Sample records for societal alignment strategy

  1. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. G. Silvius

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment capability. We found that each business strategy can be supported by all IT strategies, but that certain combinations

  2. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  3. The alignment strategy of HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenova, O.; Pechenov, V.; Galatyuk, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Kornakov, G.; Markert, J.; Müntz, C.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Stroth, J.

    2015-06-01

    The global as well as intrinsic alignment of any spectrometer impacts directly on its performance and the quality of the achievable physics results. An overview of the current alignment procedure of the DiElectron Spectrometer HADES is presented with an emphasis on its main features and its accuracy. The sequence of all steps and procedures is given, including details on photogrammetric and track-based alignment.

  4. Strategies and tools for whole genome alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov,Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna

    2002-11-25

    The availability of the assembled mouse genome makespossible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two largevertebrate genomes. We have investigated different strategies ofalignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that areeffective for different quality assemblies. These strategies were appliedto the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the MouseGenome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediatemouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignmentsexhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90 percent ofknown coding exons in the human genome. We have obtained such coveragewhile preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we havedeveloped a suite of tools and websites for automatically aligning, andsubsequently browsing and working with whole genome comparisons. Wedescribe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regionsbetween the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not beenidentified by other methods.

  5. Aligning CIO Characteristics to Business Strategy: An Empirical Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li; Chuan-hoo Tan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the match between chief information officer (CIO) characteristics and the organization's business strategy and how this match will influence the impact of IS on the organization's business performance. Based on the study of typologies of business strategy, alignment between IS and business strategy and upper echelon theory, a conceptual model is proposed. Survey data from 81 CIOs\\/IS

  6. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  7. Aligning international editing efforts with global business strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C AROL LEININGER; Rue Yuan

    1998-01-01

    The authors define international editing as editing documents for a multilingual readership or multinational distribution. They argue that international editing embodies and represents corporate global strategies, which directly affect editing choices. They describe three global strategies-ethnocentric, polycentric, or geocentric-and four categories of editing-linguistic, socio-cultural, political, and technical-on which editors can focus to produce business and technical documents that consistently align

  8. ICTs for the Effective usage of Blue Ocean Strategy for Societal Development: An analysis with reference to the parameters of capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinay Sharma; Piyush Seth; Shujauddin Niyazi

    This paper looks towards efficient usage of ICTs (Information and Communication Technology) so as to effectively use Blue Ocean Strategy at the grass root levels for enhancing the propulsion of societal development at large. The paper suggests that ICTs can be used as an efficient tool to develop uncontested markets, resulting in the rise of the Bottom of the Pyramid

  9. Alignment methods: strategies, challenges, benchmarking, and comparative overview.

    PubMed

    Löytynoja, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evolutionary analyses of molecular sequences are solely based on the identities and differences detected between homologous characters. Errors in this homology statement, that is errors in the alignment of the sequences, are likely to lead to errors in the downstream analyses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference are tightly connected and many popular alignment programs use the phylogeny to divide the alignment problem into smaller tasks. They then neglect the phylogenetic tree, however, and produce alignments that are not evolutionarily meaningful. The use of phylogeny-aware methods reduces the error but the resulting alignments, with evolutionarily correct representation of homology, can challenge the existing practices and methods for viewing and visualising the sequences. The inter-dependency of alignment and phylogeny can be resolved by joint estimation of the two; methods based on statistical models allow for inferring the alignment parameters from the data and correctly take into account the uncertainty of the solution but remain computationally challenging. Widely used alignment methods are based on heuristic algorithms and unlikely to find globally optimal solutions. The whole concept of one correct alignment for the sequences is questionable, however, as there typically exist vast numbers of alternative, roughly equally good alignments that should also be considered. This uncertainty is hidden by many popular alignment programs and is rarely correctly taken into account in the downstream analyses. The quest for finding and improving the alignment solution is complicated by the lack of suitable measures of alignment goodness. The difficulty of comparing alternative solutions also affects benchmarks of alignment methods and the results strongly depend on the measure used. As the effects of alignment error cannot be predicted, comparing the alignments' performance in downstream analyses is recommended. PMID:22407710

  10. Aligning Key Success Factors to ERP Implementation Strategy: Learning from a Case-Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aligning Key Success Factors to ERP Implementation Strategy: Learning from a Case-Study ZOUAGHI 2012 ­ Quebec (Canada), August 26-29 Aligning Key Success Factors to ERP Implementation Strategy.abderrazak@univ-msila.dz) Abstract: These last years, we can observe that most of companies implemented an ERP system but many

  11. Design and alignment strategies of 4f systems used in the vectorial optical field generator.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Cheng, Wen; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-20

    In this paper, the design and alignment strategies of 4f systems used in the vectorial optical field generator are described in detail. Reflection-type 4f systems were adopted due to limited spacing. Alignment patterns are designed and introduced as alignment tools so that the optical property (degree of freedom) controlled by each specific spatial light modulator section can be visualized and alignment of the 4f systems can be performed using the CCD image sharpness as the metric. In particular, blurring due to diffraction effects is minimized when the 4f system is fully aligned. PMID:25968510

  12. Aligning products with supply chain processes and strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Euthemia Stavrulaki; Mark Davis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – As supply chain management has become more strategic (rather than transactional) in nature the need for a more integrated perspective of how products, and processes should be aligned with strategic decisions to enhance competitive advantage has been amplified. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of how this alignment should be done. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

  13. How successful firms go beyond aligning their IT strategy with business objectives

    E-print Network

    Goswami, Debangshu

    2010-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is vital to growth of all organizations. But getting value out of IT has been challenging. The companies, which fail to align their IT strategy with business objectives struggle with low or ...

  14. Perspectives: Societal Issues in Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patrick L. Brown

    2009-04-01

    When students investigate local issues in science class, they gain research and critical-thinking skills while improving their attitudes toward science. However, since many societal issues are controversial, it is important to create a safe and risk-free classroom climate where students can discuss their ideas, personal needs, experiences, and responsibilities. This article discribes some strategies that will help students to use science to make personal and societal decisions.

  15. Exact pairwise alignment of megabase genome biological sequences using a novel z-align parallel strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azzedine Boukerche; Rodolfo Bezerra Batista; Alba Cristina Magalhaes Alves De Melo

    2009-01-01

    Pairwise sequence alignment is a basic operation in bioinformatics that is performed thousands of times, in a daily basis. The exact methods proposed in the literature have quadratic time complexity. For this reason, heuristic methods such as BLAST are widely used. Nevertheless, it is known that exact methods present better sensitivity, leading to better results. To obtain exact results faster,

  16. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy. PMID:23915467

  17. Using management control systems to achieve alignment between strategic investment decisions and strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regine Slagmulder

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to gain better insights into the control strategies of firms with regard to strategic investments in manufacturing plant and equipment. More specifically, this research sets out to examine how management control systems (MCSs) are designed and used in an organization to help align strategic investment decisions (SIDs) with the firm’s strategy. A field

  18. Seed selection strategy in global network alignment without destroying the entire structures of functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Network alignment is one of the most common biological network comparison methods. Aligning protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of different species is of great important to detect evolutionary conserved pathways or protein complexes across species through the identification of conserved interactions, and to improve our insight into biological systems. Global network alignment (GNA) problem is NP-complete, for which only heuristic methods have been proposed so far. Generally, the current GNA methods fall into global heuristic seed-and-extend approaches. These methods can not get the best overall consistent alignment between networks for the opinionated local seed. Furthermore These methods are lost in maximizing the number of aligned edges between two networks without considering the original structures of functional modules. Methods We present a novel seed selection strategy for global network alignment by constructing the pairs of hub nodes of networks to be aligned into multiple seeds. Beginning from every hub seed and using the membership similarity of nodes to quantify to what extent the nodes can participate in functional modules associated with current seed topologically we align the networks by modules. By this way we can maintain the functional modules are not damaged during the heuristic alignment process. And our method is efficient in resolving the fatal problem of most conventional algorithms that the initialization selected seeds have a direct influence on the alignment result. The similarity measures between network nodes (e.g., proteins) include sequence similarity, centrality similarity, and dynamic membership similarity and our algorithm can be called Multiple Hubs-based Alignment (MHA). Results When applying our seed selection strategy to several pairs of real PPI networks, it is observed that our method is working to strike a balance, extending the conserved interactions while maintaining the functional modules unchanged. In the case study, we assess the effectiveness of MHA on the alignment of the yeast and fly PPI networks. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms at detecting conserved functional modules and retrieves in particular 86% more conserved interactions than IsoRank. Conclusions We believe that our seed selection strategy will lead us to obtain more topologically and biologically similar alignment result. And it can be used as the reference and complement of other heuristic methods to seek more meaningful alignment results. PMID:22759574

  19. Aligning customer relationship and product strategy at internet speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaj Hansen; Jan Pries-heje

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The Internet has changed the way many software developing companies have to work – They have to reconsider their IT strategy. Theory on IT strategy suggests a close intimate relationship between supplier and customer. Theory also suggests a job shop or a batch job organization of the software production. In 2002 we set out to study a number ,of

  20. Alignment and deployment of environmental strategy through total quality management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lainy Lawrence; Duncan Andrews

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a quality assurance approach to environmental management with reference to case material from Lucas Rists Wiring Systems. Concludes that an environmental management system should be relatively easy to implement in an organisation with a solid strategy foundation.

  1. Alignment strategies for fullerenes and their dimers using soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Katie

    The overall goal of this research was to achieve alignment of endohedral fullerene dimers defined as covalently linked pairs of fullerene cages where each fullerene cage encapsulates a spin-active atom. The first section will discuss polymer-fullerene interactions from the point of view of determining how various polymer functional groups enhance or hinder the miscibility of C60. In order to successfully incorporate fullerenes into a block copolymer system, we first need to understand the basic interactions that occur between polymers and fullerenes to anticipate the upper limit of fullerenes that may be incorporated in a given polymer and potential approaches to increase this quantity. In particular, studies conducted using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) of vinyl polymer-fullerene blends indicated that an increasing number of phenyl rings in the vinyl side group of the polymer leads to an increase in the miscibility. In particular, poly(9-vinylphenanthrene) (P9VPh), having three phenyl rings in the side group, showed a 6-fold improvement in miscibility limit compared to the other systems studied, polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-vinylnaphathalene) (P2VN). The degree of increase in miscibility observed with P9VPh is attributed to the ability of the vinyl aromatic structure to essentially conform to the curvature of a fullerene molecule rather than the increased potential for pi-pi interactions. These results importantly suggest that a block copolymer system can be tuned to maximize fullerene content, particularly by considering the geometry of functional groups with respect to the fullerene cage and will be discussed further in Chapter III. Second, the use of block copolymers as templates for creating ordered arrays of fullerenes is discussed. The initial goal was to disperse the fullerenes in one block of a block copolymer system and by aligning the microphase separation structure, also align the incorporated fullerenes. There are several major challenges associated with incorporating fullerenes into a block copolymer including the limited miscibility discussed in Chapter III. Furthermore, overcoming the strong inter-fullerene interactions that lead to aggregation also proves to be challenging; aggregates can disrupt the microphase structure in a block copolymer and make alignment difficult to obtain. One potential method generically used to solubilize nanoparticles within a block copolymer is modification of the nanoparticles by grafting polymer chains to the surface to solubilize the nanoparticle in a specific block. As discussed in Chapter IV, the effects of nanoparticle size and concentration on the phase behavior of lamellar-forming dPS-PMMA systems as well as the location of the fullerene star within the dPS block were studied using neutron reflectivity (NR). The scheme above has the disadvantage that modification of the fullerene cage with polymer arms dilutes the overall quantity of fullerene in the system and in the case of endohedral systems, would dilute and severely limit the overall quantity of spins available for measurement in quantum computing. For this reason we chose to investigate the formation of monolayers of amphiphilic fullerene dimers at the air/water interface using the Langmuir technique. We also studied the behavior of these materials when transferred as monolayers and multilayers to solid substrates as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The fullerene dimers in this case were modified to have at least one hydrophilic, polyethylene glycol-based ligand to balance the inherently hydrophobic nature of the fullerene cage and allow for a molecule that more closely resembled typical LB materials. Results of these studies indicated that we can form stable, close-packed monolayers and also control the orientation of the dimer at the air/water interface as well as on solid substrates by tuning the ligand chemistry as shown in Chapter V. The final approach used to achieve alignment of fullerene materials involves the interaction of fullerenes with a chemically-modified substrate either covalently or non-covale

  2. Aligning USGS senior leadership structure with the USGS science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is realigning its management and budget structure to further enhance the work of its science programs and their interdisciplinary focus areas related to the USGS Science Strategy as outlined in 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). In 2007, the USGS developed this science strategy outlining major natural-science issues facing the Nation and focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well being of the Nation and the world. These areas include global climate change, water resources, natural hazards, energy and minerals, ecosystems, and data integration.

  3. The alignment of managers’ mental models with the balanced scorecard strategy map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Manuel Hurtado González; Miguel Ángel Calderón; José Luis Galán González

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the alignment of managers’ mental models with the strategy map provided by the balanced scorecard (BSC). By applying the cognitive maps technique to the managers of a printing firm, this work uses the distance ratio method to analyse managers’ different perceptions of the firm's resources and capabilities, as defined in the BSC. The results show a high

  4. Manufacturing Strategy and Business Strategy in Medium-Sized Enterprises: Performance Effects of Strategic Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Raymond; Anne-Marie Croteau

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that a firm's manufacturing strategy is effective to the extent that it is ldquoalignedrdquo with the business strategy and provides the firm with a competitive advantage. Given a conceptualization of business strategy through Miles and Snow's typology (prospectors, analyzers, and defenders), the aim of this research is threefold. First, one seeks to identify the performance outcomes

  5. Examining the effect of strategic alignment on business performance: Knowledge management, information technology, and human resource management strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y. Chen; H. L. Huang

    2008-01-01

    Recently, evidences indicate that knowledge management (KM) strategy and human resource management (HRM) strategy are interdependent and must be integrated with information technology (IT) as a whole to improve the business performance. Empirical data for hypotheses testing are collected from top-ranked companies in Taiwan; yielding 161 valid samples. Performance implications of strategic alignment are examined using matching approaches. The generated

  6. The effect of aligning organizational culture and business strategy with HR systems on firm performance in Chinese enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Hau Siu Chow; S. S. Liu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the differential impact of an alignment of organizational culture and business strategy through which inducement-HR and involvement-HR systems may affect firm performance. It contributes to the strategic fit of the HRM literature by using empirical data from 451 firms in southern China to evaluate the linkages among organizational culture, HR systems, business strategies and organizational performance. The

  7. TIM Barrel Protein Structure Classification Using Alignment Approach and Best Hit Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jia-Han; Lin, Chun Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Lee, Chihan; Yang, Yuh-Shyong; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2007-11-01

    The classification of protein structures is essential for their function determination in bioinformatics. It has been estimated that around 10% of all known enzymes have TIM barrel domains from the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database. With its high sequence variation and diverse functionalities, TIM barrel protein becomes to be an attractive target for protein engineering and for the evolution study. Hence, in this paper, an alignment approach with the best hit strategy is proposed to classify the TIM barrel protein structure in terms of superfamily and family levels in the SCOP. This work is also used to do the classification for class level in the Enzyme nomenclature (ENZYME) database. Two testing data sets, TIM40D and TIM95D, both are used to evaluate this approach. The resulting classification has an overall prediction accuracy rate of 90.3% for the superfamily level in the SCOP, 89.5% for the family level in the SCOP and 70.1% for the class level in the ENZYME. These results demonstrate that the alignment approach with the best hit strategy is a simple and viable method for the TIM barrel protein structure classification, even only has the amino acid sequences information.

  8. Using a two-stage optimization strategy for the active alignment of multifiber optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung Yin

    2010-05-01

    The alignment of optical components is a key factor when designing and manufacturing multifiber optical systems. This problem can be treated as a standard multiobjective optimization problem and solved by numerical optimization methodologies. The core diameter of a single-mode fiber is ~9 ?m, and any slight misalignment during manufacturing will cause signification optical losses in connections. Previous studies have shown that the currently used alignment methods for multifiber devices can increase the optical power summation of all fibers, but the results are not very accurate. This study first compares different numerical optimization methodologies that can be used to find the ideal connection position. Two indices are used to judge the performances of different methods: the required time and the optical power. Next, a two-stage optimization strategy is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate result. In the first stage, the Nelder-Mead simplex method is used to move toward the optimum position quickly. In the second stage, the steepest descent method with polynomial interpolation is applied to improve the accuracy because of the stability of the method.

  9. Work-family boundary strategies: Stability and alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ammons, Samantha K.

    2015-01-01

    Are individuals bounding work and family the way they would like? Much of the work-family boundary literature focuses on whether employees are segmenting or integrating work with family, but does not explore the boundaries workers would like to have, nor does it examine the fit between desired and enacted boundaries, or assess boundary stability. In this study, 23 respondents employed at a large Fortune 500 company were interviewed about their work-family boundaries before and after their teams underwent a cultural change initiative that sought to loosen workplace norms and allow employees more autonomy to decide when and where they performed their job tasks. Four distinct boundary strategies emerged from the data, with men and parents of young children having better alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries than women and those without these caregiving duties. Implications for boundary theory and research are discussed. PMID:25620801

  10. Mask strategy and layout decomposition for self-aligned quadruple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Weiling; Feng, Chen; Chen, Yijian

    2013-03-01

    Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) process is a proven technique for deep nano-scale IC manufacturing, while its mask design and layout decomposition strategy is less intuitive. In this paper, we examine both 2- and 3-mask SAQP process characteristics and develop various decomposition methods to achieve higher feature density and 2-D design flexibility. It is demonstrated that by generating assisting mandrels, SAQP layout decomposition can be degenerated into a SADP decomposition problem for which mature algorithms already exist in our EDA industry. Moreover, a spacer-expansion mask concept is introduced and a grouping/coloring algorithm to assign feature colors is developed for 3-mask SAQP layout decomposition. Finally, several 2-D layouts are successfully decomposed, showing the functionality of the decomposition method we proposed.

  11. Impacts of reticle and wafer elasticity control on overall alignment management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Etsuya; Kawakubo, Masaharu; Leung, Frank C.; McNamara, Sean J.; Parry, Joseph T.

    1998-06-01

    Maintaining projection-aligners' stage grids-is critical for maximum overlay performance of production lithography. It seems that, particularly in the U.S., the industry has chosen the 'artifact-wafer' strategy as the standard technique to achieve this goal. This paper is intended to identify problems in overlay management using artifact wafers and to provide solutions to address the issues. One of the major sources that degrade accuracy in overlay management is the expansion/shrinkage of wafers and reticles. Both wafers and reticles expand during printing due to the heat delivered from the illumination source. The amount of the expansion tends to increase as the power of the illumination source increases per industry's demand on higher throughput. Wafers and reticles expand/shrink also due to environmental temperature change. The significance of wafer expansion/shrinkage in this mode has tended to be neglected. This is probably because, since it is measured and compensated by the 2nd print alignment, wafer scaling in the first print does not impact overlay performance evaluated at the shot center. Wafer expansion/shrinkage, however, does cause intra-shot scaling errors in overlay. And more importantly, since artifact wafers serve as absolute stage-grid-references, their expansion/shrinkage directly impact accuracy of overlay management. Reticle expansion/shrinkage due to temperature difference between where the reticles were created and where they are used along with reticle manufacturing errors causes inaccuracy in intra- shot performance evaluation. As product design rules continues to tighten, the intra-shot overlay performance can no longer be neglected. The impacts of reticle- and wafer-elasticity on total overlay management will be discussed. Multiple techniques to address the elasticity issues will be demonstrated. The discussion will conclude with recommendations for generation and usage of the artifact wafers.

  12. iPBA: a tool for protein structure comparison using sequence alignment strategies.

    PubMed

    Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2011-07-01

    With the immense growth in the number of available protein structures, fast and accurate structure comparison has been essential. We propose an efficient method for structure comparison, based on a structural alphabet. Protein Blocks (PBs) is a widely used structural alphabet with 16 pentapeptide conformations that can fairly approximate a complete protein chain. Thus a 3D structure can be translated into a 1D sequence of PBs. With a simple Needleman-Wunsch approach and a raw PB substitution matrix, PB-based structural alignments were better than many popular methods. iPBA web server presents an improved alignment approach using (i) specialized PB Substitution Matrices (SM) and (ii) anchor-based alignment methodology. With these developments, the quality of ?88% of alignments was improved. iPBA alignments were also better than DALI, MUSTANG and GANGSTA(+) in >80% of the cases. The webserver is designed to for both pairwise comparisons and database searches. Outputs are given as sequence alignment and superposed 3D structures displayed using PyMol and Jmol. A local alignment option for detecting subs-structural similarity is also embedded. As a fast and efficient 'sequence-based' structure comparison tool, we believe that it will be quite useful to the scientific community. iPBA can be accessed at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/ipba/. PMID:21586582

  13. Neighborhood functions and hill-climbing strategies dedicated to the generalized ungapped local multiple alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hernández; Robin Gras; Ron D. Appel

    2008-01-01

    Ungapped Local Multiple Alignment is a widely used procedure in bioinformatics. It roughly consists of locating in a given set of nucleotide (DNA) or amino acid (proteins) sequences, a number of non-overlapping fixed-size factors (also called occurrences), that are likely to have evolved from a common ancestor. In addition to the widely known statistical approaches, we define the problem from

  14. Aligning Strategies for Growth and Talent Management in Creative Professional Service Firms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Management Journal, Journal of International Business Studies, Technovation and Journal of Business Strategy halshs-00794891,version1-26Feb2013 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Business Strategy 33 (2012 service firms and international business. She has presented several papers at leading international

  15. System Alignment as a Key Strategy in Building Capacity for School Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watterston, Jim; Caldwell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review strategies to build capacity for school improvement in Australia. The focus is on public schools and strategies adopted for the system as a whole. Design/methodology/approach: This paper traces developments from a national perspective and makes a case for the key contemporary policy shift that has…

  16. Vertebrate gene finding from multiple-species alignments using a two-level strategy

    PubMed Central

    Carter, David; Durbin, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background One way in which the accuracy of gene structure prediction in vertebrate DNA sequences can be improved is by analyzing alignments with multiple related species, since functional regions of genes tend to be more conserved. Results We describe DOGFISH, a vertebrate gene finder consisting of a cleanly separated site classifier and structure predictor. The classifier scores potential splice sites and other features, using sequence alignments between multiple vertebrate species, while the structure predictor hypothesizes coding transcripts by combining these scores using a simple model of gene structure. This also identifies and assigns confidence scores to possible additional exons. Performance is assessed on the ENCODE regions. We predict transcripts and exons across the whole human genome, and identify over 10,000 high confidence new coding exons not in the Ensembl gene set. Conclusion We present a practical multiple species gene prediction method. Accuracy improves as additional species, up to at least eight, are introduced. The novel predictions of the whole-genome scan should support efficient experimental verification. PMID:16925840

  17. Societal Marketing and Philanthropy in Dutch Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia van der Heyden; Gerrit van der Rijt

    2004-01-01

    In the concepts of societal marketing and social responsibility, it is assumed that profit companies should have an explicit policy to shape their societal involvement and their corporate philanthropy. One way to express their societal involvement is by corporate philanthropy, by supporting important societal causes. In order to find out how Dutch companies deal with corporate philanthropy and to what

  18. A Therapeutic Strategy for Spinal Cord Defect: Human Dental Follicle Cells Combined with Aligned PCL/PLGA Electrospun Material

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Li, Lei; Xiong, Jie; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Yu, Mei; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell implantation has been utilized for the repair of spinal cord injury; however, it shows unsatisfactory performance in repairing large scale lesion of an organ. We hypothesized that dental follicle cells (DFCs), which possess multipotential capability, could reconstruct spinal cord defect (SCD) in combination with biomaterials. In the present study, mesenchymal and neurogenic lineage characteristics of human DFCs (hDFCs) were identified. Aligned electrospun PCL/PLGA material (AEM) was fabricated and it would not lead to cytotoxic reaction; furthermore, hDFCs could stretch along the oriented fibers and proliferate efficiently on AEM. Subsequently, hDFCs seeded AEM was transplanted to restore the defect in rat spinal cord. Functional observation was performed but results showed no statistical significance. The following histologic analyses proved that AEM allowed nerve fibers to pass through, and implanted hDFCs could express oligodendrogenic lineage maker Olig2 in vivo which was able to contribute to remyelination. Therefore, we concluded that hDFCs can be a candidate resource in neural regeneration. Aligned electrospun fibers can support spinal cord structure and induce cell/tissue polarity. This strategy can be considered as alternative proposals for the SCD regeneration studies. PMID:25695050

  19. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  20. The role of a security strategy is to align company security and business goals, provide

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    security strategy and one information security framework. Putting in a solid foundational program, and methodologies to assist you in building a complete unified information security program or individual elements Management Program) to guide security efforts. This offering provides a solid foundation for a security

  1. Is human resource management cultural-specific? The moderating effect of Firm strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinran Wang; Ji Li; Zhiqiang Liu; Pengcheng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the issue whether HRM policies\\/practice are cultural specific with consideration on the moderating effect of firm strategy. Based on relevant literature, we predict that HRM is cultural-specific and the alignment of HRM with societal culture should have a positive effect on firm performance. Also, we argue that a contingent factor, i.e., firm strategy of product diversification,

  2. The impact of different alignment strategies on the overall performance of a white light scanner according to sphere spacing error specified in VDI 2634

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Klaas; Johannes Kropp; Bill Mongon

    2011-01-01

    System alignment strategies impact the overall performance of white light scanners, in particular affecting the uncertainty that is determined using the sphere spacing error specified in the VDI 2634 guideline. This paper addresses the accuracy of optical white light or so called \\

  3. The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie D. Thompson; Toby J. Gibson; Frédéric Plewniak; François Jeanmougin; Desmond G. Higgins

    1997-01-01

    CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to

  4. "Children's Digest" and Societal Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckart, Karen Sue

    The purpose of this research project was to determine if, like books, the content of children's magazines changes to reflect current societal trends. The study used the method of content analysis and was limited to one children's magazine, "Children's Digest." Certain trends in children's literature were identified through the literature search,…

  5. Broader societal issues of nanotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Roco

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This

  6. Correction and alignment strategies for the beam separator of thePEEM3 microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Peter; Feng, Jun; Padmore, Howard; Robin, David; Rose,Harald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, YingHarald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan, Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu, Ying

    2004-07-01

    A new high-resolution aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope (PEEM3) will be installed on an undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim of this instrument is to provide a substantial flux and resolution improvement by employing an electron mirror for correcting both the third-order spherical aberration and the primary chromatic aberration. In order to utilize this concept of correction, a beam separator is a prerequisite. Crucial to achieving a resolution of 5nm for the high resolution mode, and a sixteen-fold increase in throughput at the same resolution as its predecessor, PEEM2, specified as 20nm at 2% transmission, for the high flux mode is the double symmetric design of the beam separator, which eliminates all the second order geometric aberrations. Nonetheless, substantial tuning capabilities must be incorporated into the PEEM3 design to compensate for both systematic and random errors. In this paper, we investigate how to correct for non-systematic imperfections and for systematic uncertainties in the accuracy of the magnetic fields and focus on how degradation of the resolution and the field of view can be minimized. Finally, we outline a tentative correction strategy for PEEM3.

