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1

"Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be": Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy  

PubMed Central

Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal.

Yang, J S; Malone, R E

2009-01-01

2

Internet advertising strategy alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - Because the web can be an influential medium for attracting and retaining customers, it is critical to examine the connection between web advertising and corporate strategy. This is particularly true for multinational organizations, which face the most complex organizational environment. The purpose of this paper is to propose that multinational organizations should be concerned with alignment of their

Marie-claude Boudreau; Richard T. Watson

2006-01-01

3

Aligning strategies: organizational, project, individual [IT governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current IT literature emphasizes the importance of adopting a governance strategy based on an organization's customer market, and inherent technology and personnel capabilities. However, practical experience has shown that many organizations with sound strategies fail, often because the strategies are not aligned with IT project tactics or individual priorities. This paper explores the idea of aligning organizational, project, and individual

Rick Hefner

2003-01-01

4

Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

ATLAS; Golling, T.

2007-09-23

5

Green consumerism and the societal marketing concept: Marketing strategies for the 1990's  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of these trends on the role of the marketing department in the J990's. Essentially, when the buying habits of consumers are being strangely influenced by green and other environmental issues, the paper argues that the marketing concept and subsequent strategies need to be rethought. The paper then imaginatively develops the concept of societal marketing within

Andrea Prothero

1990-01-01

6

Presenting evidence and summary measures to best inform societal decisions when comparing multiple strategies.  

PubMed

Multiple strategy comparisons in health technology assessment (HTA) are becoming increasingly important, with multiple alternative therapeutic actions, combinations of therapies and diagnostic and genetic testing alternatives. Comparison under uncertainty of incremental cost, effects and cost effectiveness across more than two strategies is conceptually and practically very different from that for two strategies, where all evidence can be summarized in a single bivariate distribution on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. Alternative methods for comparing multiple strategies in HTA have been developed in (i) presenting cost and effects on the cost-disutility plane and (ii) summarizing evidence with multiple strategy cost-effectiveness acceptability (CEA) and expected net loss (ENL) curves and frontiers. However, critical questions remain for the analyst and decision maker of how these techniques can be best employed across multiple strategies to (i) inform clinical and cost inference in presenting evidence, and (ii) summarize evidence of cost effectiveness to inform societal reimbursement decisions where preferences may be risk neutral or somewhat risk averse under the Arrow-Lind theorem. We critically consider how evidence across multiple strategies can be best presented and summarized to inform inference and societal reimbursement decisions, given currently available methods. In the process, we make a number of important original findings. First, in presenting evidence for multiple strategies, the joint distribution of costs and effects on the cost-disutility plane with associated flexible comparators varying across replicates for cost and effect axes ensure full cost and effect inference. Such inference is usually confounded on the cost-effectiveness plane with comparison relative to a fixed origin and axes. Second, in summarizing evidence for risk-neutral societal decision making, ENL curves and frontiers are shown to have advantages over the CEA frontier in directly presenting differences in expected net benefit (ENB). The CEA frontier, while identifying strategies that maximize ENB, only presents their probability of maximizing net benefit (NB) and, hence, fails to explain why strategies maximize ENB at any given threshold value. Third, in summarizing evidence for somewhat risk-averse societal decision making, trade-offs between the strategy maximizing ENB and other potentially optimal strategies with higher probability of maximizing NB should be presented over discrete threshold values where they arise. However, the probabilities informing these trade-offs and associated discrete threshold value regions should be derived from bilateral CEA curves to prevent confounding by other strategies inherent in multiple strategy CEA curves. Based on these findings, a series of recommendations are made for best presenting and summarizing cost-effectiveness evidence for reimbursement decisions when comparing multiple strategies, which are contrasted with advice for comparing two strategies. Implications for joint research and reimbursement decisions are also discussed. PMID:21671686

Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

2011-07-01

7

Comprehensive comparison of graph based multiple protein sequence alignment strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Alignment of protein sequences (MPSA) is the starting point for a multitude of applications in molecular biology. Here, we present a novel MPSA program based on the SeqAn sequence alignment library. Our implementation has a strict modular structure, which allows to swap different components of the alignment process and, thus, to investigate their contribution to the alignment quality and computation time. We systematically varied information sources, guiding trees, score transformations and iterative refinement options, and evaluated the resulting alignments on BAliBASE and SABmark. Results Our results indicate the optimal alignment strategy based on the choices compared. First, we show that pairwise global and local alignments contain sufficient information to construct a high quality multiple alignment. Second, single linkage clustering is almost invariably the best algorithm to build a guiding tree for progressive alignment. Third, triplet library extension, with introduction of new edges, is the most efficient consistency transformation of those compared. Alternatively, one can apply tree dependent partitioning as a post processing step, which was shown to be comparable with the best consistency transformation in both time and accuracy. Finally, propagating information beyond four transitive links introduces more noise than signal. Conclusions This is the first time multiple protein alignment strategies are comprehensively and clearly compared using a single implementation platform. In particular, we showed which of the existing consistency transformations and iterative refinement techniques are the most valid. Our implementation is freely available at http://ekhidna.biocenter.helsinki.fi/MMSA and as a supplementary file attached to this article (see Additional file 1).

2012-01-01

8

Aligning international editing efforts with global business strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors define international editing as editing documents for a multilingual readership or multinational distribution. They argue that international editing embodies and represents corporate global strategies, which directly affect editing choices. They describe three global strategies-ethnocentric, polycentric, or geocentric-and four categories of editing-linguistic, socio-cultural, political, and technical-on which editors can focus to produce business and technical documents that consistently align

C AROL LEININGER; Rue Yuan

1998-01-01

9

Translating organisational strategy into real estate action: The strategy alignment model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly sophisticated body of theory and practice has emerged over the past 20 years about the impact that strategy plays in driving corporate business success, as well as the role that real estate plays in that strategy. In the context of three case studies, this paper will discuss the theory and application of the Strategy Alignment Model, which is

Robert T. Osgood Jr

2004-01-01

10

The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy (persuasive, assertive, and relationship based) and four dimensions of individual beliefs (cynicism, fate control, reward for application, and religiosity) were examined.

Ping Ping Fu; Jeff Kennedy; Jasmine Tata; Gary Yukl; Michael Harris Bond; Tai-Kuang Peng; Ekkirala S Srinivas; Jon P Howell; Leonel Prieto; Paul Koopman; Jaap J Boonstra; Selda Pasa; Marie-Francoise Lacassagne; Hiro Higashide; Adith Cheosakul

11

The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy (persuasive, assertive, and relationship based) and four dimensions of individual beliefs (cynicism, fate control, reward for application, and religiosity) were examined.

Ping Ping Fu; Jeff Kennedy; Jasmine Tata; Gary Yukl; Michael Harris Bond; Tai-Kuang Peng; Ekkirala S Srinivas; Jon P Howell; Leonel Prieto; Paul Koopman; Jaap J Boonstra; Selda Pasa; Marie-Francoise Lacassagne; Hiro Higashide; Adith Cheosakul

2004-01-01

12

Two Strategies for Sequence Comparison: Profile-preprocessed and Secondary Structure-induced Multiple Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment remains one of the most powerful tools for assessing sequence relateness and the identification of structurally and functionally important protein regions. In this work, two new techniques are introduced to increase the sensitivity of dynamic programming and to enable checks for alignment consistency: Profile-preprocessed and secondary structure-induced alignments. Both strategies are based upon the hierarchical dynamic programming

Jaap Heringa

1999-01-01

13

Buckling of aligned carbon nanotubes as stretchable conductors: a new manufacturing strategy.  

PubMed

A new manufacturing strategy for buckling of aligned carbon nanotubes is developed, which does not involve prestretching the substrate but relies on the interface interaction between the nanotubes and the substrate. More specifically, upon stretching the substrate the nanotubes slide on the substrate, but upon releasing the nanotubes buckle. Following this manufacturing strategy, stretchable conductors based on aligned carbon nanotubes are demonstrated. PMID:22271642

Zhu, Yong; Xu, Feng

2012-01-23

14

Business-IS Alignment: Assessment Process to Align IT Projects With Business Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of information technology has been proved to be related to alignment between business and information systems (IS). However the constant report of failed IT projects suggests a misalignment between business and IS at the implementation stage. The majority of alignment assessment approaches focuses on the strategic level and overlooks the connections with IT projects. Although research has given

Anabel Gutierrez; Charalampos Mylonadis; Jorge Orozco; Alan Serrano

2008-01-01

15

A Multistage Spectral Alignment Strategy for Unrestrictive PTM Peptide Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral alignment, which studies the matching of ion peaks between the investigated spectrum and theoretical spectrum of peptide in the peptide database, is a very useful topic in computational proteomics. So far, the efficient, accurate and practical spectral alignment algorithm is still urgently needed due to its important application in the PTM unrestrictive peptide identification. In this paper, a multi-stage

Changyong Yu; Guoren Wang; Yuhai Zhao; Keming Mao

2010-01-01

16

B-SCP: A requirements analysis framework for validating strategic alignment of organizational IT based on strategy, context, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that organizational IT is in alignment with and provides support for an organization's business strategy is critical to business success. Despite this, business strategy and strategic alignment issues are all but ignored in the requirements engineering research literature. We present B-SCP, a requirements engineering framework for organizational IT that directly addresses an organization's business strategy and the alignment of

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June M. Verner; Keith T. Phalp

2006-01-01

17

Physician alignment: the right strategy, the right mind-set.  

PubMed

Developing the right mind-set for collaboration involves consideration of: The organization's market position and customer base The type of structure that best complements the hospital's culture The incentives needed to drive alignment. The tools to share credible data related to utilization, cost, and quality. The need for shared control. PMID:21265272

Edmiston, Gary; Wofford, David

2010-12-01

18

Electron Beam Alignment Strategy in the LCLS Undulators  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray FEL process puts very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (2 {micro}m rms) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight but less stringent tolerances of 80 {micro}m rms vertical and 140 {micro}m rms horizontally are to be met for the placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through beam-based alignment (BBA) based on electron energy variations. Conventional alignment will set the start conditions for BBA. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders and the use of beam-finder wires (BFW) will satisfy placement tolerances. Girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes will be monitored continuously by an alignment monitoring system (ADS) and remotely corrected. This stabilization of components as well as the monitoring and correction of the electron beam trajectory based on BPMs and correctors will increase the time between BBA applications. Undulator segments will be periodically removed from the undulator Hall and measured to monitor radiation damage and other effects that might degrade undulator tuning.

Nuhn, H.-D.; Emma, P.J.; Gassner, G.L.; LeCocq, C.M.; Peters, E.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

2007-01-03

19

A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies  

SciTech Connect

Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m{sup 2} flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The optimal approach can vary with the application.

Jones, S.A.

1996-03-01

20

The alignment of managers’ mental models with the balanced scorecard strategy map  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the alignment of managers’ mental models with the strategy map provided by the balanced scorecard (BSC). By applying the cognitive maps technique to the managers of a printing firm, this work uses the distance ratio method to analyse managers’ different perceptions of the firm's resources and capabilities, as defined in the BSC. The results show a high

José Manuel Hurtado González; Miguel Ángel Calderón; José Luis Galán González

2012-01-01

21

Enabling the business strategy of SMEs through e-business capabilities: A strategic alignment perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present study aims at a deeper understanding of the performance outcomes of the alignment between the e-business capabilities of manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their business strategy in terms of Miles and Snow's recognised strategic typology that includes prospectors, analyzers, and defenders. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From a contingency theory perspective, a survey of 107 Canadian manufacturers

Louis Raymond; François Bergeron

2008-01-01

22

Aligning Service Requirements with Business Strategy: A Proposed Stakeholder Value Model for SOA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Value-based requirements engineering plays a critical role in software development because it seeks to align requirements with the organizational strategy that drives business value. This chapter discusses the value proposition of service-oriented architectures and proposes a value-based decision mechanism for requirements engineering for service-oriented systems. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for future research into the important but relatively unexplored area of service-oriented requirements engineering.

Luthria, H.; Aurum, A.; Low, G. C.; Rabhi, F. A.

23

Aligning Service Requirements with Business Strategy: A Proposed Stakeholder Value Model for SOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Value-based requirements engineering plays a critical role in software development because it seeks to align requirements\\u000a with the organizational strategy that drives business value. This chapter discusses the value proposition of service-oriented\\u000a architectures and proposes a value-based decision mechanism for requirements engineering for service-oriented systems. In\\u000a doing so, it lays the groundwork for future research into the important but relatively

H. Luthria; A. Aurum; G. C. Low; F. A. Rabhi

24

An experimental investigation of a psychoeducational strategy designed to reduce men's endorsement of societal ideals of women's attractiveness.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated whether a psychoeducational manipulation, focused on reducing an unrealistic view of women's attractiveness, might affect men's ratings of the attractiveness of females. The participants were 159 male undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to four conditions: psychoeducational message (beauty ideals; marketing strategies) and photo exposure (attractive females; household products). The results indicated that males pre-exposed to attractive female images subsequently evaluated average females as less attractive than those exposed to household products. However, a psychoeducational information condition designed to challenge "beauty ideals" did not reduce the adverse exposure effect and was comparable in effectiveness to the "marketing strategies" manipulation. The limitations of the findings are discussed and avenues for future research in this area offered. PMID:18996068

Yamamiya, Yuko; Thompson, J Kevin

2008-11-07

25

Contemporary Societal Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is designed to discover crucial societal problem areas in which the application of foundation resources might be beneficial. A resource allocation analysis technique yields information which is useful in general evaluation procedures. Development of a problem analysis technique interrelates apparent societal trends and changes in the…

Markley, O. W.; And Others

26

Crossing the strategic synapse: aligning hospital strategy with shared system priorities in ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The dominant system-level strategic priorities facing Ontario hospitals were elicited and validated. Researchers employed a multi-stage survey and focus group process to solicit the opinions of senior hospital managers and other healthcare stakeholders. Four shared, system-level priorities emerged: (i) improved clinical and staff recruitment; (ii) stronger inter-hospital partnership and vertical integration along the continuum of care; (iii) improved patient safety; and (iv) the implementation of decision support systems. A subsequent CEO validation survey showed strong endorsement of these system priorities. The authors conclude that a survey, focus group, and validation process can reveal shared system priorities and can highlight emergent organizational strategies designed to resolve them. This process, in which a hospital learns of the priorities facing other hospitals in a system, is a potentially useful managerial tool to promote "strategic synapse"-whereby management can adjust internal organizational strategy and local scorecards to align with shared system priorities. PMID:16493271

Brown, Adalsteinn D; Alikhan, L Miin; Seeman, Neil L

27

The effect of aligning organizational culture and business strategy with HR systems on firm performance in Chinese enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the differential impact of an alignment of organizational culture and business strategy through which inducement-HR and involvement-HR systems may affect firm performance. It contributes to the strategic fit of the HRM literature by using empirical data from 451 firms in southern China to evaluate the linkages among organizational culture, HR systems, business strategies and organizational performance. The

Irene Hau Siu Chow; S. S. Liu

2009-01-01

28

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

29

Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.  

PubMed

Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection. PMID:16271423

Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

2005-10-18

30

Vertically aligned cadmium chalcogenide nanowire arrays on muscovite mica: a demonstration of epitaxial growth strategy.  

PubMed

We report a strategy for achieving epitaxial, vertically aligned cadmium chalcogenide (CdS, CdSe, and CdTe) nanowire arrays utilizing van der Waals epitaxy with (001) muscovite mica substrate. The nanowires, grown from a vapor transport process, exhibited diameter uniformity throughout their length, sharp interface to the substrate, and positive correlation between diameter and length with preferential growth direction of [0001] for the monocrystalline wurtzite CdS and CdSe nanowires, but of [111] for zinc blende CdTe nanowires, which also featured abundant twinning boundaries. Self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with hydrogen-assisted thermal evaporation is proposed to intepret the observations. Optical absorption from the as-grown CdSe nanowire arrays on mica at 10 K revealed intense first-order exciton absorption and its longitudinal optical phonon replica. A small Stokes shift (?1.3 meV) was identified, suggesting the high quality of the nanowires. This study demonstrated the generality of van der Waals epitaxy for the growth of nanowire arrays and their potential applications in optical and energy related devices. PMID:21043505

Utama, Muhammad Iqbal Bakti; Peng, Zeping; Chen, Rui; Peng, Bo; Xu, Xinlong; Dong, Yajie; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shijie; Sun, Handong; Xiong, Qihua

2010-11-02

31

Alignment and assembly strategies for AWARE-10 gigapixel-scale cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigapixel cameras using lens arrays can contain hundreds to thousands of precisely positioned optical components and thus require fast, reliable methods for optical assembly and alignment verification. Our first one-gigapixel prototype camera (AWARE-2) and our four-gigapixel camera currently under development (AWARE-10) need active alignment and performance measurement procedures during assembly to ensure high quality images. Here we describe the methods that we have developed to ensure proper positioning of all optical components in the AWARE-10 system and the resulting optomechanical design decisions. AWARE cameras employ a single monocentric objective lens that is shared by an array of smaller "micro-cameras", each composed of a set of smaller scale lenses. In AWARE-10, approximately two thousand pieces of individual optics must be aligned to a high level of accuracy in order to attain the desired optical resolution over four gigapixels. To guarantee proper alignment before final assembly, the objective lens and the micro-optics are checked separately. Using tools including auto-stigmatic microscopy, slanted edge MTF measurements, and flat field measurements, we can confirm the correct alignment of individual components before assembly. Optomechanical designs that incorporate the application of these alignment tools are described.

Son, Hui S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Youn, Seo H.; Brady, David J.; Kim, Jungsang

2013-09-01

32

Linking R&D investment strategies to business needs: Strategic Technology Alignment Roadmapping (STAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of many empirical and theoretical research studies highlight the need for a robust and integrated strategic technology planning tools to enable high technology companies to sustain a competitive advantage in an endlessly changing business environment. The objective of the integrated technology roadmapping methodology STAR outlined in this paper is to enable companies to align their technology acquisition programmes

Nabil Gindy; Husam Arman; Shirley Cavin

2009-01-01

33

A framework of intangible valuation areas (FIVA) : Aligning business strategy and intangible assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study investigates the adequacy of existing intangible asset models and defines and codifies common principal valuation drivers of intangible assets for use in enterprise balanced scorecard valuation practices of information technology (IT) firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Existing intangible asset balance scorecard valuation models and value chain models are evaluated to extract their value components and align them with

Annie Green; Julie J. C. H. Ryan

2005-01-01

34

Bayesian Models for Multiple Local Sequence Alignment and Gibbs Sampling Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of data concerning life's basic molecules, proteins and nucleic acids, has emerged from the biotechnology revolution. The human genome project has accelerated the growth of these data. Multiple observations of homologous protein or nucleic acid sequences from different organisms are often available. But because mutations and sequence errors misalign these data, multiple sequence alignment has become an essential

Jun S. Liu; Andrew F. Neuwald; Charles E. Lawrence

1995-01-01

35

Alignment of a firm's competitive strategy and information technology management sophistication: the missing link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for establishing a link between information technology (IT) management strategies and a firm's competitive strategy has been identified and discussed in the literature. In this paper, factors for measuring IT management sophistication are identified first. Then the effects of the competitive strategy on IT management sophistication are tested empirically. According to a survey of 213 managers, this study

Yash P. Gupta; Jahangir Karimi; Toni M. Somers

1997-01-01

36

Alignment and clustering strategies for GC×GC-MS features using a cylindrical mapping.  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to analyze complex samples. For application of the technique in studies like biomarker discovery in which large sets of complex samples have to be analyzed, extensive preprocessing is needed to align the data obtained in several injections (analyses). We developed new alignment and clustering algorithms for this type of data. New in the current procedures is the consistent way in which the phenomenon referred to as wrap-around is treated. The data analysis problems associated with this phenomenon are solved by treating the 2D display as the surface of a three-dimensional cylinder. Based on this transformation we developed a new similarity metric for features as a function of both the cylindrical distance (reflecting similarity in chromatographic behavior) and of the mass spectral correlation (reflecting similarity in chemical structure). The concepts are used in warping and clustering, and include a protection against greedy warping. The methods were applied - for the purpose of an example - to the analysis of 11 replicates of a human urine sample concentrated by solid phase extraction. It is shown that the alignment is well protected against greedy warping which is important with respect to analytical qualities as robustness and repeatability. It is also demonstrated that chemically similar features are clustered together. The paper is organized as follows. First a brief introduction is provided addressing the background of the GC×GC-MS data structure followed by a theoretical section with a conceptual description of the procedures and details of the algorithms. Finally an example is given in the experimental section, illustrating the application of the procedures. PMID:22541008

Weusten, Jos J A M; Derks, Eduard P P A; Mommers, John H M; van der Wal, Sjoerd

2012-03-15

37

Labeling strategies for 13C-detected aligned-sample solid-state NMR of proteins.  

PubMed

(13)C-detected solid-state NMR experiments have substantially higher sensitivity than the corresponding (15)N-detected experiments on stationary, aligned samples of isotopically labeled proteins. Several methods for tailoring the isotopic labeling are described that result in spatially isolated (13)C sites so that dipole-dipole couplings among the (13)C are minimized, thus eliminating the need for homonuclear (13)C-(13)C decoupling in either indirect or direct dimensions of one- or multi-dimensional NMR experiments that employ (13)C detection. The optimal percentage for random fractional (13)C labeling is between 25% and 35%. Specifically labeled glycerol and glucose can be used at the carbon sources to tailor the isotopic labeling, and the choice depends on the resonances of interest for a particular study. For investigations of the protein backbone, growth of the bacteria on [2-(13)C]-glucose-containing media was found to be most effective. PMID:19781966

Filipp, Fabian V; Sinha, Neeraj; Jairam, Lena; Bradley, Joel; Opella, Stanley J

2009-09-02

38

Smartly aligning nanowires by a stretching strategy and their application as encoded sensors.  

PubMed

The nanotechnology world is being more and more attracted toward high aspect ratio one-dimensional nanostructures due to their potentials as building blocks for electronic/optical devices. Here, we propose a novel method to generate nanowire patterns with assistance of superhydrophobic flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. Micropillar gaps are tunable via a stretching process of the PDMS surface; thus, diverse nanowire patterns can be formed by stretching the same PDMS surface in various ways. Importantly, square nanowire loops with alternative compositions can be generated through a double-stretching process, showing an advanced methodology in controlling the alignment of nanowires. Since alternative fluorescent molecules will be quenched by diverse chemical substances, this alternative nanowire loop shows a selective detection for diverse target compounds, which greatly improves the application of this nanowire patterning approach. Furthermore, such alternative nanowire patterns can be transferred from pillar-structured surfaces to flat films, indicating further potentials in microcircuits, sensitive sensors, and other organic functional nanodevices. PMID:22984829

Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

2012-09-20

39

Alignment of strategy and human resource management practices in international R&D  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that firms are establishing growing numbers of R&D operations in foreign nations. The author examines some of the strategic reasons for this trend and analyzes the coupling of R&D strategy and human resources management policies in the international context. Attention is focused on organic R&D sites rather than corporate acquisitions or joint ventures. Cases of US firms

1992-01-01

40

Correction and alignment strategies for the beam separator of thePEEM3 microscope  

SciTech Connect

A new high-resolution aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope (PEEM3) will be installed on an undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim of this instrument is to provide a substantial flux and resolution improvement by employing an electron mirror for correcting both the third-order spherical aberration and the primary chromatic aberration. In order to utilize this concept of correction, a beam separator is a prerequisite. Crucial to achieving a resolution of 5nm for the high resolution mode, and a sixteen-fold increase in throughput at the same resolution as its predecessor, PEEM2, specified as 20nm at 2% transmission, for the high flux mode is the double symmetric design of the beam separator, which eliminates all the second order geometric aberrations. Nonetheless, substantial tuning capabilities must be incorporated into the PEEM3 design to compensate for both systematic and random errors. In this paper, we investigate how to correct for non-systematic imperfections and for systematic uncertainties in the accuracy of the magnetic fields and focus on how degradation of the resolution and the field of view can be minimized. Finally, we outline a tentative correction strategy for PEEM3.

Schmid, Peter; Feng, Jun; Padmore, Howard; Robin, David; Rose,Harald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, YingHarald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, Ying

2004-07-01

41

Societal Development and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares and contrasts the theories of three major writers on societal change: Chirot discusses the economic power struggles within and among core, peripheral, and semiperipheral societies, Toffler exposes a future in which major power shifts could have cataclysmic results, and Bruner emphasizes the importance of education to temper…

Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

2008-01-01

42

Ethnicity in a societal context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of problems form the basic themes of this paper. One deals with the definition of ethnicity and the other with the societal context and how it influences the relation of ethnic groups to the nation. Key concepts in the definition of ethnicity are group, institution, role of the individual, and the relation of ethnic groups one to the

Harold F. Kaufman

1983-01-01

43

Societal security - security and identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of societal security as per- ceived in the approach of the Copenhagen School of Security Studies, as well as the main criticism of the concept. Contrary to the traditional approach, the approach advocated by members of the Copenhagen School does not only focus on military threat; here the account is taken of a wider concept

CARL SCHMITT

2009-01-01

44

Broader societal issues of nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This

M. C. Roco

2003-01-01

45

The Interplay of Psychology and Societal Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the International Journal of Group Tensions examines the contribution of psychology to societal transformation worldwide and the impact of societal transformation on psychology. In this introduction, I review the aims and scope of the journal and the focus of the special issue. Second, I identify several key consequences of societal transformation that are not bounded by

Michael J. Stevens

2002-01-01

46

Coping with an emerging market competition through strategy-human resource alignment: case study evidence from five leading Japanese manufacturers in the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how PRC-based Japanese affiliates can align their human resource management (HRM) policies and practices with their business strategies based on in-depth interview surveys of the five leading Japanese manufacturers in China. In particular, using a multiple-informant research design to interview both top and human resource managers in each site, the study has attempted to clarify the strategic

Norihiko Takeuchi; Ziguang Chen; Wing Lam

2009-01-01

47

Practical study on the electron-beam-only alignment strategy for the electron beam direct writing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to introduce of electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology into the volume production lines for the 65 nm process technology are shown and discussed. In order to apply these techniques in a harmonious way, partial modifications to the current production line infrastructures are required, because those infrastructures have been optimized for the conventional photolithography technology. One of the large differences is with the alignment. For the gate layer, the appropriate solution is to have an additional process step to remove SiO2 material filled in the shallow trench isolation alignment marks before the patterning. For the dual damascene process at the metal layers, careful consideration of the choice between the indirect alignment or the direct alignment is necessary, when the metal layer is aligned to the previous via layer underneath. We expect that these techniques can be used for the advanced node devices as well, while some new structures would be applied on these devices. In addition to the optimizing the alignment mark structures, the appropriate adjustment of EBDW system parameters by advanced process control (APC) is required, in order to have enough overlay accuracy at the actual production use. Although such process control systems are normally optimized to photolithography, we have confirmed that APC system can be also used for the EBDW technology for appropriate overlay accuracy control. Furthermore, the alignment budget in our systems is created and the alignment accuracy in our future system is estimated based on it. Based on the findings from these discussions, we expect that the EBDW with e-beam-only alignment will be applicable for the production of the 11 nm half-pitch process technology node and the beyond.

Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Kon, Junichi

2013-03-01

48

The societal costs of insomnia  

PubMed Central

Objective Insomnia can be broadly defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or sleep that is not refreshing or of poor quality with negative effect on daytime function. Insomnia can be a primary condition or comorbid to an underlying disorder. Subjective measures of insomnia used in population studies, usually based on complaints of unsatisfactory sleep, put the prevalence at about 10%. Insomnia is more common in the elderly and in women, and is often associated with medical and psychiatric disorders. This review examines the measures used to assess quality of sleep (QOS) and daytime functioning and the impact of insomnia on society using these measures. Methods Literature searches were performed to identify all studies of insomnia (primary and comorbid) in adults (aged 18–64 years) and the elderly (aged ? 65 years) with baseline and/or outcomes relating to QOS or daytime functioning. The impact of poor QOS on quality of life (QOL), psychomotor and cognitive skills, health care resource utilization, and other societal effects was examined. Results Although definitions and measurement scales used to assess sleep quality vary widely, it is clear that the societal consequences of insomnia are substantial and include impaired QOL and increased health care utilization. The impact of poor QOS and impaired daytime functioning common in insomnia can lead to indirect effects such as lower work productivity, increased sick leave, and a higher rate of motor vehicle crashes. Conclusions Insomnia is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to society. It is almost impossible to separate the costs associated with primary and comorbid insomnia. More studies are required which control for the severity of any primary disorder to accurately evaluate the costs of comorbid insomnia. Development of standardized diagnostic and assessment scales will enable more accurate quantification of the true societal burden of insomnia and will contribute to greater understanding of this disorder.

Wade, Alan G

2011-01-01

49

Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.  

PubMed

Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

2000-01-01

50

Societal responses to the Anthropocene.  

PubMed

This article discusses the societal responses to the Anthropocene. First we need to confront the effects of our own population proliferation in all its aspects; next to look again at economics and replace consumerism as a goal; then to work out new ways of generating energy; to manage and adapt to what is in effect climate destabilization; to give higher priority to conservation of the natural world; and last to create the necessary institutional means of coping with global problems in a world in which society is more integrated than ever before. PMID:21282154

Tickell, Crispin

2011-03-13

51

PRALINE: A Versatile Multiple Sequence Alignment Toolkit.  

PubMed

Profile ALIgNmEnt (PRALINE) is a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit. In its main alignment protocol, PRALINE follows the global progressive alignment algorithm. It provides various alignment optimization strategies to address the different situations that call for protein multiple sequence alignment: global profile preprocessing, homology-extended alignment, secondary structure-guided alignment, and transmembrane aware alignment. A number of combinations of these strategies are enabled as well.PRALINE is accessible via the online server http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/PRALINEwww/ . The server facilitates extensive visualization possibilities aiding the interpretation of alignments generated, which can be written out in pdf format for publication purposes. PRALINE also allows the sequences in the alignment to be represented in a dendrogram to show their mutual relationships according to the alignment. The chapter ends with a discussion of various issues occurring in multiple sequence alignment. PMID:24170407

Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap

2014-01-01

52

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

53

Bilingualism and Biculturalism as Individual and as Societal Phenonomena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As diglossia is the societal counterpart of individual bilingualism, diethnia is the stable, societal counterpart to individual biculturalism. Diethnia requires societal compartmentalization as well as institutionally protected functional specificity. Maintenance of this division is difficult, given modern, interactive, mobile, and…

Fishman, Joshua A.

1980-01-01

54

Societal health and urban sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

1996-08-27

55

Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario  

PubMed Central

This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function.

Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

2010-01-01

56

Making health system performance measurement useful to policy makers: aligning strategies, measurement and local health system accountability in ontario.  

PubMed

This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S; Brown, Adalsteinn D

2010-02-01

57

Challenges and opportunities in aligning real estate and the workplace with business strategy: A survey of leading CEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper contains the results of a global benchmark survey conducted among more than 200 CEOs from some of the world’s ‘Most Admired’: leading Fortune 500 and Global 500 companies. The survey was designed to identify, from the perspective of the CEO, practices that are essential for effective execution of corporate strategy. In all, 34 practices were studied to

Lucy E. Allard; Christine Barber

2003-01-01

58

Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls'

Jennifer M. Arner Welsh

2010-01-01

59

Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental induce- ments aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are

M. B. Schwartz; R. Puhl

2003-01-01

60

Adolescent Development in Interpersonal and Societal Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances,in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward iden-

Judith G. Smetana; Nicole Campione-Barr; Aaron Metzger

2006-01-01

61

Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008.

P. Salvati; C. Bianchi; M. Rossi; F. Guzzetti

2010-01-01

62

Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

2010-01-01

63

Alignment validation  

SciTech Connect

The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

2008-09-06

64

Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: Planetary protection and contamination concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both

M. S. Race

1995-01-01

65

Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

2005-12-01

66

Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino-Alto Adige and Campania, and societal flood risk is highest in Piedmont and Sicily.

Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

2010-03-01

67

Alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

Bell, Grover C. (Norris, TN); Gibson, O. Theodore (Lenoir City, TN)

1980-01-01

68

Heuristic alignment methods.  

PubMed

Computation of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is usually formulated as a combinatory optimization problem of an objective function. Solving the problem for virtually all sensible objective functions is known to be NP-complete implying that some heuristics must be adopted. Several general strategies have been proven effective to obtain accurate MSAs in reasonable computational costs. This chapter is devoted to a brief summary of most successful heuristic approaches. PMID:24170393

Gotoh, Osamu

2014-01-01

69

Reticular alignment: A progressive corner-cutting method for multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper, we introduce a progressive corner cutting method called Reticular Alignment for multiple sequence alignment. Unlike previous corner-cutting methods, our approach does not define a compact part of the dynamic programming table. Instead, it defines a set of optimal and suboptimal alignments at each step during the progressive alignment. The set of alignments are represented with a network to store them and use them during the progressive alignment in an efficient way. The program contains a threshold parameter on which the size of the network depends. The larger the threshold parameter and thus the network, the deeper the search in the alignment space for better scored alignments. Results We implemented the program in the Java programming language, and tested it on the BAliBASE database. Reticular Alignment can outperform ClustalW even if a very simple scoring scheme (BLOSUM62 and affine gap penalty) is implemented and merely the threshold value is increased. However, this set-up is not sufficient for outperforming other cutting-edge alignment methods. On the other hand, the reticular alignment search strategy together with sophisticated scoring schemes (for example, differentiating gap penalties for hydrophobic and hydrophylic amino acids) overcome FSA and in some accuracy measurement, even MAFFT. The program is available from http://phylogeny-cafe.elte.hu/RetAlign/ Conclusions Reticular alignment is an efficient search strategy for finding accurate multiple alignments. The highest accuracy achieved when this searching strategy is combined with sophisticated scoring schemes.

2010-01-01

70

MUSE optical alignment procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 ?m). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

2012-09-01

71

Alignment of Helical Membrane Protein Sequences Using AlignMe  

PubMed Central

Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S) matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P)), in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T), in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set.

Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

2013-01-01

72

Societal Impacts of Solar Electromagnetic Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in solar electromagnetic radiation, which occur continuously and at all wavelengths of the spectrum, can have significant societal impacts on a wide range of time scales. Detection of climate change and ozone depletion requires reliable specification of solar-induced processes that mask or exacerbate anthropogenic effects. Living with, and mitigating, climate change and ozone depletion has significant economic, habitat and political impacts of international extent. As an example, taxes to restrict carbon emission may cause undue economic stress if the role of greenhouse gases in global warming is incorrectly diagnosed. Ignoring solar-induced ozone changes in the next century may lead to incorrect assessment of the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer by limiting the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Societal infrastructure depends in many ways on space-based technological assets. Communications and navigation for commerce, industry, science and defense rely on satellite signals transmitted through, and reflected by, electrons in the ionosphere. Electron densities change in response to solar flares, and by orders of magnitude in response to EUV and X-ray flux variations during the Sun's 11-year activity cycle. Spacecraft and space debris experience enhanced drag on their orbits when changing EUV radiation causes upper atmosphere densities to increase. Especially affected are spacecraft and debris in lower altitude orbits, such as Iridium-type communication satellites, and the International Space Station (ISS). Proper specification of solar-induced fluctuations in the neutral upper atmosphere can, for example, aid in tracking the ISS and surrounding space debris, reducing the chance of ISS damage from collisions, and maximizing its operations. Aspects of solar electromagnetic radiation variability will be briefly illustrated on a range of time scales, with specific identification of the societal impacts of different spectral regions.

Lean, J. L.

2000-05-01

73

Strategic alignment: a practitioner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Organizations are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of aligning information systems with organizational processes, goals and strategies. One way of representing and analysing strategic alignment is through the creation of a causal-loop diagram, a subject which this paper seeks to examine. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The exploratory research presented here involved six senior IS\\/IT managers during three two-hour focus

Bruce Campbell; Robert Kay; David Avison

2005-01-01

74

Ecological network analysis of China's societal metabolism.  

PubMed

Uncontrolled socioeconomic development has strong negative effects on the ecological environment, including pollution and the depletion and waste of natural resources. These serious consequences result from the high flows of materials and energy through a socioeconomic system produced by exchanges between the system and its surroundings, causing the disturbance of metabolic processes. In this paper, we developed an ecological network model for a societal system, and used China in 2006 as a case study to illustrate application of the model. We analyzed China's basic metabolic processes and used ecological network analysis to study the network relationships within the system. Basic components comprised the internal environment, five sectors (agriculture, exploitation, manufacturing, domestic, and recycling), and the external environment. We defined 21 pairs of ecological relationships in China's societal metabolic system (excluding self-mutualism within a component). Using utility and throughflow analysis, we found that exploitation, mutualism, and competition relationships accounted for 76.2, 14.3, and 9.5% of the total relationships, respectively. In our trophic level analysis, the components were divided into producers, consumers, and decomposers according to their positions in the system. Our analyses revealed ways to optimize the system's structure and adjust its functions, thereby promoting healthier socioeconomic development, and suggested ways to apply ecological network analysis in future socioeconomic research. PMID:22054592

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Li, Yating; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Shengsheng; Yang, Naijin

2011-10-22

75

Societal LCA Methodology and Case Study (12 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Societal assessment is advocated as one of the three pillars in the evaluation of, and movement toward, sustainability. As\\u000a is the case with the well established LCA, and the emerging LCC, societal life cycle assessment should be developed in such\\u000a as way as to permit relative product comparisons, rather than absolute analyses. The development of societal

David Hunkeler

2006-01-01

76

IT alignment and firm performance in small manufacturing firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of IT alignment has been discussed in the literature, but almost always in the context of large firms. Similarly, attempts to measure alignment and relate it to performance have been made, but primarily based on work in larger firms. This study focused on measuring the alignment of business strategy and IT strategy (ITS) among small UK manufacturing firms

Paul Cragg; Malcolm King; Husnayati Hussin

2002-01-01

77

Societal drivers in the applications of telehealth.  

PubMed

The application of telemedicine and e-health tools and the integration of these tools in healthcare is no longer a demonstration, pilot project, or idea. The changing landscape of humanity dictates that new solutions be implemented to address old problems. The landscape is changing with diminishing resources of fossil fuels, aging population, a shortage of skilled labor in healthcare (doctors, nurses, and allied health professionals), and emerging technologies for the personal space, culture, and consumer demand. All are key drivers in altering healthcare delivery, access, and education. The very foundation of medicine needs to change to meet these demands. Access using telehealth will widen and enable our ability to respond to public health issues. This paper addresses the many societal issues facing healthcare delivery and demonstrates how telehealth solutions are key components of the future of healthcare delivery across the globe. PMID:19035816

Doarn, Charles R; Yellowlees, Peter; Jeffries, Deborah A; Lordan, Denny; Davis, Sally; Hammack, Glenn; McClosky-Armstrong, Thelma; Kvedar, Joseph

2008-11-01

78

Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

79

Spiritual perspectives on individual, organizational and societal transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores issues of what matters most in individual organizational and societal transformation – economic issues or spirit? Transformation is defined and literature on individual, organizational and societal transformation is presented. The article looks at the standard arguments that economics are the driving force in transformation and then postulates that spirituality may be as much – if not more

Judith A. Neal; Benyamin M. Bergmann Lichtenstein; David Banner

1999-01-01

80

An Overview of Web Mining in Societal Benefit Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of web mining research related to areas of social benefit is the focus of this paper. We particularly focus on web mining that may help and benefit societal areas in ways of extracting new knowledge, providing support for decision making and empowering valuable management of societal issues. E-commerce and E-business are two fields empowered by web mining having

Georgios Lappas

2007-01-01

81

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs societal lifetime cost for evaluating hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) from a societal welfare perspective as compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. We employ a learning-curve model for fuel-cell system cost estimates over time. The delivered hydrogen fuel cost is estimated using the UC Davis SSCHISM hydrogen supply pathway model, and most vehicle costs are estimated using the

Yongling Sun; Joan Ogden; Mark Delucchi

2010-01-01

82

Multiple sequence alignment using probcons and probalign.  

PubMed

Sequence alignment remains a fundamental task in bioinformatics. The literature contains programs that employ a host of exact and heuristic strategies available in computer science. Probcons was the first program to construct maximum expected accuracy sequence alignments with hidden Markov models and at the time of its publication achieved the highest accuracies on standard protein multiple alignment benchmarks. Probalign followed this strategy except that it used a partition function approach instead of hidden Markov models. Several programs employing both strategies have been published since then. In this chapter we describe Probcons and Probalign. PMID:24170400

Roshan, Usman

2014-01-01

83

Societal Implicit Memory and his Speed on Tracking Extrema over Dynamic Environments using Self-Regulatory Swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome difficult dynamic optimization and environment extrema tracking problems, we propose a Self-Regulated Swarm (SRS) algorithm which hybridizes the advantageous characteristics of Swarm Intelligence as the emergence of a societal environmental memory or cognitive map via collective pheromone laying in the landscape (properly balancing the exploration\\/exploitation nature of the search strategy), with a simple Evolutionary mechanism that

Vitorino Ramos; Carlos Fernandes; Agostinho C. Rosa

2005-01-01

84

Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.  

PubMed

Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications. PMID:11539240

Race, M S

1995-03-01

85

The problem of action and interest alignment: Beyond job requirements and incentive compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce two concepts, action alignment and interest alignment, that we propose to help explain the linkages between employee behaviors and organizational strategy. We first examine the problem of action alignment, developing employee ability to identify and engage in behaviors that most effectively lead to the realization of the goals of organizational strategy. In particular, our discussion of action alignment

Alexander J. S. Colvin; Wendy R. Boswell

2007-01-01

86

Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%. PMID:23118847

Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

2012-10-31

87

Nursing Research and Societal Needs: Political, Corporate, and International Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nursing researchers need to determine whether their priorities are congruent with societal need. Increased interaction with the public can provide vital decision-making data and inform debate on public financial support for research. (SK)|

Larson, Elaine

1993-01-01

88

Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism - Forecasting Domestic Political Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism (PSIR) Model of Domestic Political Violence forecasts political violence levels at yearly intervals into the future. The model enables policymakers, particularly in the COCOMS, to proactively plan for insta...

A. Caglayan A. Murdie D. Cingranelli L. Stroh S. Bell

2011-01-01

89

Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement.  

PubMed

The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role. PMID:23885054

Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart

2012-02-15

90

Self-Governance As a Mode of Societal Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concept of self-governance. Self-governance refers to the capacity of social entities to govern themselves autonomously and, as such, is an important mode of societal governance in modern society. However, the nature of'self-governance'and its actual and potential contribution to societal governance in modern society are not (yet) fully understood. Therefore, two perspectives on self-governance as a mode

Jan Kooiman; Martijn van Vliet

2000-01-01

91

Cultural Estrangement: The Role of Personal and Societal Value Discrepancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., free- dom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward politi- cal (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The rela- tions between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal dis- crepancies in values

Mark M. Bernard; Jochen E. Gebauer; Gregory R. Maio

2006-01-01

92

Towards Service Engineering: Service Orientation and Business-IT Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid movement towards service orientation, on both the business and technology fronts, offers unprecedented opportunities for business-IT alignment. As we will argue, to achieve true agility in its service provisioning to meet rapidly changing requirements, an organization needs a multi-dimensional business-IT alignment strategy - alignment via architecture, via governance and via communication - integrated with a service oriented architecture

Hong-mei Chen

2008-01-01

93

NICMOS Coarse Optical Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the initial optical alignment in focus and tilt for all three cameras. This proposal has been broken down into 4 sub-proposals to make implementation easier. The four phases of the NICMOS Focus/Alignment activity are: # 1} Pre-Alignment Check-out {prop 7134} 2} Coarse Optical Alignment {Initial Focus Sweep} {prop 7041} 3} Intermediate Focus/Alignment {prop 7135} 4} Fine Optical Alignment {prop 7042} # This is proposal 7041; Coarse Optical Alignment ------------------------ Objectives: a} Establish PAM focus starting points for each camera b} Establish coarse pupil alignment vector {PAM X/Y tilt} c} Cover sufficient region of PAM focus space to insure the optimal locations are included d} Allow sufficient time {7-10 days} to analyze data and uplink changes before the next activity {7135}

Schneider, Glenn

1997-12-01

94

The societal value of universal childhood vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of new vaccines preventing infectious diseases in healthy children populations is increasing worldwide. In Canada, despite the current recommendation of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization to include recent vaccines in routine schedule, only a few provinces have incorporated some of the newer vaccines in routine vaccination programs. A review was undertaken of economic evaluations of childhood vaccination strategies

Isabelle Chabot; Mireille M. Goetghebeur; Jean-Pierre Grégoire

2004-01-01

95

Knowledge Management Strategic Alignment in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations today should actively incorporate knowledge strategy (KS) into their Business Strategy (BS) as knowledge has been recognized as a strategic element in the performance of the organization. Hence, the current research hypothesis that the alignment between BS and KS has a positive effect on the organizational performance. In an attempt to explore the alignment between KS and BS, an

Jaflah AlAmmary; Chun Che Fung

96

NICMOS Fine Optical Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the initial optical alignment in focus and tilt for all three cameras. This proposal has been broken down into 4 sub-proposals to make implementation easier. The four phases of the NICMOS Focus/Alignment activity are: # 1} Pre-Alignment Check-out {prop 7134} 2} Coarse Optical Alignment {Initial Focus Sweep} {prop 7041} 3} Intermediate Focus/Alignment {prop 7135} 4} Fine Optical Alignment {prop 7042} # This is proposal 7042; Fine Optical Alignment -------------------------- Objectives: a} Establish PAM focus and X/Y tilt for each camera b} Check performance over various filters {filter parfocality check} #

Calzetti, Daniela

1997-12-01

97

Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.  

PubMed

A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

Hay, T; Jones, L

98

Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM) in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or "running ear" and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families. PMID:21544248

Speets, Anouk; Wolleswinkel, Judith; Cardoso, Cristina

2011-04-04

99

Alignment and category learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows that similarity comparisons involve an alignment process in which features are placed into correspondence. In 6 studies, the authors showed that alignment is involved in category learning as well. Within a category, aligned matches (feature matches occurring on the same dimension) facilitate learning more than nonaligned matches do (matches on different dimensions), although nonaligned matches still facilitate

Mary E. Lassaline; Gregory L. Murphy

1998-01-01

100

Antares alignment gimbal positioner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon dioxide (CO2) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, an

R. D. Day; V. K. Viswanathan; A. C. Saxman; R. E. Lujan; W. C. Woodfin; W. C. Sweatt

1981-01-01

101

Low dynamic IMU alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

IMU alignment is addressed by examining results from two different INS error modeling approaches using actual flight test data recorded from captive pod mounted IMU and reference INU. The emphasis of this paper is alignment during the aircraft's low dynamics ground operations before takeoff. The two MS error models used to produce the alignment results are based on computer frame

Robert M. Rogers

1998-01-01

102

Alignment telescope for Antares  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since each telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirements as well as that of image quality over a

Q. D. Appert; T. A. Swann; J. H. Ward; C. Hardesty; L. Wright

1983-01-01

103

Alignment and Category Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows that similarity comparisons involve an alignment process in which features are placed into correspondence. In 6 studies, the authors showed that alignment is involved in category learning as well. Within a category, aligned matches (feature matches occurring on the same dimension) facilitate learning more than nonaligned matches do (matches on different dimensions), although nonaligned matches still facilitate

Mary E. Lassaline; Gregory L. Murphy

1998-01-01

104

Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles  

PubMed Central

Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance.

Ulmer, David D.

1984-01-01

105

Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18?683 (14?665to 22?889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15?228 (11?245to 19?492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets.

Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

2013-01-01

106

The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides researchers with quality-controlled bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA alignments and analy- sis tools. An improved alignment strategy uses the Infernal secondary structure aware aligner to pro- vide a more consistent higher quality alignment and faster processing of user sequences. Substan- tial new analysis features include a new Pyrose- quencing Pipeline that provides tools

James R. Cole; Q. Wang; E. Cardenas; J. Fish; B. Chai; Ryan J. Farris; A. S. Kulam-syed-mohideen; D. M. Mcgarrell; Terry L. Marsh; George M. Garrity; James M. Tiedje

2009-01-01

107

Implementation of a parallel protein structure alignment service on cloud.  

PubMed

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

2013-03-25

108

Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud  

PubMed Central

Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform.

Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

2013-01-01

109

Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

2008-01-01

110

White University Students' Responses to Societal Racism: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to extend earlier conceptual and empirical literature on the ways in which White individuals respond to societal racism. To this end, the authors conducted in-depth interviews to examine 11 midwestern, non-Hispanic, White university students' reactions and experiences related to individual and institutional…

Spanierman, Lisa A.; Oh, Euna; Poteat, V. Paul; Hund, Anita R.; McClair, Vetisha L.; Beer, Amanda M.; Clarke, Alexis M.

2008-01-01

111

Educational Reforms can Reproduce Societal Inequities: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although critical theorists in educational administration have recently contended that administrative practices play an important role in the reproduction of societal inequities, little research has been done to show how this actually occurs in schools. This article addresses that lack by reporting a case study illustrating how one school district's reform efforts replicate the unequal distribution of knowledge, power, and

James Joseph Scheurich; Michael Imber

1991-01-01

112

Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

113

Interpersonal Communication, Human Interaction and Societal Relationships in Islam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to propagate the idea that Islam is a communicative religion. Allah is communicative God Who takes keen interest in the affairs of His creatures. Interpersonal communication, human interaction and societal relationships in Islam are two way processes of sharing ideas and concerns in open and free environments of love and dedication. The paper is a discussion on

Rahman O. Olayiwola

1993-01-01

114

Societal Aspects of Bridge Management and Safety in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main reason for the existence of civil infrastructures is public interest. Therefore, various societal aspects should drive an infrastructure program. Civil infrastructures are long-lived as- sets. Bridges and other structures are designed for lifetimes of 50 to 100 years. A bridge can last much longer from a technical point of view, providing the original functionality it is designed for

H. E. Klatter

115

Religious Influences on Personal and Societal Well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines religious influences on personal and societal well-being in South Korea by systematically analyzing recent research on the topic, and by comparing the findings with those of other countries, especially those of North America, to assess similarities and differences. In concert with generally accepted findings elsewhere, the paper shows that Koreans with religious faith generally have higher levels

Andrew Eungi Kim

2003-01-01

116

Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The

Klaas van Alphen; Quirine van Voorst tot Voorst; Marko P. Hekkert; Ruud E. H. M. Smits

2007-01-01

117

Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and manage- ment decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological,

R. L. Bernknopf

118

Human choice and climate change. Volume 1: The societal framework  

SciTech Connect

This book is Volume 1 of a four-volume set which assesses social science research that is relevant to global climate change from a wide-ranging interdisciplinary perspective. Attention is focused on the societal framework as it relates to climate change. This series is indispensable reading for scientists and engineers wishing to make an effective contribution to the climate change policy debate.

Raynor, S.; Malone, E. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1998-12-31

119

The effects of societal culture attributes on regional disparity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main goal of this paper is to analyze the effects of societal culture attributes on regional disparity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses cross-country data to identify the variables that determine the regional disparity and the gap between the richest and poorest regions in the economy. Findings – The most interesting result of this study is that there

Miki Malul; Amir Shoham; Leon Zolotoy

2011-01-01

120

Does the Ban on Drugs in Sport Improve Societal Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major justifications for the ban on the use of drugs in sport are: (1) to create fair contests and (2) to protect the health of athletes. This article analyses these claims and concludes that the ban rather than improving societal welfare by creating fair sporting contests, in fact results in contests being unfair relative to an unregulated market.

Terry Black

1996-01-01

121

Scoring Pairwise Genomic Sequence Alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMost sequence alignment programs employ an explicit scheme for assigning ascore to every possible alignment. This provides the criterion to prefer onealignment over another. Alignment scores typically involve a score for eachpossible aligned pair of symbols, together with a penalty for each gap in thealignment. For protein alignments, the scores for all possible aligned pairsconstitute a 20-by-20 substitution matrix. Amino

F. Chiaromonte; V. B. Yap; W. Miller

2002-01-01

122

Result of Ontology Alignment with RiMOM at OAEI'07  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we give a brief explanation of how RiMOM obtains the ontology alignment results at OAEI'07 contest. RiMOM integrates different alignment strategies: edit-distance based strategy, vector-similarity based strategy, path-similarity based strategy, background-knowledge based strategy, and three similarity-propagation based strategies. Each strategy is defined based on one specific ontological-information. In this contest, we, in particular, study how the different

Yi Li; Qian Zhong; Juanzi Li; Jie Tang

2007-01-01

123

76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and...wishes to examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the methods of...Following a particularly deadly year of tornadoes in the United States despite the...

2011-11-16

124

Antares alignment gimbal positioner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon dioxide (CO2) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, an wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium neon (He-Ne) and CO2 wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1 cm cube to a tolerance of 10 micrometers.

Day, R. D.; Viswanathan, V. K.; Saxman, A. C.; Lujan, R. E.; Woodfin, W. C.; Sweatt, W. C.

125

Multiple alignment of transmembrane protein sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple sequence alignment remains one of the most powerful tools for assessing evolutionary sequence relationships and for identifying structurally and functionally important protein regions. Membrane-bound proteins represent a special class of proteins. The regions that insert into the cell membrane have a profoundly different hydrophobicity pattern as compared with soluble proteins. Multiple alignment techniques employing scoring schemes tailored for sequences of soluble proteins are therefore in principle not optimal to align membrane-bound proteins. In this chapter we describe some of the characteristics leading transmembrane proteins to display differences at the sequence level. We will also cover computational strategies and methods developed over the years for aligning this special class of proteins, discuss some current bottlenecks, and suggest some avenues for improvement.

Pirovano, Walter; Abeln, Sanne; Feenstra, K. Anton; Heringa, Jaap

126

An enhanced RNA alignment benchmark for sequence alignment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The performance of alignment programs is traditionally tested on sets of protein sequences, of which a reference alignment is known. Conclusions drawn from such protein benchmarks do not necessarily hold for the RNA alignment problem, as was demonstrated in the first RNA alignment benchmark published so far. For example, the twilight zone – the similarity range where alignment quality

Andreas Wilm; Indra Mainz; Gerhard Steger

2006-01-01

127

Valuing qaly gains by applying a societal perspective.  

