category. Lessons learned from this experience will be reviewed with the intent providing guidance to ensure that hydrologic and watershed research is socially and scientifically relevant and will directly address the needs of policy makers and resource managers. Additionally, the successful examples of science-society linkages can provide helpful models for basins, especially transnational basins, elsewhere.

Goodrich, D. C.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Shuttleworth, J.

2006-12-01

305

Aligning biological sequences on distributed bus networks: a divisible load scheduling approach.  

PubMed

In this paper, we design a multiprocessor strategy that exploits the computational characteristics of the algorithms used for biological sequence comparison proposed in the literature. We employ divisible load theory (DLT) that is suitable for handling large scale processing on network based systems. For the first time in the domain of DLT, the problem of aligning biological sequences is attempted. The objective is to minimize the total processing time of the alignment process. In designing our strategy, DLT facilitates a clever partitioning of the entire computation process involved in such a way that the overall time consumed for aligning the sequences is a minimum. The partitioning takes into account the computation speeds of the nodes and the underlying communication network. Since this is a real-life application, the post-processing phase becomes important, and hence we consider propagating the results back in order to generate an exact alignment. We consider several cases in our analysis such as deriving closed-form solutions for the processing time for heterogeneous, homogeneous, and networks with slow links. Further, we attempt to employ a multiinstallment strategy to distribute the tasks such that a higher degree of parallelism can be achieved. For slow networks, our strategy recommends near-optimal solutions. We derive an important condition to identify such cases and propose two heuristic strategies. Also, our strategy can be extended for multisequence alignment by utilizing a clustering strategy such as the Berger-Munson algorithm proposed in the literature. Finally, we use real-life DNA samples of house mouse mitochondrion (Mus Musculus Mitochondrion, NC_001569) consisting of 16,295 residues and the DNA of human mitochondrion (Homo Sapiens Mitochondrion, NC_001807) consisting of 16,571 residues, obtainable from the GenBank, in our rigorous simulation experiments to illustrate all the theoretical findings. PMID:16379366

Min, Wong Han; Veeravalli, Bharadwaj

2005-12-01

306

Economic Evaluation of Influenza Pandemic Mitigation Strategies in the United States Using a Stochastic MicrosimulationTransmission Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To project the potential economic impact of pan- demic influenza mitigation strategies from a societal perspec- tive in the United States. Methods: We use a stochastic agent-based model to simulate pandemic influenza in the community. We compare 17 strategies: targeted antiviral prophylaxis (TAP) alone and in combination with school closure as well as prevaccination. Results: In the absence of

Beate Sander; Azhar Nizam; Louis P. Garrison; Maarten J. Postma; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Ira M. Longini

2008-01-01

307

Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. DESIGN: Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. RESULTS: More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. CONCLUSION: More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways. PMID:19898651

Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

2008-07-01

308

Provides overall leadership for and management of the University's human resources strategy. Responsible for planning, organizing, directing, implementing, and administering human resources strategy, policies and  

E-print Network

Provides overall leadership for and management of the University's human resources strategy. Responsible for planning, organizing, directing, implementing, and administering human resources strategy to define, develop and deliver effective human resources practices that are aligned with the mission, vision

Dasgupta, Dipankar

309

Gastrointestinal complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease: consensus definitions from the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease.  

PubMed

A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval. The Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the gastrointestinal system. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases. Although serious gastrointestinal complications are relatively uncommon after congenital cardiac surgery, accurate estimates of the incidences of these complications are limited, in part due to lack of standardized reporting and the absence of universal nomenclature that defines organ-specific complications. The Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a list of gastrointestinal complications that may be temporally associated with congenital cardiac surgery. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, initiatives to improve quality, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies of treatment. PMID:19063798

Ghanayem, Nancy S; Dearani, Joseph A; Welke, Karl F; Béland, Marie J; Shen, Irving; Ebels, Tjark

2008-12-01

310

Lies, Damn Lies, and Alignment: Important Alignment Issues in the Common Core Era  

E-print Network

focuses on the alignment of textbooks to the Common Core standards in elementary in the Common Core Era Guest Lecture by Morgan Polikoff Assistant Professor lays out important alignment issues in the Common Core era, presenting results

Loudon, Catherine

311

?-? interaction-induced vertical alignment of silica mesochannels templated by a discotic lyotropic liquid crystal.  

PubMed

The development of vertically aligned mesochannels in organic/inorganic hybrid films is in high demand and a challenging issue. However, there are no clear guiding principles to attain the surface-mediated vertical alignment. This work proposes the first clear versatile strategy to achieve the vertical alignment by utilizing the ?-? interaction between the organic template molecule of a planar discotic liquid crystalline and 2D ?-plane of graphite. The crucial role of the ?-? interaction can be verified by the exploration with other substrates such as silicon wafer surfaces with varied surface energy (water contact angle: 5°-105°), quartz plates, and polymer films, which provided common parallel alignment with respect to the substrate plane. PMID:20836502

Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Seki, Takahiro

2010-10-01

312

Automated alignment and on-sky performance of the Gemini planet imager coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of 10-7 contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Here, we describe the techniques used to automatically align GPI and maintain the alignment throughout the course of science observations. We discuss the particular challenges of maintaining precision alignments on a Cassegrain mounted instrument and strategies that we have developed that allow GPI to achieve high contrast even in poor seeing conditions.

Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Dunn, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Sadakuni, Naru; Dillon, Daren; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Cardwell, Andrew; Serio, Andrew

2014-07-01

313

Upcoming challenges for multiple sequence alignment methods in the high-throughput era  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent trends in multiple sequence alignment tools. It describes the latest algorithmic improvements including the extension of consistency-based methods to the problem of template-based multiple sequence alignments. Some results are presented suggesting that template-based methods are significantly more accurate than simpler alternative methods. The validation of existing methods is also discussed at length with the detailed description of recent results and some suggestions for future validation strategies. The last part of the review addresses future challenges for multiple sequence alignment methods in the genomic era, most notably the need to cope with very large sequences, the need to integrate large amounts of experimental data, the need to accurately align non-coding and non-transcribed sequences and finally, the need to integrate many alternative methods and approaches. Contact: cedric.notredame@crg.es PMID:19648142

Kemena, Carsten; Notredame, Cedric

2009-01-01

314

Automated Alignment and On-Sky Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager Coronagraph  

E-print Network

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of $10^{-7}$ contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Here, we describe the techniques used to automatically align GPI and maintain the alignment throughout the course of science observations. We discuss the particular challenges of maintaining precision alignments on a Cassegrain mounted instrument and strategies that we have developed that allow GPI to achieve high contrast even in poor seeing conditions.

Savransky, Dmitry; Poyneer, Lisa A; Dunn, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A; Sadakuni, Naru; Dillon, Daren; Goodsell, Stephen J; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Cardwell, Andrew; Serio, Andrew

2014-01-01

315

TM-align: a protein structure alignment algorithm based on the TM-score  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed TM-align, a new algorithm to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs that combines the TM-score rotation matrix and Dynamic Programming (DP). The algo- rithm is ? 4 times faster than CE and 20 times faster than DALI and SAL. On average, the resulting struc- ture alignments have higher accuracy and coverage than those provided by

Yang Zhang; Jeffrey Skolnick

2005-01-01

316

Improved Alignment Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe improved alignment models for statistical machine translation. The statistical translation approach uses two types of information: a translation model and a lan- guage model. The language model used is a bigram or general m-gram model. The transla- tion model is decomposed into a lexical and an alignment model. We describe two different ap- proaches for

Franz Josef Och; Christoph Tillmann; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

317

Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

Branson, Christopher M.

2008-01-01

318

Fast Code-Phase Alignment of GPS  

E-print Network

Fast Code-Phase Alignment of GPS Signals Using Virtex-4 FPGAs Usama Malik, Oliver Diessel School based system for aligning the code-phase of a received GPS signal. The core operation involves. We outline the proposed system, which stores the code in on-chip memory blocks and uses both

Diessel, Oliver

319

Statistical Translation Alignment with Compositionality Constraints  

E-print Network

presents a method for aligning words between translations, that imposes a compositionality constraint shared task on word align- ment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. 1 Introduction modeling process is that of compositional- ity: a fundamental assumption in statistical machine translation

Langlais, Philippe

320

Range alignment methods for ISAR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISAR is used to image high resolution images of moving targets. Range Alignment is the key for the formation of ISAR images, therefore many methods has been proposed. In this paper, the performance of maximum correlation method, minimum entropy method and global range alignment method are introduced and analyzed. Furthermore, these methods will be tested by using both simulated and real data.

Su, Zheng; Yuan, Yunneng

2011-10-01

321

Intelligent Texture Alignment for Kimono Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yukata is a type of traditional Japanese kimono. An alignment of its texture pattern is an important factor of the yukata design. In this study, we developed a design support system for the texture alignment of the yukata as a Web service, which can be used on a mobile phone. Texture images of the kimono cloth are stored in

Tetsuya Sano; Hiroyuki Ukida; H. Yamamoto

2008-01-01

322

Alignment of Developments in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds upon the concept of alignment within the curriculum (due to Biggs) and suggests, in the context of two current examples, an integrated methodology for effectively aligned development activities within universities. Higher Education institutions face important challenges. Firstly, quality enhancement of the curriculum is now an…

Cowan, John; George, Judith W.; Pinheiro-Torres, Andreia

2004-01-01

323

Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments  

SciTech Connect

Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

1999-08-15

324

Algebras of ontology alignment relations Jrme Euzenat  

E-print Network

, and composing alignments. 1 Motivations The heterogeneity of ontologies on the semantic web requires finding the correspon- dences between them in order to interoperate. The operation of finding correspondences is called context of sharing alignments on the web and composing ontology matchers, it is necessary to manipulate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Multiple Sequence Alignment Accuracy and Phylogenetic Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric

T. Heath Ogden; Michael S. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

326

MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 ? m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas

2005-02-01

327

Mass Spectra Alignments and Their Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass Spectrometry has become one of the most popular analysis techniques in Genomics and Systems Biology. We investigate a general framework that allows the alignment (or matching) of any two mass spectra. In particular, we examine the alignment of a reference mass spectrum generated in silico from a database, with a measured sample mass spectrum. In this context, we assess