  7. Correction and alignment strategies for the beam separator of the photoemission electron microscope 3 (PEEM3)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Peter; Feng Jun; Padmore, Howard; Robin, David; Rose, Harald; Schlueter, Ross; Wan Weishi; Forest, Etienne; Wu Ying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 80R0114, Berkeley, California 94720-8229 (United States); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Corlina 27708 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    A high-resolution aberration-corrected photoemission electron microscope (PEEM3) will be installed on an undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim of this instrument is to provide a substantial flux and resolution improvement by employing an electron mirror for correcting both the third-order spherical aberration and the primary chromatic aberration. In order to utilize this concept of correction, a beam separator is a prerequisite. Crucial to achieving a resolution of 5 nm for the high-resolution mode, and a 16-fold increase in throughput at the same resolution as its predecessor, PEEM2, specified as 20 nm at 2% transmission, for the high flux mode is the double-symmetric design of the beam separator, which eliminates all the second-order geometric aberrations. Nonetheless, substantial tuning capabilities must be incorporated into the PEEM3 design to compensate for both systematic and random errors. In this article, we investigate how to correct for nonsystematic imperfections and for systematic uncertainties in the accuracy of the magnetic fields and focus on how degradation of the resolution and the field of view can be minimized. Finally, we outline a tentative correction strategy for PEEM3.

  8. DOUGLAS R. WHITE Societal Research Archives System

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    DOUGLAS R. WHITE Societal Research Archives System : Retrieval, quality control and analysis of comparative data* I N T R O D U C T I O N The Societal Research Archives System (SRAS) was created worked on the project. The original Societal Research Archive System, at Minnesota, is still operative

  9. The effect of recent trends in vehicle design on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled, and their projected future relationship with vehicle mass.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars. The effects three recent trends in vehicle designs and technologies have on societal fatality risk per VMT are estimated, and whether these changes might affect the relationship between vehicle mass and fatality risk in the future. Side airbags are found to reduce fatality risk in cars, but not necessarily light trucks or CUVs/minivans, struck in the side by another light-duty vehicle; reducing the number of fatalities in cars struck in the side is predicted to reduce the estimated detrimental effect of footprint reduction, but increase the detrimental effect of mass reduction, in cars on societal fatality risk. Better alignment of light truck bumpers with those of other vehicles appears to result in a statistically significant reduction in risk imposed on car occupants; however, reducing this type of fatality will likely have little impact on the estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction on risk. Finally, shifting light truck drivers into safer, car-based vehicles, such as sedans, CUVs, and minivans, would result in larger reductions in societal fatalities than expected from even substantial reductions in the masses of light trucks. A strategy of shifting drivers from truck-based to car-based vehicles would reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, while improving societal safety. PMID:23631906

  10. Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology #12;What is SEI? · Social and Ethical Nanotechnology Research & Development Act of 2003 (PL 108-153) · Established a societal implications research of their research · Provides for public input into nanotechnology research and development #12;Areas of Society

  11. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  12. Diabetes in China: a societal solution for a personal challenge.

    PubMed

    Chan, Juliana C N; Zhang, Yuying; Ning, Guang

    2014-12-01

    China has a large burden of diabetes: in 2013, one in four people with diabetes worldwide were in China, where 11·6% of adults had diabetes and 50·1% had prediabetes. Many were undiagnosed, untreated, or uncontrolled. This epidemic is the result of rapid societal transition that has led to an obesogenic environment against a backdrop of traditional lifestyle and periods of famine, which together puts Chinese people at high risk of diabetes and multiple morbidities. Societal determinants including social disparity and psychosocial stress interact with factors such as low-grade infection, environmental pollution, care fragmentation, health illiteracy, suboptimal self-care, and insufficient community support to give rise to diverse subphenotypes and consequences, notably renal dysfunction and cancer. In the China National Plan for Non-Communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment (2012-15), the Chinese Government proposed use of public measures, multisectoral collaborations, and social mobilisation to create a health-enabling environment and to reform the health-care system. While awaiting results from these long-term strategies, we advocate the use of a targeted and proactive approach to identify people at high risk of diabetes for prevention, and of private-public-community partnerships that make integrated care more accessible and sustainable, focusing on registry, empowerment, and community support. The multifaceted nature of the societal and personal challenge of diabetes requires a multidimensional solution for prevention in order to reduce the growing disease burden. PMID:25218728

  13. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber RonteltapArnout; Arnout R. H. Fischer; Hilde Tobi

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development.\\u000a With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence\\u000a of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence\\u000a in societal response research by first sketching the predominant

  14. The Alignment of Partnering Strategy, Governance and Management in R&D Projects: The Role of Contract Choice

    E-print Network

    MacCormack, Alan

    Firms increasingly look outside their organizational boundaries to identify partners that can improve the effectiveness of R&D projects. The strategy for using partners, however, varies significantly across projects. In ...

  15. The Alignment Between Social Responsibility and Business Strategy: Implications for Social Responsibility Value Creation in Spanish SMEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Iturrioz; Cristina Aragón; Lorea Narvaiza; Asunción Ibañez

    \\u000a In this study we empirically analyse the integration of Social Responsibility\\u000a (SR) practices in business strategy\\u000a and its effect over the creation of value for the business itself in the small and medium enterprise (SME\\u000a context. We consider that SR must contribute to the firm’s core activities and help the firm to achieve its mission. Moreover,\\u000a we believe that this

  16. Global alignment optimization strategies, procedures, and tools for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Howard, Joseph M.; Young, Philip J.; Gracey, Renee; Seals, Lenward T.; Ohl, Raymond G.

    2012-09-01

    During cryogenic vacuum testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the global alignment of the ISIM with respect to the designed interface of the JWST optical telescope element (OTE) will be measured through a series of optical characterization tests. These tests will determine the locations and orientations of the JWST science instrument projected focal surfaces and entrance pupils with respect to their corresponding OTE optical interfaces. Thermal, finite element and optical modeling will then be used to predict the on-orbit optical performance of the observatory. If any optical performance non-compliances are identified, the ISIM will be adjusted to improve its performance. If this becomes necessary, ISIM has a variety of adjustments that can be made. The lengths of the six kinematic mount struts that attach the ISIM to the OTE can be modified and five science instrument focus positions and two pupil positions can be individually adjusted as well. In order to understand how to manipulate the ISIM’s degrees of freedom properly and to prepare for the ISIM flight model testing, we have completed a series of optical-mechanical analyses to develop and identify the best approaches for bringing a non-compliant ISIM Element back into compliance. During this work several unknown misalignment scenarios were produced and the simulated optical performance metrics were input into various mathematical modeling and optimization tools to determine how the ISIM degrees of freedom should be adjusted to provide the best overall optical performance.

  17. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  18. White Paper Societal Dimensions of Earth System Modeling

    E-print Network

    of the societal effects of climate change. There is much interest and activity within on issues relating societal dimensions and climate change · The workshop focused in integrated studies and to obtain climate change information best suited

  19. The Tradeoffs of Societal Computing Swapneel Sheth Gail Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    The Tradeoffs of Societal Computing Swapneel Sheth Gail Kaiser Department of Computer Science to increasing benefits for society as a whole. Categories and Subject Descriptors K.4.0 [Computing Milieux- offs on societal issues. Societal Computing research will fo- cus on aspects of computer science

  20. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  1. Societal abuse in the lives of individuals with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Sarah

    2009-06-01

    Societal abuse refers to the disadvantages that a group experience as a result of unjust social structures. People with mental illness are among the most marginalized, oppressed, devalued and stigmatized populations in our society. They experience a range of societal abuses, including barriers to health care, lack of employment, difficulty accessing and maintaining adequate housing, and discrimination. Nurses are in a unique position to address social inequity and societal abuse as advocates for health and well-being. The author addresses the impact of societal abuse and presents ways in which nurses can advocate for people with mental illness. PMID:19583050

  2. UMBCUMBCUMBC Protein Image Alignment

    E-print Network

    Potra, Florian

    . Gels must be aligned before comparison. Bottleneck: Gel Alignment Protein Image Alignment via Quadratic (Compugen) All are deficient on gel alignment Protein Image Alignment via Quadratic Programming ­ p.3/47 #12 (2) , I (3) , I (4) Aligned gels Protein Image Alignment via Quadratic Programming ­ p.5/47 #12

  3. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C. (Norris, TN); Gibson, O. Theodore (Lenoir City, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  4. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Leben, R.

    2006-07-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous thirteen-year, high-quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2008, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, the ocean surface topography mission, will be launched. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data have many societal benefits and have proven invaluable in many practical applications including; -Climate research and forecasting -Hurricane forecasting and tracking -Ocean forecasting systems -Ship routing and marine operations -Marine mammal habitat monitoring -Education The data have been cited in over 2,100 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight new societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  5. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  6. An Overview of Web Mining in Societal Benefit Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Lappas

    2007-01-01

    A survey of web mining research related to areas of social benefit is the focus of this paper. We particularly focus on web mining that may help and benefit societal areas in ways of extracting new knowledge, providing support for decision making and empowering valuable management of societal issues. E-commerce and E-business are two fields empowered by web mining having

  7. Societal Research Archives System : Retrieval, quality control and analysis

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Societal Research Archives System : Retrieval, quality control and analysis of comparative data-based retrieval and research facility for comparative data in social science. The basic idea was to integrate all1!' ·- The Societal Research Archives System (SRAS) was created by the author in 1966 as a computer

  8. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongling Sun; Joan Ogden; Mark Delucchi

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs societal lifetime cost for evaluating hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) from a societal welfare perspective as compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. We employ a learning-curve model for fuel-cell system cost estimates over time. The delivered hydrogen fuel cost is estimated using the UC Davis SSCHISM hydrogen supply pathway model, and most vehicle costs are estimated using the

  9. Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1995-03-01

    Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications. PMID:11539240

  10. Emotionally based strategic communications and societal stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Cosi?, Krešimir; Srbljinovi?, Armano; Popovi?, Siniša; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the potential of emotionally based strategic communications (EBSCs) as an extension of traditional strategic communications in prevention of societal stress-related disorders. The concept of EBSCs takes into consideration dominant emotional maps of a specific sociocultural environment in which communications take place. EBSCs may have a significant potential to transform mainly negative-dominant emotional maps of targeted social groups into more positive ones, as a precondition of building a more resilient and stress-resistant social environment. A better understanding of dominant emotional maps and their conditioning may facilitate restoration of more positive emotional maps by touching the right emotions of significant parts of the targeted social groups in the right way. Dominant emotional maps of societies afflicted by economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts etc., are typically characterized by negatively valenced emotions. Persistent negatively valenced group-based dominant emotions may be used as a quantitative statistical measure of potential stress-related disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders among respected group members. The toxic power of extreme negative emotions, attitudes, actions, and behavior might be reduced by EBSCs as a communication method for transforming negative-dominant emotional maps into more positive ones. EBSCs are conceptualized as the positively valenced stimulation of a negatively emotionally affected group by an appropriate communication strategy to minimize dominant-negative emotional maps and behavior of the targeted group. PMID:23078339

  11. IUS prerelease alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

  12. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of decisions, but subsets of indicators, or the data supporting the indicator, might be used to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region.

  13. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  14. Strategis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.

  15. A (computational) social science perspective on societal transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flaminio Squazzoni

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how social sciences, sociology in particular, have theorized on societal transitions. The first\\u000a section introduces some preliminary definitions. The assumption is that a societal transition is more than a social, economic\\u000a or technological change. It is a large-scale and long-term macro process through which a given social system radically changes\\u000a its structural basis, in terms

  16. Global alignment: Finding rearrangements during alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Malde, Sanket; Poliakov, Alexander; Do, Chuong B.; Couronne, Olivier; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2003-01-06

    Motivation: To compare entire genomes from different species, biologists increasingly need alignment methods that are efficient enough to handle long sequences, and accurate enough to correctly align the conserved biological features between distant species. The two main classes of pairwise alignments are global alignment, where one string is transformed into the other, and local alignment, where all locations of similarity between the two strings are returned. Global alignments are less prone to demonstrating false homology as each letter of one sequence is constrained to being aligned to only one letter of the other. Local alignments, on the other hand, can cope with rearrangements between non-syntenic, orthologous sequences by identifying similar regions in sequences; this, however, comes at the expense of a higher false positive rate due to the inability of local aligners to take into account overall conservation maps.

  17. DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....

  18. Teacher Perception of the Alignment of Enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfill, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    This study used the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) standards for staff development as a framework for measuring specific aspects of the enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) educational technology professional development program, as perceived by eMINTS teachers. The Technology Integration Cycle…

  19. Knowledge Management Strategic Alignment in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaflah AlAmmary; Chun Che Fung

    Organizations today should actively incorporate knowledge strategy (KS) into their Business Strategy (BS) as knowledge has been recognized as a strategic element in the performance of the organization. Hence, the current research hypothesis that the alignment between BS and KS has a positive effect on the organizational performance. In an attempt to explore the alignment between KS and BS, an

  20. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  1. Teachers' Conceptions about Their Understanding of Societal Science Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.

    Teachers' scientific knowledge about societal science issues must be one of the prerequisites for the process of science teaching. Innovation in science teaching and its implications for students' scientific literacy depends on the understanding that teachers bring with them into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how…

  2. Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a Changing Climate: An Integrated Perspective Despite hazard mitigation efforts and scientific and technological ad- vances, extreme weather events continue to cause substantial losses. The impacts of extreme weather result from complex interactions among

  3. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  4. Societal Boundaries on Cybernetic Action or Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Rosalind; Steg, Doreen E.

    This paper discusses the development, application, and implications of a statistical technique--a concordance index--for measuring the restrictions and constrictions (legal and societal) which inhibit individual decision making and adapting behavior. It was found that as sophistication sets in there will be less and less tolerance of these…

  5. GENETIC TESTING ,I NSURANCE ECONOMICS, AND SOCIETAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick L. Brockett; Richard MacMinn; Maureen Carter

    1996-01-01

    Three major perspectives emerge when the discussion of the implications of genetic testing on the insurance industry commences. One viewpoint, strongly advocated by certain consumer groups and ethicists on the basis of societal responsibility, categorically denies any necessity for connecting the results of genetic testing and issuance of insurance. By contrast, the insurance industry, upon examining the economics and dynamics

  6. The Societal Impact of Algorithms in Transport Optimization1

    E-print Network

    Zaroliagis, Christos D.

    ). To achieve these vital socio-economic goals, public transportation systems have to improve the quality far, there were only theoretical arguments in favor of the time-dependent approach. In [Pyrga et alThe Societal Impact of Algorithms in Transport Optimization1 Christos D. Zaroliagis Dept

  7. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  8. LANGAGE, SOCIETE, CORPS UTOPIES ET HETEROTOPIES CHEZ MICHEL FOUCAULT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LANGAGE, SOCIETE, CORPS UTOPIES ET HETEROTOPIES CHEZ MICHEL FOUCAULT Dans le propos qui va suivre Valette. Ces conférences radiophoniques de Michel Foucault font partie d'une série d'émissions consacrée à « essais littéraires de Michel Foucault ». Elles ont été archivées par l'Institut National de l

  9. White University Students' Responses to Societal Racism: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa A.; Oh, Euna; Poteat, V. Paul; Hund, Anita R.; McClair, Vetisha L.; Beer, Amanda M.; Clarke, Alexis M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to extend earlier conceptual and empirical literature on the ways in which White individuals respond to societal racism. To this end, the authors conducted in-depth interviews to examine 11 midwestern, non-Hispanic, White university students' reactions and experiences related to individual and institutional…

  10. In Defense of Societal Issues as Organizers for School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)

  11. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaas van Alphen; Quirine van Voorst tot Voorst; Marko P. Hekkert; Ruud E. H. M. Smits

    2007-01-01

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The

  12. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this project aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. This proposal assesses societal transformations from the perspective of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. Yet each risk mitigation measure is built on a narrative of exchanges and relations between people and therefore may condition the outputs. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this project will focus on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. The policy dimension of adaptation, predominantly decisions on the societal admissible level of vulnerability and risk, will be evaluated by a human-environment interaction approach using multiple methods and the assessment of social capacities of stakeholders across scales. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. In addressing the relationship between these dimensions of adaptation on different temporal and spatial scales, this project is both scientifically innovative and policy relevant, thereby supporting climate policy needs in Europe towards a concept of risk governance. Key words: climate change adaptation; transformation; flood risk management; resilience; vulnerability; innovative bottom-up developments; multifunctional use

  13. Implementation of a parallel protein structure alignment service on cloud.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

  14. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-09-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  15. Uses of scientific, technical, and societal information by policy makers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Carbo Bearman

    1988-01-01

    The entire life cycle of scientific, technical, and societal information is changing, due both to new technologies and to\\u000a enhanced awareness of the importance of information in everyday life. This article describes features undergoing change within\\u000a the life cycle and presents two examples, illustrating how information is used in policy setting. Possible measures of the\\u000a way in which the public

  16. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  17. GER 301 (Reading) Course Outcomes and Programmatic Alignment

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    GER 301 (Reading) Course Outcomes and Programmatic Alignment Students will be able to Outcomes Assessments Programmatic Alignment Develop numerous reading strategies to enhance comprehension skills; e.g., passive vocabulary, information scanning techniques written quizzes reading portfolio short essays exams 1

  18. Physician alignment strategies and real estate.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image. PMID:22734329

  19. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21949564

  20. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  1. Observatory alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. Scott; Acton, D. Scott; Lightsey, Paul; Contos, Adam; Barto, Allison

    2012-09-01

    The payload portion of James Web Space Telescope (JWST) consists of a deployable, three mirror anistigmat, telescope and an Integrated Science Instrument Model (ISIM) that contains the scientific instruments. This paper describes the overall process and strategy of aligning the Observatory in an efficient manner that reduces risk and strives to be tolerant of faults in the system. A process has been developed consisting of ground calibration of the instruments and alignment testing of the fixed optics to ensure that the telescope is alignable in space. The overall architecture of the alignment process and the processes to safely and efficiently conduct the optical commissioning is described.

  2. Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

  3. IMAGE BASED VISUAL SERVOING USING BITANGENT POINTS APPLIED TO PLANAR SHAPE ALIGNMENT

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    strategies based on bitangents for aligning planar shapes. In order to acquire bitangents we use convex-hull WORDS Visual servoing, alignment, convex hull, bitangents 1 Introduction Curve alignment is a central vehicles using vanishing points and lines. In order to acquire bitangent points, we used convex-hull

  4. Genomic multiple sequence alignments: refinement using a genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J

    2005-01-01

    Background Genomic sequence data cannot be fully appreciated in isolation. Comparative genomics – the practice of comparing genomic sequences from different species – plays an increasingly important role in understanding the genotypic differences between species that result in phenotypic differences as well as in revealing patterns of evolutionary relationships. One of the major challenges in comparative genomics is producing a high-quality alignment between two or more related genomic sequences. In recent years, a number of tools have been developed for aligning large genomic sequences. Most utilize heuristic strategies to identify a series of strong sequence similarities, which are then used as anchors to align the regions between the anchor points. The resulting alignment is globally correct, but in many cases is suboptimal locally. We describe a new program, GenAlignRefine, which improves the overall quality of global multiple alignments by using a genetic algorithm to improve local regions of alignment. Regions of low quality are identified, realigned using the program T-Coffee, and then refined using a genetic algorithm. Because a better COFFEE (Consistency based Objective Function For alignmEnt Evaluation) score generally reflects greater alignment quality, the algorithm searches for an alignment that yields a better COFFEE score. To improve the intrinsic slowness of the genetic algorithm, GenAlignRefine was implemented as a parallel, cluster-based program. Results We tested the GenAlignRefine algorithm by running it on a Linux cluster to refine sequences from a simulation, as well as refine a multiple alignment of 15 Orthopoxvirus genomic sequences approximately 260,000 nucleotides in length that initially had been aligned by Multi-LAGAN. It took approximately 150 minutes for a 40-processor Linux cluster to optimize some 200 fuzzy (poorly aligned) regions of the orthopoxvirus alignment. Overall sequence identity increased only slightly; but significantly, this occurred at the same time that the overall alignment length decreased – through the removal of gaps – by approximately 200 gapped regions representing roughly 1,300 gaps. Conclusion We have implemented a genetic algorithm in parallel mode to optimize multiple genomic sequence alignments initially generated by various alignment tools. Benchmarking experiments showed that the refinement algorithm improved genomic sequence alignments within a reasonable period of time. PMID:16086841

  5. Robust and accurate prediction of noncoding RNAs from aligned sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational prediction of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is an important task in the post-genomic era. One common approach is to utilize the profile information contained in alignment data rather than single sequences. However, this strategy involves the possibility that the quality of input alignments can influence the performance of prediction methods. Therefore, the evaluation of the robustness against alignment errors is necessary as well as the development of accurate prediction methods. Results We describe a new method, called Profile BPLA kernel, which predicts ncRNAs from alignment data in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). Profile BPLA kernel is an extension of base-pairing profile local alignment (BPLA) kernel which we previously developed for the prediction from single sequences. By utilizing the profile information of alignment data, the proposed kernel can achieve better accuracy than the original BPLA kernel. We show that Profile BPLA kernel outperforms the existing prediction methods which also utilize the profile information using the high-quality structural alignment dataset. In addition to these standard benchmark tests, we extensively evaluate the robustness of Profile BPLA kernel against errors in input alignments. We consider two different types of error: first, that all sequences in an alignment are actually ncRNAs but are aligned ignoring their secondary structures; second, that an alignment contains unrelated sequences which are not ncRNAs but still aligned. In both cases, the effects on the performance of Profile BPLA kernel are surprisingly small. Especially for the latter case, we demonstrate that Profile BPLA kernel is more robust compared to the existing prediction methods. Conclusions Profile BPLA kernel provides a promising way for identifying ncRNAs from alignment data. It is more accurate than the existing prediction methods, and can keep its performance under the practical situations in which the quality of input alignments is not necessarily high. PMID:21106125

  6. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E. (Huntington Beach, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  7. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  8. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  9. Spectral Alignment of Networks

    E-print Network

    Feizi, Soheil

    2015-02-18

    Network alignment refers to the problem of finding a bijective mapping across vertices of two or more graphs to maximize the number of overlapping edges and/or to minimize the number of mismatched interactions across ...