PubMed

Interpreting the outcomes of cost utility analyses requires an appropriately defined threshold for costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A common view is that the threshold should represent the (consumption) value a society attaches to a QALY. So far, individual valuations of personal health gains have mainly been studied rather than potentially relevant social values. In this study, we present the first direct empirical estimates of the willingness to pay for a QALY from a societal perspective. We used the contingent valuation approach, valuing QALYs under uncertainty and correcting for probability weighting. The estimates obtained in a representative sample of the Dutch population (n?=?1004) range from €52,000 to €83,000, depending on the specification of the societal perspective. The scale sensitivity was weak, however. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23080321

Bobinac, Ana; van Exel, N Job A; Rutten, Frans F H; Brouwer, Werner B F

2012-10-19

128

The Inman Aligner for anterior tooth alignment.  

PubMed

The Inman Aligner is a highly effective and unique evolution of the traditional spring retainer that uses super-elastic Nickel-Titanium open coil springs to move upper and lower anterior teeth with light but consistent forces, enabling correction of anterior crowding, rotations and some types of spacing. Clinical Relevance: This article describes the appliance, its uses and limitations. PMID:19055094

Qureshi, Atif

2008-10-01

129

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

130

Optical Alignment Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical technique was developed to assure proper alignment of a missile warhead section assembly stand. The initial alignment of an assembly stand was successfully performed at Sierra Army Depot. The required radial tolerance of 0.002 inch at the assem...

A. Davidoff J. Rayner

1971-01-01

131

Multiple sequence alignment based on dynamic weighted guidance tree.  

PubMed

Aligning multiple DNA/RNA/protein sequences to identify common functionalities, structures, or relationships between species is a fundamental task in bioinformatics. In this study, we propose a new multiple sequence strategy that extracts sequence information, sequence global and local similarities to provide different weights for each input sequence. A weighted pair-wise distance matrix is calculated from these sequences to build a dynamic alignment guiding tree. The tree can reorder its higher-level branches based on corresponding alignment results from lower tree levels to guarantee the highest alignment scores at each level of the tree. This technique improves the alignment accuracy up to 10% on many benchmarks tested against alignment tools such as CLUSTALW (Thompson et al., 1994), DIALIGN (Morgenstern, 1999), T-COFFEE (Notredame et al., 2000), MUSCLE (Edgar, 2004), and PROBCONS (Do et al., 2005) of the multiple sequence alignment. PMID:21576075

Nguyen, Ken D; Pan, Yi

2011-01-01

132

How Does Coaching Positively Impact Organizational and Societal Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This research study incorporates stories and self-reflexive inquiry from a small sample of leading coach practitioners, consultants\\u000a and executive leaders working with coaching in their organizations. I have gathered the following stories with a focus on\\u000a the challenges in organizational and institutional environments, to help us understand if and how coaching has influenced\\u000a organizational and societal change. Executive coaching practice

Sunny Stout Rostron

133

Avatopia: a cross-media community for societal action  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-media platform was designed for a community of young teenag- ers oriented towards societal change. The platform involved an interactive web forum featuring creative and communicative collaborative tools in a 3d avatar environment, and a weekly show in national public-service television. Informal assessment of the work indicated that (1) an integrat- ed spiral of production and consumption across the

Ylva Gislén; Jonas Löwgren; Ulf Myrestam

2008-01-01

134

Innovative and responsible governance of nanotechnology for societal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology,\\u000a protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance\\u000a principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for\\u000a the next decade are presented based on

Mihail C. Roco; Barbara Harthorn; David Guston; Philip Shapira

135

Promoting happiness: the malleability of individual and societal subjective wellbeing.  

PubMed

Is it possible to enhance the subjective wellbeing of individuals and societies? If so, what are the mental health interventions and economic mechanisms by which subjective wellbeing could be enhanced? We address these questions in our review of the literature on subjective wellbeing. Research now shows that although subjective wellbeing is heritable and stable, it can change substantially over time. Long-term changes can be affected by positive or negative life events; subjective wellbeing interventions have also proved to be effective for boosting wellbeing for as long as six months. At the societal level, economic factors matter for the subjective wellbeing of citizens. Economic wealth is shown to be a predictor of societal wellbeing across countries and over time. Also, high unemployment severely lowers the wellbeing of individuals and has spillover effects on other societal members, such as the employed. Given the weight of evidence, we are optimistic that subjective wellbeing can be enhanced. For practitioners, policy makers, and economists interested in the wellbeing of individuals, we propose that these findings have implications for mental health practice and economic policies. Future research and methodological issues are discussed. PMID:23551025

Tay, Louis; Kuykendall, Lauren

2013-04-04

136

Physician alignment strategies and real estate.  

PubMed

When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image. PMID:22734329

Czerniak, Thomas A

2012-06-01

137

Aligning human resource development with business strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest among senior managers, human resource professionals and business school academics about evaluating the strategic benefits of workplace learning; particularly how organised training and d evelopment activities contribute to an organisation's success. The opinion is polari sed: one school of thought takes a pro-human resource standpoint and advocates a strong and irrefutable connection, while the other

Tom Short

138

Aligning Employee Goals with Strategic Enterprise Goals through Performance Coaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a stronger connection to the enterprise and ensure goal alignment, leading contact centers are leveraging coaching as the centerpiece of their performance management program. As a critical process in the operation, coaching helps organizations contribute to corporate objectives first by aligning individual and group goals with corporate strategy and second by reinforcing individual accountability at every level of

Mark Selcow

139

Overview of female middle childhood in societal context: implications for research and practice.  

PubMed

Preadolescence represents a time of becoming and of change less emphasized in popular and empirical literature than adolescence. Yet it is an important period and a critical time to teach children, while they are still sufficiently adult-dependent and adult-centered, to help that learning to persist. These are formative years during which children experience marked increases in development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial) and knowledge and an incremental shaping of values, attitudes, and behaviors that they will carry into adulthood. This period of life can also be called the "tween" years, as children during this period are transitioning to adolescence. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the societal context in which preteen girls are developing and provide some suggestions for testing and implementing health promotion strategies that may contribute toward a safe and successful transition for these children through adolescence to adulthood in this fast-paced society. PMID:12518279

Doswell, Willa M

2002-12-01

140

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

Jones, N.E.

1988-03-10

141

Precision alignment device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

Jones, Nelson E. (Huntington Beach, CA)

1990-01-01

142

Antares alignment gimbal positioner  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO/sub 2/ wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10 ..mu..m.

Day, R.D.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Saxman, A.C.; Lujan, R.E.; Woodfin, G.L.; Sweatt, W.C.

1981-01-01

143

NICMOS Fine Optical Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the optical alignment in focus for cameras all 3 cameras and tilt for camera 1. Specifically, this activity will use established focus monitoring techniques to accomplish the establishment {or reconfirmation} of PAM focus and X/Y tilt. Cameras 1, 2, and 3 will be calibrated in this program. #

Noll, Keith

2001-07-01

144

Antares beam alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Antares beam alignment system used for the Antares CO2 gas laser for the investigation of inertial confinement fusion. The light energy produced by the 200-TW, 100-kJ laser is transmitted in 72 beams extending from the input sections of the power amplifiers through the target system optics and finally focused on the target. Two beam alignment schemes

A. C. Saxman; T. Swann; W. C. Sweatt; O. Appert; K. C. Jones; J. Hudgens

1979-01-01

145

Smart and precise alignment of optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the assembly of any kind of optical systems the precise centration of every single element is of particular importance. Classically the precise alignment of optical components is based on the precise centering of all components to an external axis (usually a high-precision rotary spindle axis). Main drawback of this timeconsuming process is that it is significantly sensitive to misalignments of the reference (e.g. the housing) axis. In order to facilitate process in this contribution we present a novel alignment strategy for the TRIOPTICS OptiCentric® instrument family that directly aligns two elements with respect to each other by measuring the first element's axis and using this axis as alignment reference without the detour of considering an external reference. According to the optical design any axis in the system can be chosen as target axis. In case of the alignment to a barrel this axis is measured by using a distance sensor (e.g., the classically used dial indicator). Instead of fine alignment the obtained data is used for the calculation of its orientation within the setup. Alternatively, the axis of an optical element (single lens or group of lenses) whose orientation is measured with the standard OptiCentric MultiLens concept can be used as a reference. In the instrument's software the decentering of the adjusting element to the calculated axis is displayed in realtime and indicated by a target mark that can be used for the manual alignment. In addition, the obtained information can also be applied for active and fully automated alignment of lens assemblies with the help of motorized actuators.

Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Stickler, Daniel

2013-09-01

146

Integrating Socioeconomic Data into GEOSS to Enable Societal Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving the GEOSS vision of societal benefits from Earth observation data is a multi-faceted challenge. Linking Earth observation systems into an interoperable system of systems is an important first step, but not sufficient on its own to fulfill the ambitious GEOSS goal of improving decision making for disaster mitigation, public health, ecosystem and resource management, agriculture, and the other societal benefit areas. Significant attention needs to be given to interdisciplinary data integration, especially with regard to incorporating data and information on human activities and welfare into monitoring, modeling, and prediction activities. For example, the ability to assess, monitor, and predict the risks posed by different natural hazards is predicated on an understanding of the underlying exposure and vulnerability of different human populations and their economic assets to past, present, and future hazardous events. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) has pioneered the integration of socioeconomic data with remote sensing data within the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and has contributed actively to both phase 1 and 2 of the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot. We present here several use cases for socioeconomic data integration in GEOSS and recent experience in developing an interoperable Web Processing Service (WPS) for estimating population exposure as part of the GEOSS initial operating capability. We also discuss key scientific, technical, and policy challenges to developing GEOSS products and services that will be able to meet the needs of both interdisciplinary and applied users and in so doing help achieve the GEOSS goal of generating significant societal benefits.

Chen, R. S.; Yetman, G.

2009-12-01

147

Use of a conceptual model of societal drivers of ecological change in South Florida: Implications of an ecosystem management scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-dominated ecosystems such as in South Florida's Everglades region are greatly affected by societal actions and choices, and efforts to restore degraded ecosystems must take into account the societal drivers of ecosystem change. A conceptual model of societal-ecological interactions within the region illustrates connections between major societal drivers, such as water management and land use, and ecological stressors, such as

Christine C. Harwell; Christopher W. Deren; George H. Snyder; William D. Solecki; James Wilson; Mark A. Harwell

1999-01-01

148

Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

Squires, David

2012-01-01

149

Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis  

SciTech Connect

Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

Richardson, J.M.

1982-03-01

150

Societal Statistics by virtue of the Statistical Drake Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drake equation, first proposed by Frank D. Drake in 1961, is the foundational equation of SETI. It yields an estimate of the number N of extraterrestrial communicating civilizations in the Galaxy given by the product N=Ns×fp×ne×fl×fi×fc×fL, where: Ns is the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; fp is the fraction of stars that have planetary systems; ne is the number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life; fl is the fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises; fi is the fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves; fc is the fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops; and fL is the fraction of planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization.The first three terms may be called “the astrophysical terms” in the Drake equation since their numerical value is provided by astrophysical considerations. The fourth term, fl, may be called “the origin-of-life term” and entails biology. The last three terms may be called “the societal terms” inasmuch as their respective numerical values are provided by anthropology, telecommunication science and “futuristic science”, respectively.In this paper, we seek to provide a statistical estimate of the three societal terms in the Drake equation basing our calculations on the Statistical Drake Equation first proposed by this author at the 2008 IAC. In that paper the author extended the simple 7-factor product so as to embody Statistics. He proved that, no matter which probability distribution may be assigned to each factor, if the number of factors tends to infinity, then the random variable N follows the lognormal distribution (central limit theorem of Statistics). This author also proved at the 2009 IAC that the Dole (1964) [7] equation, yielding the number of Habitable Planets for Man in the Galaxy, has the same mathematical structure as the Drake equation. So the number of Habitable Planets follows the lognormal distribution as well. But the Dole equation is described by the first FOUR factors of the Drake equation. Thus, we may “divide” the 7-factor Drake equation by the 4-factor Dole equation getting the probability distribution of the last-3-factor Drake equation, i.e. the probability distribution of the SOCIETAL TERMS ONLY. These we study in detail in this paper, achieving new statistical results about the SOCIETAL ASPECTS OF SETI.

Maccone, Claudio

2012-09-01

151

Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed.

Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

2011-01-01

152

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

SciTech Connect

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

2007-10-26

153

Robust and accurate prediction of noncoding RNAs from aligned sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Computational prediction of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is an important task in the post-genomic era. One common approach is to utilize the profile information contained in alignment data rather than single sequences. However, this strategy involves the possibility that the quality of input alignments can influence the performance of prediction methods. Therefore, the evaluation of the robustness against alignment errors is necessary as well as the development of accurate prediction methods. Results We describe a new method, called Profile BPLA kernel, which predicts ncRNAs from alignment data in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). Profile BPLA kernel is an extension of base-pairing profile local alignment (BPLA) kernel which we previously developed for the prediction from single sequences. By utilizing the profile information of alignment data, the proposed kernel can achieve better accuracy than the original BPLA kernel. We show that Profile BPLA kernel outperforms the existing prediction methods which also utilize the profile information using the high-quality structural alignment dataset. In addition to these standard benchmark tests, we extensively evaluate the robustness of Profile BPLA kernel against errors in input alignments. We consider two different types of error: first, that all sequences in an alignment are actually ncRNAs but are aligned ignoring their secondary structures; second, that an alignment contains unrelated sequences which are not ncRNAs but still aligned. In both cases, the effects on the performance of Profile BPLA kernel are surprisingly small. Especially for the latter case, we demonstrate that Profile BPLA kernel is more robust compared to the existing prediction methods. Conclusions Profile BPLA kernel provides a promising way for identifying ncRNAs from alignment data. It is more accurate than the existing prediction methods, and can keep its performance under the practical situations in which the quality of input alignments is not necessarily high.

2010-01-01

154

Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

Somerville, Mary R.

1995-01-01

155

Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)|

Somerville, Mary R.

1995-01-01

156

Novel hybrid genetic algorithm for progressive multiple sequence alignment.  

PubMed

The family of evolutionary or genetic algorithms is used in various fields of bioinformatics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used for simultaneous comparison of a large pool of DNA or protein sequences. This article explains how the GA is used in combination with other methods like the progressive multiple sequence alignment strategy to get an optimal multiple sequence alignment (MSA). Optimal MSA get much importance in the field of bioinformatics and some other related disciplines. Evolutionary algorithms evolve and improve their performance. In this optimisation, the initial pair-wise alignment is achieved through a progressive method and then a good objective function is used to select and align more alignments and profiles. Child and subpopulation initialisation is based upon changes in the probability of similarity or the distance matrix of the alignment population. In this genetic algorithm, optimisation of mutation, crossover and migration in the population of candidate solution reflect events of natural organic evolution. PMID:24084242

Afridi, Muhammad Ishaq

2013-01-01

157

Automatic assessment of alignment quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignments play a central role in the annotation of novel genomes. Given the biological and computational complexity of this task, the auto- matic generation of high-quality alignments remains challenging. Since multiple alignments are usually employed at the very start of data analysis pipelines, it is crucial to ensure high alignment quality. We describe a simple, yet elegant, solution

Timo Lassmann; Erik L. L. Sonnhammer

2005-01-01

158

Near-Optimal Block Alignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal alignment of two given biosequences is mathematically optimal, but it may not be a biologically optimal one. To investigate more possible alignments with biological meaning, one can relax the scoring functions to get near-optimal alignments. Though the near optimal alignments increase the possibility of finding the correct alignment, they may confuse the biologists because the size of candidates is large. In this paper, we present the filter scheme for the near-optimal alignments. An easy method for tracing the near-optimal alignments and an algorithm for filtering those alignments are proposed. The time complexity of our algorithm is O(dmn) in the worst case, where d is the maximum distance between the near-optimal alignments and the optimal alignment, and m and n are the lengths of the input sequences, respectively.

Tseng, Kuo-Tsung; Yang, Chang-Biau; Huang, Kuo-Si; Peng, Yung-Hsing

159

Alignment telescope for Antares  

SciTech Connect

The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since each telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirement as well as that of image quality over a wide wavelength band, are described. Special test techniques for initial assembly and alignment of the telescope are also presented. The telescope, which has a 180-mm aperture FK51-KZF2 type glass doublet objective, requires a boresight accuracy of 2.8 ..mu..rad at two focal lengths, and object distances between 11 meters and infinity. Travel of a smaller secondary doublet provides focus from 11 m to infinity with approximately 7.8 m effective focal length. By flipping in a third doublet, the effective focal length is reduced to 2.5 m. Telescope alignment was accomplished by using a rotary air bearing to establish an axis in front of the system and placing the focus of a Laser Unequal Path Interferometer (LUPI) at the image plane.

Appert, Q.D.; Swann, T.A.; Ward, J.H.; Hardesty, C.; Wright, L.

1983-01-01

160

Alignment telescope for Antares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since each telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirements as well as that of image quality over a wide wavelength band, are described. Special test techniques for initial assembly and alignment of the telescope are also presented. The telescope, which has a 180-mm aperture FK51-KZF2 type glass doublet objective, requires a boresight accuracy of 2.8 (SIGMA)rad at two focal lengths, and object distances between 11 meters and infinity. Travel of a smaller secondary doublet provides focus from 11 m to infinity with approximately 7.8 m effective focal length. By flipping in a third doublet, the effective focal length is reduced to 2.5 m. Telescope alignment was accomplished by using a rotary air bearing to establish an axis in front of the system and placing the focus of a Laser Unequal Path Interferometer (LUPI) at the image plane.

Appert, Q. D.; Swann, T. A.; Ward, J. H.; Hardesty, C.; Wright, L.

161

Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals' clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured.

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Melanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quenec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michael; Lacasse, Francis

2013-01-01

162

Barrel alignment fixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

Sheeley, J. D.

1981-04-01

163

Mental health promotion: Guidance and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public mental health incorporates a number of strategies from mental well-being promotion to primary prevention and other forms of prevention. There is considerable evidence in the literature to suggest that early interventions and public education can work well for reducing psychiatric morbidity and resulting burden of disease. Educational strategies need to focus on individual, societal and environmental aspects. Targeted interventions

G. Kalra; G. Christodoulou; R. Jenkins; V. Tsipas; N. Christodoulou; D. Lecic-Tosevski; J. Mezzich; D. Bhugra

164

Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already a part of the International initiative called Satellite Aided Search and Rescue System. The programme to set up satellite-based Village Resource Centres (VRCs) across India, for providing a variety of services relevant to the rural communities, is also a unique societal application of space technology. The VRCs are envisaged as single window delivery mechanism for a variety of space-based products and services, such as tele-education; telemedicine; information on natural resources for planning and development at local level; interactive advisories on agriculture, fisheries, land and water resources management, livestock management, etc.; interactive vocational training towards alternative livelihood; e-governance; weather information; etc. This paper describes the various possibilities and potentials of Satcom and Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications. The initiatives taken by Indian Space Research Organisation in this direction are highlighted.

Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

2009-11-01

165

Investigating business-IT alignment through multi-disciplinary goal concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alignment of information technology (IT) with business strategies is optimal when harmony exists between organizational\\u000a and system goals. Empirical evidence reveals that effective strategic alignment leads to superior financial performance for\\u000a organizations. This observation has spurred extensive research into business-IT alignment. Yet, the issue of alignment remains\\u000a a top concern for CIOs. We argue that the parochial view undertaken

Sase Narine Singh; Carson Woo

2009-01-01

166

Parallel processing state alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating

Vollaro

1989-01-01

167

Aligning brains and minds  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s.

Tong, Frank

2012-01-01

168

Information Assurance Alignment: A Study of Performance Impacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The positive effect on performance of the alignment between a business strategy and its different functional strategies has a wide support in the literature. As an emerging functional area, information assurance has come to play a strategic role by providing all departments and functions across an organization with a reliable, safe, and efficient…

Ghezal, Said

2011-01-01

169

Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of…

Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka

2008-01-01

170

Knowledge as a common good: the societal relevance of scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and report on them widely. Core questions they should be

Lex M. Bouter

2010-01-01

171

SOCIETAL APPLICATIONS IN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE USING REMOTELY-SENSED IMAGERY - THE SAFARI PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of the SAFARI (Societal Applications in Fisheries and Aquaculture using Remotely-Sensed Imagery) initiative is to coordinate, at the international level, applications of remotely-sensed Earth Observation data to the societal benefit areas of fisheries and aquaculture. Applications of remote sensing to fisheries include its use in i) fish stock assessment, where earth observation data is instrumental in the

Marie-Hélène Forget; Trevor Platt; Shubha Sathyendranath; Venetia Stuart; Lisa Delaney

172

Individual and societal risk owing to landslides in the Campania region (southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the estimation of both individual and societal risks owing to landslides in the Campania region (southern Italy) thanks to the availability of an extensive catalogue of historical incident data spanning from the 5 century up to now. Individual risk is estimated by computing the landslide mortality rate. Societal risk is measured by plotting the annual frequency

L. Cascini; S. Ferlisi; E. Vitolo

2008-01-01

173

Developing a Model of the Impact of Societal Marketing on Corporate Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

While societal marketing is an area of increasing interest to marketers, a scarcity of research still exists in this area, particularly investigating questions with respect to the impact of societal marketing on consumer attitudes to corporate image, product image and purchase intention or brand choice. This paper attempts to address this gap by developing a conceptual model of the impact

Apisit Chattananon; Meredith Lawley

174

Societal and cultural examination of public service advertisements of a society in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public service advertisements (PSAs) can be viewed as either change agents or reflections of concerns about societal needs, there is little research on this topic. Rapid changes in newly industrializing countries have apparently brought about several negative consequences. In this study, we used multiple methods for exploring PSAs in Thailand to identify important societal needs. Furthermore, we examined variations

Patriya S. Tansuhaj; Ayn E. Crowley

1995-01-01

175

Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

2008-01-01

176

Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

2008-01-01

177

NICMOS Intermediate Focus/Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the initial optical alignment in focus and tilt for all three cameras. This proposal has been broken down into 4 sub-proposals to make implementation easier. The four phases of the NICMOS Focus/Alignment activity are: # 1} Pre-Alignment Check-out {prop 7134} 2} Coarse Optical Alignment {Initial Focus Sweep} {prop 7041} 3} Intermediate Focus/Alignment {prop 7135} 4} Fine Optical Alignment {prop 7042} # This is proposal 7135; Intermediate Focus/Alignment -------------------------- Objectives: a} Estimate PAM focus and X/Y tilt for each camera b} Check performance over camera fields of view c} Allow sufficient time for dewar temperatures to equilibrate before next activity

Schneider, Glenn

1997-12-01

178

Orbit IMU Alignment: Error Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and ...

R. W. Corson

1980-01-01

179

Reflection, Alignment and Mineralogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching petrology in the 21st century is predicated on a good grounding in mineralogy. However, mineralogy is boring - or at least most first year geoscience students at the University of Liverpool thought that in 1998. Since then, a 4 year experiment in using multimedia (lectures and web) to deliver material, coupled with continuous refining of subjective and objective assessment tools to improve their alignment with intended learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and understanding) has: 1. apparently made mineralogy more interesting; 2. demonstrated the utility of multimodal delivery and multimodal assessment; 3. demonstrated the need for; a. "constructive alignment" between aims, outcomes and assessment; b. reflection on actual outcomes and modification of teaching and assessment accordingly. Mineralogy needn't be boring and petrology teaching can benefit from the same approach.

Boyle, A. P.

2003-12-01

180

Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

2013-07-01

181

Alignment as a Teacher Variable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

2007-01-01

182

Designing liquid crystal alignment surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously shown that tilted micron-scale posts can be used to generate uniform liquid crystal alignment. By considering the geometry and symmetry of individual surface features in more detail, we have been able to demonstrate finer control of alignment, eliminate the need for tilted structures, and show multidomain alignment.

Kitson, S. C.; Edwards, E. G.; Geisow, A. D.

2008-02-01

183

Alignment as a Teacher Variable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

2007-01-01

184

Multiple sequence alignment by consensus.  

PubMed Central

An algorithm for multiple sequence alignment is given that matches words of length and degree of mismatch chosen by the user. The alignment maximizes an alignment scoring function. The method is based on a novel extension of our consensus sequence methods. The algorithm works for both DNA and protein sequences, and from earlier work on consensus sequences, it is possible to estimate statistical significance.

Waterman, M S

1986-01-01

185

The Myth of Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloquially, myth denotes a widely held belief that is fictional or erroneous. Its anthropological usage, however, does not\\u000a carry the same pejorative charge: myths are simply conceptual schemata, embodying core metaphysical concepts and moral wisdom.\\u000a It is in this latter sense that I dub alignment as a myth; not to question its factuality (a nonsensical property in the case\\u000a of

David Wastell

186

MROI's automated alignment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) will be a reconfigurable (7.5-345 meter baselines) 10 element optical/near-infrared imaging interferometer. Depending on the location of each unit telescope (UT), light can travel distances ranging from 460 to 660 meters via several reflections that redirect the beam's path through the beam relay trains, delay lines (DL), beam reducing telescope (BCR), switchyards and finally to the beam combiners (BC). All of these sub-systems comprise three major optical axes of the MROI to be coaligned on a nightly basis by the alignment system. One major obstacle in designing the automated alignment system (AAS) is the required simultaneous measurements from the visible through near-IR wavelengths. Another difficulty is making it fully automated, which has not been accomplished at other optical/near-IR interferometers. The conceptual design of this system has been completed and is currently in its preliminary design phase. Prototyping has also commenced with designs of some hardware near completion. Here is presented the current outline and progress of MROI's automated alignment system design and some results of the prototyping.

Shtromberg, A. V.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Santoro, F. G.; Paz, M. T.; Steenson, J. M.; Berger, L.

2008-07-01

187

Hot Filament Alignment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``a'' Correlation in Neutron Decay (aCORN) collaboration seeks to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in free neutron decay to within 1% relative uncertainty as a test of the Standard Model. To accomplish this, two regions of the phase space of the decay must be isolated. The correlation parameter, ``little a,'' is proportional to the counting asymmetry between these two groups. Before the final measurement can be performed, an in-situ test of the alignment of the magnetic field and the experimental axis, set by a series of tungsten collimators, must be checked. Any misalignment would introduce an asymmetry in the experiment, resulting in an inaccurate ``little a'' measurement. To test the alignment a filament can be quickly inserted into the aCORN vacuum tube, which produces low energy electrons when heated. These electrons will travel nearly straight along the magnetic field lines due to their minimal cyclotron radius. A misalignment of the field can be determined from the relative currents detected on the final, segmented collimator. A description of the preliminary work on an in-situ alignment system will be presented.

Lamere, Edward

2010-11-01

188

Multiple protein structure alignment.  

PubMed Central

A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core.

Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

1994-01-01

189

Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very high emission scenarios appears weaker, due partially to uncertainty in the trajectories of ecosystem change and societal issues. For high emission scenarios (e.g. SRES A1F1, A2; 900 ppm CO2, 4.2 oC global temperature increase by 2100), the mitigation effect of ocean sequestration is still ~ -0.4 oC, with a reduction of atmospheric CO2 near 50 ppm. However, under such high emissions, the effects of large global temperature on societal issues such as disease, hunger, and water are expected to be severe, with an unknown incremental benefit from ocean sequestration. These results indicate the importance of a careful consideration of the benefits and liabilities of ocean sequestration, in terms of ecosystem health for global ecosystems and terrestrial concerns. A cautionary approach to ocean carbon sequestration in consideration of the global consequences of anthropogenic climate change may differ from an approach considering deep-ocean ecosystems alone.

Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

2005-12-01

190

K-vec: A New Approach for Aligning Parallel Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods have been proposed for aligning texts in two or more languages such as the Canadian Parliamentary Debates (Hansards). Some of these methods generate a bilingual lexicon as a by-product. We present an alternative alignment strategy which we call K-vec, that starts by estimating the lexicon. For example, it discovers that the English word in the French. K-vec does

Pascale Fung; Kenneth Ward Church

1994-01-01

191

Field-free three dimensional molecular axis alignment.  

PubMed

We investigate strategies for field-free three dimensional molecular axis alignment using strong nonresonant laser fields under experimentally realistic conditions. Using the polarizabilites and rotational constants of an asymmetric top rotor molecule (ethene, C2H4), we consider three different methods for axis alignment of a Boltzmann distribution of rotors at 4 K. Specifically, we compare the use of impulsive kick laser pulses having both linear and elliptical polarization to the use of elliptically polarized switched laser pulses. We show that an enhanced degree of field-free three dimensional alignment of ground vibronic state molecules obtains from the use of two orthogonally polarized, time-separated laser pulses. PMID:15904061

Underwood, Jonathan G; Sussman, Benjamin J; Stolow, Albert

2005-04-13

192

Survey and alignment of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general survey and alignment concept for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL Berkeley [1] is based on a network of fixed monuments to which all component positions are referred. Observations include electronic distance measurements and direction sightings with electronic data capture; data are processed by a customized version of the computer code PC-GEONET [2] which provides raw data reduction, calculation of adjusted coordinates, and error analysis. Additionally, for local survey tasks the commercial software package ECDCS [3] is used. In this paper, the ALS survey and alignment strategy and techniques are presented and critically discussed; first experiences with alignment of the linac and booster components are described.

Keller, R.

1991-05-01

193

Simultaneous statistical multiple alignment and phylogeny reconstruction.  

PubMed

Although the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and the computation of multiple sequence alignments are highly interdependent, these two areas of research lead quite separate lives, the former often making use of stochastic modeling, whereas the latter normally does not. Despite the fact that reasonable insertion and deletion models for sequence pairs were already introduced more than 10 years ago, they have only recently been applied to multiple alignment and only in their simplest version. In this paper we present and discuss a strategy based on simulated annealing, which makes use of these models to infer a phylogenetic tree for a set of DNA or protein sequences together with the sequences'indel history, i.e., their multiple alignment augmented with information about the positioning of insertion and deletion events in the tree. Our method is also the first application of the TKF2 model in the context of multiple sequence alignment. We validate the method via simulations and illustrate it using a data set of primate mtDNA. PMID:16085574

Fleissner, Roland; Metzler, Dirk; von Haeseler, Arndt

2005-08-01

194

Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfvenic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider than generally accepted and that it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and re-examine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H_2 formation, in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of alignment, we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and by grain magnetic moments.

Lazarian, A.

1995-12-01

195

Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

2009-09-01

196

Brief communication "Likelihood of societal preparedness for global change"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic influences on earth system processes are now pervasive, resulting in trends in river discharge, pollution levels, ocean levels, precipitation, temperature, wind, landslides, bird and plant populations and a myriad of other important natural hazards relating to earth system state variables. Thousands of trend detection studies have been published which report the statistical significance of observed trends. Unfortunately, such studies only concentrate on the null hypothesis of "no trend". Little or no attention is given to the power of such statistical trend tests, which would quantify the likelihood that we might ignore a trend if it really existed. The probability of missing the trend if it exists, known as the type II error, informs us about the likelihood of whether or not society is prepared to accommodate and respond to such trends. We describe how the power or probability of detecting a trend if it exists, depends critically on our ability to develop improved multivariate deterministic and statistical methods for predicting future trends in earth system processes. Several other research and policy implications for improving our understanding of trend detection and our societal response to those trends are discussed.

Vogel, R. M.; Rosner, A.; Kirshen, P. H.

2013-01-01

197

Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.

1995-01-01

198

Parallel processing state alignment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating means and the storing means, for comparing the number of the generated reference signals to the quantities and for inhibiting the generating means whenever the number is equivalent to any of the quantities.

Vollaro, J.R

1989-05-23

199

Surface aligned reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reflects on three decades during which the study of surface aligned reaction (SAR) has advanced. The objective in SAR, which in considerable part still lies ahead, is the simultaneous control of atomic and molecular ``collision energies, collision angles, and impact parameter.'' Following a discussion of the benefits of such an approach we review the progress made, and, as a stimulus to experiment, present new calculations of SAR dynamics for bimolecular reaction at a metal surface. It seems reasonable to suppose that we are now entering a decade in which a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and femtosecond laser spectroscopy will bring the full realisation of SAR.

Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C.

2012-09-01

200

Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre.The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles.Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the future, accountability and advocacy.This quantitative approach to assess societal quality in a quantitative sense is based on indicators that function as proxies for society quality on different levels, based on the communication of researchers with their societal stakeholders (i.e. knowledge production, knowledge exchange and knowledge use). The methodology presented is just a first attempt to compare scientific quality scores (publication and citation scores) with societal quality scores in a quantitative way. This comparison can be used by organisations (e.g. university medical centres) in their planning and control cycle. PMID:20939915

Mostert, Sebastian P; Ellenbroek, Stéfan Ph; Meijer, Ingeborg; van Ark, Gerrit; Klasen, Eduard C

2010-10-12

201

Conditional alignment random fields for multiple motion sequence alignment.  

PubMed

We consider the multiple time-series alignment problem, typically focusing on the task of synchronizing multiple motion videos of the same kind of human activity. Finding an optimal global alignment of multiple sequences is infeasible, while there have been several approximate solutions, including iterative pairwise warping algorithms and variants of hidden Markov models. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model that represents the conditional densities of the latent target sequences which are aligned with the given observed sequences through the hidden alignment variables. By imposing certain constraints on the target sequences at the learning stage, we have a sensible model for multiple alignments that can be learned very efficiently by the EM algorithm. Compared to existing methods, our approach yields more accurate alignment while being more robust to local optima and initial configurations. We demonstrate its efficacy on both synthetic and real-world motion videos including facial emotions and human activities. PMID:24051737

Kim, Minyoung

2013-11-01

202

Who watches the watchmen? An appraisal of benchmarks for multiple sequence alignment.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental and ubiquitous technique in bioinformatics used to infer related residues among biological sequences. Thus alignment accuracy is crucial to a vast range of analyses, often in ways difficult to assess in those analyses. To compare the performance of different aligners and help detect systematic errors in alignments, a number of benchmarking strategies have been pursued. Here we present an overview of the main strategies-based on simulation, consistency, protein structure, and phylogeny-and discuss their different advantages and associated risks. We outline a set of desirable characteristics for effective benchmarking, and evaluate each strategy in light of them. We conclude that there is currently no universally applicable means of benchmarking MSA, and that developers and users of alignment tools should base their choice of benchmark depending on the context of application-with a keen awareness of the assumptions underlying each benchmarking strategy. PMID:24170395

Iantorno, Stefano; Gori, Kevin; Goldman, Nick; Gil, Manuel; Dessimoz, Christophe

2014-01-01

203

The debate over food biotechnology in the United States: is a societal consensus achievable?  

PubMed

Unless the public comes to agree that the benefits of food biotechnology are desirable and the associated risks are acceptable, our society may fail to realize much of the potential benefits. Three historical cases of major technological innovations whose benefits and risks were the subject of heated public controversy are examined, in search of lessons that may suggest a path toward consensus in the biotechnology debate. In each of the cases--water fluoridation, nuclear power and pesticides--proponents of the technology gathered scientific evidence that they believed established that the innovations were safe. In each case, the federal government was heavily involved in oversight, safety regulation, and in the first two cases, active promotion of the technology. Supporters of the technologies employed a variety of communications strategies, ranging from massive "educational" campaigns (e.g. "Our Friend The Atom") to vituperative ad hominem attacks on leading opponents. None of these strategies succeeded in achieving broad societal acceptance of the technologies. Fluoridation today is opposed as vigorously by activist groups as it was when first introduced around 1950; it has not been universally adopted even in the U.S., and it has been rejected in most other countries. The American nuclear power industry is moribund, and the public has essentially rejected the technology. The pesticide industry is thriving, with new generations of products succeeding older more hazardous chemicals in a constant cycle. However, strong regulation has failed to prevent adverse health and ecological effects, which have been empirically associated with pesticide uses after the chemicals were dispersed in the environment. Debate over whether risks of such effects are acceptable has been heated for four decades, with scientists and the public divided. PMID:11506421

Groth, E

2001-07-01

204

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

SciTech Connect

The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean�an expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean�s role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)�s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council�s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation�s attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions�enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure � autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating

National Research Council

2011-04-22

205

Towards societal applications of satellite measurements of fire strength (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) provides a vital means of distinguishing fires of different strengths or intensities. Analysis of 1-km resolution fire data, acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, showed instantaneous FRP values ranging from less than 1 MW to about 2000 MW per pixel. By applying a set of simple thresholds to this wide range of FRP values, it has been possible to classify fires into five categories, thereby facilitating simplified fire rating by strength, similar to the scales used for categorizing the strengths of earthquakes and hurricanes. Over 90% of all fires occurring in most regions of the world fall into category 1. However, when larger category fires occur, their strengths need to be recognized and monitored in near real-time, so that appropriate urgent measures may be taken to mitigate their devastating impacts on life and property. It is also important to monitor the impacts of the generated smoke on the air quality, human health, weather, and eventually climate. In a number of recent studies, FRP has been found to be directly proportional to both the rate of biomass consumption and the rate of smoke aerosol emission. Indeed, a simple coefficient to convert FRP (or FRE) to smoke aerosol emissions is being derived for different parts of the world. These coefficients can be easily applied to air-quality models together with satellite FRP measurements to monitor smoke impacts even in near real time. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of our studies on using satellite measurements of FRP for fire disaster monitoring and smoke emission source characterization applicable in different parts of the globe for societal benefit.

Ichoku, C. M.

2009-12-01

206

Nova laser alignment control system  

SciTech Connect

Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

1984-03-29

207

Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts. A Workshop Report. Extended Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is based on the report Severe Space Weather EventsUnderstanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008). Material in the booklet was derived from and largely reproduces material ...

2009-01-01

208

Improving pairwise sequence alignment accuracy using near-optimal protein sequence alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While the pairwise alignments produced by sequence similarity searches are a powerful tool for identifying homologous proteins - proteins that share a common ancestor and a similar structure; pairwise sequence alignments often fail to represent accurately the structural alignments inferred from three-dimensional coordinates. Since sequence alignment algorithms produce optimal alignments, the best structural alignments must reflect suboptimal sequence alignment

Michael L. Sierk; Michael E. Smoot; Ellen J. Bass; William R. Pearson

2010-01-01

209

Societal response to global climate change: Prospects for natural hazard reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a sociological perspective on societal responses to disasters (extreme natural hazard events). A definition is provided for a ``social,'' as opposed to a physical, disaster event. Several factors are identified which affect the ways societies adapt to hazard agents-societal resources, realistic expectations, vulnerability, and past experience. The ability of societies to anticipate future intensified or new disaster events under conditions of uncertainty is also addressed.

Nigg, Joanne M.

1992-06-01

210

Societal Influences on Body Image Dissatisfaction in Younger and Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined older women's body image. This study compared body image dissatisfaction (BID) and weight control practices; evaluated associations among BID, societal influences and concern for appropriateness (CFA); and identified the most important correlate of BID among younger (19–23) and older women (65–74). Questionnaires obtained information on demographics, weight control practices, societal influences (SATAQ-3), CFA and BID using

Jennifer L. Bedford; C. Shanthi Johnson

2006-01-01

211

Societal institutions and HRM practices: an analysis of four European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ‘societal-effect’ approach, a variant of the institutional theory developed and tested in Europe, this study investigates the impact of societal institutions on human resource management (HRM) practices of European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh, which is now on the list of the Next-11 economies of the world. In-depth case studies of four European multinational subsidiaries revealed the presence of

Shamsud D. Chowdhury; Monowar H. Mahmood

2011-01-01

212

Societal institutions and HRM practices: an analysis of four European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ‘societal-effect’ approach, a variant of the institutional theory developed and tested in Europe, this study investigates the impact of societal institutions on human resource management (HRM) practices of European multinational subsidiaries in Bangladesh, which is now on the list of the Next-11 economies of the world. In-depth case studies of four European multinational subsidiaries revealed the presence of

Shamsud D. Chowdhury; Monowar H. Mahmood

2012-01-01

213

Hungary and the European Union: The political implications of societal security promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hungary's constitutional commitment to support kin-nationals beyond its borders (nation policy) has been a central feature of its post-1989 foreign policy and highlights a particularly important national security concern—the societal security of national identity, culture, language and tradition. This article examines Hungary's societal security concerns and the policy methods it utilises, including its EU membership and the promotion of minority

Eamonn Butler

2007-01-01

214

The Societal\\/Transnational Dimension of Europeanisation: The Case of German Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper ties in with more recent accounts of Europeanisation, which go beyond analysing unidirectional, top-down processes. Our paper seeks to contribute to this debate by focusing on what we describe as the 'societal\\/trans-national' dimension of Europeanisation: Europeanisation dynamics within a societal context (football) with a considerable degree of transnationalisation. Through analysing five cases of Europeanisation within the realm of

Alexander Brand; Arne Niemann

2005-01-01

215

PicXAA: A Probabilistic Scheme for Finding the Maximum Expected Accuracy Alignment of Multiple Biological Sequences.  

PubMed

PicXAA is a probabilistic nonprogressive alignment algorithm that finds protein (or DNA) multiple sequence alignments with maximum expected accuracy. PicXAA greedily builds up the alignment from sequence regions with high local similarity, thereby yielding an accurate global alignment that effectively captures the local similarities across sequences. PicXAA constantly yields accurate alignment results on a wide range of reference sets that have different characteristics, with especially remarkable improvements over other leading algorithms on sequence sets with high local similarities. In this chapter, we describe the overall alignment strategy used in PicXAA and discuss several important considerations for effective deployment of the algorithm. PMID:24170404

Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Yoon, Byung-Jun

2014-01-01

216

Alignment of the SPHERE-ZIMPOL imaging polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZIMPOL is the high contrast imaging polarimeter subsystem of the ESO SPHERE instrument. ZIMPOL is dedicated to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extrasolar planets. ZIMPOL is located behind an extreme AO system (SAXO) and a stellar coronagraph. SPHERE is foreseen to have first light at the VLT early 2013. ZIMPOL is currently integrated in the SPHERE system and in testing phase. We describe the alignment strategy and the results of the ZIMPOL system and the related alignment of ZIMPOL into SPHERE by the aid of an alignment unit. The field selecting tip/tilt mirror alignment and it's requirement for perpendicularity to the two detectors is described. The test setup of the polarimetric components is described. SPHERE is an instrument designed and built by a consortium consisting of IPAG, MPIA, LAM, LESIA, Fizeau, INAF, Observatoire de Genève, ETH, NOVA, ONERA and ASTRON in collaboration with ESO.

Pragt, Johan; Roelfsema, Ronald; Gisler, Daniel; Wildi, Francois; Schmid, Hans M.; Rigal, Florence; Elswijk, Eddy; de Haan, Menno; Bazzon, Andreas; Dohlen, Kjetil; Costille, A.; Dominik, Carsten

2012-09-01

217

Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.  

PubMed

Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and development, and highlights the salience of good communication. The Working Group suggests establishing an advisory board to the dean and school, including lay persons and other external stakeholders, as one way of separating governance and management to some extent and providing some checks and balances within a dental school. Several other suggestions and recommendations are made about governance, management and leadership issues, including the need for schools to promote an awareness of their roles by good communication and thereby influence perceptions of others about their roles and values. PMID:18289276

Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M

2008-02-01

218

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of each potential infrastructure investment using these criteria would allow funding of investments that produce the largest expected net benefit over time.

Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure Strategy for U. S. Ocean Research in 2030

2011-12-01

219

Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human  

SciTech Connect

We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

2004-07-04

220

Aligning Non-Overlapping Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how two image sequences that have no spatial overlap between their fields of view can be aligned both in time and in space. Such alignment is possible when the two cameras are attached closely together and are moved jointly in space. The common motion induces “similar” changes over time within the two sequences. This correlated temporal behavior,

Yaron Caspi; Michal Irani

2002-01-01

221

Aligning Non-Overlapping Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how two image sequences that have no spatial overlap between their fields of view can be aligned both in time and in space. Such alignment is possible when the two cameras are attached closely together and are moved jointly in space. The common motion induces \\

Yaron Caspi; Michal Irani

2002-01-01

222

Transformation and Alignment in Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

2009-01-01

223

Engaging Teachers in Curriculum Alignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1997, Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta, Canada) began developing a process to engage teachers in curriculum alignment with a view to improving student achievement. Ten principles guiding the curriculum alignment framework are listed, followed by first-year results and factors that led to the framework's success. (CDS)|

Armstrong, Dale; Suddards, Carol

1999-01-01

224

Evaluation of Word Alignment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a few serious attempts to develop methods and measures for the evaluation of word alignment systems, notablythe Blinker project (Melamed, 1998) and the ARCADE project (Vronis and Langlais, forthcoming). In this paper we discuss differentapproaches to the problem and report on results from a project where two word alignment systems have been evaluated. These resultsinclude methods

Lars Ahrenberg; Magnus Merkel; Anna Sågvall Hein; Jörg Tiedemann

2000-01-01

225

Ebert-Fastie monochromator alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alignment of Ebert-Fastie monochromators can be easily and rapidly done using the method described in this note. This method is mainly based on the use of a small He-Ne laser and the observation of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. This method can easily be extended to the alignment of Czerny-Turner monochromators.

C. Julien; C. Hirlimann

1980-01-01

226

Aligning Sentences in Parallel Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a statistical technique for aligning sentences with their translations in two parallel corpora. In addition to certain anchor points that are available in our data, the only information about the sentences that we use for calculating alignments is the number of tokens that they contain. Because we make no use of the lexical details of

Peter F. Brown; Jennifer C. Lai; Robert L. Mercer

1991-01-01

227

Parametric optimization of sequence alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal alignment or the weighted minimum edit distance between two DNA or amino acid sequences for a given set of weights is computed by classical dynamic programming techniques, and is widely used in Molecular Biology. However, in DNA and amino acid sequences there is considerable disagreement about how to weight matches, mismatches, insertions\\/deletions (indels) and gaps. Parametric Sequence alignment

Dan Gusfield; K. Balasubramanian; Dalit Naor

1992-01-01

228

Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends  

SciTech Connect

Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

Fedder, R. [Rexnord Industries, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2008-12-15

229

The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision. Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first p-p collisions.

Castello, R.

2009-12-01

230

Alignment of the MINOS FD  

SciTech Connect

The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

Becker, B.; /Minnesota U.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

231

Calibration and Alignment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between estimates of rainfall from ground-based radar and satellite observing systems can be attributed to either calibration differences or to geolocation and sampling differences. These latter include differences due to radar or satellite misregistration, differences in observation times, or variations in instrument and retrieval algorithm sensitivities. A new methodology has been developed and tested for integrating radar- and satellite-based estimates of precipitation using a feature calibration and alignment (FCA) technique. The parameters describing the calibration and alignment are found using a variational approach, and are composed of displacement and amplitude adjustments to the satellite rainfall retrievals, which minimize the differences with respect to the radar data and satisfy additional smoothness and magnitude constraints. In this approach the amplitude component represents a calibration of the satellite estimate to the radar, whereas the displacement components correct temporal and/or geolocation differences between the radar and satellite data.The method has been tested on a number of cases of the NASA WetNet PIP-2 dataset. These data consist of coincident estimates of rainfall by ground-based radar and the DMSP SSM/I. Sensitivity tests were conducted to tune the parameters of the algorithm. Results indicate the effectiveness of the technique in minimizing the discrepancies between radar and satellite observations of rainfall for a variety of rainfall events ranging from midlatitude frontal precipitation to heavy convection associated with a tropical cyclone (Hurricane Andrew). A remaining issue to be resolved is the incorporation of knowledge about location dependencies in the errors of the radar and microwave estimates.Once the satellite data have been adjusted to match the radar observations, the two independent estimates (radar and adjusted SSM/I rain rates) may be blended to improve the overall depiction of the rainfall event in a single analysis. The FCA technique also has potential applications in 1) the development of satellite rainfall retrieval algorithms that may be tuned to radar rain rates and 2) error assessment of rainfall predictions using radar or satellite rain rates as verification.

Grassotti, Christopher; Iskenderian, Haig; Hoffman, Ross N.

1999-06-01

232

Grid alignment in entorhinal cortex.  

PubMed

The spatial responses of many of the cells recorded in all layers of rodent medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) show mutually aligned grid patterns. Recent experimental findings have shown that grids can often be better described as elliptical rather than purely circular and that, beyond the mutual alignment of their grid axes, ellipses tend to also orient their long axis along preferred directions. Are grid alignment and ellipse orientation aspects of the same phenomenon? Does the grid alignment result from single-unit mechanisms or does it require network interactions? We address these issues by refining a single-unit adaptation model of grid formation, to describe specifically the spontaneous emergence of conjunctive grid-by-head-direction cells in layers III, V, and VI of mEC. We find that tight alignment can be produced by recurrent collateral interactions, but this requires head-direction (HD) modulation. Through a competitive learning process driven by spatial inputs, grid fields then form already aligned, and with randomly distributed spatial phases. In addition, we find that the self-organization process is influenced by any anisotropy in the behavior of the simulated rat. The common grid alignment often orients along preferred running directions (RDs), as induced in a square environment. When speed anisotropy is present in exploration behavior, the shape of individual grids is distorted toward an ellipsoid arrangement. Speed anisotropy orients the long ellipse axis along the fast direction. Speed anisotropy on its own also tends to align grids, even without collaterals, but the alignment is seen to be loose. Finally, the alignment of spatial grid fields in multiple environments shows that the network expresses the same set of grid fields across environments, modulo a coherent rotation and translation. Thus, an efficient metric encoding of space may emerge through spontaneous pattern formation at the single-unit level, but it is coherent, hence context-invariant, if aided by collateral interactions. PMID:22892761

Si, Bailu; Kropff, Emilio; Treves, Alessandro

2012-08-15

233

Evolutionary Explanations for Societal Differences in Single Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new research strategy presented in this paper, Evolutionary Social Science, is designed to bridge the gap between evolutionary psychology that operates from the evolutionary past and social science that is bounded by recent history. Its core assumptions are (1) that modern societies owe their character to an interaction of hunter-gatherer adaptations with the modern environment; (2) that changes in

Nigel Barber

234

Reward and Organizational Systems Alignment: An Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

When organizations design compensation programs, they often resort to implementing an offthe- shelf or “flavor of the month” design rather than tailoring their programs to fit their organizations’ specific needs. Because the most effective compensation programs align reward systems with business strategy, organizational structure and organizational culture, it makes sense to take the time and effort to customize reward programs.

Robert L. Heneman; Max M. Fisher; Katherine E. Dixon

2001-01-01

235

Looking for efective ways of achieving and sustaining Business-IT alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aligning Business and Information Technologies strategies has been a subject studied for a long time. Despite all the efforts, achieving and sustaining Business-IT alignment remains a challenge requiring even more agility nowadays to keep up with the competition in a turbulent organizational environment. Past contributions are uncovered in this paper calling particular attention to the development of Enterprise Architecture as

Pedro Maia MALTA; Rui Dinis SOUSA

2010-01-01

236

Molecular Alignment and Orientation: From Laser-Induced Mechanisms to Optimal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms, as implemented in optimal control strategies, are currently successfully exploited in a wide range of problems in molecular physics. In this context, laser control of molecular alignment and orientation remains a very promising issue with challenging applications extending from chemical reactivity to nanoscale design. We emphasize the complementarity between basic quantum mechanisms monitoring alignment\\/orientation processes and optimal control

Osman Atabek; C. M. Dion

2002-01-01

237

An exploratory study of alignment ERP implementation and organizational development activities in a newly established firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The importance of alignment of enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation for organizational strategies has been widely recognized. However, ERP implementation in the context of new ventures has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. Furthermore, how to align ERP implementation with organizational development in new ventures deserves further examination as new ventures are in the emergency or early growth stage

Jau-Rong Chen

2009-01-01

238

Contact-based sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the novel method of contact-based protein sequence alignment, where structural information in the form of contact mutation probabilities is incorporated into an alignment routine using contact-mutation matrices (CAO: Contact Accepted mutatiOn). The contact-based alignment routine optimizes the score of matched contacts, which involves four (two per contact) instead of two residues per match in pairwise alignments. The first contact refers to a real side-chain contact in a template sequence with known structure, and the second contact is the equivalent putative contact of a homologous query sequence with unknown structure. An algorithm has been devised to perform a pairwise sequence alignment based on contact information. The contact scores were combined with PAM-type (Point Accepted Mutation) substitution scores after parameterization of gap penalties and score weights by means of a genetic algorithm. We show that owing to the structural information contained in the CAO matrices, significantly improved alignments of distantly related sequences can be obtained. This has allowed us to annotate eight putative Drosophila IGF sequences. Contact-based sequence alignment should therefore prove useful in comparative modelling and fold recognition.

Kleinjung, Jens; Romein, John; Lin, Kuang; Heringa, Jaap

2004-01-01

239

Multiple Sequence Alignment with DIALIGN.  

PubMed

DIALIGN is a software tool for multiple sequence alignment by combining global and local alignment features. It composes multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. This approach is particularly useful to discover conserved functional regions in sequences that share only local homologies but are otherwise unrelated. An anchoring option allows to use external information and expert knowledge in addition to primary-sequence similarity alone. The latest version of DIALIGN optionally uses matches to the PFAM database to detect weak homologies. Various versions of the program are available through Göttingen Bioinformatics Compute Server (GOBICS) at http://www.gobics.de/department/software . PMID:24170403

Morgenstern, Burkhard

2014-01-01

240

Bent-core alignment layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difficulty of aligning bent-core liquid crystals at a surface is addressed from three directions: We form Langmuir monolayers of bent core molecules at the air-water interface, and explore their orientation and packing. We transfer these films by Langmuir-Schaefer techniques to a solid surface, and test them for the alignment of bulk liquid crystal. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe possible molecular orientation at the water surface, for comparison with experiments. We find that relatively small changes in the bent-core molecule affect both the stability of the films and their ability to promote alignment within liquid crystal cells.

Mann, Elizabeth K.; Iglesias, Wilder; Smith, Timothy; Basnet, Prem; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal

2011-02-01

241

Choix stratégiques de l'entreprise étendue et déploiement technologique : alignement et performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this empirical study conducted in 505 firms is to discuss the strategic alignment framework within the context of agile organizations that use outsourcing, partnering an strategic alliances as support of business strategy. We used Structural Equation Modelling for data analysis and concluded that the harmony between business strategy and IT strategy is a strong determinant of organizational

Hajer Kefi; Michel Kalika

242

Antares automatic beam alignment system  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam-line CO/sub 2/ laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects.

Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

1980-01-01

243

An API for Ontology Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontologies are seen as the solution to data heterogeneity on the web. However, the available ontologies are themselves source\\u000a of heterogeneity. This can be overcome by aligning ontologies, or finding the correspondence between their components. These\\u000a alignments deserve to be treated as objects: they can be referenced on the web as such, be completed by an algorithm that\\u000a improves a

Jérôme Euzenat; INRIA Rhone-Alpes

2004-01-01

244

National Ignition Facility system alignment.  