Sebastian Böcker; Hans-michael Kaltenbach

2005-01-01

328

Mass spectra alignments and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass Spectrometry has become one of the most popular analysis techniques in Genomics and Systems Biology. We investigate a general framework that allows the alignment (or matching) of any two mass spectra. In particular, we examine the alignment of a reference mass spectrum generated in silico from a database, with a measured sample mass spectrum. In this context, we assess

Sebastian Böcker; Hans-michael Kaltenbach

2007-01-01

329

Physics and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991, there have been extensive research efforts on their synthesis, physics, electronics, chemistry, and applications due to the fact that CNTs were predicted to have extraordinary physical, mechanical, chemical, optical, and electronic properties. Among the various forms of CNTs, single-walled and multi-walled, random and aligned, semiconducting and metallic, aligned

Yucheng Lan; Yang Wang; Z. F. Ren

2011-01-01

330

Precision aligned split V-block  

DOEpatents

A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

George, Irwin S. (3240 Siringo Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87501)

1984-01-01

331

Pyramid sensor for segmented mirror alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report what is to our knowledge the first laboratory experiment that shows the use of a pyramid wavefront sensor to cophase and align segmented mirrors having three degrees of freedom per segment, i.e., piston, tip, and tilt. In the laboratory the iterative alignment procedure reached a wavefront residual error of about 10 nm. The residual error was equally distributed

Simone Esposito; E. Pinna; A. Puglisi; A. Tozzi; P. Stefanini

2005-01-01

332

Control rod housing alignment and repair method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to

R. C. Dixon; G. A. Deaver; J. R. Punches; G. E. Singleton; J. G. Erbes; H. P. Offer

1992-01-01

333

Learning Peptide-Spectrum Alignment Models for Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

We present a peptide-spectrum alignment strategy that employs a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for the identification of spectra produced by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our method is fundamentally generative in that it models peptide fragmentation in MS/MS as a physical process. The model traverses an observed MS/MS spectrum and a peptide-based theoretical spectrum to calculate the best alignment between the two spectra. Unlike all existing state-of-the-art methods for spectrum identification that we are aware of, our method can learn alignment probabilities given a dataset of high-quality peptide-spectrum pairs. The method, moreover, accounts for noise peaks and absent theoretical peaks in the observed spectrum. We demonstrate that our method outperforms, on a majority of datasets, several widely used, state-of-the-art database search tools for spectrum identification. Furthermore, the proposed approach provides an extensible framework for MS/MS analysis and provides useful information that is not produced by other methods, thanks to its generative structure.

Halloran, John T.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William S.

2014-01-01

334

Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems  

PubMed Central

The most expensive aspects in producing high quality miniature optical systems are the component costs and long assembly process. A new approach for fabricating these systems that reduces both aspects through the implementation of self-aligning LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, or x-ray lithography, electroplating, and molding) optomechanics with high volume plastic injection molded and off-the-shelf glass optics is presented. This zero alignment strategy has been incorporated into a miniature high numerical aperture (NA = 1.0W) microscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope. Tight alignment tolerances of less than 10 ?m are maintained for all components that reside inside of a small 9 gauge diameter hypodermic tubing. A prototype system has been tested using the slanted edge modulation transfer function technique and demonstrated to have a Strehl ratio of 0.71. This universal technology is now being developed for smaller, needle-sized imaging systems and other portable point-of-care diagnostic instruments. PMID:19543344

Kester, Robert T.; Christenson, Todd; Kortum, Rebecca Richards; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2009-01-01

335

A parallel pairwise local sequence alignment algorithm.  

PubMed

Researchers are compelled to use heuristic-based pairwise sequence alignment tools instead of Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm due to space and time constraints, thereby losing significant amount of sensitivity. Parallelization is a possible solution, though, till date, the parallelization is restricted to database searching through database fragmentation. In this paper, the power of a cluster computer is utilized for developing a parallel algorithm, RPAlign, involving, first, the detection of regions that are potentially alignable, followed by their actual alignment. RPAlign is found to reduce the timing requirement by a factor of upto 9 and 99 when used with the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) and SW, respectively, while keeping the sensitivity similar to the corresponding method. For distantly related sequences, which remain undetected by BLAST, RPAlign with SW can be used. Again, for megabase-scale sequences, when SW becomes computationally intractable, the proposed method can still align them reasonably fast with high sensitivity. PMID:19366648

Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Mitra, Ramkrishna

2009-06-01

336

Vane segment support and alignment device  

DOEpatents

A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Sizemore, John Derek (Orlando, FL)

1999-01-01

337

Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/. PMID:22151470

2011-01-01

338

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)

1993-01-01

339

A haplome alignment and reference sequence of the highly polymorphic Ciona savignyi genome  

PubMed Central

The sequence of Ciona savignyi was determined using a whole-genome shotgun strategy, but a high degree of polymorphism resulted in a fractured assembly wherein allelic sequences from the same genomic region assembled separately. We designed a multistep strategy to generate a nonredundant reference sequence from the original assembly by reconstructing and aligning the two 'haplomes' (haploid genomes). In the resultant 174 megabase reference sequence, each locus is represented once, misassemblies are corrected, and contiguity and continuity are dramatically improved. PMID:17374142

2007-01-01

340

High quality protein sequence alignment by combining structural profile prediction and profile alignment using SABERTOOTH  

PubMed Central

Background Protein alignments are an essential tool for many bioinformatics analyses. While sequence alignments are accurate for proteins of high sequence similarity, they become unreliable as they approach the so-called 'twilight zone' where sequence similarity gets indistinguishable from random. For such distant pairs, structure alignment is of much better quality. Nevertheless, sequence alignment is the only choice in the majority of cases where structural data is not available. This situation demands development of methods that extend the applicability of accurate sequence alignment to distantly related proteins. Results We develop a sequence alignment method that combines the prediction of a structural profile based on the protein's sequence with the alignment of that profile using our recently published alignment tool SABERTOOTH. In particular, we predict the contact vector of protein structures using an artificial neural network based on position-specific scoring matrices generated by PSI-BLAST and align these predicted contact vectors. The resulting sequence alignments are assessed using two different tests: First, we assess the alignment quality by measuring the derived structural similarity for cases in which structures are available. In a second test, we quantify the ability of the significance score of the alignments to recognize structural and evolutionary relationships. As a benchmark we use a representative set of the SCOP (structural classification of proteins) database, with similarities ranging from closely related proteins at SCOP family level, to very distantly related proteins at SCOP fold level. Comparing these results with some prominent sequence alignment tools, we find that SABERTOOTH produces sequence alignments of better quality than those of Clustal W, T-Coffee, MUSCLE, and PSI-BLAST. HHpred, one of the most sophisticated and computationally expensive tools available, outperforms our alignment algorithm at family and superfamily levels, while the use of SABERTOOTH is advantageous for alignments at fold level. Our alignment scheme will profit from future improvements of structural profiles prediction. Conclusions We present the automatic sequence alignment tool SABERTOOTH that computes pairwise sequence alignments of very high quality. SABERTOOTH is especially advantageous when applied to alignments of remotely related proteins. The source code is available at http://www.fkp.tu-darmstadt.de/sabertooth_project/, free for academic users upon request. PMID:20470364

2010-01-01

341

When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

2010-01-01

342

Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

2000-12-01

343

Hotspots of coastal vulnerability: A DPSIR analysis to find societal pathways and responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dramatic loss of life and economic losses in coastal zones have focused attention on natural and man-made hazards. The paper starts with a review of the coastal vulnerability terminology. Coastal zones are then presented as complex, socio-ecological systems. Four main coastal hotspots of vulnerability; namely Arctic coasts, small islands, river-mouth systems and urban coasts (including megacities) are analysed to demonstrate the complexity of coastal vulnerability. A DPSIR framework is used to explore the causes and consequences of coastal vulnerability. The paper then focuses in particular on societal, as well as floods, storm-surges and tsunamis to technological and engineering solutions. These include raising awareness, advancing forecasting, enhancing preparedness and improving governance.

Newton, Alice; Weichselgartner, Juergen

2014-03-01

344

Children's Reasoning about Spatial Relational Similarity: The Effect of Alignment and Relational Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…

Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

2012-01-01

345

Getting users involved in aligning their needs with business processes models and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a case study of the application of a methodology that represents an innovative strategy that integrates researches on interaction design and business process management with practical implications. This methodology is devoted to aligning the needs of enterprise system users with business processes (BPs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This approach establishes an unbroken network of links

Kenia Sousa; Hildeberto Mendonça; Amandine Lievyns; Jean Vanderdonckt

2011-01-01

346

Alignment Analysis within the VFCS - A Pragmatic Method for Supporting Data Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major tasks in programming distributed memory multiprocessors with stateof the art parallel languages is the specification of efficient data distribution schemes. Unfortunately,there are no optimal strategies for generating such data distributions and thusautomatic support is very difficult to provide; several heuristics have been proposed to providesome support to the user. In this paper we outline the Alignment

Erwin Laure; Barbara Chapman

1996-01-01

347

Aligning Simulation Models of Biological Attacks Li-Chiou Chen1  

E-print Network

conducted two model alignment studies based on smallpox and anthrax attack simulations. From these two. Based on this foundation, we will be able to further investigate the policy responses against appropriate response strategies. The "correctness" of the model is critical since the "wrong" model may lead

Sadeh, Norman M.