  10. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  11. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations. PMID:24588019

  12. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  13. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  14. Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hong-biao

    2013-01-01

    Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

  15. Shaping the societal impacts of engineering sciences: a reflection on the role of public funding agencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone van der Burg

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing public policy interest in responsible innovation, which implies an enforcement of interdisciplinary communication between the engineering sciences and the social sciences or humanities anticipating and assessing the societal impacts of engineering research. This article focuses on an innovative brand of ethical technology assessment (TA), which offers (1) an initial interpretive framework for understanding what “societal impacts”

  16. Implementation of computer-based patient records in primary care: the societal health economic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Vimárlund, V.; Ljunggren, M.; Timpka, T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the societal health economic effects occurring during the first year after implementation of Computerised Patient Records (CPRs) at Primary Health Care (PHC) centres. DESIGN: Comparative case studies of practice processes and their consequences one year after CPR implementation, using the constant comparison method. Application of transaction-cost analyses at a societal level on the results. SETTING: Two urban PHC centres under a managed care contract in Ostergötland county, Sweden. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Central implementation issues. First-year societal direct normal costs, direct unexpected costs, and indirect costs. Societal benefits. RESULTS: The total societal effect of the CPR implementation was a cost of nearly 250,000 SEK (USD 37,000) per GP team. About 20% of the effect consisted of direct unexpected costs, accured from the reduction of practitioners' leisure time. The main issues in the implementation process were medical informatics knowledge and computer skills, adaptation of the human-computer interaction design to practice routines, and information access through the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: The societal costs exceed the benefits during the first year after CPR implementation at the observed PHC centres. Early investments in requirements engineering and staff training may increase the efficiency. Exploitation of the CPR for disease prevention and clinical quality improvement is necessary to defend the investment in societal terms. The exact calculation of societal costs requires further analysis of the affected groups' willingness to pay. PMID:8947717

  17. Societal concern related to stocking density, pen size and group size in farm animal production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filiep Vanhonacker; Wim Verbeke; Els Van Poucke; Stephanie Buijs; Frank A. M. Tuyttens

    2009-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has become increasingly important and relevant from the societal point of view throughout the livestock production chain, with space allowance for farm animals being one of its most topical and vividly debated sub-matters. Anticipating on the increasing power of the citizens' voice in Western society, this study focuses on societal concerns related to space allowance in Flemish

  18. The Jalview Java alignment editor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele E. Clamp; James A. Cuff; Stephen M. J. Searle; Geoffrey J. Barton

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Multiple sequence alignment remains a crucial method for understanding the function of groups of related nucleic acid and protein sequences. However, it is known that automatic multiple sequence alignments can often be improved by manual editing. Therefore, tools are needed to view and edit multiple sequence alignments. Due to growth in the sequence databases, multiple sequence alignments can often

  19. Process Alignment for Strategic Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie McIlrath; Tim Kotnour

    The contribution of this paper is a methodology for aligning processes to the strategic plan. An organization must be able to align itself with the strategic plan to ensure effective implementation. A key factor for successful strategic implementation is aligning processes to the strategic plan. Once processes are aligned to the strategic plan, objectives, goals, and measures can be utilized

  20. Perception of Societal Stigma and Discrimination Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos, Nigeria: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olalekan, Adebimpe Wasiu; Akintunde, Akindele Rasaq; Olatunji, Mabayoje Victor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) on how the public feels about them could influence their willingness to seek medical care, interaction with the society and their coping strategies. Material and methods: This study assessed the perception and behavior of PLWHAs towards societal stigma and discrimination in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a qualitative, descriptive cross sectional study among PLWHAs from three of the three senatorial districts in Lagos State selected using simple random sampling. Six focus group discussions (FGDs), consisting of eight eligible respondents each were held using structured FGD guide. Results: Collected data were analyzed using simple content analysis. About three quarter of all the discussants said life had become miserable following episodes of stigma and discrimination against their personality in public, family, health care settings and the work-place. Some had feelings of guilt and depression towards these actions. About three quarter had coped with the situation by living a low-keyed lifestyle, dissociating themselves from the public and avoiding seeking care in HIV care centers. Majority of respondents were not willing to come out to publicly discuss their positive HIV status for fear of discrimination. Conclusion: Discussants recommended continuous awareness campaigns about HIV to further educate the general public towards reduction of societal stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs. PMID:25126015

  1. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  2. Precision alignment device

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.E.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes an apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servo-motor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  3. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  4. Parameters for accurate genome alignment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome sequence alignments form the basis of much research. Genome alignment depends on various mundane but critical choices, such as how to mask repeats and which score parameters to use. Surprisingly, there has been no large-scale assessment of these choices using real genomic data. Moreover, rigorous procedures to control the rate of spurious alignment have not been employed. Results We have assessed 495 combinations of score parameters for alignment of animal, plant, and fungal genomes. As our gold-standard of accuracy, we used genome alignments implied by multiple alignments of proteins and of structural RNAs. We found the HOXD scoring schemes underlying alignments in the UCSC genome database to be far from optimal, and suggest better parameters. Higher values of the X-drop parameter are not always better. E-values accurately indicate the rate of spurious alignment, but only if tandem repeats are masked in a non-standard way. Finally, we show that ?-centroid (probabilistic) alignment can find highly reliable subsets of aligned bases. Conclusions These results enable more accurate genome alignment, with reliability measures for local alignments and for individual aligned bases. This study was made possible by our new software, LAST, which can align vertebrate genomes in a few hours http://last.cbrc.jp/. PMID:20144198

  5. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  6. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  7. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  8. Optical alignment and testing of the Michelle spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettedgui-Atad, Eli; Glasse, Alistair C.; Baillie, T. E.; Bryson, Ian R.; Morrison, Garry F.; Murray, J.

    1998-08-01

    We describe the optical alignment and image quality testing of Michelle, the all-reflective mid-IR astronomical spectrometer and imager being built at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh for the UKIRT and GEMINI telescopes. The design strategy called for optical alignment by manufacture, with the only means for adjustment being the machining of sacrificial pads under key optical components. The success of this approach in meeting the alignment error budget is discussed, including the description of a method for identifying the optical axis of the optical train using field rotation. We present the result of image spot and wavefront error measurements and compare them with the instruments opto-mechanical specification.

  9. Survey and alignment of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    1991-05-01

    The general survey and alignment concept for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL Berkeley [1] is based on a network of fixed monuments to which all component positions are referred. Observations include electronic distance measurements and direction sightings with electronic data capture; data are processed by a customized version of the computer code PC-GEONET [2] which provides raw data reduction, calculation of adjusted coordinates, and error analysis. Additionally, for local survey tasks the commercial software package ECDCS [3] is used. In this paper, the ALS survey and alignment strategy and techniques are presented and critically discussed; first experiences with alignment of the linac and booster components are described.

  10. Parallel processing state alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vollaro

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating

  11. Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education 

    E-print Network

    Kinra, Reva Elaine

    2013-02-22

    societal systems that impact medicine and medical education include economics, generations, and technology. Change occurs periodically within these systems, producing cyclical or pulsatile patterns of behavior. Numerous studies have analyzed generational...

  12. Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education

    E-print Network

    Kinra, Reva Elaine

    2013-02-22

    As medical educators strive to produce qualified physicians who are able to meet societal needs, the medical education system must continually reform itself to meet the demands of that changing society. Understanding the interactions between...

  13. Technologyenhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    participants were financed by the London Mobile Learning Group (LMLG, wwwTechnologyenhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformation Author and organiser: Norbert Pachler (London Mobile Learning Group) This workshop has a special

  14. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...EA-376] Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...SGEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  15. NINETEENTH CENTURY SOCIETAL REACTIONS TO JUVENILE DELINQUENTS: PRELIMINARY NOTES FOR A NATURAL HISTORY

    E-print Network

    Reichel, Philip L.

    1979-01-01

    Using the hypothetical natural history model suggested by Spector and Kitsuse, this paper reviews societal reactions to problem children in the nineteenth century. Humanitarian and class interests are highlighted in describing how those reactions...

  16. The Evolution of Modern Technology and Its Societal Impact on Biocommunications in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singarella, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Comments on how communications technology has evolved over the last century, resulting in the digital revolution. Discusses the relationship between information technology and societal factors that impact on higher education and health care. (DDR)

  17. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel moisture content, burn scars, and meteorological parameters. Impacts to public health and livelihoods due to food insecurity, algal blooms, and air pollution can be addressed through NRT monitoring of specific events utilizing land cover, atmospheric composition, water quality, and meteorological observations. More broadly, the assessment of water availability for drinking and agriculture and the development of floods and storms rely on continuous feeds of NRT meteorological and atmospheric composition observations. Overall, this multi-disciplinary study of user needs for NRT data and products can inform the design and operation of NRT data systems. Follow-on work for this study will also be presented, focusing on the availability of current and future satellite measurements (including NRT) of the 30 most critical Earth observation priorities, as well as a detailed analysis of users' needs for precipitation data. The results of this study summarize the priorities for critical Earth observations utilized globally for societal benefit.

  18. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean�an expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean�s role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)�s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council�s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation�s attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions�enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure � autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating

  19. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  20. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 ?m). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success of the MUSE alignment is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE image quality and throughput directly onto the sky.

  1. Video Alignment for Change Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferran Diego; Daniel Ponsa; Joan Serrat; Antonio M. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we address the problem of aligning two video sequences. Such alignment refers to synchronization, i.e., the establishment of temporal correspondence between frames of the first and second video, followed by spatial registration of all the temporally corresponding frames. Video synchronization and alignment have been attempted before, but most often in the relatively simple cases of fixed or

  2. Basic local alignment search tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen F. Altschul; Warren Gish; Webb C. Miller; Eugene W. Myers; David J. Lipman

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST),directly approsimates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (3ISP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an anallrsis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm

  3. Topology Independent Protein Structural Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Dundas; T. Andrew Binkowski; Bhaskar Dasgupta; Jie Liang

    2007-01-01

    Protein structural alignment is an indispensable tool used for many differ- ent studies in bioinformatics. Most structural alignment algorithms assume that the structural units of two similar proteins will align sequentially. This assumption may not be true for all similar proteins and as a result, proteins with similar structure but with permuted sequence arrangement are often missed. We present a

  4. Inflation by alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-01

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f gtrsim Mp, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  5. Einstein Cluster Alignments Revisited

    E-print Network

    Scott W. Chambers; Adrian L. Melott; Christopher J. Miller

    2000-07-11

    We have examined whether the major axes of rich galaxy clusters tend to point toward their nearest neighboring cluster. We have used the data of Ulmer, McMillan, and Kowalski, who used position angles based on X-ray morphology. We also studied a subset of this sample with updated positions and distances from the MX Northern Abell Cluster Survey (for rich clusters ($R \\geq 1$) with well known redshifts). A Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test showed no significant signal for nonrandom angles on any scale $\\leq 100h^{-1}$Mpc. However, refining the null hypothesis with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, we found a high confidence signal for alignment. Confidence levels increase to a high of 99.997% as only near neighbors which are very close are considered. We conclude there is a strong alignment signal in the data, consistent with gravitational instability acting on Gaussian perturbations.

  6. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  7. AVID: A Global Alignment Program

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Nick; Dubchak, Inna; Pachter, Lior

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new global alignment method called AVID. The method is designed to be fast, memory efficient, and practical for sequence alignments of large genomic regions up to megabases long. We present numerous applications of the method, ranging from the comparison of assemblies to alignment of large syntenic genomic regions and whole genome human/mouse alignments. We have also performed a quantitative comparison of AVID with other popular alignment tools. To this end, we have established a format for the representation of alignments and methods for their comparison. These formats and methods should be useful for future studies. The tools we have developed for the alignment comparisons, as well as the AVID program, are publicly available. See Web Site References section for AVID Web address and Web addresses for other programs discussed in this paper. PMID:12529311

  8. Extreme Weather Events on the Last Frontier: Meteorological Analyses and Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuromski, L.; Walsh, J. E.; Thoman, R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service lacks a comprehensive compilation of major weather events in Alaska. Creating a repository of the effects of past storms and other extreme weather events on society, together with documentation of the meteorological evolution of the events, will facilitate the NWS and other government agencies to analyze this data. Such analysis will improve their strategies, such as sharpening local and state responses to extreme weather and enhancing forecasts for the events, to create a more weather-ready society in Alaska. This research examines six high-impact weather events in Alaska, ranging in dates from 1974 until 2012. Atmospheric data was gathered from the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)'s 6-Hour National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Reanalysis Composites and from 3-Hour NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Composites. Reanalysis composites of sea-level pressure, temperature, geopotential height, and vector wind allowed for the storms to be tracked and for weather pattern anomalies to be recognized. Societal impacts were investigated by using the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC)'s online Storm Events Database and by utilizing microfilms of Alaskan newspapers detailing the events. Synthesizing facts from NCDC and newspapers, along with incorporating meteorological knowledge from the atmospheric reanalysis composites, summaries of the events could then be created. In the future, this research will be continued to include a broader range of high-impact Alaskan weather events. This work will further serve as a basis for analysis for decision-makers to better plan for extreme events and their aftermath. The completed research, though a small portion of the anticipated project, provides a template for future data assimilation, and it initiates the efforts towards a more weather-prepared Alaska.

  9. Evolutionary Explanations for Societal Differences in Single Parenthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Barber

    The new research strategy presented in this paper, Evolutionary Social Science, is designed to bridge the gap between evolutionary psychology that operates from the evolutionary past and social science that is bounded by recent history. Its core assumptions are (1) that modern societies owe their character to an interaction of hunter-gatherer adaptations with the modern environment; (2) that changes in

  10. Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-07-04

    We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

  11. Modeling business strategy: A meta-model of strategy maps and balanced scorecards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos Giannoulis; Michael Petit; Jelena Zdravkovic

    2011-01-01

    Business strategy is aimed to support the vision of an enterprise, by paving the way to achieve it through goals that direct the strategy's execution. However, there is a lack of means to establish and assess the alignment of business strategy and goal oriented requirements engineering. The objective of our ongoing research is to model business strategy in order to

  12. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  13. A rank-based sequence aligner with applications in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Liviu P; Ionescu, Radu Tudor; Tomescu, Alexandru I

    2014-01-01

    Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing [Formula: see text]-mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at http://lrd.herokuapp.com/aligners. The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391

  14. A Rank-Based Sequence Aligner with Applications in Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing -mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at http://lrd.herokuapp.com/aligners. The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391

  15. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  16. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  17. Unstructured Linear Beamforming Design for Interference Alignment in MIMO Cellular Networks

    E-print Network

    Yu, Wei

    Unstructured Linear Beamforming Design for Interference Alignment in MIMO Cellular Networks Gokul--This paper proposes a linear beamforming strategy for interference alignment in multiple-input multiple cells with K users/cell, having N antennas at each base station (BS) and M antennas at each user -- a (G

  18. Conserved pathways within bacteria and yeast as revealed by global protein network alignment

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    in evolutionary and comparative biology. Given that protein sequences and structures are conserved in and amongConserved pathways within bacteria and yeast as revealed by global protein network alignment Brian M. Karp, July 25, 2003 We implement a strategy for aligning two protein­protein inter- action

  19. A best-first alignment algorithm for automatic extraction of transfer mappings from bilingual corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arul Menezes; Stephen D. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    Translation systems that automatically extract transfer mappings (rules or examples) from bilingual corpora have been hampered by the difficulty of achieving accurate alignment and acquiring high quality mappings. We describe an algorithm that uses a best-first strategy and a small alignment grammar to significantly improve the quality of the transfer mappings extracted. For each mapping, frequencies are computed and sufficient

  20. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  1. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  2. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  3. Alignment of Biomedical Ontologies Using Life Science Literature

    E-print Network

    Aberg, Johan

    Alignment of Biomedical Ontologies Using Life Science Literature He Tan, Vaida Jakoniene, Patrick science literature. We propose a basic algorithm as well as extensions that take the structure into account. The strategies use life science literature and build on the intuition that a similarity measure

  4. Achieving Standards-Based Curriculum Alignment through Mindful Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebling, Cheryl Rappaport

    In this paper, standards-based curriculum alignment is represented as an inquiry strategy for creating a district's coherent curriculum for kindergarten through grade 12. A coherent curriculum is one in which the district's written curriculum is externally congruent with state and/or national academic content and performance standards, and the…

  5. Alignment of Polarized Sets

    E-print Network

    Joseph M. Renes; David Sutter; S. Hamed Hassani

    2014-11-28

    Ar{\\i}kan's polar coding technique is based on the idea of synthesizing $n$ channels from the $n$ instances of the physical channel by a simple linear encoding transformation. Each synthesized channel corresponds to a particular input to the encoder. For large $n$, the synthesized channels become either essentially noiseless or almost perfectly noisy, but in total carry as much information as the original $n$ channels. Capacity can therefore be achieved by transmitting messages over the essentially noiseless synthesized channels. Unfortunately, the set of inputs corresponding to reliable synthesized channels is poorly understood, in particular how the set depends on the underlying physical channel. In this work, we present two analytic conditions sufficient to determine if the reliable inputs corresponding to different discrete memoryless channels are aligned or not, i.e. if one set is contained in the other. Understanding the alignment of the polarized sets is important as it is directly related to universality properties of the induced polar codes, which are essential in particular for network coding problems. We demonstrate the performance of our conditions on a few examples for wiretap and broadcast channels. Finally we show that these conditions imply that the simple quantum polar coding scheme of Renes et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 050504 (2012)] requires entanglement assistance for general channels, but also show such assistance to be unnecessary in many cases of interest.

  6. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6). On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN) and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks. PMID:23171476

  7. Alignment robustness for 90 nm and 65 nm node through copper alignment mark integration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Scott; Hinnen, Paul; Morton, Rob; Cooper, Kevin; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Depre, Jerome; Navarro, Ramon; van Haren, Richard; Browning, Clyde; Reber, Doug; Megens, Henry

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, methods for stacking ASML scribe lane alignment marks (SPM) and improving the mark performance at initial copper metal levels are discussed. The new mark designs and the theoretical reasons for mark design and/or integration change are presented. In previous joint publications between ASML and Freescale Semiconductor [1], improved overlay performance and alignment robustness for Back End Of Line (BEOL) layers by the application of stacked scribe lane marks (SPM) was presented. In this paper, further improvements are demonstrated through the use of optimized Versatile Scribe Lane Mark design (VSPM). With the application of stacked optimized VSPM-marks, the alignment signal strength of marks in the copper metal layer is increased compared to stacked SPM marks. The gains in signal strength stability, which is typical for stacked marks, as well as significantly reduced scribe lane usage, are also maintained. Through the placement of specially designed orthogonal scatter-bars in selected layers under the VSPM-marks, the alignment performance of initial inlaid metal layers is improved as well. The integration of these marks has been evaluated for the 90 nm and 65 nm technology nodes as part of a joint development program between the Crolles2 Alliance and ASML. A measured overlay improvement of ~10-15% was obtained by a strategy change from floating copper marks to stacked optimized VSPM marks.

  8. Systemic vasculitis: how little we know about their societal and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Baldini, Chiara; Talarico, Rosaria; D'Angiolella, Lucia; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to perform an evaluation of the state of the art of the economic and societal burden of systemic vasculitis (VAs). Due to the rarity of these diseases and their variable clinical picture, few data are available in the literature on their health economic issues, and only some papers have been published that marginally examine the problem. Since VAs are severe conditions with a high medical and societal impact and determine high healthcare resource consumption, studies able to define societal, quality of life and economic burden of these pathologies are needed. Policy makers, private and public organisations involved in the care of VAs need data to programme future investment or make cost-effectiveness analysis for introducing new drugs or protocols. PMID:23072925

  9. Using multiple alignments to improve seeded local alignment algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Flannick, Jason; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2005-01-01

    Multiple alignments among genomes are becoming increasingly prevalent. This trend motivates the development of tools for efficient homology search between a query sequence and a database of multiple alignments. In this paper, we present an algorithm that uses the information implicit in a multiple alignment to dynamically build an index that is weighted most heavily towards the promising regions of the multiple alignment. We have implemented Typhon, a local alignment tool that incorporates our indexing algorithm, which our test results show to be more sensitive than algorithms that index only a sequence. This suggests that when applied on a whole-genome scale, Typhon should provide improved homology searches in time comparable to existing algorithms. PMID:16100379

  10. Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.

    Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

  11. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  12. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  13. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  14. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  15. Integrated energy strategy for the sustainable development of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Feng Fu; Zheng Li; Weidou Ni

    2011-01-01

    We propose in this paper an integrated energy strategy based on a systems approach to address the energy challenges and energy dilemma in China. First, we give a review of existing approaches to energy planning and strategic management, followed by a discussion on the major relationships among energy, economical, environmental and societal systems. Next, we present a conceptual system model

  16. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castello, R.

    2009-12-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision. Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first p- p collisions.

  17. Circumferentially aligned fibers guided functional neoartery regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meifeng; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiamin; Wang, Lina; Yang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrui; Fan, Guanwei; Ji, Shenglu; Xing, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Yan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Lianyong

    2015-08-01

    An ideal vascular graft should have the ability to guide the regeneration of neovessels with structure and function similar to those of the native blood vessels. Regeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with circumferential orientation within the grafts is crucial for functional vascular reconstruction in vivo. To date, designing and fabricating a vascular graft with well-defined geometric cues to facilitate simultaneously VSMCs infiltration and their circumferential alignment remains a great challenge and scarcely reported in vivo. Thus, we have designed a bi-layered vascular graft, of which the internal layer is composed of circumferentially aligned microfibers prepared by wet-spinning and an external layer composed of random nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. While the internal circumferentially aligned microfibers provide topographic guidance for in vivo regeneration of circumferentially aligned VSMCs, the external random nanofibers can offer enhanced mechanical property and prevent bleeding during and after graft implantation. VSMCs infiltration and alignment within the scaffold was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the circumferentially oriented VSMCs and longitudinally aligned ECs were successfully regenerated in vivo after the bi-layered vascular grafts were implanted in rat abdominal aorta. No formation of thrombosis or intimal hyperplasia was observed up to 3 month post implantation. Further, the regenerated neoartery exhibited contraction and relaxation property in response to vasoactive agents. This new strategy may bring cell-free small diameter vascular grafts closer to clinical application. PMID:26001073

  18. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  19. Alignment technology for backside integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J.; Kulse, P.; Haak, U.; Old, G.; Scheuring, G.; Döbereiner, St.; Hillmann, F.; Brück, H.-J.; Kaynak, M.; Ehwald, K.-E.; Marschmeyer, St.; Birkholz, M.; Schulz, K.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a backside-to-frontside alignment technique for the backside processing of Si wafers. Integrated MEMS components like BiCMOS-embedded RF-MEMS switches require accurate (1-2?m) alignment. We demonstrate an alignment technique providing overlay values of less than 500 nm by using a backside alignment layer. The approach is enabled by a new non-contact wafer pre-alignment system of the Nikon Scanner S207D allowing precise loading (<5?m) of the wafer onto the exposure stage. Before starting the back-side MEMS process, the misalignment between frontside devices and backside alignment layer has to be measured. The alignment errors are applied as lithography overlay corrections to the backside MEMS process. For the specific application of deep Si etching (Bosch process), moreover, one has to consider the etch profile angle deviation across the wafer (tilting), which turned out in our experiments to amount up to 8 ?m. During initial experiments with a Nikon i-line stepper NSR-2205 i- 11D the overlay has been corrected by the stepper offset parameters. These parameters have been obtained by summing up both the wafer and intra-field scaling errors caused by deep Si etching and backside-to-frontside alignment errors. Misalignments and tilting errors were all measured with a MueTec MT 3000 IR optical metrology system using overlay marks. The developed alignment technique is applied to BiCMOS-embedded MEMS devices, i.e. mm-wave RF switches and a viscosity sensor chip based on the IHP's high-speed SiGe technology. It turned out to be very promising for backside processed MEMS components with critical alignment requirements.

  20. Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in small spacecraft and emerging information technologies, and how sensor web options may be realized and made affordable. Specialized detector subsystems and precision flying techniques may still require substantial innovation, development time and cost: we have presented the considerations for these issues. Finally, data and information gathering and compression techniques are also briefly described.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density (greater than 100 mA/per square centimeters) field emission capabilities of CNTs can be exploited for construction of electron gun for electron microscopy and X-ray tubes for spectrometers and baggage screening. A CNT pillar array configuration has been demonstrated, not only meeting the high current density needs but more importantly providing long term emitter stability. Finally, supercapacitors hold the promise to combine the high energy density of a battery with the high power density of capacitors. Traditional graphite electrodes have not delivered this promise yet. A novel design and processing approach using MWCNTs has shown a record 550 F/g capacitance along with significant device endurance. This supercapacitor is suitable for railgun launch application for NASA, powering rovers and robots, consumer electronics and future hybrid vehicles.

  2. Human resource strategy: a process for managing the contribution of HRM to organizational performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun Tyson

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes human resource strategy as a management process, as part of emergent strategy formation. A framework is proposed to describe the different levels of analysis, societal, organisational and individual, which managers seek to integrate so that the meanings organisation members bring to their work are managed. The consequences of taking this approach as opposed to the rational view

  3. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. Lansford; Kenneth A. Dodge

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using “culture” as the unit of analysis. Design. Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time.

  4. A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

    2008-01-01

    This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

  5. Calibration and Alignment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassotti, Christopher; Iskenderian, Haig; Hoffman, Ross N.

    1999-06-01

    Discrepancies between estimates of rainfall from ground-based radar and satellite observing systems can be attributed to either calibration differences or to geolocation and sampling differences. These latter include differences due to radar or satellite misregistration, differences in observation times, or variations in instrument and retrieval algorithm sensitivities. A new methodology has been developed and tested for integrating radar- and satellite-based estimates of precipitation using a feature calibration and alignment (FCA) technique. The parameters describing the calibration and alignment are found using a variational approach, and are composed of displacement and amplitude adjustments to the satellite rainfall retrievals, which minimize the differences with respect to the radar data and satisfy additional smoothness and magnitude constraints. In this approach the amplitude component represents a calibration of the satellite estimate to the radar, whereas the displacement components correct temporal and/or geolocation differences between the radar and satellite data.The method has been tested on a number of cases of the NASA WetNet PIP-2 dataset. These data consist of coincident estimates of rainfall by ground-based radar and the DMSP SSM/I. Sensitivity tests were conducted to tune the parameters of the algorithm. Results indicate the effectiveness of the technique in minimizing the discrepancies between radar and satellite observations of rainfall for a variety of rainfall events ranging from midlatitude frontal precipitation to heavy convection associated with a tropical cyclone (Hurricane Andrew). A remaining issue to be resolved is the incorporation of knowledge about location dependencies in the errors of the radar and microwave estimates.Once the satellite data have been adjusted to match the radar observations, the two independent estimates (radar and adjusted SSM/I rain rates) may be blended to improve the overall depiction of the rainfall event in a single analysis. The FCA technique also has potential applications in 1) the development of satellite rainfall retrieval algorithms that may be tuned to radar rain rates and 2) error assessment of rainfall predictions using radar or satellite rain rates as verification.