PubMed

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest optical instrument, comprising 192 37?cm square beams, each generating up to 9.6?kJ of 351?nm laser light in a 20?ns beam precisely tailored in time and spectrum. The Facility houses a massive (10?m diameter) target chamber within which the beams converge onto an ?1?cm size target for the purpose of creating the conditions needed for deuterium/tritium nuclear fusion in a laboratory setting. A formidable challenge was building NIF to the precise requirements for beam propagation, commissioning the beam lines, and engineering systems to reliably and safely align 192 beams within the confines of a multihour shot cycle. Designing the facility to minimize drift and vibration, placing the optical components in their design locations, commissioning beam alignment, and performing precise system alignment are the key alignment accomplishments over the decade of work described herein. The design and positioning phases placed more than 3000 large (2.5?m×2?m×1?m) line-replaceable optics assemblies to within ±1?mm of design requirement. The commissioning and alignment phases validated clear apertures (no clipping) for all beam lines, and demonstrated automated laser alignment within 10?min and alignment to target chamber center within 44?min. Pointing validation system shots to flat gold-plated x-ray emitting targets showed NIF met its design requirement of ±50??m rms beam pointing to target chamber. Finally, this paper describes the major alignment challenges faced by the NIF Project from inception to present, and how these challenges were met and solved by the NIF design and commissioning teams. PMID:21394186

Burkhart, S C; Bliss, E; Di Nicola, P; Kalantar, D; Lowe-Webb, R; McCarville, T; Nelson, D; Salmon, T; Schindler, T; Villanueva, J; Wilhelmsen, K

2011-03-10

245

Parametric Optimization of Sequence Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoptimal alignment or theweighted minimum edit distance between two DNA or amino acid sequences for a given set of weights is computed by classical dynamic programming techniques,\\u000a and is widely used in molecular biology. However, in DNA and amino acid sequences there is considerable disagreement about\\u000a how to weight matches, mismatches, insertions\\/deletions (indels or spaces), and gaps.Parametric sequence alignment is

Dan Gusfield; K. Balasubramanian; Dalit Naor

1994-01-01

246

Business and IS/IT Strategic Alignment Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating information systems and information technology (IS/IT) in the organizations have considerable risks, and these risks are increased when a strategic plan for its incorporation is not done. The objective of this research is to contribute in the alignment between business and IS/IT strategies using concepts and techniques from engineering and enterprise architecture. To achieve this objective, this research proposes to define a modeling framework for business and IS/IT strategic alignment. The implementation of this proposal in a ceramic tile company has helped to validate its usefulness.

Cuenca, Llanos; Ortiz, Angel; Boza, Andres

247

Human Capital Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two key principles in human capital strategy: (1) people are assets whose value can be enhanced through investment and (2) an organization's human capital policies must be aligned to support the organization's shared vision. Excerpts from two GAO reports provide an excellent summary of this topic.

Tom Cross

248

Strategies for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Training" magazine taps 2011 Training Top 125 winners to provide their learning and development best practices in each issue. This article looks at strategies for aligning training with business goals and creating models to measure return-on-investment (ROI) and other financial metrics pertaining to training.

Pruitt, Lisa; McGeough, David

2011-01-01

249

Adaptive Texture Alignment for Japanese Kimono Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yukata is a type of traditional Japanese kimono. An alignment of its texture pattern is an important factor of the yukata design. There are rules in the texture alignment of the yukata. The rules are comparatively simple. However, the texture alignment is difficult for the designer because the texture alignment should be performed with consideration to the rules and

Tetsuya Sano; Hirouki Ukida; Hideki Yamamoto I

2005-01-01

250

Development of deterrence strategies  

SciTech Connect

The development of deterrence strategies requires an in-depth understanding of the characteristics and decision-making processes of all categories of potential adversaries to DOE facilities and programs. A second component needed is recognition of the strengths and vulnerabilities of the safeguards system surrounding the target since each contributes significantly to the adversaries' perception of risk and attractiveness associated with that target. An understanding of the local and national societal conditions which might create or exacerbate terrorism, criminal activity or other types of malevolent action is a third analytic element necessary to support develoment of deterrents. Knowledge of the dynamics of these three components provides the analytical basis upon which initial definition of the types and approaches to deterrence can be arrived at. The analyses and results described in this report address each of these components and provide a solid conceptual, qualitative and quantitative base from which to develop specific deterrence strategies. 16 figures, 8 tables.

Pilgrim, M.K.; Fineberg, M.L.; Ely, R.S.; Smith, M.A.; Mengel, R.W.

1981-09-01

251

Aligned carbon nanotubes: from controlled synthesis to electronic applications.  

PubMed

Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess superior geometrical, electronic, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties and are very attractive for applications in electronic devices and circuits. To make this a reality, the nanotube orientation, density, diameter, electronic property, and even chirality should be well controlled. This Feature article focuses on recent achievements researchers have made on the controlled growth of horizontally aligned SWNTs and SWNT arrays on substrates and their electronic applications. Principles and strategies to control the morphology, structure, and properties of SWNTs are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, electrical properties of field-effect transistors fabricated on both individual SWNTs and aligned SWNT arrays are discussed. State-of-the-art electronic devices and circuits based on aligned SWNTs and SWNT arrays are also highlighted. PMID:23969970

Liu, Bilu; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Jia; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu

2013-09-26

252

Aligned carbon nanotubes: from controlled synthesis to electronic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess superior geometrical, electronic, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties and are very attractive for applications in electronic devices and circuits. To make this a reality, the nanotube orientation, density, diameter, electronic property, and even chirality should be well controlled. This Feature article focuses on recent achievements researchers have made on the controlled growth of horizontally aligned SWNTs and SWNT arrays on substrates and their electronic applications. Principles and strategies to control the morphology, structure, and properties of SWNTs are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, electrical properties of field-effect transistors fabricated on both individual SWNTs and aligned SWNT arrays are discussed. State-of-the-art electronic devices and circuits based on aligned SWNTs and SWNT arrays are also highlighted.

Liu, Bilu; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Jia; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu

2013-09-01

253

Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering.  

PubMed Central

An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c.

Corpet, F

1988-01-01

254

The Influence of Societal Culture on the Adoption of Information Systems: The Case of Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is part of a larger study that explores societal and organizational culture factors that influence the adoption of information systems (IS) in Libya's Oil and Banking sectors (Twati & Gammack, 2004; 2006). Using a structured survey questionnaire based on the work of Geert Hofstede's Value Survey Module (VSM 94), 400 questionnaires were administrated to middle and top management

Jamal M. Twati

2008-01-01

255

Human factors engineering that makes a difference: leveraging a science of societal change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The over-arching purpose of human factors engineering is to improve the quality of human life, but our discipline has not been as successful as we would like in effecting societal change, whether it be at the political or corporate level. The current paper addresses this problem, first by identifying a set of general challenges to change, and second by reviewing

Kim J. Vicente

2008-01-01

256

Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods…

Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

2005-01-01

257

Early Childhood Education in Societal Context: Teachers in Three Countries Speak about Early Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conducted in-depth interviews with early childhood teachers in Sweden, Russia, and United States as to their society's influence on early childhood education. Found differences in responses related to the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels of the societal system. Findings deepen understanding about multidimensional relationships between early…

Carlson, Helen L.; And Others

1997-01-01

258

Pedagogic Cacophony: The Teaching of Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues in Advertising Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teaching of societal, legal, and ethical issues is critical to an advertising education because the subjects increase students' understanding of the field, raise their awareness of broader effects beyond the promotion of products and services, and inform students of their responsibilities as professionals. This study examined how these subjects were taught at ninety-one universities and colleges in the United

Mark W. Stuhlfaut; Mike Farrell

2009-01-01

259

Perceptions of Addictions as Societal Problems in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study reports on the relative gravity people attribute to various addictive behaviors with respect to other societal concerns in four northern populations with different history, social policy and treatment alternatives for addicted individuals. Methods: Random population surveys were conducted in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia. In Finland and Sweden, the survey was conducted by mail, in

Kari Holma; Anja Koski-Jännes; Kirsimarja Raitasalo; Jan Blomqvist; Irina Pervova; John A. Cunningham

2011-01-01

260

Is Academic Nursing Preparing Practitioners to Meet Present and Future Societal Needs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The adequacy of nursing education programs in preparing nurses to meet current and future societal needs is addressed, with attention directed to baccalaureate programs, faculty, and graduates. It is suggested that research findings and anecdotal reports have validated the dysfunction phenomena between baccalaureate nursing education, the…

Felton, Geraldene

261

GEOGRAPHY AS CAUSAL IN SOCIETAL ASCENDANCE: AN AUSTRIAN RETROSPECTIVE ON DIAMOND  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his 1997 book, Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond attributes the ascendancy and triumphs of certain societies to geographical and environmental advantages. But given the condi- tions of geography and environment, Diamond advances the mis- guided view that societal ascent is principally contingent upon success in centralizing management of resources. Diamond largely ignores the institutions critical to formation and

JOHN BRÄTLAND

262

Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular…

Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

2003-01-01

263

Neither bad apple nor bad barrel: how the societal context impacts unethical behavior in organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every time another corporate scandal captures media headlines, the ‘bad apple vs. bad barrel’ discussion starts anew. Yet this debate overlooks the influence of the broader societal context on organizational behavior. In this article, we argue that misbehaviors of organizations (the ‘barrels’) and their members (the ‘apples’) cannot be addressed properly without a clear understanding of their broader context (the

Michael Gonin; Guido Palazzo; Ulrich Hoffrage

2012-01-01

264

Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on

Tanjima Pervin; Ulf-G Gerdtham; Carl Hampus Lyttkens

2008-01-01

265

The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal oppo- sition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically,it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto mora- torium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the

Yann Devos; Dirk Reheul; Danny De Waele; Linda Van Speybroeck

2006-01-01

266

Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-Illness Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n=118) to costs of families from the general population…

Bodden, Denise H. M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bogels, Susan M.

2008-01-01

267

Does School Education Reduce the Likelihood of Societal Conflict in Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically tests the hypothesis that education, as measured by the average schooling years in the population aged 15 and above, reduces the likelihood of societal conflicts in Africa. It focuses on a sample of 31 African countries during 1960-2000 and uses both panel ordered probit and multinomial logistic estimation models. Using an aggregated measure of all intrastate major

Julius Agbor

2011-01-01

268

Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2009-01-01

269

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing

Susanne Bauer

2008-01-01

270

Shaping the Societal Bill: past and future trends in education, pensions and healthcare expenditure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education, pensions and healthcare are the main components of the Societal Bill in Europe. Here we analyse the principal trends and trend breaks that will shape the bill in the next decades. Population ageing, changes in household structure, technological progress, new organisation of work and leisure, changes in market labour structure and regulation and increasing migration flows are the main

R. Busse; G. Wurzburg; M. Zappacosta

2003-01-01

271

Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

2013-01-01

272

Churches as Societal Veto Players: Religious Influence in Actor-Centred Theories of PolicyMaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues that the study of western democracies benefits from a conceptualisation of Christian churches as societal veto players characterised by three features: their power, which depends on their potential for mobilisation; their preferences, which can be deduced from churches' official statements and which are often outside the political spectrum; and their coherence, which determines the size of their

Simon Fink

2009-01-01

273

Artificial Heart and Assist Devices: Directions, Needs, Costs, Societal and Ethical Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report was to examine the potential need for artificial heart and assist devices, their cost, and certain societal and ethical issues related to their use. The Working Group on Mechanical Circulatory support of the National Heart, Lung,...

1985-01-01

274

A theory of risk colonization: The spiralling regulatory logics of societal and institutional risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of the growing importance of risk to regulation identify three processes; the need to respond to newly created and discovered risks; the growth of regulatory frameworks; and the use of the risk instrument as an organizing idea for decision-making in modernity. Synthesizing these explanations, we propose a theory of risk colonization. We introduce a distinction between societal and institutional

Henry Rothstein; Michael Huber; George Gaskell

2006-01-01

275

Societal neglect and violence towards children: What do these phenomena tell us about ourselves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been significant media coverage of violence by children towards other children. This article argues that such violence can be understood in the context of societal neglect and mistreatment of children. The interplay between the political economy, moral economy, and a public discourse that scapegoats and denigrates vulnerable people is examined. Ten ways that children are being neglected and

Joshua L. Miller

1996-01-01

276

The relationships between personality and well-being during societal change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions and well-being outcomes during the societal transition in Romania. The California Psychological Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and well-being measures were administered to 290 Romanian engineers. The Big Five personality dimensions were derived by means of factor analysis with the personality questionnaires. The results confirmed that job satisfaction

Peter T. van den Berg; Horia Pitariu

2005-01-01

277

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

2008-01-01

278

EXOTIC DANCERS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIETAL REACTION, SUBCULTURAL TIES, AND CONVENTIONAL SUPPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the world of female and male exotic dancers. Utilizing Hirschi's Bonding theory, we look at gender differences in societal reaction, subcultural ties, and conventional support among dancers in a large metropolitan area. We surveyed 56 respondents from 18 exotic dancing establishments. Female dancers are less likely than male dancers to receive community support for dancing as a way

Constance Bernard; Christen DeGabrielle; Lynette Cartier; Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Celestine Phill; Jennifer Sherwood; Thomasena Tyree

279

Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

2005-01-01

280

Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the United States has the greatest number of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes of any nation worldwide. Therefore, in the United States, a substantial infrastructure has evolved in response to the numerous natural hazards (not limited to severe thunderstorms and tornadoes) in an effort to reduce the societal impacts of these hazards. In addition to keeping

Charles A. Doswell III

2003-01-01

281

Societal Education, Direct Action, and Working-Class Gains: An Anarchist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an anarchist theoretical framework, it is argued that the working class would obtain greater gains through militant direct action modeled on the labor movement of the past. The history of the 8-hour workday is reviewed as a case study showing that it was won because of radical leaders who challenged existing legal institutional frameworks through societal education, militant ideology,

John Asimakopoulos

2007-01-01

282

Barriers to Considering Ethical and Societal Implications of Research: Perceptions of Life Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As part of an empirical study investigating how life scientists think about ethical and societal implications of their work, and about life science research in general, we sought to elucidate barriers that scientists might face in considering such implications. Methods: Between 2005 and 2007, we conducted a study consisting of phone interviews, focus groups, and a national survey of

Jennifer Blair McCormick; Angie M. Boyce; Jennifer M. Ladd; Mildred K. Cho

2012-01-01

283

Toward a Psychology of Societal Change and Stability: The Case of Human Rights and Duties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinction is made between two types of psychology concerned with: performance capacity, the abilities of individuals tested in isolation; and performance style, the way things get done and the meanings ascribed to phenomena. Causal explanations are appropriate for performance capacity, and normative ones for performance style. Traditional psychology has focused predominantly on performance capacity and causation. Societal change and

Fathali M. Moghaddam; Elena Lvina

2002-01-01

284

Impact of Environmental, Societal and Health Information on Consumers' Choices for Nanofood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in Germany to evaluate the impact of environmental, societal and health information about nanotechnology on consumers' willingness to pay for two types of orange juice produced by means of nanotechnologies. Participants had to choose successive messages revealing information about potential but uncertain impacts. Results show that health information is of priority for participants and it significantly

Jutta Roosen; Andrea Bieberstein; Sandrine Blanchemanche; Frederic Vandermoere

2009-01-01

285

Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

2003-01-01

286

The mass media and judgments of risk: Distinguishing impact on personal and societal level judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research findings about whether mass media reports influence risk-related judgments have not been consistent. One reconciliation of the differing findings is the impersonal impact hypothesis, which suggests that media impact occurs with societal level judgments about general problem importance or frequency but not with judgments about personal risks. Three studies, with 465 undergraduates were conducted to test this hypothesis.

Tom R. Tyler; Fay L. Cook

1984-01-01

287

Plant and Soil Nematodes: Societal Impact and Focus for the Future 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research

K. R. BARKER; R. S. HUSSEY; L. R. KRUSBERG; G. W. BIRD; R. A. DVNN; H. FERRIS; V. R. FERRIS; D. W. FRECKMAN; C. J. GABRIEL; P. S. GREWAL; A. E. MACGUIDWIN; D. L. RIDDLE; P. A. ROBERTS; D. P. SCHMITT

1994-01-01

288

National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

2012-01-01

289

Legalization of Prostitution in Thailand: A Challenge to Feminism and Societal Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thai society and the feminist movement have been bombarded with the (ir)rationality of economic greed, social ignorance and a patriarchal frame of thinking on the legalization of prostitution. Feminist ideology and societal conscience are hence being tested all over again. The issue of prostitution has been reduced to an issue of taxation for state income generation. Basically, the issue of

Virada Somswasdi

2004-01-01

290

The imperative for hospital-based palliative care: patient, institutional, and societal benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges in societal demographics, finances, and human suffering are pushing us towards a new paradigm in health care delivery. The pallia- tive care paradigm is a necessary complement to existing acute care and chronic care paradigms. Palliative care does not replace prior paradigms; instead, it adds value and provides a shift in focus when appropriate. Baylor University Medical Center has

ROBERT L. FINE

2004-01-01

291

A low tension between individual and societal time aspects in health improved outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review intertemporal choices, involving decisions with a trade-off between something now and something later. These choices are common in health both at an individual and societal level. Methods: The present value of an outcome, for example, the amount of money or the health outcomes in various aspects, is equivalent to the value of a future outcome discounted with

Monica Ortendahl; James F. Fries

292

Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

2013-01-01

293

Barriers to Considering Ethical and Societal Implications of Research: Perceptions of Life Scientists  

PubMed Central

Background As part of an empirical study investigating how life scientists think about ethical and societal implications of their work, and about life science research in general, we sought to elucidate barriers that scientists might face in considering such implications. Method Between 2005 and 2007, we conducted a study consisting of phone interviews, focus groups, and a national survey of life scientists at biomedical research institutions. The study population included graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty, clinical instructors, and research staff. We analyzed data through qualitative and quantitative methods. Results In analyzing the data, we found that life scientists do, in fact, face barriers to considering ethical and societal implications of research. We categorized these barriers as falling into four broad domains: (1) lack of awareness of ethical and societal implications; (2) lack of relevance of such concerns to their specific research; (3) self-confidence in their ability to resolve such concerns; and (4) aspects of the daily practice of science itself. Conclusions Life science researchers experience elements inherent in their training and in the conduct of science as barriers to thinking about ethical and societal implications related to their work. These findings suggest areas in which research ethics educators, bioethicists, and the scientific community can focus their efforts to improve social and ethical accountability in research.

McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Boyce, Angie M.; Ladd, Jennifer M.; Cho, Mildred

2012-01-01

294

Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2009-01-01

295

Societal relationships and gender role in homosexuals: A cross?cultural comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposition that feminine gender role in male homosexuals is a function of societal sex roles and attitudes toward homosexuality, as well as parental factors, was examined by administering tests of gender role, gender role conservatism, and attitudes toward parents to a sample of 176 Swedish and 163 Australian homosexual men. With homosexuality constant, it was found that feminine gender

Michael W. Ross

1983-01-01

296

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

2008-01-01

297

Cultural–Societal Roots of Violence: The Examples of Genocidal Violence and of Contemporary Youth Violence in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread violence in a society must have its origins in cultural characteristics, current societal conditions, or both. In this article, the cultural, societal, and psychological origins of two very different forms of violence are examined. A conception of the origins of genocide and mass killing is briefly presented, with the Holocaust and the violence in the former Yugoslavia as supporting

Ervin Staub

1996-01-01

298

Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

2009-12-01

299

Alignment of protein sequences by their profiles.  

PubMed

The accuracy of an alignment between two protein sequences can be improved by including other detectably related sequences in the comparison. We optimize and benchmark such an approach that relies on aligning two multiple sequence alignments, each one including one of the two protein sequences. Thirteen different protocols for creating and comparing profiles corresponding to the multiple sequence alignments are implemented in the SALIGN command of MODELLER. A test set of 200 pairwise, structure-based alignments with sequence identities below 40% is used to benchmark the 13 protocols as well as a number of previously described sequence alignment methods, including heuristic pairwise sequence alignment by BLAST, pairwise sequence alignment by global dynamic programming with an affine gap penalty function by the ALIGN command of MODELLER, sequence-profile alignment by PSI-BLAST, Hidden Markov Model methods implemented in SAM and LOBSTER, pairwise sequence alignment relying on predicted local structure by SEA, and multiple sequence alignment by CLUSTALW and COMPASS. The alignment accuracies of the best new protocols were significantly better than those of the other tested methods. For example, the fraction of the correctly aligned residues relative to the structure-based alignment by the best protocol is 56%, which can be compared with the accuracies of 26%, 42%, 43%, 48%, 50%, 49%, 43%, and 43% for the other methods, respectively. The new method is currently applied to large-scale comparative protein structure modeling of all known sequences. PMID:15044736

Marti-Renom, Marc A; Madhusudhan, M S; Sali, Andrej

2004-04-01

300

Observability of Strapdown INS Alignment: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alignment of the strapdown inertial navigation system (INS) has strong nonlinearity, even worse when maneuvers, e.g., tumbling techniques, are employed to improve the alignment. There is no general rule to attack the observability of a nonlinear system, so most previous works addressed the observability of the corresponding linearized system by implicitly assuming that the original nonlinear system and the linearized one have identical observability characteristics. Strapdown INS alignment is a nonlinear system that has its own characteristics. Using the inherent properties of strapdown INS, e.g., the attitude evolution on the SO(3) manifold, we start from the basic definition and develop a global and constructive approach to investigate the observability of strapdown INS static and tumbling alignment, highlighting the effects of the attitude maneuver on observability. We prove that strapdown INS alignment, considering the unknown constant sensor biases, will be completely observable if the strapdown INS is rotated successively about two different axes and will be nearly observable for finite known unobservable states (no more than two) if it is rotated about a single axis. Observability from a global perspective provides us with insights into and a clearer picture of the problem, shedding light on previous theoretical results on strapdown INS alignment that were not comprehensive or consistent.. The reporting of inconsistencies calls for a review of all linearization-based observability studies in the vast literature. Extensive simulations with constructed ideal observers and an extended Kalman filter are carried out, and the numerical results accord with the analysis. The conclusions can also assist in designing the optimal tumbling strategy and the appropriate state observer in practice to maximize the alignment performance.

Wu, Yuanxin; Zhang, Hongliang; Wu, Meiping; Hu, Xiaoping; Hu, Dewen

301

SubMAP: aligning metabolic pathways with subnetwork mappings.  

PubMed

We consider the problem of aligning two metabolic pathways. Unlike traditional approaches, we do not restrict the alignment to one-to-one mappings between the molecules (nodes) of the input pathways (graphs). We follow the observation that, in nature, different organisms can perform the same or similar functions through different sets of reactions and molecules. The number and the topology of the molecules in these alternative sets often vary from one organism to another. With the motivation that an accurate biological alignment should be able to reveal these functionally similar molecule sets across different species, we develop an algorithm that first measures the similarities between different nodes using a mixture of homology and topological similarity. We combine the two metrics by employing an eigenvalue formulation. We then search for an alignment between the two input pathways that maximizes a similarity score, evaluated as the sum of the similarities of the mapped subnetworks of size at most a given integer k, and also does not contain any conflicting mappings. Here we prove that this maximization is NP-hard by a reduction from the maximum weight independent set (MWIS) problem. We then convert our problem to an instance of MWIS and use an efficient vertex-selection strategy to extract the mappings that constitute our alignment. We name our algorithm SubMAP (Subnetwork Mappings in Alignment of Pathways). We evaluate its accuracy and performance on real datasets. Our empirical results demonstrate that SubMAP can identify biologically relevant mappings that are missed by traditional alignment methods. Furthermore, we observe that SubMAP is scalable for metabolic pathways of arbitrary topology, including searching for a query pathway of size 70 against the complete KEGG database of 1,842 pathways. Implementation in C++ is available at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/SubMAP.html. PMID:21385030

Ay, Ferhat; Kellis, Manolis; Kahveci, Tamer

2011-03-01

302

Societal Learning in Epidemics: Intervention Effectiveness during the 2003 SARS Outbreak in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid response to outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases is impeded by uncertain diagnoses and delayed communication. Understanding the effect of inefficient response is a potentially important contribution of epidemic theory. To develop this understanding we studied societal learning during emerging outbreaks wherein patient removal accelerates as information is gathered and disseminated. Methods and Findings We developed an extension of a standard outbreak model, the simple stochastic epidemic, which accounts for societal learning. We obtained expressions for the expected outbreak size and the distribution of epidemic duration. We found that rapid learning noticeably affects the final outbreak size even when learning exhibits diminishing returns (relaxation). As an example, we estimated the learning rate for the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Singapore. Evidence for relaxation during the first eight weeks of the outbreak was inconclusive. We estimated that if societal learning had occurred at half the actual rate, the expected final size of the outbreak would have reached nearly 800 cases, more than three times the observed number of infections. By contrast, the expected outbreak size for societal learning twice as effective was 116 cases. Conclusion These results show that the rate of societal learning can greatly affect the final size of disease outbreaks, justifying investment in early warning systems and attentiveness to disease outbreak by both government authorities and the public. We submit that the burden of emerging infections, including the risk of a global pandemic, could be efficiently reduced by improving procedures for rapid detection of outbreaks, alerting public health officials, and aggressively educating the public at the start of an outbreak.

Drake, John M.; Chew, Suok Kai; Ma, Stefan

2006-01-01

303

DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li

304

XUV ionization of aligned molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

Kelkensberg, F.; Rouzée, A.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

2011-11-01

305

Measurements of magnetic field alignment  

SciTech Connect

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

1987-11-06

306

Alignment-Free Phylogenetic Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the first polynomial-time phylogenetic reconstruction algorithm under a model of sequence evolution allowing insertions and deletions (or indels). Given appropriate assumptions, our algorithm requires sequence lengths growing polynomially in the number of leaf taxa. Our techniques are distance-based and largely bypass the problem of multiple alignment.