348

Aligning Product-Service Systems with Market Forces: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the paper is to propose a theoretic framework aligning product-service systems (PSS) with market forces which manufacturing firms encounter, by which they can adopt the right PSS strategy to gain competitive advantage. The framework is presented based on literature review and multiple cases are then employed to verify the framework. It reveals that five different types

Xiucheng Fan; Hui Zhang

2010-01-01

349

Redesigning and Aligning Assessment and Evaluation for a Federally Funded Math and Science Teacher Educational Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the redesign of evaluation components for a teacher professional development project funded by the National Science Foundation. It focuses on aligning evaluation instrumentation and strategies with program goals, research goals and program evaluation best practices. The study identifies weaknesses in the original (year 1)…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Slater, Janis; Nanny, Mark

2010-01-01

350

“Both sides now”: aligning external and internal branding for a socially responsible era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a rationale and a method for aligning external and internal brands within an integrated marketing strategy that recognises stakeholder expectations of a more socially responsible approach. It demonstrates the benefits of viewing external and internal brands synergistically in relation to the value propositions offered to stakeholder groups and the beneficial

John Aydon Simmons

2009-01-01

351

Phylo: A Citizen Science Approach for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying “crowd sourcing” techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of “human-brain peta-flops” of computation that are spent every day playing games. Phylo is available at: http://phylo.cs.mcgill.ca. PMID:22412834

Kam, Alfred; Kwak, Daniel; Leung, Clarence; Wu, Chu; Zarour, Eleyine; Sarmenta, Luis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Waldispuhl, Jerome

2012-01-01

352

BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four

Rahul Satija; Ádám Novák; István Miklós; Rune Lyngsø; Jotun Hein

2009-01-01

353

The healthcare and societal burden associated with influenza in vaccinated and unvaccinated European and Israeli children.  

PubMed

Few data exist regarding the healthcare and societal burden of culture-confirmed influenza illness in European and Israeli children. The current analysis describes this burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated children 2-17 years of age. Healthcare and societal burden outcomes were prospectively collected for culture-confirmed influenza illness in three previous randomized studies: a study of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) versus placebo in children aged <48 months attending day care (N = 846-973), and studies of LAIV versus inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged <72 months with recurrent respiratory infections (N = 1,609) and in children aged 6-17 years with asthma (N = 2,211). The incidence of each endpoint among enrolled subjects and subjects with influenza was determined by treatment group and by country. Among subjects with influenza, 57-91% missed school or day care, 45-90% used non-antibiotic medications, 29-55% of parents missed work, 17-55% used antibiotics, 11-62% had additional provider visits, and 9-20% had acute otitis media. Where evaluated, rates of outcomes were generally similar between countries. Among all children enrolled, LAIV recipients missed 324-902 and 150 fewer days of day care per 1,000 children than those of placebo and IIV recipients, respectively; parents of LAIV recipients missed 197-340 and 76 fewer days of work per 1,000 children than those of placebo and IIV recipients, respectively. Influenza illness in European and Israeli children 2-17 years of age resulted in a considerable absenteeism and healthcare utilization that was similar across the countries studied. These data underscore the potential benefits of annual vaccination of children against influenza. PMID:24091746

Ambrose, C S; Antonova, E N

2014-04-01

354

Societal views on orphan drugs: cross sectional survey of Norwegians aged 40 to 67  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a general societal preference for prioritising treatment of rare diseases over common ones exists and could provide a justification for accepting higher cost effectiveness thresholds for orphan drugs. Design Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. Setting Norway. Participants Random sample of 1547 Norwegians aged 40-67. Main outcome measure Choice between funding treatment for a rare disease versus a common disease and how funds should be allocated if it were not possible to treat all patients, for each of two scenarios: identical treatment costs per patient and higher costs for the rare disease. Respondents rated five statements concerning attitudes to equity on a five point Likert scale (5=completely agree). Results For the equal cost scenario, 11.2% (9.6% to 12.8%) of respondents favoured treating the rare disease, 24.9% (21.7% to 26.0%) the common disease, and 64.9% (62.6% to 67.3%) were indifferent. When the rare disease was four times more costly to treat, the results were, respectively, 7.4% (6.1% to 8.7%), 45.3% (42.8% to 47.8%), and 47.3% (44.8% to 49.8%). Rankings for attitude on a Likert scale indicated strong support for the statements “rare disease patients should have the right to treatment even if more expensive” (mean score 4.5, SD 0.86) and “resources should be used to provide the greatest possible health benefits” (3.9, 1.23). Conclusions Despite strong general support for statements expressing a desire for equal treatment rights for patients with rare diseases, there was little evidence that a societal preference for rarity exists if treatment of patients with rare diseases is at the expense of treatment of those with common diseases. PMID:20861122

2010-01-01

355

Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided inputs through in-depth discussion in breakout sessions, plenary sessions on break-out results, and several panels that provided key insights about indicators, lessons learned through experience with developing and implementing indicators, and thoughts on how the NCA could proceed to develop indicators for the NCA.

Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

2011-01-01

356

Pin-Align: A New Dynamic Programming Approach to Align Protein-Protein Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups.

2014-01-01

357

Formulating hospital strategy: moving beyond a market mentality.  

PubMed

Hospitals face a set of issues critical to strategy formulation that are markedly different than those faced by traditional corporations. Given this, the relevance of current business approaches to strategy formulation that focus exclusively on a narrow set of market-driven factors is questionable. Hospitals, it is argued, must take a more comprehensive view of strategy formulation that goes beyond issues of internal competency and environmental opportunities to incorporate the values of caregivers and the societal responsibilities of the institution as well. PMID:1548116

Liedtka, J M

1992-01-01

358

Purchasing population health: aligning financial incentives to improve health outcomes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the concept of population health, including its definition, measurement, and determinants, and to suggest an approach for aligning financial incentives toward this goal. DATA SOURCE, STUDY DESIGN, DATA EXTRACTION. Literature review, policy analysis PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The article presents the argument that a major reason for our slow progress toward health outcome improvement is that there is no operational definition of population health and that financial incentives are not aligned to this goal. Current attempts at process measures as indicators of quality or outcome are not adequate for the task. It is suggested that some measure of health-adjusted life expectancy be adopted for this purpose, and that integrated delivery systems and other agents responsible for nonmedical determinants be rewarded for improvement in this measure. This will require the development of an investment portfolio across the determinants of health based on relative marginal return to health, with horizontal integration strategies across sectoral boundaries. A 20-year three-phase development strategy is proposed, including components of research and acceptance, integrated health system implementation, and cross-sectoral integration. CONCLUSIONS: The U.S. healthcare system is a $1 trillion industry without a definition of its product. Until population outcome measures are developed and rewarded for, we will not solve the twenty-first century challenge of maximizing health outcome improvement for the resources available. Images Figure 1 PMID:9618669

Kindig, D A

1998-01-01

359

Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.  

PubMed

Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1 - and L2 -norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods. PMID:25291733

Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

2014-10-01

360

Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

361

Alignment and stability of future machines  

SciTech Connect

Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions.

Shiltsev, V.D.

1996-06-01

362

One of align metrologies for Antarctic telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary site testing performed since the beginning of 2008 shows that Antarctic Dome A is an excellent astronomical site. The Chinese Antarctic optical telescopes CSTAR and the first Antarctic Survey Telescope AST3-1 has been in operation on Dome A, and several Antarctic telescopes are being developed and proposed. However, the harsh environment and manpower shortage make the in-situ alignment task difficult. The study will introduce the completed alignment work of AST3 and discuss an improved align metrology based on the previous treatments of the field dependent optical aberrations, as well as its application on Antarctic Bright Star Survey Telescope BSST.

Li, Zhengyang; Yuan, Xiangyan

2014-08-01

363

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOEpatents

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

364

Pyramid sensor for segmented mirror alignment.  

PubMed

We report what is to our knowledge the first laboratory experiment that shows the use of a pyramid wavefront sensor to cophase and align segmented mirrors having three degrees of freedom per segment, i.e., piston, tip, and tilt. In the laboratory the iterative alignment procedure reached a wavefront residual error of about 10 nm. The residual error was equally distributed between piston, tip, and tilt. These results demonstrate that the pyramid can successfully simultaneously sense the piston, tip, and tilt of a segmented mirror. This last feature makes this technique very attractive in phasing and aligning astronomical segmented telescopes such as extremely large telescopes currently under extensive studies. PMID:16208903

Esposito, S; Pinna, E; Puglisi, A; Tozzi, A; Stefanini, P

2005-10-01

365

Parenting Strategies as Influences of Teen Drinking via Self Esteem: An Important Area for Family Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, in developing as well as developed countries, rampant increases in teen drinking are widely recognized as major threats to individual, family, and societal well-being. Parenting strategies influence drinking and related behaviors, leading to their incorporation in national family, health, and substance abuse policy programs. Drinking teens become drinking adults, harming current and future family generations in a vicious ‘‘recycling.’’

Zhiyong Yang; Charles M. Schaninger

2010-01-01

366

The Effect of Prior Youth Court Dispositions on Current Disposition: An Application of Societal-Reaction Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests hypotheses implicit in the societal-reaction perspective concerning the nature and pattern of the relationship between prior and current youth court dispositions. The dispositional stage is the most critical decision-making level which young offenders encounter in their contact with the youth court system. Previous research has produced inconsistent results in the attempt to determine which model or models

Anthony Matarazzo; Peter J. Carrington; Robert D. Hiscott

2001-01-01

367

FEDERAL POLICY IN LOCAL CONTEXT: The Influence of Local State-Societal Relations on Endangered Species Act Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates regarding the degree to which centralization or decentralization of environmental bureaucracies promotes more effective management of natural resources suggest the need for employing new methodologies to empirical analysis, in a variety of political and ecological settings. In this paper, recent state synergy scholarship is adopted to an analysis of the impact of state-societal relations on the implementation of

Debra J. Davidson

2001-01-01

368

Don't forget the bigger picture : The impact of societal issues on a community-based TB programme, Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the wider societal issues that can impact on the success of a TB programme. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a qualitative study of the experiences of people involved in a community-based DOTS programme in Lubombo, Swaziland, involving patients, DOT treatment supporters, clinic nurses and other key informants. Findings – The

Sarah Escott; James Newell

2007-01-01

369

Flexible alignment mark design applications using a next generation phase grating alignment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, alignment and overlay results on processed short-flow wafers are presented. The impact of various mark designs on overlay performance was investigated, using a newly developed phase grating wafer alignment sensor concept. This concept is especially suited to support mark design flexibility, as well as to further improve upon the performance of the alignment sensors currently known. The unique sensor concept allows for alignment to a large variety of marks layouts, thereby complying with customer specific alignment mark design requirements. Here, we present alignment performance results on Toshiba's new marks. For this purpose, the new alignment sensor was integrated in an ASML proto-type tool. Alignment performance on ASML default mark types was demonstrated to guarantee backward compatibility with known alignment sensors. Alignment repeatability numbers of <3 nm (3sigma) were obtained for the different mark designs investigated. These numbers were measured on marks in resist as well as on processed short flow lots. Short term overlay capability of <6 nm (mean+3sigma) was demonstrated on Toshiba mark types, and on ASML mark types. Long term overlay values were demonstrated to be below 8 nm (mean + 3sigma) for both mark designs. The alignment and overlay capability, on processed wafers, was demonstrated for two process modules: Gate-to-Active (GC-AA) and Metal1-to-Contact (M1-CS). Typical overlay values measured were 20 to 30 nm, for the GC-AA and the M1-CS process module respectively. Further improvements with respect to alignment performance and overlay capability are anticipated through the use of advanced applications, and by further optimization of alignment mark design. This will be verified in future joint Toshiba/ASML experiments.