  6. Retrospective Interference Alignment over Interference Networks

    E-print Network

    Jafar, Syed A.

    Retrospective Interference Alignment over Interference Networks Hamed Maleki, Syed A. Jafar interference alignment, i.e., achieving interference alignment with only outdated (stale) channel state on the centralized transmit- ter's ability to reconstruct all the interference seen in previous symbols

  7. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

  9. Societal and observational problems in earthquake risk assessments and their delivery to those most at risk

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    buildings, assembled without adequate earthquake resistance. A recent study by England and Jackson (2011 than a century of earthquake resistant engineering (Milne, 1891; Tobriner, 2006) and the developmentSocietal and observational problems in earthquake risk assessments and their delivery to those most

  10. The effects of an environmental\\/science-technology-societal issues curriculum on preservice teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Ngwidibah Ngongbo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an environmental\\/science-technology-societal issues curriculum on preservice teachers as regards their environmental literacy, perceptions and attitudes towards STS issues, and perceptions and attitudes towards teaching STS issues to elementary students. The STS issues curriculum is designed to help preservice teachers improve their knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards STS issues. A

  11. A snapshot of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: societal impacts and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Havidan Rodriguez; Tricia Wachtendorf; James Kendra; Joseph Trainor

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the societal impacts and consequences of the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One month after the tsunami, a group of social science researchers from the Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, and the Emergency Administration and Planning Program, University of North Texas, participated in an Earthquake Engineering

  12. A theory of risk colonization: The spiralling regulatory logics of societal and institutional risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Rothstein; Michael Huber; George Gaskell

    2006-01-01

    Explanations of the growing importance of risk to regulation identify three processes; the need to respond to newly created and discovered risks; the growth of regulatory frameworks; and the use of the risk instrument as an organizing idea for decision-making in modernity. Synthesizing these explanations, we propose a theory of risk colonization. We introduce a distinction between societal and institutional

  13. Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephane Chevrel

    2010-01-01

    Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability

  14. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  15. Toward a Psychology of Societal Change and Stability: The Case of Human Rights and Duties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathali M. Moghaddam; Elena Lvina

    2002-01-01

    A distinction is made between two types of psychology concerned with: performance capacity, the abilities of individuals tested in isolation; and performance style, the way things get done and the meanings ascribed to phenomena. Causal explanations are appropriate for performance capacity, and normative ones for performance style. Traditional psychology has focused predominantly on performance capacity and causation. Societal change and

  16. A Study of Societal Factors Influencing the Growth of Castleton State College: Implications for Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Robert F.

    Analyzed are certain societal factors--political, demographic, financial, public relations, student profiles, and mission statements as they have influenced the growth of Castleton State College since becoming a member of the Vermont State College system in 1961. Data for the study were gathered from a literature review of one of the daily…

  17. Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

  18. The people glut: Societal problems and the sexual behavior of individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donn Byrne

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that the problems of overpopulation and continued population growth underlie and exacerbate our most pressing societal problems. While there are numerous political and ideological barriers to birth control, one solution would seem to be the identification and eventual manipulation of the psychological variables determining the contraceptive behavior of individuals. The articles in this special issue of The

  19. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  20. Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

  1. Transition management: reflexive governance of societal complexity through searching, learning and experimenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rotmans; D. A. Loorbach

    2008-01-01

    Our society faces a number of persistent problems whose symptoms are becoming more and more apparent. Persistent problems are complex because they are: deeply embedded in our societal structures; uncertain because of the hardly reducible structural uncertainty they include; difficult to manage with a variety of actors with diverse interests involved; and hard to grasp, in the sense that they

  2. Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Hardin; D. Irwin; T. Sever; S. Graves

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Applied Sciences Program is to manifest societal benefits from the vast store of Earth Observations through partnerships with public, private and academic organizations. The SERVIR project represents an early success toward this goal. By combining Earth Observations from NASA missions, results from environmental models and decision support tools from its partners the SERVIR project

  3. Destination unknown: Pursuing sustainable mobility in the face of rival societal aspirations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurie J. Cohen

    2010-01-01

    A growing volume of scholarship and policy practice focuses on developing societal capacity to guide transitions of socio-technical systems toward more sustainable alternatives. Because several prominent modes of transportation are widely regarded as systemically problematic, the notion of sustainable mobility has received considerable attention from the standpoint of system innovation. Sustainability though constitutes only one of many contemporary political objectives

  4. Piecing Together the Puzzle: Development of the Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Luci N.; Bulgrin, Amanda; Morgan, Betsy L.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the prevalence of autism creates a need for a reliable and valid measure of attitudes towards autism. The current study describes the development of a brief 16-item measure of Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) that exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between expert and general…

  5. A Framework for Collaborative Social, Economic and Environmental Development Building a Digital Ecosystem for Societal Empowerment

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    Ecosystem for Societal Empowerment Jenny S. Huang AT&T Services, Inc. Lead Member of Technical Staff SEED Digital Ecosystem. The framework aims to effectively support self-organizing, multidisciplinary known as the Brundtland Report, set the vision of sustainable development as the ultimate balance

  6. Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

  7. Societal inequality and social mobility: A simple multivariate analysis of Boudon's model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven I. Miller

    1976-01-01

    One of the most significant social and educational issues within the last twenty years, especially in the United States, has been trying to fulfill the phrase “equality of educational opportunity”. The societal commitment to educational equality was initiated in the judicial arena by the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954). The court ruled that segregated education was unconstitutional

  8. NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  9. The Changing Face of Work in the United States: Implications for Individual, Institutional, and Societal Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derald Wing Sue; Thomas A. Parham; Gloria Bontilla Santiago

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the world of work are posing major challenges to workers, institutions, and society. Not only has the nature of work been affected by the changing work environment, increased global competition, and technological revolutions, but the characteristics of the workforce can only be described as revolutionary. Societal forces have resulted in what the authors call the \\

  10. A marker-free automatic alignment method based on scale-invariant features.

    PubMed

    Han, Renmin; Zhang, Fa; Wan, Xiaohua; Fernández, Jose-Jesus; Sun, Fei; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-04-01

    In electron tomography, alignment accuracy is critical for high-resolution reconstruction. However, the automatic alignment of a tilt series without fiducial markers remains a challenge. Here, we propose a new alignment method based on Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for marker-free alignment. The method covers the detection and localization of interest points (features), feature matching, feature tracking and optimization of projection parameters. The proposed method implements a highly reliable matching strategy and tracking model to detect a huge number of feature tracks. Furthermore, an incremental bundle adjustment method is devised to tolerate noise data and ensure the accurate estimation of projection parameters. Our method was evaluated with a number of experimental data, and the results exhibit an improved alignment accuracy comparable with current fiducial marker alignment and subsequent higher resolution of tomography. PMID:24582712

  11. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  12. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics® (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  13. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  14. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  15. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and justifications of solutions through the use of evidence and reasoning. Higher scoring students justified their solutions through evidence-based claims, while lower scoring students typically justified their solutions using anecdotal evidence, emotional ideologies, and naive and incomplete conceptions of earth systems.

  16. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points. PMID:24705824

  17. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO/sub 2/ laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects.

  18. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  19. The linkage of technology strategy and overall strategy of multi business diversified groups: Literature review and theoritical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad R. Arasti; Mahdi Khaleghi; Javad Noori

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with technology strategy and its linkage with overall strategy at multi-business, diversified groups. In the last two decades, the alignment of technology and business strategy has been one of the important research fields in strategy and technology management scopes. These researchs has been concentrated on single companies through which different frameworks, models & decision support tools have

  20. Minimal-effort planning of active alignment processes for beam-shaping optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Schranner, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Brecher, Christian; Roßmann, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    In science and industry, the alignment of beam-shaping optics is usually a manual procedure. Many industrial applications utilizing beam-shaping optical systems require more scalable production solutions and therefore effort has been invested in research regarding the automation of optics assembly. In previous works, the authors and other researchers have proven the feasibility of automated alignment of beam-shaping optics such as collimation lenses or homogenization optics. Nevertheless, the planning efforts as well as additional knowledge from the fields of automation and control required for such alignment processes are immense. This paper presents a novel approach of planning active alignment processes of beam-shaping optics with the focus of minimizing the planning efforts for active alignment. The approach utilizes optical simulation and the genetic programming paradigm from computer science for automatically extracting features from a simulated data basis with a high correlation coefficient regarding the individual degrees of freedom of alignment. The strategy is capable of finding active alignment strategies that can be executed by an automated assembly system. The paper presents a tool making the algorithm available to end-users and it discusses the results of planning the active alignment of the well-known assembly of a fast-axis collimator. The paper concludes with an outlook on the transferability to other use cases such as application specific intensity distributions which will benefit from reduced planning efforts.

  1. Alignment 2.0: Strategic Use of New Internet Technologies in Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Albert; Thaens, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    This paper challenges the view that strategies for using Web 2.0 should primarily be based upon technological characteristics. The value of the organizational strategic alignment approach for developing specific operational Web 2.0 strategies for government organizations is explored both theoretically and empirically. On the basis of a review of…

  2. SubMAP: Aligning Metabolic Pathways with Subnetwork Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Kellis, Manolis; Kahveci, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We consider the problem of aligning two metabolic pathways. Unlike traditional approaches, we do not restrict the alignment to one-to-one mappings between the molecules (nodes) of the input pathways (graphs). We follow the observation that, in nature, different organisms can perform the same or similar functions through different sets of reactions and molecules. The number and the topology of the molecules in these alternative sets often vary from one organism to another. With the motivation that an accurate biological alignment should be able to reveal these functionally similar molecule sets across different species, we develop an algorithm that first measures the similarities between different nodes using a mixture of homology and topological similarity. We combine the two metrics by employing an eigenvalue formulation. We then search for an alignment between the two input pathways that maximizes a similarity score, evaluated as the sum of the similarities of the mapped subnetworks of size at most a given integer k, and also does not contain any conflicting mappings. Here we prove that this maximization is NP-hard by a reduction from the maximum weight independent set (MWIS) problem. We then convert our problem to an instance of MWIS and use an efficient vertex-selection strategy to extract the mappings that constitute our alignment. We name our algorithm SubMAP (Subnetwork Mappings in Alignment of Pathways). We evaluate its accuracy and performance on real datasets. Our empirical results demonstrate that SubMAP can identify biologically relevant mappings that are missed by traditional alignment methods. Furthermore, we observe that SubMAP is scalable for metabolic pathways of arbitrary topology, including searching for a query pathway of size 70 against the complete KEGG database of 1,842 pathways. Implementation in C++ is available at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/SubMAP.html. PMID:21385030

  3. SubMAP: aligning metabolic pathways with subnetwork mappings.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ferhat; Kellis, Manolis; Kahveci, Tamer

    2011-03-01

    We consider the problem of aligning two metabolic pathways. Unlike traditional approaches, we do not restrict the alignment to one-to-one mappings between the molecules (nodes) of the input pathways (graphs). We follow the observation that, in nature, different organisms can perform the same or similar functions through different sets of reactions and molecules. The number and the topology of the molecules in these alternative sets often vary from one organism to another. With the motivation that an accurate biological alignment should be able to reveal these functionally similar molecule sets across different species, we develop an algorithm that first measures the similarities between different nodes using a mixture of homology and topological similarity. We combine the two metrics by employing an eigenvalue formulation. We then search for an alignment between the two input pathways that maximizes a similarity score, evaluated as the sum of the similarities of the mapped subnetworks of size at most a given integer k, and also does not contain any conflicting mappings. Here we prove that this maximization is NP-hard by a reduction from the maximum weight independent set (MWIS) problem. We then convert our problem to an instance of MWIS and use an efficient vertex-selection strategy to extract the mappings that constitute our alignment. We name our algorithm SubMAP (Subnetwork Mappings in Alignment of Pathways). We evaluate its accuracy and performance on real datasets. Our empirical results demonstrate that SubMAP can identify biologically relevant mappings that are missed by traditional alignment methods. Furthermore, we observe that SubMAP is scalable for metabolic pathways of arbitrary topology, including searching for a query pathway of size 70 against the complete KEGG database of 1,842 pathways. Implementation in C++ is available at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/SubMAP.html. PMID:21385030

  4. Unstable confocal resonator cavity alignment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Guthrie; T. B. Mc Donald; D. Anafi

    1987-01-01

    An optical alignment system is described for controlling the relative orientation of a second mirror with respect to the orientation of a convex cavity surface of a first mirror in a high-power optical cavity. The system comprises: an alignment laser for generating an alignment beam; a controlled steering mirror for adjusting the direction of propagation of the alignment beam; first

  5. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

  6. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  7. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

  8. Aligned Nanofibers for Regenerating Arteries, Nerves, and Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, Mark Trosper

    Cells are the fundamental unit of the human body, and therefore the ability to control cell behavior is the most important challenge in regenerative medicine. Peptides are the language of biology which is why synthetic peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules hold great potential as a biomaterial. The work presented in this dissertation explores a variety of liquid crystalline PA nanofibers as a means for directing cell growth. Shaping the alignment of these nanofiber networks requires a deep understanding of their rheological properties which presents a difficult challenge as they exist in complex solid and liquid environments. Using PA molecules that self-assemble into high aspect ratio nanofibers and liquid crystalline solutions, this work investigates the influence of shear flow on macroscopic and microscopic nanofiber alignment. To this end, a shear force applied to PA solutions was systematically varied while the alignment was probed using small angle x-ray scattering. Nanofibers were found to respond to shear flow by aligning parallel to the flow direction. By changing pH and PA chemical sequence it was observed that increasing the interfiber electrostatic repulsive interactions resulted in a greater dependence on shear rate. Nanofiber solutions having greater repulsion did not drastically increase in alignment when the applied strain was increased by two orders of magnitude (1 s -1 to 100 s-1), while solutions with nanofibers having less repulsion increased there alignment four fold with the same strain increase. say exactly what you mean by resulted in greater dependence: did it result in fibers aligning under lower shear rates or higher rates--give the results Anionic PA solutions typically used to encapsulate living cells at neutral pH were found to require minimal shear rates, <1s-1, to achieve significant nanofiber alignment. In an effort to produce tubular hydrogels composed of circumferentially aligned nanofibers, a procedure was designed that used an annular gap containing PA solution with a rotating rod. Using the shear aligning properties of PA solutions this rotating surface in contact with the PA solution induced a high degree of alignment in the nanofibers which was subsequently locked in place by introducing gelating calcium ions. again say something about what this fabrication procedure entails Cells encapsulated within these tubes responded to the alignment by extending in the circumferential direction mimicking the same cellular alignment observed in native arteries. A similar design strategy was also used to align nanofibers within the core of biopolymer nerve conduits, and these scaffolds were implanted in a rat sciatic nerve model. Histological and behavioral observations confirmed that PA implants sustained regeneration rates comparable to autologous grafts and significantly better than empty biopolymer grafts. Furthermore, these nanofiber gels were used as a vehicle to deliver stem cells into muscle tissue. A specialized injector was designed to introduce aligned PA gels into mouse leg muscles in a 1cm long channel. Bioluminescence and histology showed that stem cell engraftment into myofibers was greatly enhanced when delivered by PA gels compared to saline solution. The final section of this thesis describes a new series of PA molecules designed to degrade upon exposure to UV lightstate here why is this of interest in the context of the work described in the thesis. This was done to understand the degradation behavior of PA nanofibers and provide a controlled approach to changing the rheological properties post gelation.The three PA molecules in this series contained the same peptide sequence V3A3E3, while varying the location of a nitrobenzyl UV-reactive group along the backbone of the molecule. This system allowed for a quick reaction that cleaves the molecule at the reactive nitrobenzyl site without introducing any other reactive molecules. While all three molecules produced nanofibers that remained intact upon UV exposure, the PA having its cleavage point nearest to the hydrophobic core r

  9. GS-Aligner: A Novel Tool for Aligning Genomic Sequences Using Bit-Level Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Chun-Chieh Shih; Wen-Hsiung Li

    2003-01-01

    A novel algorithm, GS-Aligner, that uses bit-level operations was developed for aligning genomic sequences. GS- Aligner is efficient in terms of both time and space for aligning two very long genomic sequences and for identifying genomic rearrangements such as translocations and inversions. It is suitable for aligning fairly divergent sequences such as human and mouse genomic sequences. It consists of

  10. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  11. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested. PMID:24670225

  12. Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Lazarowitz; Ilit Bloch

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral,\\u000a ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution.\\u000a The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the\\u000a above-mentioned disciplines had been involved

  13. Balancing societal needs and regulatory certainty: the case study of peramivir in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, T; Ando, Y; Nagai, N; Sato, J; Kondo, T

    2013-04-01

    Regulators must balance societal and medical requirements against the need for certainty about benefit and risk for new medicines. This is described in a case study of the expedited review and approval of peramivir, a novel neuraminidase inhibitor, in Japan in the context of the emergence of new strain of influenza in 2009. The case illustrates the importance of regulatory science and transparency in supporting such decision making. PMID:23422872

  14. Is phase-mask alignment aberrating your STED microscope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Brian R.; Burke, Daniel; Vrees, Robert; Booth, Martin J.

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope depends critically upon the pupil plane phase mask that is used to shape the depletion focus. Misalignments of the mask create unwanted distortions of the depletion focus to the detriment of image quality. It is shown how the phase errors introduced by a misplaced mask are similar to coma aberrations. The effects are investigated analytically, through numerical modelling and experimental measurement. Strategies for the systematic alignment of the masks are discussed.

  15. The societal integration of individuals with epilepsy: perspectives for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Ramon Edmundo D; Shapovalov, Denys; Saada, Fahed; Pizzi, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder seen throughout the world. Advances in therapy have made it possible for persons with epilepsy (PWEs) to have improved seizure control and a better quality of life. However, it is not entirely clear whether this has resulted in their successful integration into society. This review examines the societal integration of PWEs, identifying both the progress made and the challenges that continue to hamper further advances. In general, PWEs are more integrated in western-oriented cultures. However, there continue to be ongoing difficulties due to poor education and intellectual functioning, poor social and family support, the undertreatment of coexisting psychiatric conditions, transportation and mobility limitations, and problems obtaining employment. This review also discusses the effects of low socioeconomic status on integration and the persisting prejudices that affect certain racial groups. Most importantly, this review underscores the fact that societal stigma towards PWEs is still very much alive. At the beginning of the 21st century, PWEs still encounter difficulties in their quest for full societal integration. Along with medical advances being made to improve seizure control, much still has to be done to bring about the reforms necessary to help PWEs live more meaningful and productive lives. PMID:24798409

  16. Individual and societal impact on earnings associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Huang, Yue-qin; He, Yan-ling; Liu, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Ming-yuan; Shen, Yu-cun; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-12-30

    To evaluate individual-level and societal-level losses of income associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China, a multi-stage probability survey was administered to adults aged 18-70 years in Beijing and Shanghai. We used data to estimate individual-level expected earnings from a model that included information about the respondents' education level, marital status, age, and gender. Expected earnings were compared to observed earnings among respondents with mental illness and serious disability. The result shows that the 12-month prevalence of such serious mental illness was 0.6%. Its impact on earnings was significant in the total sample and was higher for males (76% of gender-specific expected salary was lost) than for females (32%). When projected to societal level, the annual impact was estimated to be 466 million Renminbi (RMB 8.27=USD 1), less than 0.2% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the two cities. Serious mental illness was associated with a substantial decrease in individual-level earnings, but the burden that resulted from societal-level loss of earnings was not large enough to help drive mental health policy and programs in China. PMID:20493555

  17. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Hamid; Vandervalk, Benjamin P; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D; Chu, Justin; Breshears, Clay P; Birol, Inanc

    2015-01-01

    One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA), and is free for academic use. PMID:25923767

  18. Grain alignment in starless cores

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}?48. We find that P{sub K}/?{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly ?0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}?20 the slope for P versus ? becomes ??1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}?20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  19. Development of a Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-06-01

    The safety-goal policy of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has never included a true societal-risk goal. The NRC did acknowledge that the original goal for the risk of latent cancer facilities “was an individual risk goal not related to the number of people involved,” and stated that “a true societal risk goal would place a limit on the aggregate number of people affected.” However, this limitation was never satisfactorily addressed. Moreover, the safety goal has historically focused primarily on fatalities and latent health effects, while experience with actual nuclear accidents has shown that societal disruption can be significant even in accidents that yield only small to modest numbers of fatalities. Therefore, we have evaluated the social disruption effects from severe reactor accidents as a basis to develop a societal-risk goal for nuclear power plants, considering both health effects and non-health concerns such as property damage and land interdiction. Our initial analysis considered six different nuclear power plant sites in the U.S. for Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors. The accident sequences considered for these two reactor types were station blackout sequences (both short-term and long-term SBO) as well as an STSBO with RCIC failure for the BWR and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture for the PWR. The source term release was an input in a RASCAL calculation of the off-site consequences using actual site-based weather data for each of the six plant sites randomly selected over a two-year period. The source term release plumes were then compared to Geographical Information System data for each site to determine the population affected and that would need to be evacuated to meet current emergency preparedness regulations. Our results to date suggest that number of people evacuated to meet current protective action guidelines appears to be a good proxy for disruption -- and, unlike other measures of disruption, has the advantage of being relatively straightforward to calculate for a given accident scenario and a given geographical location and plant site. Revised safety goals taking into account the potential for societal disruption could in principle be applied to the current generation of nuclear plants, but could also be used in evaluating and siting new technologies, such as small modular light water reactors, advanced Gen-IV high-temperature reactors, as well as reactor designs with passive safety features such as filtered vented containments.

  20. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  1. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Rouzée, A.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-11-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  2. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Provides overall leadership for and management of the University's human resources strategy. Responsible for planning, organizing, directing, implementing, and administering human resources strategy, policies and

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Provides overall leadership for and management of the University's human resources strategy. Responsible for planning, organizing, directing, implementing, and administering human resources strategy to define, develop and deliver effective human resources practices that are aligned with the mission, vision

  4. DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li

    Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

  5. Corporate Strategy Corporate Strategy

    E-print Network

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    Corporate Strategy 2010-2020 Corporate Strategy 2010-2020 #12;S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O L O G Strategic themes 16 Solutions for global challenges 18 Inspiring and involving 20 Sustaining research international influence 28 Strategic enablers 30 Developing our people 32 Financial sustainability 34 Efficient

  6. The Virgo automatic alignment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Al-Shourbagy; S. Aoudia; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; L. Brocco; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Chassande-Mottin; C. Corda; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; D. Enard; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; L. Gammaitoni; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; L. Holloway; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; V. Loriette; M. Loupias; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; A. Pai; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; R. Stanga; R. Taddei; D. Tombolato; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert; Z. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The automatic alignment system of the Virgo interferometer differs substantially from those used in similar experiments, since it uses a variant of the Anderson technique. This implies a completely different control topology with respect to other detectors, and the main feature is a strong coupling of different degrees of freedom in the optical signals. It also provides two extra output

  7. Alignment in Second Language Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

  8. Downlink Scheduling with Transmission Strategy Selection for Two-cell MIMO Networks

    E-print Network

    Wong, Vincent

    propose to use interference alignment to mitigate interference experienced by these cell-edge users. In the literature, several inter- ference alignment strategies have been proposed for multi- cell cellular networks multiplexing may outperform interference alignment. For users located at the edge of adjacent cells, where

  9. Strategies for Aligning Standards-Based Education and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Diane S.; Kochhar-Bryant, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, major transformations have occurred in educational, social, political, and economic areas that continue to have an impact on the education and development of youth with disabilities and the institutions that support them. Approximately half of all students with disabilities in 2003-04 spent 80% or more of their day in a…

  10. Strategie Calibration and Spatial Alignment: A Model From Prism Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon M. Redding; Benjamin Wallace

    2002-01-01

    Two types of adaptive processes involved in prism adaptation have been identified: slower spatial realignment among the several unique sensorimotor coordinate systems (spatial maps) and faster strategic motor control responses (including skill learning and calibration) to spatial misalignment. One measures the 1st process by assessing the aftereffects of prism exposure, whereas direct effects of the prism during exposure are a

  11. Alignment strategies for drug product process development and manufacturing

    E-print Network

    Garvin, Christopher John

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of information between the drug product development and manufacturing organizations is fundamental to drug product commercialization. This information is used to characterize the product-process interaction ...