Daskalakis, Constantinos; Roch, Sebastien

307

TIALA — Time series alignment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of time series expression data is widely employed for investigating biological mechanisms. Microarrays are often used to generate time series for several different experimental conditions. These time series then need to be compared to each other. For a successful comparison it is necessary to perform a time series alignment because the experiments can differ in the number of

Gunter Jager; Florian Battke; Kay Nieselt

2011-01-01

308

Fast alignment of fragmentation trees  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Mass spectrometry allows sensitive, automated and high-throughput analysis of small molecules such as metabolites. One major bottleneck in metabolomics is the identification of ‘unknown’ small molecules not in any database. Recently, fragmentation tree alignments have been introduced for the automated comparison of the fragmentation patterns of small molecules. Fragmentation pattern similarities are strongly correlated with the chemical similarity of the molecules, and allow us to cluster compounds based solely on their fragmentation patterns. Results: Aligning fragmentation trees is computationally hard. Nevertheless, we present three exact algorithms for the problem: a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm, a sparse variant of the DP, and an Integer Linear Program (ILP). Evaluation of our methods on three different datasets showed that thousands of alignments can be computed in a matter of minutes using DP, even for ‘challenging’ instances. Running times of the sparse DP were an order of magnitude better than for the classical DP. The ILP was clearly outperformed by both DP approaches. We also found that for both DP algorithms, computing the 1% slowest alignments required as much time as computing the 99% fastest. Contact: sebastian.boecker@uni-jena.de

Hufsky, Franziska; Duhrkop, Kai; Rasche, Florian; Chimani, Markus; Bocker, Sebastian

2012-01-01

309

Antares automatic beam alignment system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antares is a high-power (80-TW), high-energy (35-40 kJ), pulsed CO2 laser system for the investigation of inertial confinement fusion. The system consists of three major optical sections, including the front end, the power amplifier, and the target chamber system. The front-end system consists of those components necessary to generate two separate laser beams that are fed into two main power amplifiers. Each power amplifier has 12 trapezoidal-shaped output beams. The 24 beams originating from the power amplifiers are independently controlled beams and must be automatically aligned through the system and independently centered and focused upon the target. The final optical elements in the target chamber can independently center and focus the energy of each sector in a focal spot less than 280 micrometers in diameter. The beam-alignment technique used to align the 24-beam system makes use of variable-focus telescope/TV cameras. Automatic alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which nulls the error with a computer-controlled, closed-loop mirror actuator system

Appert, O.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

1980-01-01

310

Alignment effects in correlation spectra  

SciTech Connect

The structure of nuclei at very high spins can be studied by measuring correlations between ..gamma..-ray energies in the unresolved spectrum emitted. Collective rotations have been shown to produce characteristic features in such correlation spectra. The features produced by the noncollective alignment effects in some high spin Er nuclei are shown here.

Ellegaard, C.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Andersen, O.; Herskind, B.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; Kluge, H.; Schuck, C.; Shih, S.; Draper, J.E.

1982-03-08

311

Curved Fences for Part Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automated packing or assembly it is often necessary to bring randomly oriented parts into uniform alignment. Mechanical methods such as vibratory bowl feeders are often used for this purpose, although there is no theory for the systematic design of such feeders. A slanted \\

Mike Brokowski; Michael A. Peshkin; Kenneth Y. Goldberg

1993-01-01

312

Onorbit IMU Alignment Error Budget.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a r...

R. W. Corson

1980-01-01

313

Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and environmental observa-tion systems into the 9 GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas, identifying EO-MINERS contributions to existing GEOSS targets and defining new, EO-MINERS activities in support of GEOSS. EO-MINERS will run a minerals workshop with GEO members and/or the GEO Secretariat.

Chevrel, Stephane

314

Alignment 2.0: Strategic Use of New Internet Technologies in Government  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper challenges the view that strategies for using Web 2.0 should primarily be based upon technological characteristics. The value of the organizational strategic alignment approach for developing specific operational Web 2.0 strategies for government organizations is explored both theoretically and empirically. On the basis of a review of…

Meijer, Albert; Thaens, Marcel

2010-01-01

315

Student information consumption strategies: implications of the Google effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research in the area of distributed cognition within the educational process has revealed several new and emerging phenomena regarding student behavior. Students appear to be strategically discriminating in their learning strategies, taking the opportunity to offload learning when information is easily accessible and retrievable. This paper reviews several current research findings, and offers societal implications.

Michael Yacci; Evelyn P. Rozanski

2012-01-01

316

Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO(2)) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment.  

PubMed

The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO(2) nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO(2) containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

Jacobs, Johannes F; van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

2010-06-20

317

Dielectric Properties of Aligned Conducting Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to align electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) were made using various electrochemical methods. Rotating cylinder anode electropolymerization was found to induce partially aligned deposits of PPy films when they were prepared in the presence ...

H. S. Ryang L. F. Warren

1991-01-01

318

Instructional Alignment: Searching for a Magic Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional alignment is the extent to which stimulus conditions match three instructional components. This paper demonstrates a new perspective in which instructional alignment generates larger effects in research and practice for less "cost" than other instructional constructs. (VM)|

Cohen, S. Alan

1987-01-01

319

Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral,\\u000a ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution.\\u000a The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the\\u000a above-mentioned disciplines had been involved

Reuven Lazarowitz; Ilit Bloch

2005-01-01

320

Societal Costs of Late Blight in Potato and Prospects of Durable Resistance Through Cisgenic Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Union almost 6 Mha of potatoes are grown representing a value of close to €6,000,000,000. Late blight caused\\u000a by Phytophthora infestans causes annual losses (costs of control and damage) estimated at more than €1,000,000,000. Chemical control is under pressure\\u000a as late blight becomes increasingly aggressive and there is societal resistance against the use of environmentally unfriendly\\u000a chemicals. Breeding

A. J. Haverkort; P. M. Boonekamp; R. C. B. Hutten; E. Jacobsen; L. A. P. Lotz; G. J. T. Kessel; R. G. F. Visser; E. A. G. van der Vossen

2008-01-01

321

Convergence and Divergence in Societal Modernization: Global trends, Regional Variations, and Some Implications for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Taking the debate about convergent versus divergent crystallations of modernity as its point of departure, the chapter argues\\u000a that the question as to whether modernization results in similar forms of societal organization anywhere or instead manifests\\u000a itself in rather heterogeneous social systems cannot be answered by purely empirical means, because the weight accorded particular\\u000a kinds of diversity depends on the

Volker H. Schmidt

322

Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats

Jonathan S. Comer; Jami M. Furr; Rinad S. Beidas; Heather M. Babyar; Philip C. Kendall

2008-01-01

323

SYNBIOSAFE e-conference: online community discussion on the societal aspects of synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the SYNBIOSAFE project, we carried out an open electronic conference (e-conference), with the aim to stimulate\\u000a an open debate on the societal issues of synthetic biology in a proactive way. The e-conference attracted 124 registered participants\\u000a from 23 different countries and different professional backgrounds, who wrote 182 contributions in six different categories:\\u000a (I) Ethics; (II) Safety; (III)

Markus Schmidt; Helge Torgersen; Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra; Alexander Kelle; Anna Deplazes; Nikola Biller-Andorno

2008-01-01

324

Spinal Cord Injury Medicine. 6. Economic and Societal Issues in Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priebe MM, Chiodo AE, Scelza WM, Kirshblum SC, Wuermser LA, Ho CH. Spinal cord injury medicine. 6. Economic and societal issues in spinal cord injury.This self-directed learning module presents a variety of social and economic issues facing people with spinal cord injury (SCI). It is part of the study guide on SCI medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for

Michael M. Priebe; Anthony E. Chiodo; William M. Scelza; Steven C. Kirshblum; Lisa-Ann Wuermser; Chester H. Ho

2007-01-01

325

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests\\u000a are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant\\u000a to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass\\u000a these differences. One important development

Eline M Bunnik; Maartje HN Schermer; A Cecile JW Janssens

2011-01-01

326

Prospects for NonAlignment: India's Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-alignment is not a dinosaur. Never less than one-half and now almost two-thirds of the members of the United Nations Organization have styled their approach to external affairs as non-alignment. In the course of the last three decades and more, not one of the non-aligned nations has forsaken it in favour of alignment, not even in the most adverse of

Parvathi Vasudevan

1983-01-01

327

Alignment as the Basis for Successful Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pickering and Garrod (2004) argued that alignment is the basis of successful communication in dialogue. In other words, successful\\u000a communication goes hand-in-hand with the development of similar representations in the interlocutors. But what exactly does\\u000a this mean? In this paper, we attempt to define alignment, contrasting alignment of situation models with alignment of linguistic\\u000a representations. We then speculate on how

Martin J. Pickering; Simon Garrod

2006-01-01

328

Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA)

2011-03-01

329

Automatic heliostat track alignment method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heliostat alignment method consisting of a number of steps. The first step consists of commanding a sunbeam centroid to a target location to establish a reference position. The next step searches for the actual sunbeam centroid position and determines the sunbeam centroid position error. These actions are followed by the analysis of the sunbeam centroid position error, correlating the sunbeam position error to errors in a heliostat reference system, and changing the heliostat reference system to correct for track misalignment in order to establish a revised heliostat reference system. The final step is changing the track alignment based on the revised heliostat reference system to a new position to correct the track misalignment.

Not Available

1986-01-14

330

Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2010-02-01

331

Alignment talk in the job interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here describes aligning talk in simulated employment interviews. Alignment talk is used metacommunicatively by speakers to bracket, transform, or qualify other talk, hence it assumes great importance in how communicators define and evaluate situations. Four features of alignment talk appear both in the scholarly literature and in the speech of interview participants in our data: accounts, meta?talk,

Sandra L. Ragan; Robert Hopper

1981-01-01

332

Grain alignment in the intergalactic magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes for grain alignment in the intergalactic magnetic field are considered: evidence is examined for grains being spun up to extremely high (109 Hz) angular frequencies by the recoil of hydrogen recombination on grains, as an essential part of the alignment process. Grain alignment would then be inhibited in region of grain growth and would be most effective where grain

Ajoy K. Dasgupta

1983-01-01

333

Human-Mouse Alignments with BLASTZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mouse Genome Analysis Consortium aligned the human and mouse genome sequences for a variety of purposes, using alignment programs that suited the various needs. For investigating issues regarding genome evolution, a particularly sensitive method was needed to permit alignment of a large proportion of the neutrally evolving regions. We selected a program called BLASTZ, an independent implementation of the

Scott Schwartz; William Kent; Arian F. A. Smit; Robert Baertsch; Zheng Zhang

2003-01-01

334

Normalized global alignment for protein sequences.  

PubMed

Global alignment is used to compare proteins in different fields, for example in phylogenetic research. In order to reduce the length and composition dependence of global alignment scores, Z-score is computed with a Monte-Carlo algorithm. This technique requires a great number of sequence alignments on shuffled sequences, leading to a high computational cost. In this work, a normalized global alignment score is introduced in order to correct the length dependence of global alignments. This score is defined as the best ratio between the score of an alignment and its length, and an algorithm to compute it based on fractional programming is implemented. The properties and effectiveness of normalized global alignment applied to protein comparison are analyzed. Experiments with proteins selected from the SCOP ASTRAL database were run to study relationship of normalized global alignment with Z-score and performance in homologous detection. Results show that normalized global alignment has a computational cost equivalent to 2.5 Needleman-Wunsch runs and a linear relationship with Z-score. This linearity allows us to use normalized global alignment as a cheap substitute to a computationally expensive Z-score. Experiments show that normalized global alignment improves the ability to identify homologous proteins. Software used to compute normalized global alignments is available from http://www3.uji.es/?peris/nga. PMID:21945336

Peris, Guillermo; Marzal, Andrés

2011-09-21

335

Innovative optical alignment technique for CMP wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting position of the wafers such as after CMP process is critical theme of current and forthcoming IC manufacturing. The alignment system must be with high accuracy for any process. To satisfy such requirements, we have studied and analyzed factors that have made alignment difficult. From the result of the studies, we have developed new optical alignment techniques which improve

Ayako Sugaya; Yuho Kanaya; Shinichi Nakajima; Tadashi Nagayama; Naomasa Shiraishi

2002-01-01

336

Alignment: the duality of decision problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Identifying the state of alignment, when there is misalignment, and the path to achieve alignment are of central importance to decision makers today. This paper seeks to offer decision makers some actionable guidance in narrowing the search for possible solution methodologies and to develop a generalized decision alignment framework that can be applied to real decision problems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Christopher M. Scherpereel

2006-01-01

337

Multiposition alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that the stationary alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) can be improved by employing the multiposition\\/technique. Using an observability analysis, it is shown that an optimal two-position alignment not only satisfies complete observability conditions but also minimizes alignment errors. This is done by analytic rank testing of the stripped observability matrix and numerical calculation of the

J. G. Lee; C. G. Park; H. W. Park

1993-01-01

338

Foc/costar Fine Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This CONTINGENCY proposal will correct any small errors in the COSTAR/FOCalignment. In it, a small (3X3) tilt scan and a small (+/- 2mm) DOB focussweep is executed and images taken using the F486N at each setting. Thisproposal is only to be run if it is not possible to achieve the alignmentrequired from proposal 7009 (COSTAR/FOC Initial Alignment).

Jedrzejewski, Robert

1997-12-01

339

Structural alignment sensor feasibility demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural alignment sensor (SAS) was developed for use with large deployable antenna systems for contour measurement and\\/or active control. The SAS is a laser ranging system using frequency modulation and accurate phase measurement to determine distance. Work was done with a CO2 and HeNe laser. The capability of the SAS to measure antenna rib contours was studied over ranges

R. H. Anderson; C. C. Huang; J. R. Hodor

1978-01-01

340

SOAP: short oligonucleotide alignment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We have developed a program SOAP for efficient gapped and ungapped alignment of short oligonucleotides onto reference sequences. The program is designed to handle the huge amounts of short reads generated by parallel sequencing using the new generation Illumina-Solexa sequencing technology. SOAP is compa- tible with numerous applications, including single-read or pair-end resequencing, small RNA discovery and mRNA tag

Ruiqiang Li; Yingrui Li; Karsten Kristiansen; Jun Wang

2008-01-01

341

Self-aligning centrifugal supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the basic types of rotation-type supports has been given. The structures of self-aligning gasdynamic and\\u000a hydrodynamic centrifugal supports have been described. A comparative computational analysis of their efficiency has been made;\\u000a the advantage of the hydraulic support in realizing large-tonnage processes has been shown on the basis of the analysis.

S. M. Arinkin; L. P. Panasenko; E. V. Papok

2009-01-01

342

Aligning incentives in supply chains.  

PubMed

Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives. PMID:15559449

Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

2004-11-01

343

Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies.  

PubMed

An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper. PMID:18974854

Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

2007-01-01

344

Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies  

PubMed Central

An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper.

Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

2008-01-01

345

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

346

Managerial strategies to conflict management of not- for-profit organizations in Nigeria: A study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the managerial strategies to conflict management in non-profit making organizations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The essences of this study are to device effective strategies to conflict management and make appropriate recommendations for an effective conflict resolution, aimed at ensuring organizational development, productivity and societal growth. The study adopted the descriptive study pattern

Austin O. Oparanma; Donald I. Hamilton; John Ohaka

347

Strategie Calibration and Spatial Alignment: A Model From Prism Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of adaptive processes involved in prism adaptation have been identified: slower spatial realignment among the several unique sensorimotor coordinate systems (spatial maps) and faster strategic motor control responses (including skill learning and calibration) to spatial misalignment. One measures the 1st process by assessing the aftereffects of prism exposure, whereas direct effects of the prism during exposure are a

Gordon M. Redding; Benjamin Wallace

2002-01-01

348

Evolutionary inaccuracy of pairwise structural alignments  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Structural alignment methods are widely used to generate gold standard alignments for improving multiple sequence alignments and transferring functional annotations, as well as for assigning structural distances between proteins. However, the correctness of the alignments generated by these methods is difficult to assess objectively since little is known about the exact evolutionary history of most proteins. Since homology is an equivalence relation, an upper bound on alignment quality can be found by assessing the consistency of alignments. Measuring the consistency of current methods of structure alignment and determining the causes of inconsistencies can, therefore, provide information on the quality of current methods and suggest possibilities for further improvement. Results: We analyze the self-consistency of seven widely-used structural alignment methods (SAP, TM-align, Fr-TM-align, MAMMOTH, DALI, CE and FATCAT) on a diverse, non-redundant set of 1863 domains from the SCOP database and demonstrate that even for relatively similar proteins the degree of inconsistency of the alignments on a residue level is high (30%). We further show that levels of consistency vary substantially between methods, with two methods (SAP and Fr-TM-align) producing more consistent alignments than the rest. Inconsistency is found to be higher near gaps and for proteins of low structural complexity, as well as for helices. The ability of the methods to identify good structural alignments is also assessed using geometric measures, for which FATCAT (flexible mode) is found to be the best performer despite being highly inconsistent. We conclude that there is substantial scope for improving the consistency of structural alignment methods. Contact: msadows@nimr.mrc.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Sadowski, M. I.; Taylor, W. R.

2012-01-01

349

Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a fractured society to forge a lasting, stable peace, it requires not only a holistic approach to amnesty, reintegration, and reconciliation (AR2), but also a balance among three critical societal dimensions: political, security, and economic. If the ...

D. J. Ngo

2008-01-01

350

Visible light interferometer for EUVL system alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A visible wavelength interferometer has been developed for the alignment of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) camera. Although the EUVL camera will operate at 13.4 nm, the alignment is far more conveniently done at visible wavelengths, at ambient pressure. Traditional visible interferometers are not capable of reaching the better than 1 nm accuracy required for EUVL camera alignment; so a phase shifting diffraction-limited interferometer was constructed and used to align and quantify the EUVL wavefront to an accuracy better than (lambda) visible/2000. The interferometer and alignment process are described, and camera wavefront measurements presented.

Gaughan, Richard J.

1999-11-01

351

Aligning Two Genomic Sequences That Contain Duplications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to properly align genomic sequences that contain intra-species duplications. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, called TOAST (two-way orthologous alignment selection tool), for predicting whether two aligned regions from different species are orthologous, i.e., separated by a speciation event, as opposed to a duplication event. The advantage of restricting alignment to orthologous pairs is that they constitute the aligning regions that are most likely to share the same biological function, and most easily analyzed for evidence of selection. We evaluate TOAST on 12 human/mouse gene clusters.

Hou, Minmei; Riemer, Cathy; Berman, Piotr; Hardison, Ross C.; Miller, Webb

352

Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Ruland, R.E.

1991-10-01

353

Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment with MSAProbs.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) generally constitutes the foundation of many bioinformatics studies involving functional, structural, and evolutionary relationship analysis between sequences. As a result of the exponential computational complexity of the exact approach to producing optimal multiple alignments, the majority of state-of-the-art MSA algorithms are designed based on the progressive alignment heuristic. In this chapter, we outline MSAProbs, a parallelized MSA algorithm for protein sequences based on progressive alignment. To achieve high alignment accuracy, this algorithm employs a hybrid combination of a pair hidden Markov model and a partition function to calculate posterior probabilities. Furthermore, we provide some practical advice on the usage of the algorithm. PMID:24170405

Liu, Yongchao; Schmidt, Bertil

2014-01-01

354

?-RA: a parallel sparse index for genomic read alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic read alignment involves mapping (exactly or approximately) short reads from a particular individual onto a pre-sequenced reference genome of the same species. Because all individuals of the same species share the majority of their genomes, short reads alignment provides an alternative and much more efficient way to sequence the genome of a particular individual than does direct sequencing. Among many strategies proposed for this alignment process, indexing the reference genome and short read searching over the index is a dominant technique. Our goal is to design a space-efficient indexing structure with fast searching capability to catch the massive short reads produced by the next generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. Results We concentrate on indexing DNA sequences via sparse suffix arrays (SSAs) and propose a new short read aligner named ?-RA (PSI-RA: parallel sparse index read aligner). The motivation in using SSAs is the ability to trade memory against time. It is possible to fine tune the space consumption of the index based on the available memory of the machine and the minimum length of the arriving pattern queries. Although SSAs have been studied before for exact matching of short reads, an elegant way of approximate matching capability was missing. We provide this by defining the rightmost mismatch criteria that prioritize the errors towards the end of the reads, where errors are more probable. ?-RA supports any number of mismatches in aligning reads. We give comparisons with some of the well-known short read aligners, and show that indexing a genome with SSA is a good alternative to the Burrows-Wheeler transform or seed-based solutions. Conclusions ?-RA is expected to serve as a valuable tool in the alignment of short reads generated by the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology. ?-RA is very fast in exact matching and also supports rightmost approximate matching. The SSA structure that ?-RA is built on naturally incorporates the modern multicore architecture and thus further speed-up can be gained. All the information, including the source code of ?-RA, can be downloaded at: http://www.busillis.com/o_kulekci/PSIRA.zip.

2011-01-01

355

SAD - a normalized structural alignment database: improving sequence-structure alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: We present a structural alignment database that is specifically targeted for use in derivation and optimiza- tion of sequence-structure alignment algorithms for homology modeling. We have paid attention to ensure that fold-space is properly sampled, that the structures involved in align- ments are of significant resolution (better than 2.5 Å) and the alignments are accurate and reliable. Results: Alignments

Brian Marsden; Ruben Abagyan

2004-01-01

356

Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8?, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=?/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, ? is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8? and 16?, while a larger system of width 32? does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned—where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

Kumaran, V.; Raman, D. S. S.

2011-03-01

357

Antares beam-alignment-system performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

Appert, Q. D.; Bender, S. C.

358

Antares beam-alignment-system performance  

SciTech Connect

The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

1983-01-01

359

Design and analysis of hologram alignment mark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing an off-axis aspheric surface using Computer Generated Hologram (CGH), multiple combined CGH can not only test the off-axis aspheric surface but also align every element in test system. The alignment transmission CGH with a rectangle aperture, which produces an alignment mark at the designated point, can be used to align the off-axis aspheric surface and CGH. Hologram alignment mark is introduced firstly, then the design of hologram alignment mark is deduced in detail and a formula of calculating the position coordinate of every point on fringes is got. After that its diffraction characteristics are analyzed based on Fresnel diffraction theory, which is in line with Fraunhofer diffraction, and the effects of different length-width ratio of rectangle aperture are simulated. Finally an example of hologram alignment mark and its corresponding actual mark picture are given.

Li, Shijie; Wu, Fan; Chen, Qiang

2012-10-01

360

Practical alignment using an autostigmatic microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auto-stigmatic microscopes (ASM) are useful for bringing centers of curvatures of lenses and mirrors to the centers of balls used as part of an alignment fixture. However, setting up the fixture to get the balls used for alignment in a straight line to represent the optical axis generally requires another piece of equipment. We show that within a practical range, the autocollimation mode of a modern ASM can be used to align balls to an axis with about the same precision as they could be aligned with an alignment telescope, or laser tracker. As a lead in to this topic, we discuss our meaning of alignment, the means of positioning optically important features such as centers of curvature and foci to the coordinates specified on assembly drawings. Finally, we show a method of using an ASM along with other tooling to align a toroidal mirror using its foci.

Parks, Robert E.

2012-10-01

361

Alignment method for solar collector arrays  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

Driver, Jr., Richard B

2012-10-23

362

High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies. PMID:22947824

Delamontagne, R Georges

2010-11-11

363

Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic. PMID:22974260

Othman, Mohamed Tahar Ben; Abdel-Azim, Gamil

2013-08-01

364

Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show that it is possible using optical photolithography to obtain micron and submicron features for periodic structures in non-contact using the Talbot effect. In order for this effect to work it is important to have good control of the illumination light and here we show that the MO Exposure Optics (MOEO) developed by SUSS MicroOptics provides uniform and well collimated illumination light suitable for Talbot lithography. The MOEO can easily be incorporated into a standard mask aligner. Here we show 1?m and 0.65?m diameter holes in a hexagonal array in photoresist made in large-gap proximity printing.

Dunbar, L. A.; Bergonzi, G.; Vogler, U.; Angeloni, S.; Kirner, R.; Bramati, A.; Timotijevic, B.; Voelkel, R.; Stanley, R. P.

2013-03-01

365

Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P.; Managadze, A. K.; Snigirev, A. M.

2013-05-01

366

Hrs/fgs Fine Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proposal defines the Phase III HRS/FGS Fine Alignment Test. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine the coordinates of the LSA and SSA in V2/V3 coordinates with an accuracy of 0.02 arcsec, (2) to locate the SSA in V2/V3 coordinates, and (3) to refine the measurement of the plate scale and aperture orientation. This test is to be run once during OV/2, and 5 times during SV. Revised by S. Falgout at request of L. Nagel on 16-Oct-89 to match Imple- mentation Plan.

Troeltzsch, John

1990-07-01

367

Optimization of multiple-sequence alignment based on multiple-structure alignment.  

PubMed

Routinely used multiple-sequence alignment methods use only sequence information. Consequently, they may produce inaccurate alignments. Multiple-structure alignment methods, on the other hand, optimize structural alignment by ignoring sequence information. Here, we present an optimization method that unifies sequence and structure information. The alignment score is based on standard amino acid substitution probabilities combined with newly computed three-dimensional structure alignment probabilities. The advantage of our alignment scheme is in its ability to produce more accurate multiple alignments. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method in three applications: 1) computing more accurate multiple-sequence alignments, 2) analyzing protein conformational changes, and 3) computation of amino acid structure-sequence conservation with application to protein-protein docking prediction. The method is available at http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/staccato/. PMID:16294339

Shatsky, Maxim; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

2006-01-01

368

Aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube membranes.  

PubMed

An array of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was incorporated across a polymer film to form a well-ordered nanoporous membrane structure. This membrane structure was confirmed by electron microscopy, anisotropic electrical conductivity, gas flow, and ionic transport studies. The measured nitrogen permeance was consistent with the flux calculated by Knudsen diffusion through nanometer-scale tubes of the observed microstructure. Data on Ru(NH3)6(3+) transport across the membrane in aqueous solution also indicated transport through aligned CNT cores of the observed microstructure. The lengths of the nanotubes within the polymer film were reduced by selective electrochemical oxidation, allowing for tunable pore lengths. Oxidative trimming processes resulted in carboxylate end groups that were readily functionalized at the entrance to each CNT inner core. Membranes with CNT tips that were functionalized with biotin showed a reduction in Ru(NH3)6(3+) flux by a factor of 15 when bound with streptavidin, thereby demonstrating the ability to gate molecular transport through CNT cores for potential applications in chemical separations and sensing. PMID:14645855

Hinds, Bruce J; Chopra, Nitin; Rantell, Terry; Andrews, Rodney; Gavalas, Vasilis; Bachas, Leonidas G

2003-11-26

369

Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.

1989-03-01

370

Measuring alignment of loading fixture  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

1989-01-01

371

The linkage of technology strategy and overall strategy of multi business diversified groups: Literature review and theoritical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with technology strategy and its linkage with overall strategy at multi-business, diversified groups. In the last two decades, the alignment of technology and business strategy has been one of the important research fields in strategy and technology management scopes. These researchs has been concentrated on single companies through which different frameworks, models & decision support tools have

Mohammad R. Arasti; Mahdi Khaleghi; Javad Noori

2010-01-01

372

Resilience in family and nonfamily firms: an examination of the relationships between manufacturing strategy, competitive strategy and firm performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic recessions that affect firms regardless of location, increased competition and changes in customer expectations, all contribute to disruptions that require firms to be resilient. Building resilience is a long-term strategic initiative that changes the way a firm operates by aligning linkages between functional strategies and competitive strategy. This article compares the relationship between manufacturing strategy and competitive strategy, and

Moses Acquaah; Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah; Jayanth Jayaram

2011-01-01

373

Hydrogen Vehicles: Impacts of DOE Technical Targets on Market Acceptance and Societal Benefits  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen vehicles (H2V), including H2 internal combustion engine, fuel cell and fuel cell plugin hybrid, could greatly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The U.S. Department of Energy has adopted targets for vehicle component technologies to address key technical barriers towidespread commercialization of H2Vs. This study estimates the market acceptance of H2Vs and the resulting societal benefits and subsidy in 41 scenarios that reflect a wide range of progress in meeting these technical targets. Important results include: (1) H2Vs could reach 20e70% market shares by 2050, depending on progress in achieving the technical targets.With a basic hydrogen infrastructure (w5% hydrogen availability), the H2V market share is estimated to be 2e8%. Fuel cell and hydrogen costs are the most important factors affecting the long-term market shares of H2Vs. (2) Meeting all technical targets on time could result in about an 80% cut in petroleumuse and a 62% (or 72% with aggressive electricity de-carbonization) reduction in GHG in 2050. (3) The required hydrogen infrastructure subsidy is estimated to range from $22 to $47 billion and the vehicle subsidy from $4 to $17 billion. (4) Long-term H2V market shares, societal benefits and hydrogen subsidies appear to be highly robust against delay in one target, if all other targets are met on time. R&D diversification could provide insurance for greater societal benefits. (5) Both H2Vs and plug-in electric vehicles could exceed 50% market shares by 2050, if all targets are met on time. The overlapping technology, the fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, appears attractive both in the short and long runs, but for different reasons.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University; Greene, David L [ORNL

2013-01-01

374

Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment.