Hinnen, Paul; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Keij, Stefan; Takikawa, Hiroaki; Asanuma, Keita; Ishigo, Kazutaka; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

2005-05-01

370

The Needs of the Highly Able and the Needs of Society: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Talent Differentiation and Its Significance to Gifted Education and Issues of Societal Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does gifted education affect societal inequality, and does societal inequality suppress and/or distort the development of high ability? Drawing from several academic disciplines and current political discourse, a differentiated use of terms used to describe the highly able is explored in this article. A social evolutionary framework is proposed as…

Persson, Roland S.

2014-01-01

371

Prosodic alignment in human-computer interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Androids that replicate humans in form also need to replicate them in behaviour to achieve a high level of believability or lifelikeness. We explore the minimal social cues that can induce in people the human tendency for social acceptance, or ethopoeia, toward artifacts, including androids. It has been observed that people exhibit a strong tendency to adjust to each other, through a number of speech and language features in human-human conversational interactions, to obtain communication efficiency and emotional engagement. We investigate in this paper the phenomena related to prosodic alignment in human-computer interactions, with particular focus on human-computer alignment of speech characteristics. We found that people exhibit unidirectional and spontaneous short-term alignment of loudness and response latency in their speech in response to computer-generated speech. We believe this phenomenon of prosodic alignment provides one of the key components for building social acceptance of androids.

Suzuki, N.; Katagiri, Y.

2007-06-01

372

Improving the quality of multiple sequence alignment  

E-print Network

Multiple sequence alignment is an important bioinformatics problem, with applications in diverse types of biological analysis, such as structure prediction, phylogenetic analysis and critical sites identification. In recent years, the quality...

Lu, Yue

2009-05-15

373

Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs), sometimes called forests or carpets, are a promising material due to their unique physical and scale-dependent physical properties [1-3]. Continuous production of VACNTs is ...

Guzman de Villoria, R.

374

Feedback and Interference Alignment in Networks  

E-print Network

on cellular networks, I could learn from her how theory cannetwork information theory. Interference Alignment Cellulartheories into real world working systems by developing an interference management scheme for cellular

Suh, Changho

2011-01-01

375

RNA-Seq read alignments with PALMapper.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized genome and transcriptome sequencing. RNA-Seq experiments are able to generate huge amounts of transcriptome sequence reads at a fraction of the cost of Sanger sequencing. Reads produced by these technologies are relatively short and error prone. To utilize such reads for transcriptome reconstruction and gene-structure identification, one needs to be able to accurately align the sequence reads over intron boundaries. In this unit, we describe PALMapper, a fast and easy-to-use tool that is designed to accurately compute both unspliced and spliced alignments for millions of RNA-Seq reads. It combines the efficient read mapper GenomeMapper with the spliced aligner QPALMA, which exploits read-quality information and predictions of splice sites to improve the alignment accuracy. The PALMapper package is available as a command-line tool running on Unix or Mac OS X systems or through a Web interface based on Galaxy tools. PMID:21154708

Jean, Géraldine; Kahles, André; Sreedharan, Vipin T; De Bona, Fabio; Rätsch, Gunnar

2010-12-01

376

MICAN : a protein structure alignment algorithm that can handle Multiple-chains, Inverse alignments, C? only models, Alternative alignments, and Non-sequential alignments  

PubMed Central

Background Protein pairs that have the same secondary structure packing arrangement but have different topologies have attracted much attention in terms of both evolution and physical chemistry of protein structures. Further investigation of such protein relationships would give us a hint as to how proteins can change their fold in the course of evolution, as well as a insight into physico-chemical properties of secondary structure packing. For this purpose, highly accurate sequence order independent structure comparison methods are needed. Results We have developed a novel protein structure alignment algorithm, MICAN (a structure alignment algorithm that can handle Multiple-chain complexes, Inverse direction of secondary structures, C? only models, Alternative alignments, and Non-sequential alignments). The algorithm was designed so as to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs by disregarding the connectivity between secondary structure elements (SSE). One of the key feature of the algorithm is utilizing the multiple vector representation for each SSE, which enables us to correctly treat bent or twisted nature of long SSE. We compared MICAN with other 9 publicly available structure alignment programs, using both reference-dependent and reference-independent evaluation methods on a variety of benchmark test sets which include both sequential and non-sequential alignments. We show that MICAN outperforms the other existing methods for reproducing reference alignments of non-sequential test sets. Further, although MICAN does not specialize in sequential structure alignment, it showed the top level performance on the sequential test sets. We also show that MICAN program is the fastest non-sequential structure alignment program among all the programs we examined here. Conclusions MICAN is the fastest and the most accurate program among non-sequential alignment programs we examined here. These results suggest that MICAN is a highly effective tool for automatically detecting non-trivial structural relationships of proteins, such as circular permutations and segment-swapping, many of which have been identified manually by human experts so far. The source code of MICAN is freely download-able at http://www.tbp.cse.nagoya-u.ac.jp/MICAN. PMID:23331634

2013-01-01

377

Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.  

PubMed

Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

Alberg, Anthony J

2008-12-01

378

Open bite treatment using clear aligners.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function. PMID:23363479

Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

2013-09-01

379

Aligned natural inflation: Monodromies of two axions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural (axionic) inflation [1] can accommodate sizeable primordial tensor modes but suffers from the necessity of trans-Planckian variations of the inflaton field. This problem can be solved via the mechanism of aligned axions [2], where the aligned axion spirals down in the potential of other axions. We elaborate on the mechanism in view of the recently reported observations of the BICEP2 collaboration [3].

Kappl, Rolf; Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter

2014-10-01

380

Aligned Natural Inflation: Monodromies of two Axions  

E-print Network

Natural (axionic) inflation can accommodate sizeable primordial tensor modes but suffers from the necessity of trans-Planckian variations of the inflaton field. This problem can be solved via the mechanism of aligned axions arXiv:hep-ph/0409138, where the aligned axion spirals down in the potential of other axions. We elaborate on the mechanism in view of the recently reported observations of the BICEP2 collaboration arXiv:1403.3985.

Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter

2014-01-01

381

Aligned Natural Inflation: Monodromies of two Axions  

E-print Network

Natural (axionic) inflation can accommodate sizeable primordial tensor modes but suffers from the necessity of trans-Planckian variations of the inflaton field. This problem can be solved via the mechanism of aligned axions arXiv:hep-ph/0409138, where the aligned axion spirals down in the potential of other axions. We elaborate on the mechanism in view of the recently reported observations of the BICEP2 collaboration arXiv:1403.3985.

Rolf Kappl; Sven Krippendorf; Hans Peter Nilles

2014-04-28

382

Radiative Torque Alignment: Essential Physical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aligned grains provide a unique way to trace magnetic field topology in many astrophysical environments. In Lazarian & Hoang (2006), we derived analytical expressions for radiative torque (RAT) components, and studied the dynamics of grains assuming that the maximal inertia axis is always parallel to angular momentum. In this paper, to get insight into the dynamics of grains when thermal fluctuations are accounted for, we use AMO, and perform analytically averaging for RAT components. In addition, we study the RAT alignment for irregular grains (shape 1 and 3). We also evaluate the influence of suprathermal torques arising from H2 formation, as well as randomizing collisions with atomic gas on the alignment of grains driven by radiative torques (RATs). Our study is both based on the analytical model (AMO) and numerical calculations of RATs for irregular grains. To describe the H2 formation torques and random collisions we use the Langevin equation approach. We show that when thermal fluctuations are included, for both AMO and irregular grains, RATs tend to align grains at attractor points with low angular momentum (low-J attractor point). We found that random collisions by atomic gas act to substantially disalign the grain alignment in the case the phase trajectory map has only the low-J attractor point. In particular, if there exist attractor points at high angular momentum in the phase trajectory map, gas bombardment can move grains from the low- J attractor point to the high-J attractor point. Thus the degree of alignment increases.

Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

2007-05-01

383

Aligning Biomolecular Networks Using Modular Graph Kernels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative analysis of biomolecular networks constructed using measurements from different conditions, tissues, and organisms offer a powerful approach to understanding the structure, function, dynamics, and evolution of complex biological systems. We explore a class of algorithms for aligning large biomolecular networks by breaking down such networks into subgraphs and computing the alignment of the networks based on the alignment of their subgraphs. The resulting subnetworks are compared using graph kernels as scoring functions. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit. Our experiments using Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository of protein-protein interaction data demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithms (as measured by % GO term enrichment of subnetworks identified by the alignment) is competitive with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms for pair-wise alignment of large protein-protein interaction networks. Our results also show that the inter-species similarity scores computed based on graph kernels can be used to cluster the species into a species tree that is consistent with the known phylogenetic relationships among the species.