  12. MAVID: Constrained Ancestral Alignment of Multiple Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Nicolas; Pachter, Lior

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new global multiple-alignment program capable of aligning a large number of genomic regions. Our progressive-alignment approach incorporates the following ideas: maximum-likelihood inference of ancestral sequences, automatic guide-tree construction, protein-based anchoring of ab-initio gene predictions, and constraints derived from a global homology map of the sequences. We have implemented these ideas in the MAVID program, which is able to accurately align multiple genomic regions up to megabases long. MAVID is able to effectively align divergent sequences, as well as incomplete unfinished sequences. We demonstrate the capabilities of the program on the benchmark CFTR region, which consists of 1.8 Mb of human sequence and 20 orthologous regions in marsupials, birds, fish, and mammals. Finally, we describe two large MAVID alignments, an alignment of all the available HIV genomes and a multiple alignment of the entire human, mouse, and rat genomes. PMID:15060012

  13. Hydrogen Vehicles: Impacts of DOE Technical Targets on Market Acceptance and Societal Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen vehicles (H2V), including H2 internal combustion engine, fuel cell and fuel cell plugin hybrid, could greatly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The U.S. Department of Energy has adopted targets for vehicle component technologies to address key technical barriers towidespread commercialization of H2Vs. This study estimates the market acceptance of H2Vs and the resulting societal benefits and subsidy in 41 scenarios that reflect a wide range of progress in meeting these technical targets. Important results include: (1) H2Vs could reach 20e70% market shares by 2050, depending on progress in achieving the technical targets.With a basic hydrogen infrastructure (w5% hydrogen availability), the H2V market share is estimated to be 2e8%. Fuel cell and hydrogen costs are the most important factors affecting the long-term market shares of H2Vs. (2) Meeting all technical targets on time could result in about an 80% cut in petroleumuse and a 62% (or 72% with aggressive electricity de-carbonization) reduction in GHG in 2050. (3) The required hydrogen infrastructure subsidy is estimated to range from $22 to $47 billion and the vehicle subsidy from $4 to $17 billion. (4) Long-term H2V market shares, societal benefits and hydrogen subsidies appear to be highly robust against delay in one target, if all other targets are met on time. R&D diversification could provide insurance for greater societal benefits. (5) Both H2Vs and plug-in electric vehicles could exceed 50% market shares by 2050, if all targets are met on time. The overlapping technology, the fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, appears attractive both in the short and long runs, but for different reasons.

  14. Air quality management using modern remote sensing and spatial technologies and associated societal costs.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker's productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Lifecycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

  15. Physics and Chemistry of Purcell's Alignment

    E-print Network

    Alex Lazarian

    1995-01-17

    Paramagnetic alignment of suprathermally rotating grains is discussed in view of recent progress in understanding subtle processes taking place over grain surface. It is shown that in typical ISM conditions, grains with surfaces of amorphous H$_{2}$O ice, defected silicate or polymeric carbonaceous material are likely to exhibit enhanced alignment, while those of aromatic carbonaceous material or graphite are not. The critical grain sizes and temperature for the Purcell's alignment are obtained and preferential alignment of large grains is established.

  16. Meeting the societal need for new antibiotics: the challenges for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Seamus

    2015-02-01

    The rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to clinicians being increasingly faced with clinical failure due to the lack of effective and safe treatment options. New antibiotics are needed now for current multi-drug resistant infections but also in preparation for emerging and anticipated threats. There are significant challenges for the pharmaceutical industry to discover and develop new antibiotics including a business model that balances reasonable reimbursement with appropriate use. This summary reviews the key challenges and collaborative interventions that may contribute to addressing a societal problem. PMID:25601037

  17. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  18. Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.

    PubMed

    Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues. PMID:23579470

  19. Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance Sebastian B¨ocker1, Hans-Michael Kaltenbach2 1 Research, Universit¨at Bielefeld B¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein

  20. Division of Finance Division of Finance Alignment

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Division of Finance Division of Finance Alignment September 11, 2014 1 #12;Division of Finance of Finance Goal of the DF Alignment Project The internal and external alignment of the Division of Finance of Finance The Process We Followed 17 Meetings17 Meetings 120+ Pages of Data 103 Themes 12 Meta Themes Goals

  1. Curricular Alignment: A Re-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines key differences among content coverage, opportunity to learn, and curriculum alignment, suggesting that the revised Taxonomy provides a framework for analyzing curriculum alignment and illustrating how the Taxonomy Table can be used to estimate curriculum alignment. The paper notes that the revised Taxonomy enables educators to probe…

  2. A Discriminative Framework for Bilingual Word Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Moore

    2005-01-01

    Bilingual word alignment forms the foun- dation of most approaches to statistical machine translation. Current word align- ment methods are predominantly based on generative models. In this paper, we demonstrate a discriminative approach to training simple word alignment mod- els that are comparable in accuracy to the more complex generative models nor- mally used. These models have the the advantages

  3. CONTRAlign: Discriminative Training for Protein Sequence Alignment

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    and fully automatic framework for parameter learning and protein pairwise sequence alignment using pair conditional random fields. When learn- ing a substitution matrix and gap penalties from as few as 20 exam- ple (SAP [4] and LSQman [5]) alignment tools to guide sequence alignment construction. When homologous

  4. CONTRAlign: Discriminative Training for Protein Sequence Alignment

    E-print Network

    Li, Fei-Fei

    , an extensible and fully automatic framework for parameter learning and protein pairwise sequence alignment using pair conditional random fields. When learn- ing a substitution matrix and gap penalties from as few-based (FUGUE [3]) and structural (SAP [4] and LSQman [5]) alignment tools to guide sequence alignment

  5. MPA: a multiple peak alignment algorithm to perform multiple comparisons of liquid-phase proteomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Toppo, Stefano; Roveri, Antonella; Vitale, Maria Pia; Zaccarin, Mattia; Serain, Elena; Apostolidis, Emanuele; Gion, Massimo; Maiorino, Matilde; Ursini, Fulvio

    2008-01-01

    Present proteomic studies increasingly address experimental strategies focused on multiple comparisons of proteomic profiles. To accomplish semiautomatic protein separations based on 2-D LC, the Beckman Coulter PF2D has been developed. Here, we present a novel general purpose tool called MPA (multiple peak alignment) able to perform multiple comparisons of proteomic profiles both in a pairwise guided fashion and in a fully automatic mode using a strategy based on dynamic programing and progressive alignment of time series. The tool is available at http://grup.cribi.unipd.it/people/stefano/mpa/. PMID:18203273

  6. To develop a high speed auto-alignment system by dual machine vision based alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Jen; Jywe, Wenyuh; Teng, Yunfeng; Chen, Yi-Ju; Hung, Min-Wei

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, 2 sub machine vision based alignment systems were used to establish a high speed alignment system for screen printing. It can be used on the solar cell and flat display panel manufacture. The 2 sub alignment system can auto align target simultaneously. When one target was takes out, another target can implement auto alignment simultaneously. It can save the wait time for target take out procedure. The sub alignment system includes 4 CCD cameras, 4 lens, 4 outer coaxial LED light sources, a vacuum table and a 3 axis motorized stage. The alignment accuracy is about 1 ?m.

  7. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  8. Bent-core alignment monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Wilder; Jakli, Antal; Mann, Elizabeth K.

    2010-03-01

    Langmuir Films have been source of high expectations not just because of the opportunity that they provide to study low-dimensional fluids, but also because of the practical and potential applications that comes from the possibility to transfer these thin films into another surface, through Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) techniques. We use these transference techniques to deposit a monolayer of a bent-core liquid crystal molecule (Z2B) into different substrates, to use later as alignment layer in a liquid crystal cell, where the direction and degree of the alignment is changed by increasing and decreasing the packing of the molecules in the monolayer (dipping the substrate on a Langmuir Trough with different surface pressures).

  9. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  10. National Health Strategies to Reduce Sun Exposure in Australia and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Edlich; Kathryne L. Winters; Mary Jude Cox; Daniel G. Becker; Jed H. Horowitz; Larry S. Nichter; L. D. Britt; Theodore J. Edlich III; William B. Long

    2004-01-01

    Australia has developed a national health care policy that has made prevention of the occurrence of skin cancer a societal responsibility. Its strategies for skin cancer control have included careful documentation of the incidence of skin cancer over the last two decades. After realizing that the magnitude of sun exposure during childhood is a major risk factor in the development

  11. Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper. PMID:18974854

  12. Alignment in double capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  13. Alignment Tool For Welding Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Steffins, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    Alignment tool enables accurate positioning of optoelectronic sensor measuring weld penetration. Designed for use on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus, used to adjust position of sensor so photodiode puts out maximum signal. Tangs of slotted cap bent slightly inward to provide spring force holding cap snugly on sensor mount. Tool installed and removed without aid of other tools. Length of pointer adjusted with set-screws. Used with variety of gas cup and electrode lengths.

  14. Alignment of PBL and Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anette Kolmos; Jette Egelund Holgaard

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the alignment between assessment and Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning (PBL) at Aalborg University, Denmark. A situation in Denmark has occurred, giving the opportunity to compare two assessment systems used for PBL: 1) group-based assessment and 2) individual assessment - both with individual grading. In the spring of 2006, a longitudinal study was initiated to compare the two

  15. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Laser alignment servo method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, J.L.; Mefferd, W.S.; Peuse, B.

    1990-07-03

    This paper describes an apparatus for optimizing the performance of a laser having a resonator, wherein the laser generates a beam having an angular or lateral alignment within the resonator. It comprises: means for monitoring a laser operating parameter indicative of the angular to lateral alignment of the beam within the resonator and generating an angular or lateral alignment control signal from the monitored parameter; and means for varying the angular or lateral alignment of the beam, within the resonator in response to the angular or lateral alignment control signal to maintain the monitored operating parameter at an extremum value optimize the performance of the laser.

  17. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  18. Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, V.; Raman, D. S. S.

    2011-03-01

    The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8?, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=?/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, ? is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8? and 16?, while a larger system of width 32? does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned—where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

  19. Simultaneous Alignment and Folding of Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Waldispühl, Jérôme; O'Donnell, Charles W.; Will, Sebastian; Devadas, Srinivas; Backofen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Accurate comparative analysis tools for low-homology proteins remains a difficult challenge in computational biology, especially sequence alignment and consensus folding problems. We present partiFold-Align, the first algorithm for simultaneous alignment and consensus folding of unaligned protein sequences; the algorithm's complexity is polynomial in time and space. Algorithmically, partiFold-Align exploits sparsity in the set of super-secondary structure pairings and alignment candidates to achieve an effectively cubic running time for simultaneous pairwise alignment and folding. We demonstrate the efficacy of these techniques on transmembrane ?-barrel proteins, an important yet difficult class of proteins with few known three-dimensional structures. Testing against structurally derived sequence alignments, partiFold-Align significantly outperforms state-of-the-art pairwise and multiple sequence alignment tools in the most difficult low-sequence homology case. It also improves secondary structure prediction where current approaches fail. Importantly, partiFold-Align requires no prior training. These general techniques are widely applicable to many more protein families (partiFold-Align is available at http://partifold.csail.mit.edu/). PMID:24766258

  20. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  1. Kinematically versus mechanically aligned total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dossett, H Gene; Swartz, George J; Estrada, Nicolette A; LeFevre, George W; Kwasman, Bertram G

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 alignment methods for total knee arthroplasty (TKA): kinematic alignment with the use of patient-specific guides and mechanical alignment with conventional instruments. A randomized, controlled trial of 41 kinematically aligned and 41 mechanically aligned patients was conducted with the patient, radiographic evaluator, and clinical evaluator blinded to the alignment technique. Radiographic measurements were made from long-leg computer tomography scanograms. Clinical outcome scores and motion were measured preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The hip-knee-ankle angle (0.3° difference; P=.693) and anatomic angle of the knee (0.8° difference; P=.131) were similar for both groups. In the kinematically aligned group, the angle of the femoral component was 2.4° more valgus (P<.000) and the angle of the tibial component was 2.3° more varus (P<.000) than the mechanically aligned group. At 6 months postoperatively, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score was 16 points better (P<.000), Oxford Score was 7 points better (P=.001), combined Knee Society Score was 25 points better (P=.001), and flexion was 5.0° greater (P=.043) in the kinematically aligned group than in the mechanically aligned group.Our findings suggest that the risk of early failure related to limb or knee alignment should be similar in kinematic and mechanically aligned TKA. More anatomic alignment of the implant was associated with better flexion and better clinical outcome scores in the kinematically aligned group. PMID:22310400

  2. The effect of anisotropic collagen-GAG scaffolds and growth factor supplementation on tendon cell recruitment, alignment, and metabolic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Caliari; Brendan A. C. Harley

    2011-01-01

    Current surgical and tissue engineering approaches for treating tendon injuries have shown limited success, suggesting the need for new biomaterial strategies. Here we describe the development of an anisotropic collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffold and use of growth factor supplementation strategies to create a 3D platform for tendon tissue engineering. We fabricated cylindrical CG scaffolds with aligned tracks of ellipsoidal pores that

  3. The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Cole, J R; Wang, Q; Cardenas, E; Fish, J; Chai, B; Farris, R J; Kulam-Syed-Mohideen, A S; McGarrell, D M; Marsh, T; Garrity, G M; Tiedje, J M

    2009-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides researchers with quality-controlled bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA alignments and analysis tools. An improved alignment strategy uses the Infernal secondary structure aware aligner to provide a more consistent higher quality alignment and faster processing of user sequences. Substantial new analysis features include a new Pyrosequencing Pipeline that provides tools to support analysis of ultra high-throughput rRNA sequencing data. This pipeline offers a collection of tools that automate the data processing and simplify the computationally intensive analysis of large sequencing libraries. In addition, a new Taxomatic visualization tool allows rapid visualization of taxonomic inconsistencies and suggests corrections, and a new class Assignment Generator provides instructors with a lesson plan and individualized teaching materials. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/. PMID:19004872

  4. LHCb : Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb Detector in Run2

    E-print Network

    Tobin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam collisions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new realtime alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the RICH detectors at the trigger level. T...

  5. Automated alignment and on-sky performance of the Gemini planet imager coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Dunn, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Sadakuni, Naru; Dillon, Daren; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Cardwell, Andrew; Serio, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of 10-7 contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Here, we describe the techniques used to automatically align GPI and maintain the alignment throughout the course of science observations. We discuss the particular challenges of maintaining precision alignments on a Cassegrain mounted instrument and strategies that we have developed that allow GPI to achieve high contrast even in poor seeing conditions.

  6. Automatic non-rigid temporal alignment of intravascular ultrasound sequences: method and quantitative validation.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Marina; Balocco, Simone; Carrillo, Xavier; Mauri, Josepa; Radeva, Petia

    2013-09-01

    Clinical studies on atherosclerosis regression/progression performed by intravascular ultrasound analysis would benefit from accurate alignment of sequences of the same patient before and after clinical interventions and at follow-up. In this article, a methodology for automatic alignment of intravascular ultrasound sequences based on the dynamic time warping technique is proposed. The non-rigid alignment is adapted to the specific task by applying it to multidimensional signals describing the morphologic content of the vessel. Moreover, dynamic time warping is embedded into a framework comprising a strategy to address partial overlapping between acquisitions and a term that regularizes non-physiologic temporal compression/expansion of the sequences. Extensive validation is performed on both synthetic and in vivo data. The proposed method reaches alignment errors of approximately 0.43 mm for pairs of sequences acquired during the same intervention phase and 0.77 mm for pairs of sequences acquired at successive intervention stages. PMID:23791349

  7. CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    2005-07-26

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

  8. Quantifying cellular alignment on anisotropic biomaterial platforms

    PubMed Central

    Nectow, Alexander R.; Kilmer, Misha E.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    How do we quantify cellular alignment? Cellular alignment is an important technique used to study and promote tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, regenerative outcomes are often strongly correlated with the efficacy of alignment, making quantitative, automated assessment an important goal for the field of tissue engineering. There currently exist various classes of algorithms, which effectively address the problem of quantifying individual cellular alignments using Fourier methods, kernel methods, and elliptical approximation; however, these algorithms often yield population distributions and are limited by their inability to yield a scalar metric quantifying the efficacy of alignment. The current work builds on these classes of algorithms by adapting the signal processing methods previously used by our group to study the alignment of cellular processes. We use an automated, ellipse-fitting algorithm to approximate cell body alignment with respect to a silk biomaterial scaffold, followed by the application of the normalized cumulative periodogram criterion to produce a scalar value quantifying alignment. The proposed work offers a generalized method for assessing cellular alignment in complex, two-dimensional environments. This method may also offer a novel alternative for assessing the alignment of cell types with polarity, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as nuclei. PMID:23520051

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of the lizard genus Microlophus (squamata:tropiduridae): aligning and retrieving indel signal from nuclear introns.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Edgar; Baum, Rebecca; McClellan, David; Sites, Jack W

    2007-10-01

    We use a multigene data set (the mitochondrial locus and nine nuclear gene regions) to test phylogenetic relationships in the South American "lava lizards" (genus Microlophus) and describe a strategy for aligning noncoding sequences that accounts for differences in tempo and class of mutational events. We focus on seven nuclear introns that vary in size and frequency of multibase length mutations (i.e., indels) and present a manual alignment strategy that incorporates insertions and deletions (indels) for each intron. Our method is based on mechanistic explanations of intron evolution that does not require a guide tree. We also use a progressive alignment algorithm (Probabilistic Alignment Kit; PRANK) and distinguishes insertions from deletions and avoids the "gapcost" conundrum. We describe an approach to selecting a guide tree purged of ambiguously aligned regions and use this to refine PRANK performance. We show that although manual alignment is successful in finding repeat motifs and the most obvious indels, some regions can only be subjectively aligned, and there are limits to the size and complexity of a data matrix for which this approach can be taken. PRANK alignments identified more parsimony-informative indels while simultaneously increasing nucleotide identity in conserved sequence blocks flanking the indel regions. When comparing manual and PRANK with two widely used methods (CLUSTAL, MUSCLE) for the alignment of the most length-variable intron, only PRANK recovered a tree congruent at deeper nodes with the combined data tree inferred from all nuclear gene regions. We take this concordance as an objective function of alignment quality and present a strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis for Microlophus relationships. From this hypothesis we show that (1) a coded indel data partition derived from the PRANK alignment contributed significantly to nodal support and (2) the indel data set permitted detection of significant conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear data partitions, which we hypothesize arose from secondary contact of distantly related taxa, followed by hybridization and mtDNA introgression. PMID:17907054

  10. Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, L. A.; Bergonzi, G.; Vogler, U.; Angeloni, S.; Kirner, R.; Bramati, A.; Timotijevic, B.; Voelkel, R.; Stanley, R. P.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we show that it is possible using optical photolithography to obtain micron and submicron features for periodic structures in non-contact using the Talbot effect. In order for this effect to work it is important to have good control of the illumination light and here we show that the MO Exposure Optics (MOEO) developed by SUSS MicroOptics provides uniform and well collimated illumination light suitable for Talbot lithography. The MOEO can easily be incorporated into a standard mask aligner. Here we show 1?m and 0.65?m diameter holes in a hexagonal array in photoresist made in large-gap proximity printing.

  11. Societal impact of bilirubin-induced hearing impairment in resource-limited nations.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2015-02-01

    Infants with bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) are characterized by several developmental disabilities including auditory impairments. This paper explores the societal impact of bilirubin-induced auditory impairments, inclusive of hearing impairments and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders, on these infants, their families, and on the community in resource-limited countries (per capita income of US$6,000 or less). Auditory impairments have substantial emotional, social, and economic impact on the affected infants, their families and communities. The burden is exacerbated by widespread poverty, unfavorable community attitudes towards disabilities, and lack of requisite health, educational, and social services. Curtailing the incidence of avoidable severe hyperbilirubinemia through proactive and effective management of infants at risk or with severe hyperbilirubinemia is necessary at all levels of healthcare delivery. Early detection and intervention for unavoidable auditory impairments should be widely promoted to provide improved developmental trajectories for the affected infants. PMID:25573775

  12. Laminar silk scaffolds for aligned tissue fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Biman B.; Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    3D biomaterial scaffolds with aligned architecture are of vital importance in tissue regeneration to mimic native tissue hierarchy and hence function. We demonstrate a generic method to produce aligned biomaterial scaffolds using the physics of directional ice freezing. Homogeneously aligned 3D silk scaffold with high porosity and alignment was demonstrated. The method can be adapted to a wide range of polymers and is devoid of any chemical reactions, thus avoiding potential complications associated with by-products and purification procedures. Subsequently, the 3D aligned system was tested for mechanical properties and cellular responses with chondrocytes and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells, assessing survival, proliferation and differentiation. In vivo tests suggested biocompatibility of the matrices for future tissue engineering applications, specifically in areas where high cellular alignment is needed. PMID:23161731

  13. Remote indicator for a laser alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, M.E.

    1987-03-31

    A remote indicator is described for the main receiver of a laser alignment system the combination comprising: connecting means between the main receiver and the remote indicator. The connecting means is operable to supply power to the remote indicator and to transmit to the remote indicator alignment data indicative of the relative alignment detected by the main receiver; an LCD in the remote indicator coupled to the connecting means and operable to provide a visual indication of the alignment data; illuminating means located in back of the LCD operable when turned on to make the LCD visible under conditions of reduced ambient light; and switching means connected to the illuminating means and the connecting means and being operable to turn the illuminating means on if the alignment data is present and to turn the illuminating means off if the alignment data is not present.

  14. Droplet Vorticity Alignment in Model Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migler, Kalman

    2000-03-01

    The shear induced deformation of polymeric droplets in an immiscible polymeric matrix is studied using a transparent rotating plate-plate device. We consider the case where the viscosity ratio of the two phases is near unity, but the elasticity ratio of the droplet to the matrix is of order 10^2. This is achieved by using a matrix of PDMS and a droplet of a PIB based Boger fluid. In the limit of weak shear and small droplets, the droplet alignment is along the shear direction, whereas for strong shear and large droplets, the alignment is along the vorticity direction. There is a range of conditions for which alignment can be along either axis. For droplets aligned along the vorticity axis, the distribution of aspect ratios is broad. The transformation from flow alignment to vorticity alignment upon commencement of shear flow has been observed and correlates with the time scale for development of normal forces in the Boger fluid.

  15. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  16. Getting users involved in aligning their needs with business processes models and systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenia Sousa; Hildeberto Mendonça; Amandine Lievyns; Jean Vanderdonckt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present a case study of the application of a methodology that represents an innovative strategy that integrates researches on interaction design and business process management with practical implications. This methodology is devoted to aligning the needs of enterprise system users with business processes (BPs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This approach establishes an unbroken network of links

  17. Redesigning and Aligning Assessment and Evaluation for a Federally Funded Math and Science Teacher Educational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Slater, Janis; Nanny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the redesign of evaluation components for a teacher professional development project funded by the National Science Foundation. It focuses on aligning evaluation instrumentation and strategies with program goals, research goals and program evaluation best practices. The study identifies weaknesses in the original (year 1)…

  18. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.

    1989-03-01

    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  19. Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided inputs through in-depth discussion in breakout sessions, plenary sessions on break-out results, and several panels that provided key insights about indicators, lessons learned through experience with developing and implementing indicators, and thoughts on how the NCA could proceed to develop indicators for the NCA.

  20. Relaxed alignment tolerance of monolithic ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Er Jun Zang; Jianping Cao; Mingchen Zhong; Chengyang Li; Naicheng Shen; Dongmei Hong; Lianrong Cui; Zhen Zhu; Anhan Liu

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of relaxed alignment tolerance in monolithic ring lasers is presented. It was found that the relaxed alignment tolerance is strongly dependent on the out-of-plane angle. A preferred region for the out-of-plane angle is proposed. In this region the resonator has greatly relaxed alignment tolerances, and the unidirectional operation can be obtained under a much-lower magnetic field. Two lasers

  1. On Suboptimal Alignments of Biological Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalit Naor; Douglas L. Brutlag

    1993-01-01

    . It is widely accepted that the optimal alignmentbetween a pairof proteins or nucleic acid sequences that minimizes the edit distance maynot necessarily re#ect the correct biological alignment. Alignments of proteinsbased on their structures or of DNA sequences based on evolutionary changesare often di#erent from alignments that minimize edit distance. However, inmany cases #e.g. when the sequences are close#, the

  2. Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Chen, Yi; Kang, Kwang-Sun; Park, Young-Bin; Schwartz, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased.

  3. Evaluating the Implementation of the National Strategy for Biosurveillance 

    E-print Network

    Armstrong, Iain; Berry, Erin; Bitter, Alexander; Colburn, Leland; Karika, Kathleen; Paulino, Jose; Redden, Rebekah; Vien, Thomas "Tex"; Williams, Lodrick

    2015-05-20

    in the biosurveillance community. Evaluating the Implementation of the National Strategy for Biosurveillance iv Acronyms BIWAC Biosurveillance Indications and Warning Analytics Community CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention CIA Central... and to align the community with the Strategy’s goal. This report first details its analytical framework and methodology. It then evaluates the National Strategy for Biosurveillance. Subsequently, it discusses the strengths and concerns in the biosurveillance...

  4. Anisotropic light emission from aligned luminophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Paul P. C.; de Jong, Ties M.; de Boer, Dick K. G.; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2014-07-01

    The emission of aligned dichroic dyes in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) illuminated from one side with collimated light results in a non-isotropic light distribution. We develop a model to describe emission profiles for dichroic dyes aligned at a general tilt angle with respect to a lightguide surface (including planar and homeotropic alignments) for various order parameters. We compare calculations with experimental results, demonstrating the dichroic nature of the dyes can have significant impact on the surface loss of luminescent solar concentrators. Including this dichroic nature is essential in correctly simulating the preferred edge emissions demonstrated experimentally in dyes aligned planarly on the surface of a lightguide.