Uddin, Waheed

2006-01-01

375

Aligning Business Motivations in a Services Computing Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difficulty in aligning business strategies with the design of enterprise systems has been recognised as a major inhibitor of successful IT initiatives. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) initiatives imply an entirely new approach to enterprise process enablement and require significant architectural redesign. Successful SOA deployments are highly dependent on the degree to which flexible support for evolving business strategies is embedded into their designs. This chapter addresses the challenge of modelling business strategies in support of SOA designs. The proposed framework is derived from conceptual elements introduced in the OMG business motivation model and delivers an architectural view for business stakeholders in a computational-independent model (CIM). This model represents the first of three layers that will define a complete reference architecture for a service-based computing model.

Roach, T.; Low, G.; D'Ambra, J.

376

The imperative for hospital-based palliative care: patient, institutional, and societal benefits  

PubMed Central

Challenges in societal demographics, finances, and human suffering are pushing us towards a new paradigm in health care delivery. The palliative care paradigm is a necessary complement to existing acute care and chronic care paradigms. Palliative care does not replace prior paradigms; instead, it adds value and provides a shift in focus when appropriate. Baylor University Medical Center has all of the components needed for an effective palliative care program, including expertise in palliative medicine, pain management, ethics, geriatrics, oncology, other medical specialties, nursing, social work, and pastoral care. The palliative care consultation service will enhance patient care and improve financial performance in patients with serious life-limiting illnesses.

2004-01-01

377

Societal and Ethical Implications of Anti-Spoofing Technologies in Biometrics.  

PubMed

Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues. PMID:23579470

Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

2013-04-12

378

CSI Feedback Reduction for MIMO Interference Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interference alignment (IA) is a linear precoding strategy that can achieve optimal capacity scaling at high SNR in interference networks. Most of the existing IA designs require full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters, which induces a huge CSI signaling cost. Hence it is desirable to improve the feedback efficiency for IA and in this paper, we propose a novel IA scheme with a significantly reduced CSI feedback. To quantify the CSI feedback cost, we introduce a novel metric, namely the feedback dimension. This metric serves as a first-order measurement of CSI feedback overhead. Due to the partial CSI feedback constraint, conventional IA schemes can not be applied and hence, we develop a novel IA precoder / decorrelator design and establish new IA feasibility conditions. Via dynamic feedback profile design, the proposed IA scheme can also achieve a flexible tradeoff between the degree of freedom (DoF) requirements for data streams, the antenna resources and the CSI feedback cost. We show by analysis and simulations that the proposed scheme achieves substantial reductions of CSI feedback overhead under the same DoF requirement in MIMO interference networks.

Rao, Xiongbin; Ruan, Liangzhong; Lau, Vincent K. N.

2013-09-01

379

Cylinder lens alignment in the LTP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of the lens and mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

Takacs, Peter Z.

2005-08-01

380

CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP  

SciTech Connect

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

TAKACS, P.Z.

2005-07-26

381

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

Maxey, L.C.

1993-09-28

382

Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates.

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

2011-01-01

383

Remote indicator for a laser alignment system  

SciTech Connect

A remote indicator is described for the main receiver of a laser alignment system the combination comprising: connecting means between the main receiver and the remote indicator. The connecting means is operable to supply power to the remote indicator and to transmit to the remote indicator alignment data indicative of the relative alignment detected by the main receiver; an LCD in the remote indicator coupled to the connecting means and operable to provide a visual indication of the alignment data; illuminating means located in back of the LCD operable when turned on to make the LCD visible under conditions of reduced ambient light; and switching means connected to the illuminating means and the connecting means and being operable to turn the illuminating means on if the alignment data is present and to turn the illuminating means off if the alignment data is not present.

Poling, M.E.

1987-03-31

384

Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: l findings are applicable to automaticdatabase searches.Keywords: alignment quality analysis\\/evolutionary conservation\\/genome analysis\\/protein sequence alignment\\/sequence spacehoppingIntroductionProtein sequence alignments in twilight zoneProtein sequences fold into unique three-dimensional (3D)structures. However, proteins with similar sequences adoptsimilar structures (Zuckerkandl and Pauling, 1965; Doolittle,1981; Doolittle, 1986; Chothia and Lesk, 1986). Indeed, mostprotein...

Burkhard Rost

1999-01-01

385

Antares beam-alignment-system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope\\/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system

Q. D. Appert; S. C. Bender

1983-01-01

386

Aligning Simulation Models of Biological Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aligned two fundamentally different models of disea se transmission after a bioterrorist attack: a multi-agent model (BioWar) and the conventio nal Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model. The purpose of this alignment is part of a gre ater validation process for BioWar. We conducted two model alignment studies based on smallpox and anthrax attack simulations. From these two studies we were able

Li-Chiou Chen; Kathleen M. Carley; Boris Kaminsky; Tiffany Tummino; Elizabeth Casman; Douglas Fridsma; Alex Yahja

387

On Suboptimal Alignments of Biological Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

. It is widely accepted that the optimal alignmentbetween a pairof proteins or nucleic acid sequences that minimizes the edit distance maynot necessarily re#ect the correct biological alignment. Alignments of proteinsbased on their structures or of DNA sequences based on evolutionary changesare often di#erent from alignments that minimize edit distance. However, inmany cases #e.g. when the sequences are close#, the

Dalit Naor; Douglas L. Brutlag

1993-01-01

388

The twilight zone of cis element alignments  

PubMed Central

Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein–DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein–DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments.

Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

2013-01-01

389

Fast DNA sequence alignment using optical computing  

SciTech Connect

Alignment of DNA sequences is a necessary step prior to comparison of sequence data. High-speed alignment is needed due to the large size of DNA databases. Correlation, a standard pattern recognition technique, can be used to perform alignment. Correlation can be performed rapidly using optical techniques. Thus, optical correlation offers the potential for high-speed processing of DNA sequence data. This report describes research efforts to apply one-dimensional acousto-optical correlation methods to the problem of DNA sequence alignment. Experimental results are presented.

Yee, M.L.; Craft, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Exploratory Image Processing Systems II Dept.

1996-11-01

390

Molecular alignment using circularly polarized laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produce field-free alignment in linear and planar molecules. We study the rotational wavepacket evolution of O2 and benzene created by circularly polarized light. For benzene, we align the molecular plane to the plane of polarization. For O2, we demonstrate that circular polarization yields a net alignment along the laser propagation axis at certain phases of the evolution. Circular polarization gives us the ability to control alignment of linear molecules outside the plane of polarization, providing new capabilities for molecular imaging.

Smeenk, C. T. L.; Corkum, P. B.

2013-10-01

391

Optimal Network Alignment with Graphlet Degree Vectors  

PubMed Central

Important biological information is encoded in the topology of biological networks. Comparative analyses of biological networks are proving to be valuable, as they can lead to transfer of knowledge between species and give deeper insights into biological function, disease, and evolution. We introduce a new method that uses the Hungarian algorithm to produce optimal global alignment between two networks using any cost function. We design a cost function based solely on network topology and use it in our network alignment. Our method can be applied to any two networks, not just biological ones, since it is based only on network topology. We use our new method to align protein-protein interaction networks of two eukaryotic species and demonstrate that our alignment exposes large and topologically complex regions of network similarity. At the same time, our alignment is biologically valid, since many of the aligned protein pairs perform the same biological function. From the alignment, we predict function of yet unannotated proteins, many of which we validate in the literature. Also, we apply our method to find topological similarities between metabolic networks of different species and build phylogenetic trees based on our network alignment score. The phylogenetic trees obtained in this way bear a striking resemblance to the ones obtained by sequence alignments. Our method detects topologically similar regions in large networks that are statistically significant. It does this independent of protein sequence or any other information external to network topology.

Milenkovic, Tijana; Ng, Weng Leong; Hayes, Wayne; Przulj, Natasa

2010-01-01

392

The estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction in recent light-duty vehicles on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled.  

PubMed

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane, 2012). Societal fatality risk includes the risk to both the occupants of the case vehicle as well as any crash partner or pedestrians. The current analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. This paper replicates the Kahane analysis and extends it by testing the sensitivity of his results to changes in the definition of risk, and the data and control variables used in the regression models. An assessment by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in Kahane's previous studies, and is statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars (Wenzel, 2012a). The estimated effects of a reduction in mass or footprint (i.e. wheelbase times track width) are small relative to other vehicle, driver, and crash variables used in the regression models. The recent historical correlation between mass and footprint is not so large to prohibit including both variables in the same regression model; excluding footprint from the model, i.e. allowing footprint to decrease with mass, increases the estimated detrimental effect of mass reduction on risk in cars and crossover utility vehicles (CUVs)/minivans, but has virtually no effect on light trucks. Analysis by footprint deciles indicates that risk does not consistently increase with reduced mass for vehicles of similar footprint. Finally, the estimated effects of mass and footprint reduction are sensitive to the measure of exposure used (fatalities per induced exposure crash, rather than per VMT), as well as other changes in the data or control variables used. It appears that the safety penalty from lower mass can be mitigated with careful vehicle design, and that manufacturers can reduce mass as a strategy to increase their vehicles' fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions without necessarily compromising societal safety. PMID:23850544

Wenzel, Tom

2013-06-21

393

Addressing elder abuse: review of societal responses in India and selected Asian countries.  

PubMed

In India, during the last two decades, significant developments in societal responses to address elder abuse have emerged. There is greater emphasis on recognizing that older people may be subjected to abuse and neglect by family members and the community as well. Although there is growing interest in the collection of valid statistics on the incidence and prevalence of elder abuse, there is still a need for bringing better clarity on the conceptual understanding and refining definitions of elder abuse. The government, academic community, and the civil society are working toward understanding the underlying causes of elder abuse and neglect and are focusing on appropriate interventions to address it. This paper notes the developments in recognizing elder abuse and reviews the responses in addressing the issue from a legal, social, and public health perspective in India compared with some of the Asian countries, namely China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. While the paper highlights the Indian experience, it is also put in an Asian context where emerging demographics are raising many concerns related to the aging of the population, and the new dynamics of relationships at the family, community, and societal levels demand fresh approaches and thoughts toward improving the quality of life of older people and reducing their vulnerability toward the risk of abuse and neglect. PMID:23731939

Shankardass, Mala Kapur

2013-06-04

394

Instrument for the measurement of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs.  

PubMed

Due to the importance of the relation between attitudes and the experimentation with and use of drugs among adolescents, an instrument was developed composed of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs. A pilot study was carried out on the basis of which a questionnaire containing 63 items was constructed. This questionnaire was given to the research sample of 566 Israeli high school students aged 15-17. Three criteria were used to determine the final version of the instrument, which contains 55 items. Factor analysis revealed seven factors: curiosity and willingness to use drugs, social concern, individual freedom, attribution of positive characteristics to drugs, perceived harmfulness of drugs, perceived characteristics of drug users, and legalization of drugs. Reliability of the factors ranges from alpha = 0.64 to alpha = 0.88; reliability of the entire questionnaire is alpha = 0.89. A short version of the questionnaire consisting of 27 items (alpha = 0.80) was developed for special populations. These findings suggest that the Green Individual and Societal Attitudes Toward Drugs Questionnaire can be employed as a diagnostic tool to identify potential drug experimenters, and as a planning and evaluation measure to preventive drug educational programs. PMID:2228330

Green, D

1990-02-01

395

Towards a complexity theory of strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the creation of a complexity theory of strategy by integrating a number of ideas that have previously been explored independently in the strategy literature, namely improvisation, minimal structures, simple rules, dynamic capabilities, bricolage, and organizational resilience. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Organizations are taken as complex adaptive systems that align with their

Miguel Pina e Cunha; Joao Vieira da Cunha

2006-01-01

396

GramAlign: Fast alignment driven by grammar-based phylogeny.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment involves identifying related subsequences among biological sequences. When matches are found, the associated pieces are shifted so that when sequences are presented as successive rows-one sequence per row-homologous residues line-up in columns. Exact alignment of more than a few sequences is known to be computationally prohibitive. Thus many heuristic algorithms have been developed to produce good alignments in an efficient amount of time by determining an order by which pairs of sequences are progressively aligned and merged. GRAMALIGN is such a progressive alignment algorithm that uses a grammar-based relative complexity distance metric to determine the alignment order. This technique allows for a computationally efficient and scalable program useful for aligning both large numbers of sequences and sets of long sequences quickly. The GRAMALIGN software is available at http://bioinfo.unl.edu/gramalign.php for both source code download and a web-based alignment server. PMID:24170402

Russell, David J

2014-01-01

397

Automatic Non-rigid Temporal Alignment of Intravascular Ultrasound Sequences: Method and Quantitative Validation.  

PubMed

Clinical studies on atherosclerosis regression/progression performed by intravascular ultrasound analysis would benefit from accurate alignment of sequences of the same patient before and after clinical interventions and at follow-up. In this article, a methodology for automatic alignment of intravascular ultrasound sequences based on the dynamic time warping technique is proposed. The non-rigid alignment is adapted to the specific task by applying it to multidimensional signals describing the morphologic content of the vessel. Moreover, dynamic time warping is embedded into a framework comprising a strategy to address partial overlapping between acquisitions and a term that regularizes non-physiologic temporal compression/expansion of the sequences. Extensive validation is performed on both synthetic and in vivo data. The proposed method reaches alignment errors of approximately 0.43 mm for pairs of sequences acquired during the same intervention phase and 0.77 mm for pairs of sequences acquired at successive intervention stages. PMID:23791349

Alberti, Marina; Balocco, Simone; Carrillo, Xavier; Mauri, Josepa; Radeva, Petia

2013-06-19

398

Can Anatomic Alignment Measured from a Knee Radiograph Substitute for Mechanical Alignment from Full Limb Films?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether categories of anatomic alignment (varus, neutral,valgus) measured from knee x-rays agree with similar categories of mechanical alignment from the full limb film and whether varus anatomic malalignment predicts medial joint space loss on knee x-rays as well as varus mechanical alignment. Methods We used data from the OAI (full limb and flexed knee x-rays) to examine agreement of anatomic and mechanical alignment and data from BOKS to evaluate the association of full limb mechanical alignment vs. knee x-ray anatomic alignment with joint space loss. A four degree offset was used to correct for the more valgus angulation of the anatomic alignment. Results Of 143 subjects whose knee x-rays and full limb films were publicly released from the OAI, the agreement of varus, neutral and valgus alignment was only moderate (?= 0.43, p<.001). In BOKS, varus mechanical and anatomic alignments measured from full limb and knee x-rays respectively both predicted a high risk of medial joint space loss vs. neutral alignment (for mechanical alignment, OR = 4.82 (95% CI 1.93, 12.00) and for anatomic alignment OR = 4.25 (95% CI 2.08,8.72). Conclusions While agreement of alignment from knee x-ray to full limb film was only moderate, varus malalignment measured from a flexed knee predicted the likelihood of progression well. Flexed knee alignment may be more relevant to knee OA risk than that of a fully extended knee, but a measurement of alignment from a short limb is an imperfect surrogate for full limb alignment.

Felson, David T.; Cooke, T. Derek V.; Niu, Jingbo; Goggins, Joyce; Choi, John; Yu, Joseph; Nevitt, Michael C.

2009-01-01

399

A genome alignment algorithm based on compression  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional genome alignment methods consider sequence alignment as a variation of the string edit distance problem, and perform alignment by matching characters of the two sequences. They are often computationally expensive and unable to deal with low information regions. Furthermore, they lack a well-principled objective function to measure the performance of sets of parameters. Since genomic sequences carry genetic information, this article proposes that the information content of each nucleotide in a position should be considered in sequence alignment. An information-theoretic approach for pairwise genome local alignment, namely XMAligner, is presented. Instead of comparing sequences at the character level, XMAligner considers a pair of nucleotides from two sequences to be related if their mutual information in context is significant. The information content of nucleotides in sequences is measured by a lossless compression technique. Results Experiments on both simulated data and real data show that XMAligner is superior to conventional methods especially on distantly related sequences and statistically biased data. XMAligner can align sequences of eukaryote genome size with only a modest hardware requirement. Importantly, the method has an objective function which can obviate the need to choose parameter values for high quality alignment. The alignment results from XMAligner can be integrated into a visualisation tool for viewing purpose. Conclusions The information-theoretic approach for sequence alignment is shown to overcome the mentioned problems of conventional character matching alignment methods. The article shows that, as genomic sequences are meant to carry information, considering the information content of nucleotides is helpful for genomic sequence alignment. Availability Downloadable binaries, documentation and data can be found at ftp://ftp.infotech.monash.edu.au/software/DNAcompress-XM/XMAligner/.

2010-01-01

400

Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Maryland's Vulnerability to Climate Change. Phase 2: Building Societal, Economic, and Ecological Resilience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 20, 2007, Governor Martin O'Malley signed an Executive Order establishing the Maryland Commission on Climate Change (MCCC) and charging them with developing an action plan to address the causes of climate change and prepare for the likely impacts...

2011-01-01

401

Improving the alignment quality of consistency based aligners with an evaluation function using synonymous protein words.  

PubMed

Most sequence alignment tools can successfully align protein sequences with higher levels of sequence identity. The accuracy of corresponding structure alignment, however, decreases rapidly when considering distantly related sequences (<20% identity). In this range of identity, alignments optimized so as to maximize sequence similarity are often inaccurate from a structural point of view. Over the last two decades, most multiple protein aligners have been optimized for their capacity to reproduce structure-based alignments while using sequence information. Methods currently available differ essentially in the similarity measurement between aligned residues using substitution matrices, Fourier transform, sophisticated profile-profile functions, or consistency-based approaches, more recently.In this paper, we present a flexible similarity measure for residue pairs to improve the quality of protein sequence alignment. Our approach, called SymAlign, relies on the identification of conserved words found across a sizeable fraction of the considered dataset, and supported by evolutionary analysis. These words are then used to define a position specific substitution matrix that better reflects the biological significance of local similarity. The experiment results show that the SymAlign scoring scheme can be incorporated within T-Coffee to improve sequence alignment accuracy. We also demonstrate that SymAlign is less sensitive to the presence of structurally non-similar proteins. In the analysis of the relationship between sequence identity and structure similarity, SymAlign can better differentiate structurally similar proteins from non- similar proteins. We show that protein sequence alignments can be significantly improved using a similarity estimation based on weighted n-grams. In our analysis of the alignments thus produced, sequence conservation becomes a better indicator of structural similarity. SymAlign also provides alignment visualization that can display sub-optimal alignments on dot-matrices. The visualization makes it easy to identify well-supported alternative alignments that may not have been identified by dynamic programming. SymAlign is available at http://bio-cluster.iis.sinica.edu.tw/SymAlign/. PMID:22163274

Lin, Hsin-Nan; Notredame, Cédric; Chang, Jia-Ming; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

2011-12-02

402

Adaptive optical alignment in microgravity environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgravity researchers use optical measurement techniques to study fluid samples undergoing crystallization, solidification, separation, mixing, and other processes. However, optical systems are often environmentally sensitive, and can be difficult to keep aligned in space. We have developed a system that autonomously maintains alignment with a software controller and electronic feedback loops that adjust optical components. The project goal was to

Robert B. Owen

1997-01-01

403

Alignment of Non-Overlapping Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how two image sequences that have no spatial overlap between their fields of view can be aligned both in time and in space. Such alignment is possible when the two cameras are attached closely together and are moved jointly in space. The common motion induces \\

Yaron Caspi; Michal Irani

2001-01-01

404

MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 ? m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas

2005-02-01

405

Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments  

SciTech Connect

Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

1999-08-15

406

NICMOS Pre-Alignment Check-out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the initial optical alignment in focus and tilt for all three cameras. This proposal has been broken down into 4 sub-proposals to make implementation easier. The four phases of the NICMOS Focus/Alignment activity are: # 1} Pre-Alignment Check-out {prop 7134} 2} Coarse Optical Alignment {Initial Focus Sweep} {prop 7041} 3} Intermediate Focus/Alignment {prop 7135} 4} Fine Optical Alignment {prop 7042} # This is proposal 7134; Pre-Alignment Check-out ----------------------- Objectives: a} Check camera field-of-view positions {aperture location in V2/V3} b} Optically verify PAM mechanism operation and polarities c} Optically verify OTA offset slew polarities/magnitudes for field-of-view vs. PAM-focus compensation d} Check exposure time vs defocus e} Check field spatial density {sufficient skyaround PSFs for encircled- energy software to work vs. sufficient number of stars} f} Allow 7-10 days to calculate and upload offsets and/or fix problems before the next activity

Schneider, Glenn

1997-12-01

407

Gait alignment in mobile phone conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversation partners on mobile phones can align their walk- ing gait without physical proximity or visual feedback. We investigate gait synchronization, measured by accelerome- ters while users converse via mobile phones. Hilbert trans- forms are used to infer gait phase angle, and techniques from synchronization theory are used to infer level of alignment. Experimental conditions include the use of vibrotactile

Roderick Murray-smith; Andrew Ramsay; Simon Garrod; Melissa Jackson; Bojan Musizza

2007-01-01

408

Operational performance of the Antares alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the operational performance of the alignment system for the large Antares optical system is presented. The alignment of twenty-four optical channels consisting of two hundred optical elements is verified and established as required prior to each target shot for this COâ laser fusion test facility. The overall system design included features such as automatic operation, data base

S. C. Bender; Q. D. Appert

1984-01-01

409

Coelostat and heliostat: Theory of alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For perfectly aligned heliostats and coelostats tracking at the solar rate and half the solar rate, respectively, the solar beam has no translational motion. But, particularly in the field at eclipses, it is not possible to align heliostats and coelostats with infinite precision. We derive the effect of small misalignments on the translational motion of the beam, and give tables

Marek Demianski; Jay M. Pasachoff

1984-01-01

410

Prediction and Alignment of Metabolic Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction and reconstruction of metabolic pathways from rudimentary molecular data is a fundamental way to understand the logic of life. Comparing metabolic pathways are important to identify conservation and variations among different biology systems. Alignment is a strong indicator of the biologically significant relationship. In this article, a definition of metabolic pathway is presented. An alignment algorithm and a computational

M. Chen; R. Hofestaedt

411

Conditional squeezing of an atomic alignment  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the possibility to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of the collective alignment of an atomic ensemble in the case of a F{>=}1 spin. We compare the case of purely vectorial and purely tensorial Hamiltonians and show how to achieve conditional squeezing or entanglement of atomic alignment components.

Cviklinski, J.; Ortalo, J.; Pinard, M. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dantan, A. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C. (Denmark)

2007-09-15

412

Face alignment via boosted ranking model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face alignment seeks to deform a face model to match it with the features of the image of a face by optimizing an ap- propriate cost function. We propose a new face model that is aligned by maximizing a score function, which we learn from training data, and that we impose to be concave. We show that this problem can

Hao Wu; Xiaoming Liu; Gianfranco Doretto

2008-01-01

413

Simple x-ray alignment monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple x-ray alignment monitor having greater sensitivity than a hand-held fluorescent screen has been built and tested. The monitor is useful for alignment of diffractometers and powder cameras. The device is small, lightweight, rugged, and does not require a high-voltage power supply.

P. A. Steinmeyer

1988-01-01

414

Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

Branson, Christopher M.

2008-01-01

415

Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

2011-01-01

416

Linguistic alignment between people and computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong evidence that when two people talk to each other, they tend to converge, or align, on common ways of speaking (e.g., Pickering and Garrod, 2004). In this paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that might lead to linguistic alignment, contrasting mechanisms that are encapsulated within the language processing system, and so unmediated by beliefs about the interlocutor, with

Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Jamie Pearson; Janet F. McLean

2010-01-01

417

Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research…

Polikoff, Morgan S.

2012-01-01

418

Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems  

PubMed Central

The most expensive aspects in producing high quality miniature optical systems are the component costs and long assembly process. A new approach for fabricating these systems that reduces both aspects through the implementation of self-aligning LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, or x-ray lithography, electroplating, and molding) optomechanics with high volume plastic injection molded and off-the-shelf glass optics is presented. This zero alignment strategy has been incorporated into a miniature high numerical aperture (NA = 1.0W) microscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope. Tight alignment tolerances of less than 10 ?m are maintained for all components that reside inside of a small 9 gauge diameter hypodermic tubing. A prototype system has been tested using the slanted edge modulation transfer function technique and demonstrated to have a Strehl ratio of 0.71. This universal technology is now being developed for smaller, needle-sized imaging systems and other portable point-of-care diagnostic instruments.

Kester, Robert T.; Christenson, Todd; Kortum, Rebecca Richards; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2009-01-01

419

Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors  

DOEpatents

A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)

1993-01-01

420

Relaxation of Liquid Crystal Alignment Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for investigating thermophysical transitions in liquid crystal alignment layers is discussed. The technique involves curing a set of alignment films at an array of temperatures after the films have been brushed with a cloth, but before liquid crystal cells are constructed from the films. When a thermal transition in the polymer is initiated by a post-brush cure, the aligning ability of the brushed films is destroyed. The technique is demonstrated using polyamide- imide, PMDA-APB polyimide, poly(phenylene ether sulfide) and PVA poly(vinyl alcohol) alignment films. The technique is advantageous for examining brush-aligned surfaces which, due to surface roughness, can not be examined using conventional ellipsometry .

Rich, David C.; Sichel, Enid K.; Cebe, Peggy

1997-03-01

421

Alignment algorithm for homology modeling and threading.  

PubMed Central

A DNA/protein sequence comparison is a popular computational tool for molecular biologists. Finding a good alignment implies an evolutionary and/or functional relationship between proteins or genomic loci. Sequential similarity between two proteins indicates their structural resemblance, providing a practical approach for structural modeling, when structure of one of these proteins is known. The first step in the homology modeling is a construction of an accurate sequence alignment. The commonly used alignment algorithms do not provide an adequate treatment of the structurally mismatched residues in locally dissimilar regions. We propose a simple modification of the existing alignment algorithm which treats these regions properly and demonstrate how this modification improves sequence alignments in real proteins.

Alexandrov, N. N.; Luethy, R.

1998-01-01

422

Operational performance of the Antares alignment system  

SciTech Connect

A review of the operational performance of the alignment system for the large Antares optical system is presented. The alignment of twenty-four optical channels consisting of two hundred optical elements is verified and established as required prior to each target shot for this CO/sub 2/ laser fusion test facility. The overall system design included features such as automatic operation, data base driven controls, self calibration, provisions for initial optical alignment set up, and system aided fault location. The system approach employed two alignment stations which sequentially viewed the 24 optical channels (sectors) and could be used for prealignments and calibrations. Closed-loop operations via the computer permit rapid mirror alignments. The performance of the applied techniques and devices is evaluated and compared to the required performance specifically from the standpoint of accuracy and shot rate. Overall system performance with verification by actual target shots is presented.

Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.

1984-01-01

423

Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

2011-01-01

424

A spectral approach to protein structure alignment.  

PubMed

A new intrinsic geometry based on a spectral analysis is used to motivate methods for aligning protein folds. The geometry is induced by the fact that a distance matrix can be scaled so that its eigenvalues are positive. We provide a mathematically rigorous development of the intrinsic geometry underlying our spectral approach and use it to motivate two alignment algorithms. The first uses eigenvalues alone and dynamic programming to quickly compute a fold alignment. Family identification results are reported for the Skolnick40 and Proteus300 data sets. The second algorithm extends our spectral method by iterating between our intrinsic geometry and the 3D geometry of a fold to make high-quality alignments. Results and comparisons are reported for several difficult fold alignments. The second algorithm's ability to correctly identify fold families in the Skolnick40 and Proteus300 data sets is also established. PMID:21301031

Shibberu, Yosi; Holder, Allen

425

High quality protein sequence alignment by combining structural profile prediction and profile alignment using SABERTOOTH  

PubMed Central

Background Protein alignments are an essential tool for many bioinformatics analyses. While sequence alignments are accurate for proteins of high sequence similarity, they become unreliable as they approach the so-called 'twilight zone' where sequence similarity gets indistinguishable from random. For such distant pairs, structure alignment is of much better quality. Nevertheless, sequence alignment is the only choice in the majority of cases where structural data is not available. This situation demands development of methods that extend the applicability of accurate sequence alignment to distantly related proteins. Results We develop a sequence alignment method that combines the prediction of a structural profile based on the protein's sequence with the alignment of that profile using our recently published alignment tool SABERTOOTH. In particular, we predict the contact vector of protein structures using an artificial neural network based on position-specific scoring matrices generated by PSI-BLAST and align these predicted contact vectors. The resulting sequence alignments are assessed using two different tests: First, we assess the alignment quality by measuring the derived structural similarity for cases in which structures are available. In a second test, we quantify the ability of the significance score of the alignments to recognize structural and evolutionary relationships. As a benchmark we use a representative set of the SCOP (structural classification of proteins) database, with similarities ranging from closely related proteins at SCOP family level, to very distantly related proteins at SCOP fold level. Comparing these results with some prominent sequence alignment tools, we find that SABERTOOTH produces sequence alignments of better quality than those of Clustal W, T-Coffee, MUSCLE, and PSI-BLAST. HHpred, one of the most sophisticated and computationally expensive tools available, outperforms our alignment algorithm at family and superfamily levels, while the use of SABERTOOTH is advantageous for alignments at fold level. Our alignment scheme will profit from future improvements of structural profiles prediction. Conclusions We present the automatic sequence alignment tool SABERTOOTH that computes pairwise sequence alignments of very high quality. SABERTOOTH is especially advantageous when applied to alignments of remotely related proteins. The source code is available at http://www.fkp.tu-darmstadt.de/sabertooth_project/, free for academic users upon request.

2010-01-01

426

A haplome alignment and reference sequence of the highly polymorphic Ciona savignyi genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of Ciona savignyi was determined using a whole-genome shotgun strategy, but a high degree of polymorphism resulted in a fractured assembly\\u000a wherein allelic sequences from the same genomic region assembled separately. We designed a multistep strategy to generate\\u000a a nonredundant reference sequence from the original assembly by reconstructing and aligning the two 'haplomes' (haploid genomes).\\u000a In the resultant

Kerrin S Small; Michael Brudno; Matthew M Hill; Arend Sidow

2007-01-01

427

Phylo: A Citizen Science Approach for Improving Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying “crowd sourcing” techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of “human-brain peta-flops” of computation that are spent every day playing games. Phylo is available at: http://phylo.cs.mcgill.ca.

Kam, Alfred; Kwak, Daniel; Leung, Clarence; Wu, Chu; Zarour, Eleyine; Sarmenta, Luis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Waldispuhl, Jerome

2012-01-01

428

Conserved pathways within bacteria and yeast as revealed by global protein network alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implement a strategy for aligning two protein-protein interaction networks that combines interaction topology and protein sequence similarity to identify conserved interaction pathways and complexes. Using this approach we show that the protein-protein interaction networks of two distantly related species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Helicobacter pylori, harbor a large complement of evolutionarily conserved pathways, and that a large number of pathways

Brian P. Kelley; Roded Sharan; Richard M. Karp; Taylor Sittler; David E. Root; Brent R. Stockwell; Trey Ideker

2003-01-01

429

Strategic relationships between boundary-spanning functions: Aligning customer relationship management with supplier relationship management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the potential impact of enhanced strategic relationships between the boundary-spanning functions in supplier organizations. Specifically, the concern is with alignment between the organizational groups managing: marketing, sales and strategic account management; purchasing and supply strategy; and, collaborations and external partnerships. The topic is framed by the organizational evolution being driven by market change, and the search

Nigel F. Piercy

2009-01-01

430

MODELING HIGHER ORDER THINKING: THE ALIGNMENT BETWEEN OBJECTIVES, CLASSROOM DISCOURSE, AND ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of cognition modeled and the alignment among the levels of cognition modeled via course objectives, instructional strategies, and assessments in preservice teacher preparation courses. The accessible sample consisted of seven teacher educators teaching courses for secondary and middle school-level education majors at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Higher levels of cognition

Anna L. Ball; Bryan L. Garton

2005-01-01

431

Bridging the Gap: From Research about IT Alignment to Actual Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing focus on the need to ensure that the information technology (IT) provision within the organization is aligned with business strategy in order to create value. This has come about partly as a result of evidence that IT does not automatically contribute to the generation of value within organizations and may in fact offer little return on

Michael S Gendron; David A Banks

432

How do foreign cosmetics companies align their supply chains and distribution channels in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backed by robust economic growth, China's cosmetics market has grown dramatically in recent years. As foreign cosmetics companies develop strategies for establishing or expanding their presence in China, they need to ensure proper alignment between their supply chain configurations and distribution channels. Because no public data is available, we use a case study approach to investigate the extent these foreign

Tony Wu; Weiwei Wang; Christopher S. Tang; David Liu; Frances Gao; Cindy Fang

2008-01-01

433

Structural determinants of the abortion rate: a cross-societal analysis.  

PubMed

Data for a sample of 89 countries are used to examine societal-level predictors of the legal status of abortion and its incidence as indicated by abortion rates. Measures of socioeconomic development, women's labor force participation, and dominant religion are considered as predictors of abortion. Logistic regression analysis reveals that socioeconomic development has a positive effect on the probability of abortion being legal. Both a greater dominance of Catholicism and Islam in a society reduce the probability that abortion is legal. Results of tobit analyses show that development has curvilinear effects on abortion rates, with lower rates of abortion at both the lower and higher ends of development. Findings also indicate a positive effect of female labor force participation on the abortion rate that initially grows stronger with increases in socioeconomic development, but weakens with further increases. Finally, a greater proportion of Catholics in a population lowers the abortion rate. PMID:10842502

Trent, K; Hoskin, A W

434

The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

Dick, Steven J.

435

The changing face of work in the United States: implications for individual, institutional, and societal survival.  

PubMed

Changes in the world of work are posing major challenges to workers, institutions, and society. Not only has the nature of work been affected by the changing work environment, increased global competition, and technological revolutions, but the characteristics of the workforce can only be described as revolutionary. Societal forces have resulted in what the authors call the "changing complexion of the workforce", the "feminization of the workforce", and the "graying of the workforce". Traditional theories of work motivation, employer-employee relations, and the role of psychology must also evolve to accommodate this challenge. The collision of these structural and demographic forces has resulted in major upheaval in society and the world of work. The authors discuss implications of these changes and urge psychologists to use their accumulated knowledge and wisdom to positively impact social policy for the greater good of people, institutions, and society. PMID:9713157

Sue, D W; Parham, T A; Santiago, G B

1998-01-01

436

[(Domestic) violence against women: socioeconomic consequences and societal costs. Introduction and overview].  

PubMed

Due to prevalence as well as serious health and social impacts, domestic violence against women is considered a problem of high relevance for victims themselves and for the society as a whole. Empirical data also prove this correlation for Germany. Nevertheless the extensive implications and their interdependency have hardly been examined. In this article, a definition of domestic violence is given followed by a brief introduction of the problem. Next an overview of the results from national and international surveys regarding the social consequences and the economic costs of domestic violence is presented. The burden for following generations becomes obvious, including the consequences for family and social relationship structures, for victims' occupational situations, productivity loss, high risk for poverty, homelessness and the interdependencies on health status. Estimations from international studies on the societal costs illustrate the economic dimension. PMID:19259633

Brzank, P

2009-03-01

437

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): a matter of wide societal implication.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring radioactive materials are ubiquitous on Earth and their radioactivity may become concentrated as a result of human activities. Numerous industries produce concentrated radioactivity in their by-products: the coal industry, petroleum extraction and processing, water treatment, etc. The present reference system of radiation protection does not provide a complete framework for the coherent management of all types of radioactively contaminated materials. Inconsistencies in waste management policy and practice can be noted across the board, and especially vis-à-vis the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear industry. This article reviews the present societal approach to manage materials that are radioactive but are often not recognised as being such, and place the management of radioactive materials from the nuclear industry in perspective. PMID:11302258

Pescatore, C; Menon, S

2000-12-01

438

Responding to sexual discrimination: the effects of societal versus self-blame.  

PubMed

Although self-blame has been considered to be a useful coping tool for victims, its benefits within the context of group discrimination are equivocal. The present research hypothesized that women encouraged to engage in self-blame for sex discrimination would be more likely to endorse accepting the situation or to endorse the use of individual, normative actions. In contrast, women encouraged to engage in societal blame for sex discrimination would be more likely to participate in nonnormative actions aimed at enhancing the status of women as a group. Female students in Canada were subjected to a situation of discrimination and were encouraged to blame either themselves or society. They were then given the opportunity to respond to the discrimination by endorsing various actions. A profile analysis of the endorsed actions indicated that the women encouraged to blame themselves were most likely to endorse accepting the situation, whereas the women encouraged to blame society endorsed nonnormative individual confrontation. PMID:7869704

Foster, M D; Matheson, K; Poole, M

1994-12-01

439

Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

O'Daniel, Jennifer C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org; Zhang Lifei; Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-05-01

440

Nonlinear Data Alignment for UPLC?MS and HPLC?MS Based Metabolomics:  Quantitative Analysis of Endogenous and Exogenous Metabolites in Human Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear alignment strategy was examined for the quantitative analysis of serum metabolites. Two small- molecule mixtures with a difference in relative concentra- tion of 20-100% for 10 of the compounds were added to human serum. The metabolomics protocol using UPLC and XCMS for LC-MS data alignment could readily identify 8 of 10 spiked differences among more than 2700 features

Anders Nordström; Grace O'Maille; Chuan Qin; Gary Siuzdak

2006-01-01

441

Societal preferences for standard health insurance coverage in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cost-effectiveness is an important criterion in the decision to cover interventions in health insurance packages. One of the outcome measures, the quality-adjusted life year, has been criticised on its assumptions and implications concerning life expectancy and quality of life. Several studies have been conducted that measured societal preferences concerning healthcare rationing decisions. These studies mainly focused on one attribute. To adjust quality-adjusted life year maximisation in accordance with societal preferences, the relative importance of attributes should be studied. The present study aims to measure the relative importance of age, gender, socioeconomic status, pre-intervention health state, treatment effect, chance of treatment success and number of people in need of the intervention. A secondary objective is to compare the validity of the willingness to pay method with the validity of a relatively new preference elicitation method, best–worst scaling. Methods and analysis A representative sample of 2000 Dutch citizens, over 18?years of age, are recruited to complete a web-based survey containing treatment scenarios. The scenarios present different levels of attributes. Respondents are asked to select one of the four scenarios that they prefer to be covered by the Dutch standard health insurance package and one that they prefer not to be covered. They are also asked to indicate how much they are willing to pay for each treatment scenario. At the end of the survey, respondents are asked to rate every attribute on a 1–10 scale. Two versions of the questionnaire are developed which differ on the framing, that is, treatments can be added to or removed from the insurance package. The data will be analysed by means of sequential conditional logit analysis (best–worst scaling) and analysis of variance (willingness to pay). Ethics and dissemination The protocol is reviewed and approved by the medical ethical committee of the University Medical Center Leiden.

van den Hout, Wilbert B; de Vries, Marieke; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, Elske M

2012-01-01

442

Workers are people too: societal aspects of occupational health disparities--an ecosocial perspective.  

PubMed

Workers are people too. What else is new? This seemingly self-evident proposition, however, takes on new meaning when considering the challenging and deeply important issue of occupational health disparities--the topic that is the focus of 12 articles in this special issue of the American Journal of Industrial Medicine. In this commentary, I highlight some of the myriad ways that societal determinants of health intertwine with each and every aspect of occupation-related health inequities, as analyzed from an ecosocial perspective. The engagement extends from basic surveillance to etiologic research, from conceptualization and measurement of variables to analysis and interpretation of data, from causal inference to preventive action, and from the political economy of work to the political economy of health. A basic point is that who is employed (or not) in what kinds of jobs, with what kinds of exposures, what kinds of treatment, and what kinds of job stability, benefits, and pay-as well as what evidence exists about these conditions and what action is taken to address them-depends on societal context. At issue are diverse aspects of people's social location within their societies, in relation to their jointly experienced-and embodied-realities of socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, nationality, nativity, immigration and citizen status, age, gender, and sexuality, among others. Reviewing the papers' findings, I discuss the scientific and real-world action challenges they pose. Recommendations include better conceptualization and measurement of socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity and also use of the health and human rights framework to further the public health mission of ensuring the conditions that enable people-including workers-to live healthy and dignified lives. PMID:19816887

Krieger, Nancy

2010-02-01

443

Phylogeny-aware alignment with PRANK.  

PubMed

Evolutionary analyses require sequence alignments that correctly represent evolutionary homology. Evolutionary and structural homology are not the same and sequence alignments generated with methods designed for structural matching can be seriously misleading in comparative and phylogenetic analyses. The phylogeny-aware alignment algorithm implemented in the program PRANK has been shown to produce good alignments for evolutionary inferences. Unlike other alignment programs, PRANK makes use of phylogenetic information to distinguish alignment gaps caused by insertions or deletions and, thereafter, handles the two types of events differently. As a by-product of the correct handling of insertions and deletions, PRANK can provide the inferred ancestral sequences as a part of the output and mark the alignment gaps differently depending on their origin in insertion or deletion events. As the algorithm infers the evolutionary history of the sequences, PRANK can be sensitive to errors in the guide phylogeny and violations on the underlying assumptions about the origin and patterns of gaps. These issues are discussed in detail and practical advice for the use of PRANK in evolutionary analysis is provided. The PRANK software and other methods discussed here can be found from the program home page at http://code.google.com/p/prank-msa/ . PMID:24170401

Löytynoja, Ari

2014-01-01

444

Situating Strategies: An Examination of Comprehension Strategy Instruction in One Upper Elementary Classroom Oriented Toward Culturally Relevant Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, this article examines how comprehension strategies aligned with goals in a classroom oriented toward culturally relevant teaching. Findings indicate that (1) two distinct sets of comprehension were taught in the room and (2) one set aligned more easily with culturally relevant teaching than the other.

Laura A. May

2010-01-01

445

Toward an accurate statistics of gapped alignments.  

PubMed

Sequence alignment has been an invaluable tool for finding homologous sequences. The significance of the homology found is often quantified statistically by p-values. Theory for computing p-values exists for gapless alignments [Karlin, S., Altschul, S.F., 1990. Methods for assessing the statistical significance of molecular sequence features by using general scoring schemes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 2264-2268; Karlin, S., Dembo A., 1992. Limit distributions of maximal segmental score among Markov-dependent partial sums. Adv. Appl. Probab. 24, 13-140], but a full generalization to alignments with gaps is not yet complete. We present a unified statistical analysis of two common sequence comparison algorithms: maximum-score (Smith-Waterman) alignments and their generalized probabilistic counterparts, including maximum-likelihood alignments and hidden Markov models. The most important statistical characteristic of these algorithms is the distribution function of the maximum score S(max), resp. the maximum free energy F(max), for mutually uncorrelated random sequences. This distribution is known empirically to be of the Gumbel form with an exponential tail P(S(max)>x) approximately exp(-lambdax) for maximum-score alignment and P(F(max)>x) approximately exp(-lambdax) for some classes of probabilistic alignment. We derive an exact expression for lambda for particular probabilistic alignments. This result is then used to obtain accurate lambda values for generic probabilistic and maximum-score alignments. Although the result demonstrated uses a simple match-mismatch scoring system, it is expected to be a good starting point for more general scoring functions. PMID:15691544

Kschischo, Maik; Lässig, Michael; Yu, Yi-Kuo

2005-01-01

446

Directed 3D Cell Alignment and Elongation in Microengineered Hydrogels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized...

A. L. Sieminski C. B. Hutson H. Aubin H. Bae J. W. Nichol

2010-01-01

447

Alignment and stability of future machines  

SciTech Connect

Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions.

Shiltsev, V.D.

1996-06-01

448

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOEpatents

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18

449

Transfer of atomic alignment in alkali systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known phenomenon of ``spin exchange'' has been thoroughly characterized in alkali-alkali collisions, and atomic orientation is easily transferred between different alkali isotopes. Nevertheless, collisional transfer of higher-order polarization moments (such as atomic alignment) has received little attention in the literature. Such alignment transfer should be forbidden in sudden binary collisions of alkali atoms, but it is reasonable to question at what level. Here we discuss recent experiments to place limits on this alignment-exchange rate between isotopes of rubidium and cesium in a room-temperature vapor cell.

Patton, B.; Neitzke, O.; Rochester, S.; Bahr, E.; Guttikonda, S.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Coste, B.; Novikova, I.; Budker, D.

2012-06-01

450

Protein image alignment via piecewise affine transformations.  

PubMed

We present a new approach for aligning families of 2D gels. Instead of choosing one of the gels as reference and performing a pairwise alignment, we construct an ideal gel that is representative of the entire family and obtain a set of piecewise affine transformations that optimally align each gel of the family to the ideal gel. The coefficients defining the transformations as well as the ideal landmarks are obtained as the solution of a large-scale quadratic programming problem that can be solved efficiently by interior-point methods. PMID:16706715

Potra, Florian A; Liu, Xing; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Françoise; Roy, Anindya; Hang, Yaming; Marten, Mark R; Raman, Babu; Whisnant, Carol

2006-04-01

451

How tangible is your strategy? How design thinking can turn your strategy into reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Improving your company's ability to execute its strategy requires increase alignment, greater agility and a singular clarity regarding the desired outcomes. This paper aims to describe how the SAP Design Services Team uses design thinking and its principles to improve the organization's ability improve its ability to execute strategy and even evolve the way SAP identifies and defines

Matthew Holloway

2009-01-01

452

Parenting Strategies as Influences of Teen Drinking via Self Esteem: An Important Area for Family Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, in developing as well as developed countries, rampant increases in teen drinking are widely recognized as major threats to individual, family, and societal well-being. Parenting strategies influence drinking and related behaviors, leading to their incorporation in national family, health, and substance abuse policy programs. Drinking teens become drinking adults, harming current and future family generations in a vicious ‘‘recycling.’’

Zhiyong Yang; Charles M. Schaninger

2010-01-01

453

National Health Strategies to Reduce Sun Exposure in Australia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has developed a national health care policy that has made prevention of the occurrence of skin cancer a societal responsibility. Its strategies for skin cancer control have included careful documentation of the incidence of skin cancer over the last two decades. After realizing that the magnitude of sun exposure during childhood is a major risk factor in the development

Richard F. Edlich; Kathryne L. Winters; Mary Jude Cox; Daniel G. Becker; Jed H. Horowitz; Larry S. Nichter; L. D. Britt; Theodore J. Edlich III; William B. Long

2004-01-01

454

Crisis Management and Management Strategy-Time to “Loop the Loop”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines a progression of theoretical and practical approaches to the job of strategic leadership and explains why these approaches are both managers and creators of increasingly chaotic and dangerous organizational\\/societal situations. Argues that a new paradigm for management strategy is required-one which underpins behaviour of opposing dimensions to the existing mainstream paradigm for management but which also harnesses beneficial aspects

Bill Richardson

1994-01-01

455

Quantitative modeling of coupled natural\\/human systems: simulation of societal constraints on environmental action drawing on Luhmann's social theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We draw upon Luhmann's social theory to suggest a framework for quantitative modeling of coupled natural\\/human systems that may be useful in simulating the effect of societal constraints on environmental action. We (1) provide a brief summary of the key aspects of Luhmann's social theory, (2) develop a quantitative model based on this theory and evaluate model sensitivity to changes

W. E. Grant; Tarla Rai Peterson; Markus J. Peterson

2002-01-01

456

Obstacles to and potentials of the societal implementation of sustainable development: a comparative analysis of two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, a growing societal awareness of problems in the context of unsustainable development meets with conflicts of interest, and the actual implementation of sustainability research, and sustainable innovations and technologies, has only been mildly successful. Sustainable development demands nothing less than a radical change in our modes of consumption, production, technology, and decision- making. We have investigated the obstacles to

Michael H. Glantz; Karen Kastenhofer; Christian Rammel; Martin Brueckner; Pierre Horwitz

2005-01-01

457

The Effect of Prior Youth Court Dispositions on Current Disposition: An Application of Societal-Reaction Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests hypotheses implicit in the societal-reaction perspective concerning the nature and pattern of the relationship between prior and current youth court dispositions. The dispositional stage is the most critical decision-making level which young offenders encounter in their contact with the youth court system. Previous research has produced inconsistent results in the attempt to determine which model or models

Anthony Matarazzo; Peter J. Carrington; Robert D. Hiscott

2001-01-01

458

Individual responsibility and health-risk behaviour: A contingent valuation study from the ex ante societal perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes peoples’ social preferences for individual responsibility to health-risk behaviour in health care using the contingent valuation method adopting a societal perspective. We measure peoples’ willingness to pay for inclusion of a treatment in basic health insurance of a hypothetical lifestyle dependent (smoking) and lifestyle independent (chronic) health problem. Our hypothesis is that peoples’ willingness to pay for

Sanne M. van der Star; Bernard van den Berg

2011-01-01

459

Maximizing societal benefits associated with alternative fuel subsidies: The case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have many societal benefits, including improving energy security, economic, environmental, and health benefits. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the location of PHEV deployment. This paper develops and applies a methodology for ranking regions throughout the U.S. based on PHEV benefits. The independent variables in this ranking method include population density, health benefits from

Samir M. Nazir

2010-01-01

460

Variations in societal characteristics of spatial disease clusters: examples of colon, lung and breast cancer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spatial analyses and ecological studies are essential for epidemiology and public health. The present study combining these two methods was performed to identify spatial clusters of selected types of cancer in Japan and to determine their societal characteristics focusing on homogeneity among clusters. RESULTS: Spatial clusters of high mortality rates of male colon and lung cancer and of female

Yoshiharu Fukuda; Masahiro Umezaki; Keiko Nakamura; Takehito Takano

2005-01-01

461

Developing a theory of the societal lifecycle of cigarette smoking : explaining and anticipating trends using information feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking presented the most significant public health challenge in the United States in the 20th Century and remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in this country. A number of System Dynamics models exist that inform tobacco control policies. We reviewed them and discuss their contributions. We developed a theory of the societal lifecycle of smoking,

Nancy S. Brodsky; Glass Robert John Jr; Aldo A. Zagonel; Theresa Jean Brown; Stephen Hamilton Conrad; George P. Richardson

2010-01-01

462

Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

2012-01-01

463

THE END OF WORLD WAR II - WHAT HAPPENED WHEN THE MEN CAME HOME: THE SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the societal implications for the accounting profession of the end of World War II. The accounting profession, like the rest of the business world, found itself floundering for personnel in the absence of the millions who served in the military during the war years. In the spirit of \\

Roxanne T Johnson; Ron Grambo

2009-01-01

464

Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

2012-01-01

465

Passive alignment of second generation optoelectronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details how expanded-mode semiconductor devices and passive alignment techniques can be used to realize low-cost high-performance fiber grating laser and laser amplifier packages for future generations of optical telecommunication systems

John V. Collins; I. F. Lealman; A. Kelly; C. W. Ford

1997-01-01

466

Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Surface Gratings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Square-wave grating structures with periodicities ranging from 3200 A to 12 micrometers were etched into fused quartz substrates, and the effect of such gratings on liquid crystal alignment was studied. Gratings with periodicities below 4 micrometers appe...

D. C. Shaver

1979-01-01

467

Aspheric Mirror Figure Monitor and Alignment Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program has been to review and evaluate the various techniques for measuring aspheric mirror figure and for alignment of aspheric mirror trains, and then to pursue the most promising method through preliminary design and performance ...

R. S. Neiswander

1972-01-01

468

Prosodic alignment in human-computer interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Androids that replicate humans in form also need to replicate them in behaviour to achieve a high level of believability or lifelikeness. We explore the minimal social cues that can induce in people the human tendency for social acceptance, or ethopoeia, toward artifacts, including androids. It has been observed that people exhibit a strong tendency to adjust to each other, through a number of speech and language features in human-human conversational interactions, to obtain communication efficiency and emotional engagement. We investigate in this paper the phenomena related to prosodic alignment in human-computer interactions, with particular focus on human-computer alignment of speech characteristics. We found that people exhibit unidirectional and spontaneous short-term alignment of loudness and response latency in their speech in response to computer-generated speech. We believe this phenomenon of prosodic alignment provides one of the key components for building social acceptance of androids.

Suzuki, N.; Katagiri, Y.

2007-06-01

469

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

470

Neat macroscopic membranes of aligned carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick macroscopic membranes of magnetically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have been produced via high pressure filtration of aqueous surfactant-suspended SWNT in a magnetic field, resulting in membrane thicknesses of 10 ?m and surface areas of 125 cm2. Field strengths of 7 and 25 T were used. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows an anisotropy of (2.5+/-0.5), indicating good alignment. A similar degree of alignment was seen at both intensities of magnetic field. Furthermore, the degree of alignment is comparable to that achieved in previous work that produced smaller and thinner membranes at 25 T. The membranes also exhibit uniform anisotropy across their surface and throughout their thickness.

Casavant, M. J.; Walters, D. A.; Schmidt, J. J.; Smalley, R. E.

2003-02-01

471

Assemblies of magnetically aligned carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic samples of highly aligned SWNTs have been produced by filtration in the presence of a 25 Tesla magnetic field. Alignment resulted from the difference in magnetic susceptibility between nanotubes parallel and perpendicular to the field. Polarized optical transmittance data on a colloidal suspension indicated that at 19 Tesla the alignment energy was (28 ± 3) times thermal energy at room temperature. The solid mats resulting from filtration exhibited anisotropic mechanical and optical properties. Unlike similar mats composed of unordered material, the aligned mats split preferentially along the magnetic field axis. This is consistent with a lack of reinforcing fibers perpendicular to this axis. Micro-Raman scattering showed a factor of (7 ± 2) difference in signal intensity for orientations parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident radiation. This novel, unusual material provides a macroscopic window to the properties of these nanoscale entities and paves the way for many potential applications.

Casavant, M. J.; Walters, D. A.; Qin, X. C.; Huffman, C. B.; Colbert, D. T.; Smalley, R. E.

2000-03-01

472