Towfic, Fadi; Greenlee, M. Heather West; Honavar, Vasant

384

Global network alignment using multiscale spectral signatures  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Protein interaction networks provide an important system-level view of biological processes. One of the fundamental problems in biological network analysis is the global alignment of a pair of networks, which puts the proteins of one network into correspondence with the proteins of another network in a manner that conserves their interactions while respecting other evidence of their homology. By providing a mapping between the networks of different species, alignments can be used to inform hypotheses about the functions of unannotated proteins, the existence of unobserved interactions, the evolutionary divergence between the two species and the evolution of complexes and pathways. Results: We introduce GHOST, a global pairwise network aligner that uses a novel spectral signature to measure topological similarity between subnetworks. It combines a seed-and-extend global alignment phase with a local search procedure and exceeds state-of-the-art performance on several network alignment tasks. We show that the spectral signature used by GHOST is highly discriminative, whereas the alignments it produces are also robust to experimental noise. When compared with other recent approaches, we find that GHOST is able to recover larger and more biologically significant, shared subnetworks between species. Availability: An efficient and parallelized implementation of GHOST, released under the Apache 2.0 license, is available at http://cbcb.umd.edu/kingsford_group/ghost Contact: rob@cs.umd.edu PMID:23047556

Patro, Rob; Kingsford, Carl

2012-01-01

385

Quality measures for protein alignment benchmarks.  

PubMed

Multiple protein sequence alignment methods are central to many applications in molecular biology. These methods are typically assessed on benchmark datasets including BALIBASE, OXBENCH, PREFAB and SABMARK, which are important to biologists in making informed choices between programs. In this article, annotations of domain homology and secondary structure are used to define new measures of alignment quality and are used to make the first systematic, independent evaluation of these benchmarks. These measures indicate sensitivity and specificity while avoiding the ambiguous residue correspondences and arbitrary distance cutoffs inherent to structural superpositions. Alignments by selected methods that indicate high-confidence columns (ALIGN-M, DIALIGN-T, FSA and MUSCLE) are also assessed. Fold space coverage and effective benchmark database sizes are estimated by reference to domain annotations, and significant redundancy is found in all benchmarks except SABMARK. Questionable alignments are found in all benchmarks, especially in BALIBASE where 87% of sequences have unknown structure, 20% of columns contain different folds according to SUPERFAMILY and 30% of 'core block' columns have conflicting secondary structure according to DSSP. A careful analysis of current protein multiple alignment benchmarks calls into question their ability to determine reliable algorithm rankings. PMID:20047958

Edgar, Robert C

2010-04-01

386

Large-scale comparison of protein sequence alignment algorithms with structure alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence alignment programs such as BLAST and PSI-BLAST are used routinely in pairwise, profile-based, or intermediate-sequence- search (ISS) methods to detect remote homologies for the purposes of fold assignment and compara- tive modeling. Yet, the sequence alignment quality of these methods at low sequence identity is not known. We have used the CE structure alignment program (Shindyalov and Bourne, Prot

J. Michael Sauder; Jonathan W. Arthur; Roland L. Dunbrack Jr.

2000-01-01

387

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

PubMed Central

Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility. PMID:21672210

2011-01-01

388

Societal Projection: Beliefs Concerning the Relationship between Development and Inequality in China  

PubMed Central

We examine how the relationship between development and inequality at the societal level is perceived and evaluated by ordinary Chinese people. We hypothesize that because the Chinese have recently experienced rapid increases in both economic growth and social inequality, they tend to view economic development as a driving force of social inequality. To address this question, we conducted a social survey in 2006 in six Chinese provinces (n = 4,898). The survey data reveal that a large proportion of Chinese people have internalized a causal model in which they project high levels of inequality onto countries they view as more developed and low levels of inequality onto countries they see as less developed. However, results also show that a smaller proportion of Chinese believe in a negative relationship between development and inequality. Hence, the study reveals heterogeneity among ordinary Chinese in their perceptions of the causal relationship between development and inequality. Surprisingly, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics provide no explanatory power in explaining this heterogeneity. PMID:23017918

Xie, Yu; Thornton, Arland; Wang, Guangzhou; Lai, Qing

2012-01-01

389

FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-02

390

Potential societal and economic impacts of wastewater nutrient removal and recycling.  

PubMed

Because adequate nutrient controls were not established when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economical and societal impacts. The root of the problem is that the political policies and processes have permitted municipalities, developers, industries and farmers to expand and operate without paying the full cost of their activities, and this has been done at the expense of those who rely on the productivity and recreational value of our estuarine and coastal waters. Some governments have developed remedial nutrient control programs, but most of them have been under funded and inadequately enforced, resulting in small increments of progress that tend to be lost because of inadequate land use and immigration controls. It is believed that nutrient recovery and controlled reuse can provide a major tool for the control of nutrient pollution and should be widely implemented. Plans are currently being developed to promote widespread use of nutrient recovery and reuse in the Chesapeake Bay region of the USA. An example of phosphorus reuse is presented. PMID:12926616

Randall, C W

2003-01-01

391

Ecologising Societal Metabolism and Recycling of Phosphorus At Household and Neighbourhood Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressures of humanity on a fragile water resource base, and the corresponding need for environmental and freshwater protection requires that human excreta and other societal wastes (solid and liquid) be recycled and used as a resource. The Bel- lagio principles underpin the basis for this new approach to environmental sanitation. There are two main concepts emanating from the Bellagio principles, which make the basis of this paper. Firstly, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) puts the household at the focal point of environmental sanitation planning and; sec- ondly, the Circular System of Resource Management (CSRM) that emphasises conser- vation, local recycling and reuse of resources. Recycling of Phosphorus (P) in urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) is used in this paper to assess the feasibility of these concepts. An inventory of annual P-fluxes based on characterisation of input goods, processes, transformation, output fluxes and storage was conducted for a high-density suburb in Harare, Zimbabwe where agriculture is already a major activity. Using systems thinking approach and material flow account- ing two compartments or subsystems are defined to enable accounting and analysis of P-bearing materials. The "household" (consumption/use and excretion/waste) and "agriculture" (soil-plant interaction). With a population of about 100 000 inhabitants, P inflows amount to about 26 600 kg/a and 1 900 kg/a as food/beverages and deter- gents respectively within the "household" subsystem. Storage is taken as negligible, whilst 85

Gumbo, B.; Savenije, H. H. G.

392

Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

2012-01-01

393

Measuring the patient health, societal and economic benefits of US pediatric therapeutics legislation.  

PubMed

Through at least the mid-1990s, children were often referred to as 'therapeutic orphans' for whom many treatments were administered without the benefit of appropriate studies to guide drug labeling for dosing and other critical therapeutic decisions. At that time, there were no incentives for manufacturers to pursue such work, nor regulatory requirements to compel these studies. Congress addressed this by including an important provision titled the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization and Accountability Act. This was complemented by another key piece of legislation, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) in 2003. The former Act and its successors created an incentive for firms to study on-patent drugs in pediatric populations by extending the market exclusivity of a medicine by 6 months. The latter was a requirement that provided the US FDA with the authority to require studies of drugs in children if an adult indication also occurs in children. In the current paper, we consider the effects of both pieces of legislation in terms of the health, societal, and economic benefits they have likely imparted and will continue to provide in the future. We conclude that the gains have been substantial - both in terms of safer and more effective use of medicines in children and in terms of new research that has been incentivized by the BPCA exclusivity provision. We estimate the gross economic benefits from the latter alone to be approximately $US360?billion. PMID:22775493

Vernon, John A; Shortenhaus, Scott H; Mayer, Mark H; Allen, Albert J; Golec, Joseph H

2012-10-01

394

Societal cost-benefit analysis for soil remediation in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

There is a political demand on the efficiency of environmental policy. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can play a role in answering that demand. This societal CBA for nationwide soil remediation operations in The Netherlands distinguishes 4 alternatives for future investments. In the zero alternative government funding will be terminated. Besides this, 3 policy alternatives are distinguished that are government financed. Soil remediation benefits human health, the drinking water supply, housing, perceptions, and the ecosystem. Soil remediation also answers the concerns of the Dutch population. The benefits to health (exposure to cadmium, lead, and carcinogens), drinking water supply, and housing are expressed in monetary terms. The extent that benefits equal the money spent depends partly on the value-loaded choice for the discount rate. Use of the current discount rate of 4% will mean a slightly negative balance whichever policy alternative is chosen. Focusing on nonmoneterized benefits, such as ecology, can cause the scales to tip in another direction. Using a lower discount rate will make future benefits, such as health and drinking water supply, more important. If the discount rate drops to 2% or less, all policy alternatives lead to a positive balance. Predominantly, the health benefits that are veiled in uncertainty can become a reason for applying a surcharge and, in turn, a higher discount rate. In that case, each of the alternatives will result in a net negative balance. PMID:18260208

van Wezel, Annemarie P; Franken, Ron O G; Drissen, Eric; Versluijs, Kees C W; van den Berg, Reinier

2008-01-01

395

Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

Drell, D.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research, Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Division; Metting, F.B. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wuy, L.D. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-11-01

396

Micropatterning stretched and aligned DNA for sequence-specific nanolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for fabricating nanostructured materials can be categorized as either "top-down" or "bottom-up". Top-down techniques use lithography and contact printing to create patterned surfaces and microfluidic channels that can corral and organize nanoscale structures, such as molecules and nanorods in contrast; bottom-up techniques use self-assembly or molecular recognition to direct the organization of materials. A central goal in nanotechnology is the integration of bottom-up and top-down assembly strategies for materials development, device design; and process integration. With this goal in mind, we have developed strategies that will allow this integration by using DNA as a template for nanofabrication; two top-down approaches allow the placement of these templates, while the bottom-up technique uses the specific sequence of bases to pattern materials along each strand of DNA. Our first top-down approach, termed combing of molecules in microchannels (COMMIC), produces microscopic patterns of stretched and aligned molecules of DNA on surfaces. This process consists of passing an air-water interface over end adsorbed molecules inside microfabricated channels. The geometry of the microchannel directs the placement of the DNA molecules, while the geometry of the airwater interface directs the local orientation and curvature of the molecules. We developed another top-down strategy for creating micropatterns of stretched and aligned DNA using surface chemistry. Because DNA stretching occurs on hydrophobic surfaces, this technique uses photolithography to pattern vinyl-terminated silanes on glass When these surface-, are immersed in DNA solution, molecules adhere preferentially to the silanized areas. This approach has also proven useful in patterning protein for cell adhesion studies. Finally, we describe the use of these stretched and aligned molecules of DNA as templates for the subsequent bottom-up construction of hetero-structures through hybridization-mediated sequence-specific nanolithography. In this process, particles are assembled via molecular recognition with functionalized probes previously hybridized to the stretched DNA template. We have used this approach to pattern proteins, metal colloids, and semiconductor quantum dots. We also demonstrate the co-assembly of two types of particles---metals and semiconductors---on single strands of DNA via the sequence-specific hybridization of two types of functional probes.