  5. Nuclear and cellular alignment of primary corneal epithelial cells on topography

    PubMed Central

    Raghunathan, Vijay K.; McKee, Clayton T.; Tocce, Elizabeth J.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane of the corneal epithelium presents biophysical cues in the form of topography and compliance that can modulate cytoskeletal dynamics, which, in turn, can result in altering cellular and nuclear morphology and alignment. In this study the effect of topographic patterns of alternating ridges and grooves on nuclear and cellular shape and alignment was determined. Primary corneal epithelial cells were cultured on either planar or topographically patterned (400–4000nm pitch) substrates. Alignment of individual cell-body was correlated with respective nucleus for analysis of orientation and elongation. A biphasic response in alignment was observed. Cell bodies preferentially aligned perpendicular to the 800nm pitch; and with increasing pitch, cells increasingly aligned parallel to the substratum. Nuclear orientation largely followed this trend with the exception of those on 400nm. On this biomimetic size-scale some nuclei oriented perpendicular to the topography while their cytoskeleton elements aligned parallel. Both, nuclei and cell bodies were elongated on topography compared with those on flat surfaces. Our data demonstrate that nuclear orientation and shape are differentially altered by topographic features that is not mandated by alignment of the cell-body. This novel finding suggests that nuanced differences in alignment of the nucleus vs the cell body exist and that these differences could have consequences on gene and protein regulation that ultimately regulate cell behaviors. A full understanding of these mechanisms could disclose novel pathways that would better inform evolving strategies in cell, stem cell and tissue engineering as well as the design and fabrication of improved prosthetic devices. PMID:22965583

  6. Maximizing societal benefits associated with alternative fuel subsidies: The case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir M. Nazir

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have many societal benefits, including improving energy security, economic, environmental, and health benefits. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the location of PHEV deployment. This paper develops and applies a methodology for ranking regions throughout the U.S. based on PHEV benefits. The independent variables in this ranking method include population density, health benefits from

  7. Variations in societal characteristics of spatial disease clusters: examples of colon, lung and breast cancer in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiharu Fukuda; Masahiro Umezaki; Keiko Nakamura; Takehito Takano

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatial analyses and ecological studies are essential for epidemiology and public health. The present study combining these two methods was performed to identify spatial clusters of selected types of cancer in Japan and to determine their societal characteristics focusing on homogeneity among clusters. RESULTS: Spatial clusters of high mortality rates of male colon and lung cancer and of female

  8. Maturational and Societal Changes in the Sexual Double-Standard: A Panel Analysis (1967-1971; 1970-1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Mary Z.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two consecutive and partially overlapping panels measured both maturational and societal changes in the attitudinal and behavioral bases of a double/single-standard of premarital sexual permissiveness. In regard to behavior, both panels consistently moved toward more permissive behavior-maturational effect. (Author)

  9. September 2009AmerICAN meteOrOLOGICAL SOCIetY | 1277 AFFILIATIONS: Palmer, Biggerstaff, Chilson, and g. Zhang--

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    September 2009AmerICAN meteOrOLOGICAL SOCIetY | 1277 AFFILIATIONS: Palmer, Biggerstaff, Chilson, and g. Zhang-- School of Meteorology, Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; droegemeier--School of Meteorology, University

  10. Difference in quality of life, fatigue and societal participation between living and deceased donor kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Ingrid B; Veen, J Iraida E; van der Boog, Paul J M; van Dijk, Sandra; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to assess whether living (LD) and deceased donor (DD) kidney transplant recipients differ in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue and societal participation, depending on time since transplantation and after adjustment for clinical and demographic variables. A questionnaire study was performed among 309 LD and 226 DD recipients (response rate 74% and 61%) transplanted between 1997 and 2009. After adjustment for age, sex, and education, LD recipients transplanted less than or equal to five yr ago experienced better HRQoL than DD recipients on the domains' role limitations due to physical problems, general health perception, and on the physical component summary score (all p < 0.05) and a better societal participation (all subscales, p < 0.05). No differences were found in the mental health domains. The LD recipients also had better renal clearance than DD recipients (62.1 vs. 55.9 mL/min, p = 0.01). After additional adjustment for renal clearance, the differences in HRQoL and societal participation between LD and DD recipients remained. No differences were found in recipients transplanted more than five yr ago. We conclude that LD recipients on average have better HRQoL and societal participation than DD recipients, in the first years after transplantation. PMID:23808752

  11. FUNDAMENTAL IMPACTS A Study of the Cross-Discipline and Societal Benefits of UK Research in Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    in isolation. High Energy Particle Physics Group #12;2 FUNDAMENTAL IMPACTS A Study of the CrossFUNDAMENTAL IMPACTS A Study of the Cross-Discipline and Societal Benefits of UK Research in Particle Physics Executive Summary The fundamental questions that Particle Physics research is addressing

  12. COLLOQUE POLITIQUE ET ALTERITE : LA SOCIETE FRANAISE FACE AU RACISME Nice, 9,10,11 dcembre 1999

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COLLOQUE POLITIQUE ET ALTERITE : LA SOCIETE FRANÇAISE FACE AU RACISME Nice, 9,10,11 décembre 1999 Christian Rinaudo (SOLIIS-URMIS, CNRS et Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis) Pratiques syndicales, racisme présentons ici les premiers éléments d'une recherche en cours sur le " racisme au travail ", pour reprendre

  13. Undergraduate Civil Engineering Civil Engineering is an international profession that provides solutions for pressing societal challenges for both

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    and protect against natural disasters. Civil engineers design, construct, and manage these systems as well that provides solutions for pressing societal challenges for both the natural and built environment as shown engineers to combine engineering knowledge with initiative and creativity to satisfy project objectives

  14. Undergraduate Civil Engineering Civil Engineering is an international profession that provides solutions for pressing societal challenges for both

    E-print Network

    Staum, Jeremy

    and protect against natural disasters. Civil engineers design, construct, and manage these systems as well management, architecture, energy, and finance. Their positions include project engineers, project managers that provides solutions for pressing societal challenges for both the natural and built environment as shown

  15. Boarding Schools at the Crossroads of Change: The Influence of Residential Education Institutions on National and Societal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashti, Yitzhak

    This book examines how boarding schools have influenced their societal contexts. It shows that the view of boarding schools as agencies stabilizing or conserving social status and cultural traditions is not always valid. On the contrary, boarding schools may be educationally integrative and socially innovative, breaking up social structures by…

  16. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  17. Societal costs of home and hospital end-of-life care for palliative care patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mo; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    In Canada, health system restructuring has led to a greater focus on home-based palliative care as an alternative to institutionalised palliative care. However, little is known about the effect of this change on end-of-life care costs and the extent to which the financial burden of care has shifted from the acute care public sector to families. The purpose of this study was to assess the societal costs of end-of-life care associated with two places of death (hospital and home) using a prospective cohort design in a home-based palliative care programme. Societal cost includes all costs incurred during the course of palliative care irrespective of payer (e.g. health system, out-of-pocket, informal care-giving costs, etc.). Primary caregivers of terminal cancer patients were recruited from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care in Toronto, Canada. Demographic, service utilisation, care-giving time, health and functional status, and death data were collected by telephone interviews with primary caregivers over the course of patients' palliative trajectory. Logistic regression was conducted to model an individual's propensity for home death. Total societal costs of end-of-life care and component costs were compared between home and hospital death using propensity score stratification. Costs were presented in 2012 Canadian dollars ($1.00CDN = $1.00USD). The estimated total societal cost of end-of-life care was $34,197.73 per patient over the entire palliative trajectory (4 months on average). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total societal costs between home and hospital death patients. Higher hospitalisation costs for hospital death patients were replaced by higher unpaid caregiver time and outpatient service costs for home death patients. Thus, from a societal cost perspective, alternative sites of death, while not associated with a significant change in total societal cost of end-of-life care, resulted in changes in the distribution of costs borne by different stakeholders. PMID:25443659

  18. BCL::Align-sequence alignment and fold recognition with a custom scoring function online.

    PubMed

    Dong, Elizabeth; Smith, Jarrod; Heinze, Sten; Alexander, Nathan; Meiler, Jens

    2008-10-01

    BCL::Align is a multiple sequence alignment tool that utilizes the dynamic programming method in combination with a customizable scoring function for sequence alignment and fold recognition. The scoring function is a weighted sum of the traditional PAM and BLOSUM scoring matrices, position-specific scoring matrices output by PSI-BLAST, secondary structure predicted by a variety of methods, chemical properties, and gap penalties. By adjusting the weights, the method can be tailored for fold recognition or sequence alignment tasks at different levels of sequence identity. A Monte Carlo algorithm was used to determine optimized weight sets for sequence alignment and fold recognition that most accurately reproduced the SABmark reference alignment test set. In an evaluation of sequence alignment performance, BCL::Align ranked best in alignment accuracy (Cline score of 22.90 for sequences in the Twilight Zone) when compared with Align-m, ClustalW, T-Coffee, and MUSCLE. ROC curve analysis indicates BCL::Align's ability to correctly recognize protein folds with over 80% accuracy. The flexibility of the program allows it to be optimized for specific classes of proteins (e.g. membrane proteins) or fold families (e.g. TIM-barrel proteins). BCL::Align is free for academic use and available online at http://www.meilerlab.org/. PMID:18601985

  19. BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Satija; Ádám Novák; István Miklós; Rune Lyngsø; Jotun Hein

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four

  20. Selective Interference Alignment for MIMO Femtocell Networks

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Selective Interference Alignment for MIMO Femtocell Networks Basak Guler and Aylin Yener Electrical@ee.psu.edu Abstract--An interference limited multitier multiuser MIMO cellular uplink is considered. Specifically, an interference man- agement scheme is proposed where interference from subsets of macrocell users is aligned

  1. Interference Alignment: Improved design via precoding vectors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interference Alignment: Improved design via precoding vectors Yasser Fadlallah, Abdeldjalil Aïssa.Lastname@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract--The degree of freedom of the Single Input Single Output (SISO) fading interference channel is asymptotically upperbounded by K/2. This upperbound can be achieved using the Interference Alignment approach (IA

  2. Linear Sequence-to-Sequence Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo L. Carceroni; Flávio L. C. Pádua; Geraldo A. M. R. Santos; Kiriakos N. Kutulakos

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating the spatiotemporal alignment between N unsynchronized video sequences of the same dynamic 3D scene, captured from distinct viewpoints. Unlike most existing methods, which work for N = 2 and rely on a computationally intensive search in the space of temporal alignments, we present a novel approach that reduces the problem for

  3. Aligning short sequencing reads with Bowtie

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This unit shows how to use the Bowtie package to align short sequencing reads, such as those output by second-generation sequencing instruments. It also includes protocols for building a genome index and calling consensus sequences from Bowtie alignments using SAMtools. PMID:21154709

  4. Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers with Medical Contexts

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers with Medical Contexts Linda C. van der Gaag Silja Renooij Ad University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Aligning Bayesian Network Classifiers- ble performance. For Bayesian network classifiers to become more widely accepted within the medical

  5. An API for ontology alignment Jrme Euzenat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 An API for ontology alignment Jérôme Euzenat INRIA Rhône-Alpes, Montbonnot, France, Jerome.Euzenat@inrialpes.fr Abstract. Ontologies are seen as the solution to data heterogeneity on the web. However, the available ontologies are themselves source of heterogeneity. This can be overcome by aligning ontologies, or finding

  6. Algebras of ontology alignment relations Jrme Euzenat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Algebras of ontology alignment relations Jérôme Euzenat INRIA & LIG Grenoble, France Jerome.Euzenat@inrialpes.fr Abstract. Correspondences in ontology alignments relate two ontology entities with a relation. Typical ontology entities in a general way. We show the benefits in doing so in expressing disjunc- tive relations

  7. Multiple Sequence Alignment by Conformational Space Annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keehyoung Joo; Jinwoo Lee; Ilsoo Kim; Sung Jong Lee; Jooyoung Lee

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for multiple sequence alignment (MSA), which we call MSACSA. The method is based on the direct application of a global optimization method called the conformational space annealing (CSA) to a consistency-based score function constructed from pairwise sequence alignments between constituting sequences. We applied MSACSA to two MSA databases, the 82 families from the BAliBASE reference

  8. Cross Section Alignment of Oblate Grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Lazarian; Michael Efroimsky

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative account of a recently introduced mechanism of mechanical alignment of suprathermally rotating grains. These rapidly rotating grains are essentially not susceptible to random torques arising from gas-grain collisions, as the timescales for such torques to have significant effect are orders of magnitude greater than the mean time between crossovers. Such grains can be aligned by

  9. Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak

    E-print Network

    Kondrak, Greg

    Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak Department of Computing Science University@cs.ualberta.ca April 4, 2003 Abstract. The computation of the optimal phonetic alignment and the phonetic similarity be that employs a scoring scheme for computing phonetic similarity between phonetic segments on the basis

  10. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  11. Bilingual Sentence Alignment: Balancing Robustness and Accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Simard; Pierre Plamondon

    1998-01-01

    Sentence alignment is the problem of making explicit the relations that exist between the sentences of two texts that are known to be mutual translations. Automatic sentence-alignment methods typically face two kinds of difficulties. First, there is the question of robustness. In real life, discrepancies between a source text and its translation are quite common: differences in layout, omissions, inversions,

  12. Bayesian Protein Structure Alignment Abel Rodriguez

    E-print Network

    Schmidler, Scott

    of proteins, and is more strongly conserved than amino acid sequence over evolutionary timescales. A key alignment uses information about the identity of amino acids to establish regions of similarity, and has and characterization (Bronner, 1994; Papadopoulos, 1994; Zhu et al., 1998). Sequence alignment is most useful

  13. Instructional Strategies: How Teachers Teach Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Brenda M.; Bottoms, Gene; Feagin, Caro; Bearman, Amy

    This guide is designed to help teachers use various teacher-directed and student-centered strategies to increase students' involvement in and responsibility for their own learning, focusing on: "Introduction"; "Planning for Instruction" (e.g,. good instructional planning is aligned to course standards, students are actively engaged, teachers plan…

  14. Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    This study extends the knowledge garnered from work with younger populations to determine the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on outcome measures and to align them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of competence-based standardized tests of literacy (such as the General Educational…

  15. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOEpatents

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  16. Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/. PMID:22151470

  17. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

  18. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  19. A Statistical Algorithm for Assessing Cellular Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Nectow, Alexander R.; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L.; Kilmer, Misha E.

    2013-01-01

    Current statistical techniques for analyzing cellular alignment data in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering are limited due to heuristic and less quantitative approaches. For example, generally a cut-off degree limit (commonly 20 degrees), is arbitrarily defined within which cells are considered ‘aligned.’ The effectiveness of a patterned biomaterial in guiding the alignment of cells, such as neurons, is often critical to predict relationships between the biomaterial design and biological outcomes, both in vitro and in vivo. This becomes particularly important in the case of peripheral neurons, which require precise axon guidance to obtain successful regenerative outcomes. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol for processing cellular alignment data sets, which implicitly determines an ‘angle of alignment.’ This was accomplished as follows: cells ‘aligning’ with an underlying, anisotropic scaffold display uniformly distributed angles up to a cut-off point determined by how effective the biomaterial is in aligning cells. Therefore, this fact was then used to determine where an alignment angle data set diverges from a uniform distribution. This was accomplished by measuring the spacing between the collected, increasingly ordered angles and analyzing their underlying distributions using a normalized cumulative periodogram (NCP)-criterion. The proposed protocol offers a novel way to implicitly define cellular alignment, with respect to various anisotropic biomaterials. This method may also offer an alternative to assess cellular alignment, which could offer improved predictive measures related to biological outcomes. Further, the approach described can be used for a broad range of cell types grown on 2D surfaces, but would not be applicable to 3D scaffold systems in the present format. PMID:23008168

  20. Pin-Align: a new dynamic programming approach to align protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Amir-Ghiasvand, Farid; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Momenzadeh, Vida

    2014-01-01

    To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups. PMID:25435900

  1. Pin-Align: A New Dynamic Programming Approach to Align Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups. PMID:25435900

  2. Alignment and Maturity are Siblings in Architecture Assessment

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Hans

    Alignment and Maturity are Siblings in Architecture Assessment Bas van der Raadt, Johan F. Hoorn: Enterprise Architecture Assessment, Alignment, Maturity Abstract. Current architecture assessment models focus on either ar- chitecture maturity or architecture alignment, considering the other

  3. Cybersecurity Strategies

    E-print Network

    Cybenko, George

    Cybersecurity Strategies: The QuERIES Methodology Lawrence Carin Duke University George Cybenko-efficient cybersecurity strategies. O rganizations in both the private and public sectors have strug- gled to determine typically implemented cybersecurity investment strategies with- out useful guidance from a rigorous

  4. Making strategy: learning by doing.

    PubMed

    Christensen, C M

    1997-01-01

    Companies find it difficult to change strategy for many reasons, but one stands out: strategic thinking is not a core managerial competence at most companies. Executives hone their capabilities by tackling problems over and over again. Changing strategy, however, is not usually a task that they face repeatedly. Once companies have found a strategy that works, they want to use it, not change it. Consequently, most managers do not develop a competence in strategic thinking. This Manager's Tool Kit presents a three-stage method executives can use to conceive and implement a creative and coherent strategy themselves. The first stage is to identify and map the driving forces that the company needs to address. The process of mapping provides strategy-making teams with visual representations of team members' assumptions, those pictures, in turn, enable managers to achieve consensus in determining the driving forces. Once a senior management team has formulated a new strategy, it must align the strategy with the company's resource-allocation process to make implementation possible. Senior management teams can translate their strategy into action by using aggregate project planning. And management teams that link strategy and innovation through that planning process will develop a competence in implementing strategic change. The author guides the reader through the three stages of strategy making by examining the case of a manufacturing company that was losing ground to competitors. After mapping the driving forces, the company's senior managers were able to devise a new strategy that allowed the business to maintain a competitive advantage in its industry. PMID:10174795

  5. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  6. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  7. Ecologising Societal Metabolism and Recycling of Phosphorus At Household and Neighbourhood Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, B.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    The pressures of humanity on a fragile water resource base, and the corresponding need for environmental and freshwater protection requires that human excreta and other societal wastes (solid and liquid) be recycled and used as a resource. The Bel- lagio principles underpin the basis for this new approach to environmental sanitation. There are two main concepts emanating from the Bellagio principles, which make the basis of this paper. Firstly, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) puts the household at the focal point of environmental sanitation planning and; sec- ondly, the Circular System of Resource Management (CSRM) that emphasises conser- vation, local recycling and reuse of resources. Recycling of Phosphorus (P) in urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) is used in this paper to assess the feasibility of these concepts. An inventory of annual P-fluxes based on characterisation of input goods, processes, transformation, output fluxes and storage was conducted for a high-density suburb in Harare, Zimbabwe where agriculture is already a major activity. Using systems thinking approach and material flow account- ing two compartments or subsystems are defined to enable accounting and analysis of P-bearing materials. The "household" (consumption/use and excretion/waste) and "agriculture" (soil-plant interaction). With a population of about 100 000 inhabitants, P inflows amount to about 26 600 kg/a and 1 900 kg/a as food/beverages and deter- gents respectively within the "household" subsystem. Storage is taken as negligible, whilst 85

  8. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  9. Societal Projection: Beliefs Concerning the Relationship between Development and Inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Thornton, Arland; Wang, Guangzhou; Lai, Qing

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the relationship between development and inequality at the societal level is perceived and evaluated by ordinary Chinese people. We hypothesize that because the Chinese have recently experienced rapid increases in both economic growth and social inequality, they tend to view economic development as a driving force of social inequality. To address this question, we conducted a social survey in 2006 in six Chinese provinces (n = 4,898). The survey data reveal that a large proportion of Chinese people have internalized a causal model in which they project high levels of inequality onto countries they view as more developed and low levels of inequality onto countries they see as less developed. However, results also show that a smaller proportion of Chinese believe in a negative relationship between development and inequality. Hence, the study reveals heterogeneity among ordinary Chinese in their perceptions of the causal relationship between development and inequality. Surprisingly, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics provide no explanatory power in explaining this heterogeneity. PMID:23017918

  10. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods. PMID:25291733

  11. Cluster Alignments and Ellipticities in LCDM Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Philip F. Hopkins; Neta Bahcall; Paul Bode

    2004-10-01

    The ellipticities and alignments of clusters of galaxies, and their evolution with redshift, are examined in the context of a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter cosmology. We use a large-scale, high-resolution N-body simulation to model the matter distribution in a light cone containing ~10^6 clusters out to redshifts of z=3. Cluster ellipticities are determined as a function of mass, radius, and redshift, both in 3D and in projection. We find strong cluster ellipticities: the mean ellipticity increases with redshift from 0.3 at z=0 to 0.5 at z=3, for both 3D and 2D ellipticities; the evolution is well-fit by e=0.33+0.05z. The ellipticities increase with cluster mass and with cluster radius; the main cluster body is more elliptical than the cluster cores, but the increase of ellipticities with redshift is preserved. Using the fitted cluster ellipsoids, we determine the alignment of clusters as a function of their separation. We find strong alignment of clusters for separations <100 Mpc/h; the alignment increases with decreasing separation and with increasing redshift. The evolution of clusters from highly aligned and elongated systems at early times to lower alignment and elongation at present reflects the hierarchical and filamentary nature of structure formation. These measures of cluster ellipticity and alignment will provide a new test of the current cosmological model when compared with upcoming cluster surveys.

  12. Structural Alignment Sensor Feasibility Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. H.; Huang, C. C.; Hodor, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A structural alignment sensor (SAS) was developed for use with large deployable antenna systems for contour measurement and/or active control. The SAS is a laser ranging system using frequency modulation and accurate phase measurement to determine distance. Work was done with a CO2 and HeNe laser. The capability of the SAS to measure antenna rib contours was studied over ranges of 50 meters to a resolution of 100 microns. Initial resolution data was taken with the CO2 system. This data shows that it will indeed meet the SAS requirements. The development of the HeNe system was initiated because it offers substantial improvement in size, weight, and power over the CO2 system. The final demonstration was made with the HeNe system and it too showed that the SAS requirements could be met with this alternate approach. The projection of these results to a conceptual design for a flight system and its application are described.

  13. Reading Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students utilize two reading strategies that can be used to understand the Cosmic Times materials, and other readings that may be challenging to them. The first strategy, called Talking to the Text, is an independent strategy in which the students write down their thoughts as they are reading the material. In the second strategy, the students pair up and help each other read and understand concepts through reciprocal teaching. This activity is from the Cosmic Times teacher's guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times poster, however, these strategies can be used with any of the Cosmic Times articles.

  14. Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

  15. Engineering of aligned skeletal muscle by micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ngan F; Lee, Randall J; Li, Song

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has tremendous potential for the treatment of muscular injury or muscular dysfunction. However, in vitro methods to generate skeletal muscle with physiologically aligned myofiber structure remains limited. To develop a robust in vitro model that resembles the physiologically aligned structure of muscle fibers, we fabricated micropatterned polymer membranes of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with parallel microgrooves, and then examined the effect of micropatterning on myoblast cellular organization and the cell fusion process. In comparison to the myoblasts on non-patterned PDMS films, myoblasts on micropatterned PDMS films had well-organized F-actin assembly in close proximity to the direction of microgrooves, along with enhanced levels of myotube formation at early time points. The increase of cell cycle regulator p21WAF/Cip1 and the organized interactions of N-cadherin in myoblasts on micropatterned surfaces may contribute to the enhanced formation of myotubes. Similar results of cellular alignment was observed when myoblasts were cultured on microfluidically patterned poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) microgrooves, and the micropatterns were found to detach from the Petri dish over time. To apply this technology for generating aligned tissue-like muscle constructs, we developed a methodology to transfer the aligned myotubes to biodegradable collagen gels. Histological analysis revealed the persistence of aligned cellular organization in the collagen gels. Together, these results demonstrate that micropatterned PDMS or pHEMA can promote cell alignment and fusion along the direction of the microgrooves, and this platform can be utilized to transfer aligned myotubes on biodegradable hydrogels. This study highlights the importance of spatial cues in creating aligned skeletal muscle for tissue engineering and muscular regeneration applications. PMID:20182581

  16. Relaxed alignment tolerance of monolithic ring lasers.

    PubMed

    Zang, Er Jun; Cao, Jianping; Zhong, Mingchen; Li, Chengyang; Shen, Naicheng; Hong, Dongmei; Cui, Lianrong; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Anhan

    2002-11-20

    An investigation of relaxed alignment tolerance in monolithic ring lasers is presented. It was found that the relaxed alignment tolerance is strongly dependent on the out-of-plane angle. A preferred region for the out-of-plane angle is proposed. In this region the resonator has greatly relaxed alignment tolerances, and the unidirectional operation can be obtained under a much-lower magnetic field. Two lasers have been constructed in the region, and satisfactory performance was found, in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. PMID:12463246

  17. Relaxed alignment tolerance of monolithic ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Er Jun; Cao, Jianping; Zhong, Mingchen; Li, Chengyang; Shen, Naicheng; Hong, Dongmei; Cui, Lianrong; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Anhan

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of relaxed alignment tolerance in monolithic ring lasers is presented. It was found that the relaxed alignment tolerance is strongly dependent on the out-of-plane angle. A preferred region for the out-of-plane angle is proposed. In this region the resonator has greatly relaxed alignment tolerances, and the unidirectional operation can be obtained under a much-lower magnetic field. Two lasers have been constructed in the region, and satisfactory performance was found, in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  18. Optical Alignment Device For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Optical alignment device under development enables continuous tracking and coalignment of two beams of light. Intended primarily for laser-communication station, in which transmitted beam must be aligned with received beam to ensure transmitted beam falls on receiver at other station. Expected to consume less power and be smaller and less complicated than alignment shutter and drive previously used. Prism and filter separate two overlapping collimated light beams of different wavelength or polarization. Coordinates of two beams tracked on charge-coupled device to determine degree of directional misalignment between two beams.

  19. Tree-Assisted Therapy: Therapeutic and Societal Benefits from Purpose-Specific Technical Recreational Tree-Climbing Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gathright; Yozo Yamada; Miyako Morita

    2008-01-01

    This article explains how program design can increase the therapeutic and societal benefits from programs focused on technical recreational tree-climbing. We compare a recreational program with a tree-assisted therapy program that includes purpose-specific therapeutic, educational, and motivation elements. We find that the additional elements included in the tree- assisted therapy program were effective in enhancing the benefits from the tree-climbing

  20. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  1. Towards a Unified Business Strategy Language: A Metamodel of Strategy Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos Giannoulis; Michaël Petit; Jelena Zdravkovic

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Alignment between business strategies and the resources engaged ensuring their realization, has been a continuous concern\\u000a of enterprises of all kinds in last few decades. Commonly, enterprises fail to establish the traceability from business strategies\\u000a towards operational tasks carried by employees. From the requirements engineering perspective this problem leads also to a\\u000a misalignment between business and IT assets. In this

  2. Aligning Data to Support Transportation Emerging Challenges &

    E-print Network

    for the Next Big One Percent of HHs with No Motor Vehicle Decisions? Essential data elements? #12 ­ Automation, real time data, privacy, managing & mining the data mountain · Decision making ­ Communications1 Aligning Data to Support Transportation Decisions Emerging Challenges & Opportunities

  3. RNA-Seq read alignments with PALMapper.

    PubMed

    Jean, Géraldine; Kahles, André; Sreedharan, Vipin T; De Bona, Fabio; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized genome and transcriptome sequencing. RNA-Seq experiments are able to generate huge amounts of transcriptome sequence reads at a fraction of the cost of Sanger sequencing. Reads produced by these technologies are relatively short and error prone. To utilize such reads for transcriptome reconstruction and gene-structure identification, one needs to be able to accurately align the sequence reads over intron boundaries. In this unit, we describe PALMapper, a fast and easy-to-use tool that is designed to accurately compute both unspliced and spliced alignments for millions of RNA-Seq reads. It combines the efficient read mapper GenomeMapper with the spliced aligner QPALMA, which exploits read-quality information and predictions of splice sites to improve the alignment accuracy. The PALMapper package is available as a command-line tool running on Unix or Mac OS X systems or through a Web interface based on Galaxy tools. PMID:21154708

  4. Community Alignment Creating campus community by

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Meeting Oregon State Police Station Command selection Response Teams and Health and Wellness Alignment workstation for adaptive technology/ students/faculty/staff DAS software program ­ copyrighted and family outreach Technology sharing #12;

  5. A Practical Assessment of Interference Alignment

    E-print Network

    Heath Jr., - Robert W.

    partitioning to reduce overhead Joint work with Steven Peters Impact of estimation error and feedback Joint degrees of freedom K/2 More practical than time or frequency extensions Lattice [Sri08] Align signals

  6. Plasma-induced alignment of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Chris; Zhu, Wei; Jin, Sungho; Zhou, Otto

    2000-08-01

    Uniform films of well-aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It is shown that nanotubes can be grown on contoured surfaces and aligned in a direction always perpendicular to the local substrate surface. The alignment is primarily induced by the electrical self-bias field imposed on the substrate surface from the plasma environment. It is found that switching the plasma source off effectively turns the alignment mechanism off, leading to a smooth transition between the plasma-grown straight nanotubes and the thermally grown "curly" nanotubes. The nanotubes grow at a surprisingly high rate of ˜100 nm/s in our plasma process, which may be important for large-scale commercial production of nanotubes.

  7. The Alignment of Objects with Smooth Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Ullman, Shimon

    1988-07-01

    This paper examines the recognition of rigid objects bounded by smooth surfaces using an alignment approach. The projected image of such an object changes during rotation in a manner that is difficult to predict. A ...

  8. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  9. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites in Magnetic Thin Films 

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Raziq, Haron

    2013-02-11

    With the advent of ferromagnetic materials for magnetic memory among other applications, increased attention has been given to understanding the properties of these ferromagnets. Here, a vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) system is examined...

  10. MICAN : a protein structure alignment algorithm that can handle Multiple-chains, Inverse alignments, C? only models, Alternative alignments, and Non-sequential alignments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein pairs that have the same secondary structure packing arrangement but have different topologies have attracted much attention in terms of both evolution and physical chemistry of protein structures. Further investigation of such protein relationships would give us a hint as to how proteins can change their fold in the course of evolution, as well as a insight into physico-chemical properties of secondary structure packing. For this purpose, highly accurate sequence order independent structure comparison methods are needed. Results We have developed a novel protein structure alignment algorithm, MICAN (a structure alignment algorithm that can handle Multiple-chain complexes, Inverse direction of secondary structures, C? only models, Alternative alignments, and Non-sequential alignments). The algorithm was designed so as to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs by disregarding the connectivity between secondary structure elements (SSE). One of the key feature of the algorithm is utilizing the multiple vector representation for each SSE, which enables us to correctly treat bent or twisted nature of long SSE. We compared MICAN with other 9 publicly available structure alignment programs, using both reference-dependent and reference-independent evaluation methods on a variety of benchmark test sets which include both sequential and non-sequential alignments. We show that MICAN outperforms the other existing methods for reproducing reference alignments of non-sequential test sets. Further, although MICAN does not specialize in sequential structure alignment, it showed the top level performance on the sequential test sets. We also show that MICAN program is the fastest non-sequential structure alignment program among all the programs we examined here. Conclusions MICAN is the fastest and the most accurate program among non-sequential alignment programs we examined here. These results suggest that MICAN is a highly effective tool for automatically detecting non-trivial structural relationships of proteins, such as circular permutations and segment-swapping, many of which have been identified manually by human experts so far. The source code of MICAN is freely download-able at http://www.tbp.cse.nagoya-u.ac.jp/MICAN. PMID:23331634

  11. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Park, Changbom [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Yang Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Partner Group of MPA, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Choi, Yun-Young, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.c, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.k [Astrophysical Research Center for the Structure and Evolution of the Cosmos, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r {sub vir} of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  12. PSAR: measuring multiple sequence alignment reliability by probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaebum; Ma, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment, which is of fundamental importance for comparative genomics, is a difficult problem and error-prone. Therefore, it is essential to measure the reliability of the alignments and incorporate it into downstream analyses. We propose a new probabilistic sampling-based alignment reliability (PSAR) score. Instead of relying on heuristic assumptions, such as the correlation between alignment quality and guide tree uncertainty in progressive alignment methods, we directly generate suboptimal alignments from an input multiple sequence alignment by a probabilistic sampling method, and compute the agreement of the input alignment with the suboptimal alignments as the alignment reliability score. We construct the suboptimal alignments by an approximate method that is based on pairwise comparisons between each single sequence and the sub-alignment of the input alignment where the chosen sequence is left out. By using simulation-based benchmarks, we find that our approach is superior to existing ones, supporting that the suboptimal alignments are highly informative source for assessing alignment reliability. We apply the PSAR method to the alignments in the UCSC Genome Browser to measure the reliability of alignments in different types of regions, such as coding exons and conserved non-coding regions, and use it to guide cross-species conservation study. PMID:21576232

  13. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  14. WFC3 SS UVIS Fine Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.The corrector mechanism will be used to bring the UVIS channel of WFC3 into optimal alignment with the OTA using analysis of star images over the field. Two visits are required; corrector offsets will be uplinked after each visit via realtime command.The execution of this proposal is contingent upon the need for internal alignment and cannot be executed without the permission from the PI, Dr. John MacKenty.ID: WF21

  15. WFC3 SS IR Fine Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.The corrector mechanism will be used to bring the IR channel of WFC3 into optimal alignment with the OTA using analysis of star images over the field. Two visits are required; corrector offsets will be uplinked after each visit via realtime command.The execution of this proposal is contingent upon the need for internal alignment and cannot be executed with out permission from the PI, Dr. John MacKenty.ID: WF22

  16. Similarity-Based Alignment and Generalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Oblinger; Vittorio Castelli; Tessa A. Lau; Lawrence D. Bergman

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel approach to learning predictive sequen- tial models, called similarity-based alignment and generalization, which incorporates in the induction process a specific form of domain knowl- edge derived from a similarity metric of the points in the input space. When applied to Hidden Markov Models, our framework yields a new class of learning algorithms called SimAlignGen. We discuss

  17. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Krishnan; Michael Riley; Sabrina Lee; Toh-Ming Lu

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85º with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation.

  18. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Robichaud, Roger E. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  19. Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Xu, Z [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly different CNT morphologies. The observations suggest that the evolution of the macroscopic CNT morphologies be driven by competing collective growth and spatial constraints.

  20. Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and hea

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health

  1. Phase alignment for coherent and vector processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic phase angle is seldom used to achieve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for single sensor and beam spectral output. One reason is that phase angles generally progress at a nonuniform rate, with unpredictable changes in the direction of rotation. This causes fluctuations in the phase angles with corresponding reductions in gain, often including severe attenuation and cancellation of signals. By adopting a particular analytically convenient definition for phase fluctuations, the fluctuations, thus defined, constitute a set of aligned-phase angles. The aligned-phase angles can be used instead of phase angles to form phase-aligned coherent and vector averages. Doing so achieves SNR gains that equal or exceed the theoretical value of 10 log(N) for perfectly coherent vector averaging (N is the number of elements averaged). This is accomplished without the signal attenuation and cancellation common to coherent and vector averaging. Furthermore, the aligned-phase angles can also be used to automatically detect signals, based on both phase-aligned coherence and appropriate averaging of the aligned-phase angles. Results are included for wind noise in outdoor measurements. [Work supported by U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command.

  2. Local Alignment Refinement Using Structural Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Feytmans, Ernest; Michielin, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Homology modeling is the most commonly used technique to build a three-dimensional model for a protein sequence. It heavily relies on the quality of the sequence alignment between the protein to model and related proteins with a known three dimensional structure. Alignment quality can be assessed according to the physico-chemical properties of the three dimensional models it produces. In this work, we introduce fifteen predictors designed to evaluate the properties of the models obtained for various alignments. They consist of an energy value obtained from different force fields (CHARMM, ProsaII or ANOLEA) computed on residue selected around misaligned regions. These predictors were evaluated on ten challenging test cases. For each target, all possible ungapped alignments are generated and their corresponding models are computed and evaluated. The best predictor, retrieving the structural alignment for 9 out of 10 test cases, is based on the ANOLEA atomistic mean force potential and takes into account residues around misaligned secondary structure elements. The performance of the other predictors is significantly lower. This work shows that substantial improvement in local alignments can be obtained by careful assessment of the local structure of the resulting models. PMID:18612410

  3. New Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate spacecraft attitudes may only be obtained if the primary attitude sensors are well calibrated. Launch shock, relaxation of gravitational stresses and similar effects often produce large enough alignment shifts so that on-orbit alignment calibration is necessary if attitude accuracy requirements are to be met. A variety of attitude sensor alignment algorithms have been developed to meet the need for on-orbit calibration. Two new algorithms are presented here: ALICAL and ALIQUEST. Each of these has advantages in particular circumstances. ALICAL is an attitude independent algorithm that uses near simultaneous measurements from two or more sensors to produce accurate sensor alignments. For each set of simultaneous observations the attitude is overdetermined. The information content of the extra degrees of freedom can be combined over numerous sets to provide the sensor alignments. ALIQUEST is an attitude dependent algorithm that combines sensor and attitude data into a loss function that has the same mathematical form as the Wahba problem. Alignments can then be determined using any of the algorithms (such as the QUEST quaternion estimator) that have been developed to solve the Wahba problem for attitude. Results from the use of these methods on active missions are presented.

  4. Linking Conservation Behavior, Management and Human Societal Context: An Examination of Canids in the Brazilian 

    E-print Network

    Arkenberg, Crystal

    2014-01-27

    wolf), Cerdocyon thous (Crab-eating fox), and Speothos venaticus (Bush dog). Though these species are all found within this topographically and biologically diverse region, they exhibit different social structures, ranges and hunting strategies which...

  5. Evolutionary and Deterministic Methods for Design, Optimization and Control with Applications to Industrial and Societal Problems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) [10] in the optimization of computationally ex- pensive problems, resulting in the local meta-model CMA-ES (lmm-CMA) [14]. The lmm- CMA outperforms the standard CMA

  6. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged???14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease load and societal inequalities contributed to societal burden. Pain measurements in epidemiology research of chronic pain should include chronic pain grades and disease load. PMID:24725286

  7. Strategies of HRD Professionals in Organising Learning Programmes: A Qualitative Study among 20 Dutch HRD Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poell, Rob F.; Pluijmen, Rachelle; Van der Krogt, Ferd J.

    2003-01-01

    Dutch human resource professionals (n=20) were interviewed about the congruence of training strategies with theory. They use a variety of strategies to organize learning at orientation, learning/optimizing, and continuation phases. Strategies appear aligned with theories of liberal, vertical, and horizontal learning. Problems included resistance…

  8. 78 FR 17409 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...outer layers (societal and community) of the social ecological model (SEM) that coordinate and align with existing prevention strategies at the inner layers of the SEM. This program addresses the ``Healthy People 2020'' focus...

  9. GASOLINE: a Greedy And Stochastic algorithm for optimal Local multiple alignment of Interaction NEtworks.

    PubMed

    Micale, Giovanni; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Ferro, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of structure and dynamics of biological networks plays a central role in understanding the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Biological networks have been considered a suitable formalism to extend evolutionary and comparative biology. In this paper we present GASOLINE, an algorithm for multiple local network alignment based on statistical iterative sampling in connection to a greedy strategy. GASOLINE overcomes the limits of current approaches by producing biologically significant alignments within a feasible running time, even for very large input instances. The method has been extensively tested on a database of real and synthetic biological networks. A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the art algorithms clearly shows that GASOLINE yields the best results in terms of both reliability of alignments and running time on real biological networks and results comparable in terms of quality of alignments on synthetic networks. GASOLINE has been developed in Java, and is available, along with all the computed alignments, at the following URL: http://ferrolab.dmi.unict.it/gasoline/gasoline.html. PMID:24911103

  10. GASOLINE: a Greedy And Stochastic algorithm for Optimal Local multiple alignment of Interaction NEtworks

    PubMed Central

    Giugno, Rosalba; Ferro, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of structure and dynamics of biological networks plays a central role in understanding the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Biological networks have been considered a suitable formalism to extend evolutionary and comparative biology. In this paper we present GASOLINE, an algorithm for multiple local network alignment based on statistical iterative sampling in connection to a greedy strategy. GASOLINE overcomes the limits of current approaches by producing biologically significant alignments within a feasible running time, even for very large input instances. The method has been extensively tested on a database of real and synthetic biological networks. A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the art algorithms clearly shows that GASOLINE yields the best results in terms of both reliability of alignments and running time on real biological networks and results comparable in terms of quality of alignments on synthetic networks. GASOLINE has been developed in Java, and is available, along with all the computed alignments, at the following URL: http://ferrolab.dmi.unict.it/gasoline/gasoline.html. PMID:24911103

  11. RandAL: a randomized approach to aligning DNA sequences to reference genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alignment of short reads generated by next-generation sequencers to genomes is an important problem in many biomedical and bioinformatics applications. Although many proposed methods work very well on narrow ranges of read lengths, they tend to suffer in performance and alignment quality for reads outside of these ranges. Results We introduce RandAL, a novel method that aligns DNA sequences to reference genomes. Our approach utilizes two FM indices to facilitate efficient bidirectional searching, a pruning heuristic to speed up the computing of edit distances, and most importantly, a randomized strategy that enables effective estimation of key parameters. Extensive comparisons showed that RandAL outperformed popular aligners in most instances and was unique in its consistent and accurate performance over a wide range of read lengths and error rates. The software package is publicly available at https://github.com/namsyvo/RandAL. Conclusions RandAL promises to align effectively and accurately short reads that come from a variety of technologies with different read lengths and rates of sequencing error. PMID:25081493

  12. Fast and accurate clustering of noncoding RNAs using ensembles of sequence alignments and secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clustering of unannotated transcripts is an important task to identify novel families of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Several hierarchical clustering methods have been developed using similarity measures based on the scores of structural alignment. However, the high computational cost of exact structural alignment requires these methods to employ approximate algorithms. Such heuristics degrade the quality of clustering results, especially when the similarity among family members is not detectable at the primary sequence level. Results We describe a new similarity measure for the hierarchical clustering of ncRNAs. The idea is that the reliability of approximate algorithms can be improved by utilizing the information of suboptimal solutions in their dynamic programming frameworks. We approximate structural alignment in a more simplified manner than the existing methods. Instead, our method utilizes all possible sequence alignments and all possible secondary structures, whereas the existing methods only use one optimal sequence alignment and one optimal secondary structure. We demonstrate that this strategy can achieve the best balance between the computational cost and the quality of the clustering. In particular, our method can keep its high performance even when the sequence identity of family members is less than 60%. Conclusions Our method enables fast and accurate clustering of ncRNAs. The software is available for download at http://bpla-kernel.dna.bio.keio.ac.jp/clustering/. PMID:21342580

  13. Streaming Algorithms for Biological Sequence Alignment on GPUs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Liu; Bertil Schmidt; Gerrit Voss; Wolfgang Müller-wittig

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common and often repeated task in molecular biology. Typical alignment operations consist of finding similarities between a pair of sequences (pairwise sequence alignment) or a family of sequences (multiple sequence alignment). The need for speeding up this treatment comes from the rapid growth rate of biological sequence databases: every year their size increases by a factor

  14. Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees of Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Essoussi; Mohamed Limam

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a fundamental part in many bioinformatics applications such as phylogenetic analysis. Many alignment methods have been proposed. Each method gives a different result for the same data set, and consequently generates a different phylogenetic tree. Hence, the chosen alignment method affects the resulting tree. However in the literature, there is no evaluation of multiple alignment methods

  15. A comparison of four pair-wise sequence alignment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Essoussi; Sondes Fayech

    Protein sequence alignment has become an essential task in modern molecular biology research. A number of alignment techniques have been documented in literature and their corresponding tools are made available as freeware and commercial software. The choice and use of these tools for sequence alignment through the complete interpretation of alignment results is often considered non-trivial by end-users with limited

  16. 1 Multiple String Alignment Efficient methods for multiple sequence

    E-print Network

    Gusfield, Daniel M.

    1 Multiple String Alignment Efficient methods for multiple sequence alignment with guaranteed error Multiple string (sequence) alignment is a difficult and important problem in computa- tional biology, where for evaluating the goodness of a multiple alignment, but no efficient methods are known which compute the optimal

  17. Laser Induced Selective Alignment of Water Spin Isomers

    E-print Network

    E. Gershnabel; I. Sh. Averbukh

    2008-09-26

    We consider laser alignment of ortho and para spin isomers of water molecules by using strong and short off-resonance laser pulses. A single pulse is found to create a distinct transient alignment and antialignment of the isomeric species. We suggest selective alignment of one isomeric species (leaving the other species randomly aligned) by a pair of two laser pulses.

  18. Directed 3D cell alignment and elongation in microengineered hydrogels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hug Aubin; Jason W. Nichol; Ché B. Hutson; Hojae Bae; Alisha L. Sieminski; Donald M. Cropek; Paryam Akhyari; Ali Khademhosseini

    2010-01-01

    Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized native tissues in 3D engineered tissues remains a challenge. While cellular alignment in engineered tissues can be induced through the use of external physical stimuli, there are

  19. Dopant-Enhanced Vertical Alignment of Negative Liquid Crystals

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    alignment (VA) cell [1,2] has been used widely in liquid crys- tal display (LCD) devices because of its difficult to align in a VA cell; a poor molecular alignment leads to a low contrast ratio and smeared to align in a VA cell; its dark state has a severe light leakage between two crossed polarizers. We report

  20. Comparison of Beam-Based Alignment Algorithms for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Gibbons, L.; Patterson, J.R.; Rubin, D.L.; /Cornell U., LEPP; Sagan, D.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

    2006-03-15

    The main linac of the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires more sophisticated alignment techniques than those provided by survey alone. Various Beam-Based Alignment (BBA) algorithms have been proposed to achieve the desired low emittance preservation. Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment and the Kubo method are compared. Alignment algorithms are also tested in the presence of an Earth-like stray field.

  1. Implications of spinopelvic alignment for the spine surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vivek A; Amin, Anubhav; Omeis, Ibrahim; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Gottfried, Oren N

    2015-03-01

    The relation of the pelvis to the spine has previously been overlooked as a contributor to sagittal balance. However, it is now recognized that spinopelvic alignment is important to maintain an energy-efficient posture in normal and disease states. The pelvis is characterized by an important anatomic landmark, the pelvic incidence (PI). The PI does not change after adolescence, and it directly influences pelvic alignment, including the parameters of pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS) (PI = PT 1 SS), overall sagittal spinal balance, and lumbar lordosis. In the setting of an elevated PI, the spineadapts with increased lumbar lordosis. To prevent or limit sagittal imbalance, the spine may also compensate with increased PT or pelvic retroversion to attempt to maintain anupright posture. Abnormal spinopelvic parameters contribute to multiple spinal conditions including isthmic spondylolysis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, deformity, and impact outcome after spinal fusion. Sagittal balance, pelvic incidence, and all spinopelvic parameters are easily and reliably measured on standing, full-spine (lateral) radiographs, and it is essential to accurately assess and measure these sagittal values to understand their potential role in the disease process, and to promote spinopelvic balance at surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the implications of abnormal spinopelvic parameters and discuss surgical strategies for correction of sagittal balance. Additionally, the authors rate and critique the quality of the literature cited in a systematic review approach to give the reader an estimate of the veracity of the conclusions reached from these reports. PMID:25692368

  2. The alignment of carbon nanotubes: an effective route to extend their excellent properties to macroscopic scale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-02-19

    To improve the practical application of carbon nanotubes, it is critically important to extend their physical properties from the nanoscale to the macroscopic scale. Recently, chemists aligned continuous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets and fibers to produce materials with high mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. This provided an important clue to the use of MWCNTs at macroscopic scale. Researchers have made multiple efforts to optimize this aligned structure and improve the properties of MWCNT sheets and fibers. In this Account, we briefly highlight the new synthetic methods and promising applications of aligned MWCNTs for organic optoelectronic materials and devices. We describe several general methods to prepare both horizontally and perpendicularly aligned MWCNT/polymer composite films, through an easy solution or melting process. The composite films exhibit the combined properties of being flexible, transparent, and electrically conductive. These advances may pave the way to new flexible substrates for organic solar cells, sensing devices, and other related applications. Similarly, we discuss the synthesis of aligned MWCNT/polymer composite fibers with interesting mechanical and electrical properties. Through these methods, we can incorporate a wide variety of soluble or fusible polymers for such composite films and fibers. In addition, we can later introduce functional polymers with conjugated backbones or side chains to improve the properties of these composite materials. In particular, cooperative interactions between aligned MWCNTs and polymers can produce novel properties that do not occur individually. Common examples of this are two types of responsive polymers, photodeformable azobenzene-containing liquid crystalline polymer and chromatic polydiacetylene. Aligning the structure of MWCNTs induces the orientation of azobenzene-containing mesogens, and produces photodeformable polymer elastomers. This strategy also solves the long-standing problems from the traditional mechanical rubbing method, which include production of broken debris and structure damage during fabrication and building up electrostatic charge during use. Aligning MWCNTs induces a conformational change in polydiacetylene, which causes the composite fibers to be electrochromatic, a previously unknown reaction in chromatic polymers. Due to their large surface area, flexibility, electrical conductivity, and remarkable electrocatalytic activity, aligned MWCNT films can be used as counter electrodes to produce highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. In addition, chemists have developed new electrodes from the aligned MWCNT fibers to make a family of high-performing, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:23170988

  3. Open Science as a Knowledge Transfer strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Dalmeier-Thiessen, Suenje

    2015-04-01

    Beyond providing basic understanding of how our Blue Planet functions, flows and breathes, the collection of Earth & Marine Research disciplines are of major service to most of today's Societal Challenges: from Food Security and Sustainable Resource Management, to Renewable Energies, Climate Mitigation & Ecosystem Services and Hazards. Natural Resources are a key commodity in the long-term strategy of the EU Innovation Union(1), and better understanding of the natural process governing them, as well as science-based management are seen as a key area for stimulating future economic growth. Such potential places responsibility on research project managers to devise innovative methods to ensure effective transfer of new research to public and private sector users, and society at large. Open Science is about removing all barriers to full sphere basic research knowledge and outputs, not just the publishable part of research but also the data, the software code, and failed experiments. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy(2), and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to the EU's Blue Growth Agenda(3). Despite the potential of the internet age to deliver on that promise, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available(4). The talk will demonstrate how and why Open Science can be a first, passive but effective strategy for any research project to transfer knowledge to society by allowing access and dicoverability to the full sphere of new knowledge, not just the published outputs. Apart from contributing to economic growth, Open Science can also optimize collaboration, within academia, assist with better engagement of citizen scientists into the research process and co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as providing a solid ground for more sophisticated communication strategies and Ocean/Earth Literacy initiatives targeting policy makers and the public at large. (1)EC Digital Agenda & Access to Knowledge http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/open-access-scientific-knowledge-0 (2)Responsible Research and Innovation for Societal Challenges http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/responsible-research-and-innovation-leaflet_en.pdf (3)Houghton, J., Swan, A., Brown, S., 2011. Access to research and technical information in Denmark [WWW Document]. URL http://www.deff.dk/uploads/media/Access_to_Research_and_Technical_Information_in_Denmark.pdf (4)Proportion of OA Peer-Reviewed Papers at the European & World Levels 2004-2011, EC Report http://www.science-metrix.com/pdf/SM_EC_OA_Availability_2004-2011.pdf

  4. “Doing” strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Pugh; L. Jay Bourgeois III