Petit, Cecilia Anna Paulette

397

HMM-Based Word Alignment in Statistical Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a new model for word alignment in statistical translation and present experimental results. The idea of the model is to make the alignment probabilities dependent on the differences in the alignment positions rather than on the absolute positions. To achieve this goal, the approach uses a first-order Hidden Markov model (HMM) for the word alignment

Stephan Vogel; Hermann Ney; Christoph Tillmann

1996-01-01

398

Streaming Algorithms for Biological Sequence Alignment on GPUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence alignment is a common and often repeated task in molecular biology. Typical alignment operations consist of finding similarities between a pair of sequences (pairwise sequence alignment) or a family of sequences (multiple sequence alignment). The need for speeding up this treatment comes from the rapid growth rate of biological sequence databases: every year their size increases by a factor

Weiguo Liu; Bertil Schmidt; Gerrit Voss; Wolfgang Müller-wittig

2007-01-01

399

Directed 3D cell alignment and elongation in microengineered hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized native tissues in 3D engineered tissues remains a challenge. While cellular alignment in engineered tissues can be induced through the use of external physical stimuli, there are

Hug Aubin; Jason W. Nichol; Ché B. Hutson; Hojae Bae; Alisha L. Sieminski; Donald M. Cropek; Paryam Akhyari; Ali Khademhosseini

2010-01-01

400

Comparison of Beam-Based Alignment Algorithms for the ILC  

SciTech Connect

The main linac of the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires more sophisticated alignment techniques than those provided by survey alone. Various Beam-Based Alignment (BBA) algorithms have been proposed to achieve the desired low emittance preservation. Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment and the Kubo method are compared. Alignment algorithms are also tested in the presence of an Earth-like stray field.

Smith, J.C.; Gibbons, L.; Patterson, J.R.; Rubin, D.L.; /Cornell U., LEPP; Sagan, D.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

2006-03-15

401

Large Telescope Segmented Primary Mirror Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses a broadband (white light) point source, located at the telescope Cassegrain focus, which generates a cone of light limited by the hole in the secondary mirror (SM). It propagates to the aspheric null-mirror, which is optimized to make all the reflected rays to be normal to the primary mirror (PM) upon reflection. PM retro-reflects the rays back through the system for wavefront analysis. The point source and the wavefront analysis subsystems are all located behind the PM. The PM phasing is absolute (white light) and does not involve the SM. A relatively small, aspheric null-mirror located near the PM center of curvature has been designed to deliver the high level of optical wavefront correction. The phasing of the segments is absolute due to the use of a broadband source. The segmented PM is optically aligned independently and separately from the SM alignment. The separation of the PM segments alignment from the PM to the SM, and other telescope optics alignments, may be a significant advantage, eliminating the errors coupling. The point source of this concept is fully cooperative, unlike a star or laser-generated guide-star, providing the necessary brightness for the optimal S/N ratio, the spectral content, and the stable on-axis position. This concept can be implemented in the lab for the PM initial alignment, or made to be a permanent feature of the space-based or groundbased telescope.

Rud, Mayer

2010-01-01

402

Mechanical alignment of suprathermally rotating grains  

E-print Network

It is shown that mechanical alignment of grains can be efficient for grains rotating suprathermally, i.e. with kinetic energy substantially exceeding $k$ (the Boltzmann constant) over any temperature in the system. The paper studies suprathermal rotation caused by H$_{2}$ formation and the alignment that takes place due to crossover events. Gaseous bombardment in the course of a crossover as well as both gaseous friction and poisoning of active sites are shown to produce alignment. The first type of alignment happens due to the angular momentum deposited by a corpuscular flux with a grain, the second is caused by the change of the mean time back to crossover due to the interaction with a gaseous flux. We show that the two processes act as to decrease the grain cross section in respect to the flux and we find the Rayleigh reduction factor for the joint action of the two processes as well as the range of applicability of each of the processes. Our study indicates that mechanical alignment can be more widely spread than it is generally accepted.

A. Lazarian

1995-05-01

403

Multiple network alignment on quantum computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative analyses of graph structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given $k$ graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each $k$-tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs, and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method, and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

2014-09-01

404

Fast and accurate read alignment for resequencing  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Next-generation sequence analysis has become an important task both in laboratory and clinical settings. A key stage in the majority sequence analysis workflows, such as resequencing, is the alignment of genomic reads to a reference genome. The accurate alignment of reads with large indels is a computationally challenging task for researchers. Results: We introduce SeqAlto as a new algorithm for read alignment. For reads longer than or equal to 100 bp, SeqAlto is up to 10 × faster than existing algorithms, while retaining high accuracy and the ability to align reads with large (up to 50 bp) indels. This improvement in efficiency is particularly important in the analysis of future sequencing data where the number of reads approaches many billions. Furthermore, SeqAlto uses less than 8 GB of memory to align against the human genome. SeqAlto is benchmarked against several existing tools with both real and simulated data. Availability: Linux and Mac OS X binaries free for academic use are available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/wonglab/seqalto Contact: whwong@stanford.edu PMID:22811546

Mu, John C.; Jiang, Hui; Kiani, Amirhossein; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Bani Asadi, Narges; Wong, Wing H.

2012-01-01

405

Alignments of Voids in the Cosmic Web  

E-print Network

We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large scale matter distribution of a LCDM cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel WVF void finder technique. The identified voids are quite nonspherical and slightly prolate, with axis ratios in the order of c:b:a approx. 0.5:0.7:1. Their orientations are strongly correlated with significant alignments spanning scales >30 Mpc/h. We also find an intimate link between the cosmic tidal field and the void orientations. Over a very wide range of scales we find a coherent and strong alignment of the voids with the tidal field computed from the smoothed density distribution. This orientation-tide alignment remains significant on scales exceeding twice the typical void size, which shows that the long range external field is responsible for the alignment of the voids. This confirms the view that the large scale tidal force field is the main agent for the large scale spatial organization of the Cosmic Web.

Erwin Platen; Rien van de Weygaert; Bernard J. T. Jones

2007-11-15

406

LCLS Undulator Commissioning, Alignment, and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The LCLS x-ray FEL has recently achieved its 1.5-Angstrom lasing and saturation goals upon first trial. This was achieved as a result of a thorough pre-beam checkout, both traditional and beam-based component alignment techniques, and high electron beam brightness. The x-ray FEL process demands very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (<5 {micro}m) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight, but less stringent tolerances of {approx}100 {micro}m rms were met for the transverse placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through a beam-based alignment (BBA) method, which is implemented using large electron energy variations and sub-micron resolution cavity beam position monitors (BPM), with precise conventional alignment used to set the starting conditions. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders, and special beam-finder wires (BFW) at each girder have been used to meet these challenging alignment tolerances. Longer-term girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes are being monitored, continuously, by a unique stretched wire and hydrostatic level Alignment Diagnostics System (ADS).

Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

2009-10-30

407

CGAP-Align: A High Performance DNA Short Read Alignment Tool  

PubMed Central

Background Next generation sequencing platforms have greatly reduced sequencing costs, leading to the production of unprecedented amounts of sequence data. BWA is one of the most popular alignment tools due to its relatively high accuracy. However, mapping reads using BWA is still the most time consuming step in sequence analysis. Increasing mapping efficiency would allow the community to better cope with ever expanding volumes of sequence data. Results We designed a new program, CGAP-align, that achieves a performance improvement over BWA without sacrificing recall or precision. This is accomplished through the use of Suffix Tarray, a novel data structure combining elements of Suffix Array and Suffix Tree. We also utilize a tighter lower bound estimation for the number of mismatches in a read, allowing for more effective pruning during inexact mapping. Evaluation of both simulated and real data suggests that CGAP-align consistently outperforms the current version of BWA and can achieve over twice its speed under certain conditions, all while obtaining nearly identical results. Conclusion CGAP-align is a new time efficient read alignment tool that extends and improves BWA. The increase in alignment speed will be of critical assistance to all sequence-based research and medicine. CGAP-align is freely available to the academic community at http://sourceforge.net/p/cgap-align under the GNU General Public License (GPL). PMID:23593381

Chen, Yaoliang; Hong, Ji; Cui, Wanyun; Zaneveld, Jacques; Wang, Wei; Gibbs, Richard; Xiao, Yanghua; Chen, Rui

2013-01-01

408

Aligning Vision, ValuesAligning Vision, Values And Choices ForAnd Choices For  

E-print Network

Aligning Vision, ValuesAligning Vision, Values And Choices ForAnd Choices For Sustainable. Broaden the context for choiceBroaden the context for choice ­­ scenario planning, visioning.scenario planning, visioning. Seek integration of disparate needsSeek integration of disparate needs­­ how can

Kyte, Michael

409

Combination of IT strategic alignment and IT governance to evaluate strategic alignment maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business\\/IT strategic alignment has been discussed as a key subject for managers for a long time. This is while IT governance is also amongst the most important organizational subjects. Indeed, since IT has become an important resource for organizations, the governance of this resource is an essential subject that the organizations must go through. Combination of IT strategic alignment with

S. Hosseinbeig; D. Karimzadgan Moghadam; D. Vahdat; R. Askari Moghadam

2011-01-01

410

An active alignment method for post launch co-alignment of laser beam combiner systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser transmitter for high bandwidth geosynchronous satellite communications is described. High optical power is achieved by combining semiconductor laser diodes. An active alignment scheme is proposed for achieving the +/- 20 microrad post launch multiple laser angular co-alignment requirement.

Yu, A. W.; Green, J. W.; Maynard, W. L.; Minott, P. O.; Krainak, M. A.

1992-01-01

411

Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

2008-01-01

412

Cardiac complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease: consensus definitions from the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease.  

PubMed

A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval. The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the cardiac system. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases.The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a near-exhaustive list of cardiac complications, including intraoperative complications and cardiopulmonary bypass-related complications. These cardiac complications are presented in the following subgroups: 1) Cardiac (general), 2) Cardiac--Metabolic, 3) Cardiac--Residual and Recurrent cardiac lesions, 4) Arrhythmia, 5) Cardiopulmonary bypass and mechanical circulatory support, and 6) Operative/Procedural. Within each subgroup, complications are presented in alphabetical order. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, quality improvement initiatives, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies for treatment. PMID:19063791

Bacha, Emile Antoine; Cooper, David; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Franklin, Rodney C G; Krogmann, Otto; Deal, Barbara; Mavroudis, Constantine; Shukla, Avinash; Yeh, Thomas; Barach, Paul; Wessel, David; Stellin, Giovanni; Colan, Steven D

2008-12-01

413

Aligning and orienting molecules trapped in octahedral crystal fields  

SciTech Connect

The effect of external fields on directional states of a linear molecule trapped in a crystal field of octahedral symmetry is studied numerically. Adiabatic field-dressed energy levels are obtained by solving the time-independent Schroedinger equation for the rotational degrees of freedom of the confined molecule. In the absence of external fields, the internal octahedral crystal field serves to transform free-rotor states to angularly confined librational states of defined parity which arrange in near-degenerate sets of high multiplicity. Interaction of a linearly polarized, nonresonant laser field with the polarizability or of a static electric field with the dipole moment create alignment or orientation of the molecular axis, respectively. In the latter case, the combined effect of the internal (octahedral) and external static field is instrumental in creating orientation by coupling different tunneling states. Depending on the polarization direction of the external fields with respect to the symmetry axes provided by the crystal field, cooperative and competitive effects are distinguished. If the direction of the external field coincides with the minima of the crystal field, high degrees of alignment or orientation can be achieved for specific states, even for low field strengths. Otherwise, high efficiency of this mechanism is restricted to high fields and low temperatures. Strategies for an experimental realization are outlined.

Kiljunen, Toni; Schwentner, Nikolaus [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard [Institut fuer Mathematik II, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 2-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2005-11-15

414

Lingering Problems of Currency and Scope in Daniels's Argument for a Societal Obligation to Meet Health Needs  

PubMed Central

Norman Daniels's new book, Just Health, brings together his decades of work on the problem of justice and health. It improves on earlier writings by discussing how we can meet health needs fairly when we cannot meet them all and by attending to the implications of the socioeconomic determinants of health. In this article I return to the core idea around which the entire theory is built: that the principle of equality of opportunity grounds a societal obligation to meet health needs. I point, first, that nowhere does Daniels say just what version of that principle he accepts. I then proceed to construct a principle on his behalf, based on a faithful reading of Just Health. Once we actually nail down the principle, I argue, we will find that there are two problems: it is implausible in itself, and it fails to ground a societal obligation to meet health needs. PMID:20634271

Sachs, Benjamin

2010-01-01

415

MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3? std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

2013-03-01

416

Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

2003-01-01

417

Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

2010-12-01

418

Active alignment/contact verification system  

DOEpatents

A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

Greenbaum, William M. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01

419

Directed branch growth in aligned nanowire arrays.  

PubMed

Branch growth is directed along two, three, or four in-plane directions in vertically aligned nanowire arrays using vapor-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) flux engineering. In this work, a dynamically controlled collimated vapor flux guides branch placement during the self-catalyzed epitaxial growth of branched indium tin oxide nanowire arrays. The flux is positioned to grow branches on select nanowire facets, enabling fabrication of aligned nanotree arrays with L-, T-, or X-branching. In addition, a flux motion algorithm is designed to selectively elongate branches along one in-plane axis. Nanotrees are found to be aligned across large areas by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and through branch length and orientation measurements collected over 140 ?m(2) from scanning electron microscopy images for each array. The pathway to guided assembly of nanowire architectures with controlled interconnectivity in three-dimensions using VLS-GLAD is discussed. PMID:24628419

Beaudry, Allan L; LaForge, Joshua M; Tucker, Ryan T; Sorge, Jason B; Adamski, Nicholas L; Li, Peng; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J

2014-04-01

420

Spacecraft alignment estimation. [for onboard sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerically well-behaved factorized methodology is developed for estimating spacecraft sensor alignments from prelaunch and inflight data without the need to compute the spacecraft attitude or angular velocity. Such a methodology permits the estimation of sensor alignments (or other biases) in a framework free of unknown dynamical variables. In actual mission implementation such an algorithm is usually better behaved than one that must compute sensor alignments simultaneously with the spacecraft attitude, for example by means of a Kalman filter. In particular, such a methodology is less sensitive to data dropouts of long duration, and the derived measurement used in the attitude-independent algorithm usually makes data checking and editing of outliers much simpler than would be the case in the filter.

Shuster, Malcolm D.; Bierman, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

421

Carbon nanotube alignment in a thermosetting resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering aspects associated with nanocomposite development involves either their final properties either their processability. Both are affected by the distribution of nanofiller in the matrix, or in other words by its dispersion. Mechanical and rheological properties of nanocomposites are directly affected by the aspect ratio of the nanofiller. A nanofilled thermosetting polymer can be exploited as a matrix for continuous fibers when alignment of a high aspect ratio nanofiller is achieved: in this case a hierarchical composite is obtained. A new approach base in two-step is proposed. First the alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved in a fiber spinning process where an amorphous thermoplastic polymer filled with carbon nanotubes or graphene stacks is used. Then these fibers are aligned and impregnated with the target thermosetting matrix where they ar soluble. After dissolution the nanofillers remained oriented in the thermosetting matrix.

Lionetto, Francesca; Greco, Antonio; Pisignano, Dario; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

2014-05-01

422

Natural hazards science strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory and nonstatutory roles regarding floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, coastal erosion, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and magnetic storms - the hazards considered in this plan. There are numerous other hazards of societal importance that are considered either only peripherally or not at all in this Strategy because they are either in another of the USGS strategic science plans (such as drought) or not in the overall mission of the USGS (such as tornados).

Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

2012-01-01

423

SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

Dickinson, R. M.

1978-01-01

424

Societal Costs of Risky Driving: An Economic Analysis of High-Risk Patients Visiting an Urban Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We estimated the societal costs imposed by and the relative contributions of risky driving, drinking–driving, and substance use among young adults visiting a large urban emergency department who exhibited both high-risk driving and problem drinking.Methods: Emergency department patients aged 18 to 44 who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking (n = 275) were surveyed regarding driving behaviors,

Benjamin D. Sommers; Jamison D. Fargo; Michael S. Lyons; Jean T. Shope; Marilyn S. Sommers

2011-01-01

425

Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast electron diffraction from transiently aligned molecules in the absence of external (aligning) fields. A sample of aligned molecules is generated through photodissociation with femtosecond laser pulses, and the diffraction pattern is captured by probing the sample with picosecond electron pulses shortly after dissociation - before molecular rotation causes the alignment to vanish. In our experiments the alignment decays with a time constant of 2.6{+-}1.2 ps.

Reckenthaeler, Peter; Krausz, Ferenc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Centurion, Martin; Fuss, Werner; Trushin, Sergei A.; Fill, Ernst E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-05-29

426

Vowel-based frequency alignment function design and recognition-based time alignment for automatic speech morphing  

Microsoft Academic Search

New design procedures of time-frequency alignment for automatic speech morphing are proposed. The frequency alignment function at a specific frame is represented as a weighted average of vowel alignment functions based on similarity to each vowel. Julian, an open source speech recognition system, was used to design a time alignment function. Objective and subjective tests were conducted to evaluate the

Masato Onishi; Toru Takahashi; Toshio Irino; Hideki Kawahara

2008-01-01

427

Validity of altmetrics data for measuring societal impact: A study using data from Altmetric and F1000Prime  

E-print Network

Can altmetric data be validly used for the measurement of societal impact? The current study seeks to answer this question with a comprehensive dataset (about 100,000 records) from very disparate sources (F1000, Altmetric, and an in-house database based on Web of Science). In the F1000 peer review system, experts attach particular tags to scientific papers which indicate whether a paper could be of interest for science or rather for other segments of society. The results show that papers with the tag "good for teaching" do achieve higher altmetric counts than papers without this tag - if the quality of the papers is controlled. At the same time, a higher citation count is shown especially by papers with a tag that is specifically scientifically oriented ("new finding"). The findings indicate that papers tailored for a readership outside the area of research should lead to societal impact. If altmetric data is to be used for the measurement of societal impact, the question arises of its normalization. In bibli...

Bornmann, Lutz

2014-01-01

428

A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-15

429

Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory  

SciTech Connect

The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

2011-09-08

430

Drift chamber alignment using cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general-purpose experimental apparatus with an inner tracking detector for measuring charged particles, surrounded by a calorimeter for measurements of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and a muon detector system. We present a technique for, and results of, a precise relative alignment of the drift chamber wires of the CDF tracker. This alignment has been an important component of the track momentum calibration, which is the basis for the charged-lepton calibration for the measurement of the W boson mass at CDF.

Kotwal, Ashutosh V.; Hays, Christopher P.

2014-10-01

431

Dye laser with rotating wedge alignment seruo  

SciTech Connect

A laser-pumped laser system is disclosed, such as a dye laser which is optically pumped by an argon ion laser. An improved servo system is provided for maintaining relative alignment of the pump laser beam with respect to the dye laser cavity. This is accomplished by rotating the pump beam such that the beam defines a conical surface, by means such as an optically-transmissive rotating wedge. Such rotation provides dithering along two orthogonal axes, which provides the necessary control information to maintain pump beam alignment.

Witte, K. G.; Johnston Jr., T. F.

1985-04-30

432

GPU-accelerated protein sequence alignment.  

PubMed

Smith-Waterman (S-W) algorithm is an optimal sequence alignment method and is widely used for genetic databases. This paper presents a Graphics Processing Units (CPUs) accelerated S-W implementation for protein sequence alignment. The paper proposes a new sequence database organization and several optimizations to reduce the number of memory accesses. The new implementation achieves a performance of 21.4 GCUPS, which is 1.13 times better than the state-of-the-art implementation on an NVIDIA GTX 275 graphics card. PMID:22254835

Hasan, Laiq; Kentie, Marijn; Al-Ars, Zaid

2011-01-01

433

Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, then the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin out of the hole.

Campbell, Oliver C.

2008-01-01

434

Advanced alignment of the ATLAS inner detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of the ATLAS inner detector (ID) is to accurately measure the trajectories of charged particles in the high particle density environment of the large hadron collider (LHC) collisions. This is achieved using a combination of different technologies, including silicon pixels, silicon microstrips, and gaseous drift-tubes, all immersed in a 2 Tesla magnetic field. With nearly 750 k alignable degrees of freedom, it is crucial that an accurate model of the detector positions be produced using an automated and robust algorithm in order to achieve good tracking performance. This has been accomplished using a variety of alignment techniques resulting in near optimal hit and momentum resolutions.

Stahlman, Jonathan M.; Atlas Collaboration

2013-08-01

435

Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

2010-01-01

436

Segmented mirror, manufacturing and alignment tolerances (SMMAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to define surface errors, and hence wavelength aberrations or optical path differences, due to fabrication and alignment errors of mirror segments. A FORTRAN routine is written to help to understand the relationship between system performance (Strehl ratio, etc.) and manufacturing and alignment errors for Precision Segmented Reflectors and Large Deployable Reflector. The power of having compensation parameters such as piston and tilt responding to errors in position or figure is demonstrated. Compensation can improve performance by two orders of magnitude.

Manhart, P. K.; Rodgers, J. Michael

1989-01-01

437

Laboratory simulation of field-aligned currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of progress during the period Apr. 1992 to Mar. 1993 is provided. Objectives of the research are (1) to simulate, via laboratory experiments, the three terms of the field-aligned current equation; (2) to simulate auroral-arc formation processes by configuring the boundary conditions of the experimental chamber and plasma parameters to produce highly localized return currents at the end of a field-aligned current system; and (3) to extrapolate these results, using theoretical and computational techniques, to the problem of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to compare them with published literature signatures of auroral-arc phenomena.

Wessel, Frank J.; Rostoker, Norman

1993-01-01

438

A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382

2012-01-01

439

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children's Physical Activity in Child Care Centers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

2012-01-01

440

Top 10 Instructional Strategies for Struggling Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given new, more rigorous content standards and expanding student diversity, how can school leaders leverage limited resources to guide teachers to effectively teach standards-aligned lessons to all learners? The authors propose that leaders leverage familiar instructional strategies but in a new way to support all students--English learners,…

Carr, John; Bertrando, Sharen

2012-01-01

441

Bioterror Events: Preemptive Strategies for Healthcare Executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's healthcare executives face challenges that their predecessors have never known: bioterror events. To prepare their organizations to cope with new and emerging strategic threats of bioterrorism, these executives must consider preemptive strategies. The authors present courses of action to assist executives' internal, external, and cross-sectional organizational preparedness. For example, stake-holder groups, internal resources, and competencies that combine and align

Lisa Zinkovich; Donna Malvey; Eileen Hamby; Myron Fottler

2005-01-01

442

Arc@UNSW Limited Gender Equality Strategy  

E-print Network

that these differences do not lead to discrimination in the workplace. Men and women want to be confident that, when and fair workplace for all Arc employees. This strategy is also aligned with Arc's vision and aspirations > Workplace flexibility is clearly defined, communicated and applied to all, equally > The workplace

New South Wales, University of

443

Questioning Strategies for Teaching Cognitively Rigorous Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depth of knowledge is a common measure of rigor used extensively at the state level to align assessments with state content standards. However, the use of depth of knowledge at the classroom level is just beginning. In this article, we establish a link between depth of knowledge and the questioning strategies teachers should consider employing…

Olvera, Gerlinde W.; Walkup, John R.

2010-01-01

444

Instructional Strategies: How Teachers Teach Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help teachers use various teacher-directed and student-centered strategies to increase students' involvement in and responsibility for their own learning, focusing on: "Introduction"; "Planning for Instruction" (e.g,. good instructional planning is aligned to course standards, students are actively engaged, teachers plan…

Tanner, Brenda M.; Bottoms, Gene; Feagin, Caro; Bearman, Amy

445

Creating polymer hydrogel microfibres with internal alignment via electrical and mechanical stretching.  

PubMed

Hydrogels have been widely used for 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue regeneration due to their tunable biochemical and physicochemical properties as well as their high water content, which resembles the aqueous microenvironment of the natural extracellular matrix. While many properties of natural hydrogel matrices are modifiable, their intrinsic isotropic structure limits the control over cellular organization, which is critical to restore tissue function. Here we report a generic approach to incorporate alignment topography inside the hydrogel matrix using a combination of electrical and mechanical stretching. Hydrogel fibres with uniaxial alignment were prepared from aqueous solutions of natural polymers such as alginate, fibrin, gelatin, and hyaluronic acid under ambient conditions. The unique internal alignment feature drastically enhances the mechanical properties of the hydrogel microfibres. Furthermore, the facile, organic solvent-free processing conditions are amenable to the incorporation of live cells within the hydrogel fibre or on the fibre surface; both approaches effectively induce cellular alignment. This work demonstrates a versatile and scalable strategy to create aligned hydrogel microfibres from various natural polymers. PMID:24439410

Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Xi; Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F; Yu, Yixuan; Ginn, Brian P; DeSantis, Nicholas A; Hutton, Daphne L; Grayson, Warren L; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Korgel, Brian A; Gerecht, Sharon; Mao, Hai-Quan

2014-03-01

446

RandAL: a randomized approach to aligning DNA sequences to reference genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The alignment of short reads generated by next-generation sequencers to genomes is an important problem in many biomedical and bioinformatics applications. Although many proposed methods work very well on narrow ranges of read lengths, they tend to suffer in performance and alignment quality for reads outside of these ranges. Results We introduce RandAL, a novel method that aligns DNA sequences to reference genomes. Our approach utilizes two FM indices to facilitate efficient bidirectional searching, a pruning heuristic to speed up the computing of edit distances, and most importantly, a randomized strategy that enables effective estimation of key parameters. Extensive comparisons showed that RandAL outperformed popular aligners in most instances and was unique in its consistent and accurate performance over a wide range of read lengths and error rates. The software package is publicly available at https://github.com/namsyvo/RandAL. Conclusions RandAL promises to align effectively and accurately short reads that come from a variety of technologies with different read lengths and rates of sequencing error. PMID:25081493

2014-01-01

447

GASOLINE: a Greedy And Stochastic algorithm for Optimal Local multiple alignment of Interaction NEtworks  

PubMed Central

The analysis of structure and dynamics of biological networks plays a central role in understanding the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Biological networks have been considered a suitable formalism to extend evolutionary and comparative biology. In this paper we present GASOLINE, an algorithm for multiple local network alignment based on statistical iterative sampling in connection to a greedy strategy. GASOLINE overcomes the limits of current approaches by producing biologically significant alignments within a feasible running time, even for very large input instances. The method has been extensively tested on a database of real and synthetic biological networks. A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the art algorithms clearly shows that GASOLINE yields the best results in terms of both reliability of alignments and running time on real biological networks and results comparable in terms of quality of alignments on synthetic networks. GASOLINE has been developed in Java, and is available, along with all the computed alignments, at the following URL: http://ferrolab.dmi.unict.it/gasoline/gasoline.html. PMID:24911103

Giugno, Rosalba; Ferro, Alfredo

2014-01-01

448

GASOLINE: a Greedy And Stochastic algorithm for optimal Local multiple alignment of Interaction NEtworks.  

PubMed

The analysis of structure and dynamics of biological networks plays a central role in understanding the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Biological networks have been considered a suitable formalism to extend evolutionary and comparative biology. In this paper we present GASOLINE, an algorithm for multiple local network alignment based on statistical iterative sampling in connection to a greedy strategy. GASOLINE overcomes the limits of current approaches by producing biologically significant alignments within a feasible running time, even for very large input instances. The method has been extensively tested on a database of real and synthetic biological networks. A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the art algorithms clearly shows that GASOLINE yields the best results in terms of both reliability of alignments and running time on real biological networks and results comparable in terms of quality of alignments on synthetic networks. GASOLINE has been developed in Java, and is available, along with all the computed alignments, at the following URL: http://ferrolab.dmi.unict.it/gasoline/gasoline.html. PMID:24911103

Micale, Giovanni; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Ferro, Alfredo

2014-01-01

449

RNA-Seq alignment to individualized genomes improves transcript abundance estimates in multiparent populations.  

PubMed

Massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has yielded a wealth of new insights into transcriptional regulation. A first step in the analysis of RNA-seq data is the alignment of short sequence reads to a common reference genome or transcriptome. Genetic variants that distinguish individual genomes from the reference sequence can cause reads to be misaligned, resulting in biased estimates of transcript abundance. Fine-tuning of read alignment algorithms does not correct this problem. We have developed Seqnature software to construct individualized diploid genomes and transcriptomes for multiparent populations and have implemented a complete analysis pipeline that incorporates other existing software tools. We demonstrate in simulated and real data sets that alignment to individualized transcriptomes increases read mapping accuracy, improves estimation of transcript abundance, and enables the direct estimation of allele-specific expression. Moreover, when applied to expression QTL mapping we find that our individualized alignment strategy corrects false-positive linkage signals and unmasks hidden associations. We recommend the use of individualized diploid genomes over reference sequence alignment for all applications of high-throughput sequencing technology in genetically diverse populations. PMID:25236449

Munger, Steven C; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Choi, Kwangbom; Simons, Allen K; Gatti, Daniel M; Hinerfeld, Douglas A; Svenson, Karen L; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Hibbs, Matthew A; Graber, Joel H; Chesler, Elissa J; Churchill, Gary A

2014-09-01