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Most of today's conversations around crafting business strategy center on which strategic framework is most appropriate for a firm, its strategist, or CEO to use. This opinion piece seeks to argue that the focus on frameworks is inappropriate and distracts businesses from crafting holistic and adaptive strategies. To rectify the situation, it aims to offer a more inclusive

  5. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah; Piyapong Asanithi; Eric W. Brunner; Izabela Jurewicz; Chiara Bo; Chihye Lewis Azad; Raquel Ovalle-Robles; Shaoli Fang; Marcio D. Lima; Xavier Lepro; Steve Collins; Ray H. Baughman; Richard P. Sear; Alan B. Dalton

    2011-01-01

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is

  6. Three-dimensional point cloud alignment detecting fiducial markers by structured light stereo imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Barone; Alessandro Paoli; Armando Viviano Razionale

    In recent years, various methodologies of shape reconstruction have been proposed with the aim at creating Computer-Aided\\u000a Design models by digitising physical objects using optical sensors. Generally, the acquisition of 3D geometrical data includes\\u000a crucial tasks, such as planning scanning strategies and aligning different point clouds by multiple view approaches, which\\u000a differ for user’s interaction and hardware cost. This paper

  7. Combination of IT strategic alignment and IT governance to evaluate strategic alignment maturity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hosseinbeig; D. Karimzadgan Moghadam; D. Vahdat; R. Askari Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Business\\/IT strategic alignment has been discussed as a key subject for managers for a long time. This is while IT governance is also amongst the most important organizational subjects. Indeed, since IT has become an important resource for organizations, the governance of this resource is an essential subject that the organizations must go through. Combination of IT strategic alignment with

  8. ReAligner: a program for refining DNA sequence multi-alignments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Anson; Eugene W. Myers

    1997-01-01

    We present a round-robin realignment algorithm that improves it potentially crude initial alignment of an assembled collection of DNA sequence fragments, as might, for example, be output, by a typical fragment assembly program. The algorithm uses a weighted combination of two scoring schemes to achieve superior multi-alignments, and employs a banded dynamic programming variation to achieve a running time that

  9. Pairwise Sequence Alignment15.6.08 Biological Meaning of Alignment.

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    . Definition of patterns the sequences must contain. Only alignment of homologous sequences seems meaningful-deletions (indels) and substitutions (change of single elements of the sequence - amino acids if the sequence is a protein and nucleic acid, if the sequence is DNA). The most widely used approach to finding an alignment

  10. Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

  11. Decellularized grafts with axially aligned channels for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Rukmani; Reilly, Richard B; Buckley, Conor T

    2015-01-01

    At least 2 million people worldwide suffer annually from peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), with estimated costs of $7 billion incurred due to paralysis alone. The current "gold" standard for treatment of PNI is the autograft, which poses disadvantages such as high fiscal cost, possible loss of sensation at donor site and the requirement of two surgeries. Allografts are viable alternatives; however, intensive immunosuppressive treatments are often necessary to prevent host rejection. For this reason, significant efforts have been made to remove cellular material from allografts. These decellularized nerve grafts perform better than other clinically available grafts but not as well as autografts; therefore, current research on these grafts includes the incorporation of additional components such as growth factors and cells to provide chemical guidance to regenerating axons. However, effective cellular and axonal penetration is not achieved due to the small pore size (5-10?m) of the decellularized grafts. The overall objective of this study was to induce axially aligned channels in decellularized nerve grafts to facilitate enhanced cell penetration. The specific aims of this study were to optimize a decellularization method to enhance cellular removal, to induce axially aligned pore formation in decellularized grafts through a novel unidirectional freeze drying method, to study the bulk mechanical properties of these modified decellularized grafts and to assess cell penetration into these grafts. To this end we modified an existing decellularization protocol to improve cellular removal while preserving matrix structure in rat sciatic nerve sections. Standard freeze drying and unidirectional freeze drying were employed to impart the necessary pore architecture, and our results suggest that unidirectional freezing is a pertinent modification to the freeze drying process to obtain axially aligned channels. These highly porous scaffolds obtained using unidirectional freeze-drying possessed similar tensile properties to native nerve tissue and exhibited enhanced cellular penetration after 14 days of culture when compared to non-freeze dried and standard freeze-dried scaffolds. The results of this study not only highlight the importance of aligned pores of diameters ~20-60?m on cellular infiltration, but also presents unidirectional freeze drying as a viable technique for producing this required architecture in decellularized nerves. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to manipulate the physical structure of decellularized nerves to enhance cell penetration which may serve as a basis for future peripheral nerve regenerative strategies using decellularized allografts. PMID:25460409

  12. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  13. Fast and accurate read alignment for resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mu, John C.; Jiang, Hui; Kiani, Amirhossein; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Bani Asadi, Narges; Wong, Wing H.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation sequence analysis has become an important task both in laboratory and clinical settings. A key stage in the majority sequence analysis workflows, such as resequencing, is the alignment of genomic reads to a reference genome. The accurate alignment of reads with large indels is a computationally challenging task for researchers. Results: We introduce SeqAlto as a new algorithm for read alignment. For reads longer than or equal to 100 bp, SeqAlto is up to 10 × faster than existing algorithms, while retaining high accuracy and the ability to align reads with large (up to 50 bp) indels. This improvement in efficiency is particularly important in the analysis of future sequencing data where the number of reads approaches many billions. Furthermore, SeqAlto uses less than 8 GB of memory to align against the human genome. SeqAlto is benchmarked against several existing tools with both real and simulated data. Availability: Linux and Mac OS X binaries free for academic use are available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/wonglab/seqalto Contact: whwong@stanford.edu PMID:22811546

  14. LCLS Undulator Commissioning, Alignment, and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-10-30

    The LCLS x-ray FEL has recently achieved its 1.5-Angstrom lasing and saturation goals upon first trial. This was achieved as a result of a thorough pre-beam checkout, both traditional and beam-based component alignment techniques, and high electron beam brightness. The x-ray FEL process demands very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (<5 {micro}m) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight, but less stringent tolerances of {approx}100 {micro}m rms were met for the transverse placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through a beam-based alignment (BBA) method, which is implemented using large electron energy variations and sub-micron resolution cavity beam position monitors (BPM), with precise conventional alignment used to set the starting conditions. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders, and special beam-finder wires (BFW) at each girder have been used to meet these challenging alignment tolerances. Longer-term girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes are being monitored, continuously, by a unique stretched wire and hydrostatic level Alignment Diagnostics System (ADS).

  15. [Burnout of general practitioners in Belgium: societal consequences and paths to solutions].

    PubMed

    Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M

    2011-09-01

    The definition of burn-out the most often cited and proposed by Maslach and Jackson, clarifies the three cardinal symptoms affecting doctors, namely, emotional exhaustion, with depersonalization of their patients and reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment. The causes of this phenomenon are relatively well-known: individual psychological factors, stressful factors intrinsic to the medical practice and finally extrinsic factors related to the professional environment and its organization. The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of burnout within the population of Belgian family physicians and to understand both individual and societal consequences. About the method. This is a literature review using databases Medline, Cochrane Library, and the American Psychological Association from 2000 to 2011 with the keywords: primary health care, family practice, burnout, emotional exhaustion, psychological stressors, distress, fatigue, depersonalization, substance and alcohol abuse, depression, well-being, quality of life, job satisfaction, professional efficiency, patient care, physician-patient relations, medical errors, quality of health care, pharmaceutical/health expenditure/statistics-numerical data, obstacles to prevention, health system assessment, medical demography. Selecting of the most relevant articles through the reading of abstracts and then full text reading of 49 selected articles. In conclusion, the exact prevalence of burn-out amongst Belgian general practitioners is not known. From some works, it is estimated that about half of them would be achieved at least in terms of emotional exhaustion. The symptoms related to burn-out are potentially serious: ea depression, alcohol and tobacco abuse and cardiovascular complications. There are also arguments demonstrating the fact that this disorder amongst general practitioners influences negatively the quality of care, their cost, but also medical demography of primary care with as a corollary a questioning of the viability of the health care system as we know it. At the time of writing this article, the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE) is completing, at the request of the Belgian Ministry (SPF) of Health a study entitled "Burn Out of General Practitioners: which prevention, which solutions" whose goal is to make recommendations for the prevention and support of this issue. To measure the real impact of the solutions eventually implemented, we need to create a tool for a regular assessment of the prevalence of this problem in our country. PMID:22034774

  16. Align: a C++ class library and web server for rapid sequence alignment prototyping.

    PubMed

    Tosatto, Silvio C E; Albiero, Alessandro; Mantovan, Alessandra; Ferrari, Carlo; Bindewald, Eckart; Toppo, Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Sequence alignment remains a fundamental tool in most tasks related to the prediction of protein sequence and structure. A C++ class library was developed to facilitate the rapid implementation of a variety of state-of-the-art pairwise sequence alignment techniques. These range from simple sequence to sequence to the advanced profile to profile alignments with optional secondary structure information. Suboptimal alignments, frequently used to estimate regions of confidence, can also be generated. The object oriented design facilitates rapid implementation, testing and extension of existing functionality. A simple web interface, which can also be useful in bioinformatics education, is also provided. Source code, online documentation and a prototypical web interface are freely accessible to academic users from the URL: http://protein.cribi.unipd.it/align/. A sample case study in the modelling of human Cytochrome P450 is discussed. PMID:17311562

  17. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  18. Strategies to prevent preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Newnham, John P; Dickinson, Jan E; Hart, Roger J; Pennell, Craig E; Arrese, Catherine A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  19. Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies &

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies & Tools What it is? How it helps? Advice COB Career, you have a unique log-in that allows you to manage your profile, search for positions and companies/interview activities with off-campus searching. Recruiting Events/ Career Fairs On and off-campus events promoted

  20. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  1. Addressing Contemporary Issues, Lifelong Learning, and the Impact of Engineering on Global and Societal Issues in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Van Treuren, Kenneth

    Whenever there is a discussion of outcomes a-k for ABET EC 2000, the outcomes least understood are those involving knowledge of contemporary issues, lifelong learning, and the impact of engineering on global and societal issues. Most faculty believe they understand the intent of these topics, but to identify where these criteria are supported in a curriculum is often difficult. A separate course or seminar is not necessarily the answer as most programs cannot afford the addition of more classroom hours. A simple method of addressing these issues used by the author for the past three years is to have students accomplish short presentations on topics of their choice related to the course. In the last year, explicitly adding a requirement to present on a topic related to contemporary issues and/or the impact of engineering on global and societal issues yielded more focused presentations. Having the students pick their own topics allowed them to pursue something that they find personally interesting and wished to present to the class. For the first two years, additional credit was given to students who have a range of reference materials, especially materials found in the library. This developed research skills beyond that of the worldwide web. Topics were very different and students were not allowed to give a presentation on a topic that had already been given. Many of the presentations naturally addressed topics dealing with contemporary, global or societal issues and this gave the opportunity for further discussion. For the heat transfer class in which this was implemented, topics have included energy production, biomedical applications, safety issues, and the impact of heat transfer on day-to-day living. Students clearly enjoyed the presentations and everyone, including the author, was exposed to topics that might not normally be included in the classroom.

  2. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, William M. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  3. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  4. Multilevel self-aligned microcontact printing system.

    PubMed

    Choonee, K; Syms, R R A

    2010-10-19

    A multilevel microcontact printing (?CP) system that avoids the use of optical alignment and precision manipulation equipment is demonstrated. Most of the complexity is transferred to the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp itself by forming the features, a mechanical self-alignment mechanism, and an elastic membrane by wafer scale replica molding on a Si master. Flexible 50-?m-thick photoetched stainless steel sheets are bonded to PDMS prior to demolding to improve the mechanical stability. The Si master itself is made using conventional MEMS fabrication tools such as photolithography, reactive ion etching, and anisotropic wet etching. Self-alignment is achieved by introducing protrusions on the stamp that mate onto corresponding grooves on a machined substrate. Complete 10 mm × 10 mm prototypes are fabricated, and six-level ?CP is demonstrated with an average layer-to-layer misalignment of 5-10 ?m. PMID:20843078

  5. On the alignment for precession electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D

    2012-06-01

    Precession electron diffraction has seen a fast increase in its adoption as a technique for solving crystallographic structures as well as an alternative to conventional selected-area and converged-beam diffraction methods. One of the key issues of precession is the pivot point alignment, as a stationary apparent beam does not guarantee a fixed pivot point. A large precession tilt angle, along with pre-field and post-field misalignment, induces shift in the image plane. We point out here that the beam should be aligned to the pre-field optic axis to keep the electron illumination stationary during the rocking process. A practical alignment procedure is suggested with the focus placed on minimizing the beam wandering on the specimen, and is demonstrated for a (110)-oriented silicon single crystal and for a carbide phase (?20nm in size) within a cast cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. PMID:22634134

  6. On the alignment for precession electron diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Precession electron diffraction has seen a fast increase in its adoption as a technique for solving crystallographic structures as well as an alternative to conventional selected-area and converged-beam diffraction methods. One of the key issues of precession is the pivot point alignment, as a stationary apparent beam does not guarantee a fixed pivot point. A large precession tilt angle, along with pre-field and post-field misalignment, induces shift in the image plane. We point out here that the beam should be aligned to the pre-field optic axis to keep the electron illumination stationary during the rocking process. A practical alignment procedure is suggested with the focus placed on minimizing the beam wandering on the specimen, and is demonstrated for a (110)-oriented silicon single crystal and for a carbide phase (~20 nm in size) within a cast cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy. PMID:22634134

  7. Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael A; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

    2015-04-01

    Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (n = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

  8. LumiCal alignment system - Status report

    E-print Network

    Daniluk, W.; Lesiak, T.; Moszczy?ski, A.; Pawlik, B.; Wojto?, T.; Zawiejski, L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the laser-based alignment-system for the luminosity detector, LumiCal, taking into considerations the conditions of the International Large Detector in the International Linear Collider project. The design of the system comprises two parts: the first one containing semi-transparent silicon sensors used to deliver simultaneous position measurements in the X,Y directions of the monitored object, and the second one in which the interferometric technique, i.e. the Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI), is proposed. Two laboratory prototypes for both components of the system were built and the preliminary measurements of the DUT displacements demonstrated their utility in the design of the final alignment system. The alignment of the LumiCal detector will allow us to monitor the detector displacements and possible deformations in its internal structure. Lack of information of the displacements will introduce a systematic effect which will have an impact on the accuracy of the fi...

  9. MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

    2013-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3? std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

  10. Carbon nanotube alignment in a thermosetting resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Greco, Antonio; Pisignano, Dario; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    Engineering aspects associated with nanocomposite development involves either their final properties either their processability. Both are affected by the distribution of nanofiller in the matrix, or in other words by its dispersion. Mechanical and rheological properties of nanocomposites are directly affected by the aspect ratio of the nanofiller. A nanofilled thermosetting polymer can be exploited as a matrix for continuous fibers when alignment of a high aspect ratio nanofiller is achieved: in this case a hierarchical composite is obtained. A new approach base in two-step is proposed. First the alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved in a fiber spinning process where an amorphous thermoplastic polymer filled with carbon nanotubes or graphene stacks is used. Then these fibers are aligned and impregnated with the target thermosetting matrix where they ar soluble. After dissolution the nanofillers remained oriented in the thermosetting matrix.

  11. Magnetic Field Measurement with Ground State Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

    Observational studies of magnetic fields are crucial. We introduce a process "ground state alignment" as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1 G ? B ? 10^{-15} G). In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this chapter, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields in the Epoch of Reionization.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Alignment of Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaron Caspi; Michal Irani

    2002-01-01

    Abstract—This paper studies the problem of sequence-to-sequence alignment, namely, establishing correspondences in time and in space,between,two different video sequences,of the same,dynamic,scene. The sequences,are recorded,by uncalibrated,video cameras which are either stationary or jointly moving, with fixed (but unknown) internal parameters and relative intercamera external parameters. Temporal variations between,image frames,(such as moving,objects or changes,in scene illumination) are powerful,cues for alignment, which cannot

  13. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, then the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin out of the hole.

  14. Laboratory simulation of field-aligned currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rostoker, Norman

    1993-01-01

    A summary of progress during the period Apr. 1992 to Mar. 1993 is provided. Objectives of the research are (1) to simulate, via laboratory experiments, the three terms of the field-aligned current equation; (2) to simulate auroral-arc formation processes by configuring the boundary conditions of the experimental chamber and plasma parameters to produce highly localized return currents at the end of a field-aligned current system; and (3) to extrapolate these results, using theoretical and computational techniques, to the problem of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to compare them with published literature signatures of auroral-arc phenomena.

  15. Constraining a Generative Word Alignment Model with Discriminative Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; Watanabe, Taro; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sumita, Eiichiro

    We present a method to constrain a statistical generative word alignment model with the output from a discriminative model. The discriminative model is trained using a small set of hand-aligned data that ensures higher precision in alignment. On the other hand, the generative model improves the recall of alignment. By combining these two models, the alignment output becomes more suitable for use in developing a translation model for a phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system. Our experimental results show that the joint alignment model improves the translation performance. The improvement in average of BLEU and METEOR scores is around 1.0-3.9 points.

  16. Multiwell plate tools for controlling cellular alignment with grooved topography.

    PubMed

    Londono, Camila; Soleas, John; Lücker, Petra B; Sathananthan, Suthamathy; Aitchison, J Stewart; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-01-01

    In many tissues, cells must be aligned for proper function. This alignment can occur at the cellular and/or subcellular (protein/molecular) level. The alignment of cytoskeletal components, in fact, precedes whole cell alignment. A variety of methods exist to manipulate cytoskeletal and whole cell alignment; one of the simplest and most predictable involves seeding adherent cells onto defined substrate topography. We present here two methods to create grooved multiwell plates: one involving microfabrication, which allows for custom design of substrate topography, and a simpler, inexpensive method using commercially available diffraction gratings. We also include methods for manual and automatic quantification of cell alignment. PMID:24687428

  17. Development of a reinforced electrochemically aligned collagen bioscaffold for tendon tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uquillas Paredes, Jorge Alfredo

    Type-I collagen is a promising biomaterial that can be used to synthesize bioscaffolds as a strategy to regenerate and repair damaged tendons. The existing in vitro prepared collagen bioscaffolds are in the form of gels, foams, or extruded fibers. These bioscaffolds readily present sites for attachment of biological factors and cells; however, they have extremely poor biomechanical properties in comparison to the properties of native tendons. The biomechanical function of type-I collagen bioscaffolds needs to be elevated to the level of natural tissues for this biomaterial to replace mechanically challenged tendons in a functionally meaningful way. The overall goal of this dissertation is to develop a reinforced electrochemically aligned collagenous bioscaffold for applications in tendon tissue engineering. The bioscaffold is synthesized by a unique electrochemical process via isoelectric focusing (IEF) to attain a very high degree of molecular alignment and packing density. This dissertation presents progress made on four aims: A) development of simple and descriptive electrochemical theory via the mathematical model of IEF and the forces acting on collagen alignment under an electric field; B) optimization of the post-alignment PBS treatment step to achieve d- banding pattern in uncrosslinked electrochemically aligned collagen (ELAC) bioscaffolds; C) optimization of the best crosslinking protocol to produce the strongest possible ELAC biomaterial with excellent cellular compatibility; and D) in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility and biodegradability properties of electronically aligned collagen bioscaffolds. The results of this dissertation provide strong evidence showing that reinforced ELAC bioscaffolds could be used clinically in the future to repair damaged tendons.

  18. Alignment of an Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Gonzalez; Nergis Mavalvala; David Shoemaker; Michael Zucker

    1998-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction are designed to detect small perturbations in the relative lengths of their kilometer-scale arms which would be induced by passing gravitational radiation. An analysis of the effects of imperfect optical alignment on the strain sensitivity of such an interferometer shows that in order to achieve maximum strain sensitivity in LIGO, the angular orientations

  19. Alignment blur in coherently averaged images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Monro; D. M. Simpson

    1996-01-01

    Blurring of coherently averaged images due to imperfect alignment is studied, and two restoration methods are proposed and evaluated. It is shown that iterative realignment is more powerful than post-filtering in reducing blur. The value of averaging and restoration is illustrated on human subjects in noisy video sequences

  20. Immersive Planar Display using Roughly Aligned Projectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Raskar

    2000-01-01

    When a projector is oblique with respect to a planar dis- play surface, it creates keystoningand the projected imageis distorted. We present a rendering technique to display per- spectively correct images for a moving user. This allows us- ing roughly aligned projectors and eliminates the need for frequent electro-mechanicaladjustments. The rendering process has no additional cost and can be implemented

  1. Visualization of Aligned Biological Networks: Steffen Brasch

    E-print Network

    Linsen, Lars

    , Germany Email: fuellen@uni-greifswald.de Abstract--In modern biology, major efforts are undertaken of the networks of different species can be aligned by matching the corresponding instances in the species into the evolution of animals [1] and into biochemical function [2]. For each species its proteins

  2. Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 kernel SVMs. We demonstrate the merits of this approach on multi-class facial expres- sions recognition will help to prevent many accidents from happening. Facial expression recognition systems, among others, may

  3. Alignment system for advanced laser resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Dean; G. T. Volpe; J. L. Jacoby

    1981-01-01

    A misalignment sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the Half Symmetric Unstable Resonator with Internal Axicon in order to investigate a new laser resonator alignment approach. The proposed approach is based on the introduction of wavefront aberrations which compensate those arising from resonator misalignment, making it possible to maintain acceptable phase quality of the output laser wavefront in the

  4. TE10 resonant iris with angular alignment

    E-print Network

    Bornemann, Jens

    TE10 resonant iris with angular alignment TE101 mode cavities TM110 mode cavities TE01 (TE10) resonant iris 1a 1b Fig. 1: Filter configurations utilizing cavity and iris resonances. Resonant irises and resonant irises. Two different configurations, which allow precise control of the direct couplings between

  5. Methodological Alignment in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical research is all about trying to model and predict the world. In this article, I discuss how design-based research methods can help do this effectively. In particular, design-based research methods can help with the problem of methodological alignment: ensuring that the research methods we use actually test what we think they are testing.…

  6. Strain-induced alignment in collagen gels

    E-print Network

    D. Vader; A. Kabla; D. Weitz; L. Mahadevan

    2009-07-10

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular-network-forming protein in animal biology and is important in both natural and artificial tissues, where it serves as a material of great mechanical versatility. This versatility arises from its almost unique ability to remodel under applied loads into anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures. To explore the origins of this property, we develop a set of analysis tools and a novel experimental setup that probes the mechanical response of fibrous networks in a geometry that mimics a typical deformation profile imposed by cells in vivo. We observe strong fiber alignment and densification as a function of applied strain for both uncrosslinked and crosslinked collagenous networks. This alignment is found to be irreversibly imprinted in uncrosslinked collagen networks, suggesting a simple mechanism for tissue organization at the microscale. However, crosslinked networks display similar fiber alignment and the same geometrical properties as uncrosslinked gels, but with full reversibility. Plasticity is therefore not required to align fibers. On the contrary, our data show that this effect is part of the fundamental non-linear properties of fibrous biological networks.

  7. Loosely Distinctive Features for Robust Surface Alignment

    E-print Network

    Cremers, Daniel

    stable extremal regions (MSER) [3] and Hessian-Affine [4]. Among the most used descriptors are the Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) [5], the Speeded Up Robust Fea- tures (SURF) [6] and Gradient LocationLoosely Distinctive Features for Robust Surface Alignment Andrea Albarelli, Emanuele Rodol

  8. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  9. Ontology alignment An ontology management perspective

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ontology alignment An ontology management perspective Jérôme Euzenat Adrian Mocan François Scharffe September 30, 2007 Abstract Relating ontologies is very important for many ontology-based applica- tions and more important in open environments like the semantic web. The relations between ontology entities can

  10. The Shiva target alignment and viewing instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Monjes; K. R. Manes; W. C. Oneal; F. Rienecker

    1978-01-01

    To view and align Shiva laser targets, two new telemicroscopic instruments integral with TV camera and He-Ne laser illuminator have been designed. The common requirement of both instruments is the capability of imaging two objects of different sizes on a TV screen: the large surrogate target (5 mm diameter) and the laser fusion target (0.250 mm diameter) with the same

  11. Multiple Aligned Characteristic Curves for Surface Fairing

    E-print Network

    characteris- tic curves directly on the surface. Based on this, we introduce a fairing scheme which differential properties for surface derivatives. Characteristic surface curves like reflection lines wereMultiple Aligned Characteristic Curves for Surface Fairing Janick Martinez Esturo, Christian R

  12. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. J. Lee; K. H. Chang; J. C. Chon; C. Y. Oh

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor

  13. Thematic Roles, Markedness Alignment and Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…

  14. A Multilingual Procedure for Dictionarybased Sentence Alignment

    E-print Network

    marriage problem. An algorithm is described which can handle N­to­1 (or 1­to­ N) matches, for n â?? 0, i to aid them in translating new similar texts. Even if an identical sentence has not been previously translated, translations of similar sentences may be used as models. Manual alignment unduly constrains

  15. Adaptive delays alignment in polar transmitter architecture

    E-print Network

    Bercher, Jean-François

    1 Adaptive delays alignment in polar transmitter architecture J.-F. Bercher1 and C. Berland2 1--Polar architecture is a regarded solution for the design of efficient transmitters for radiocommunication systems and the signal generated by the transmitter. Since the system gain and phase offset of the system

  16. Equivalence and Efficiency of Image Alignment Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baker; Iain Matthews

    2001-01-01

    There are two major formulations of image alignment us- ing gradient descent. The first estimates an additive incre- ment to the parameters (the additive approach), the second an incremental warp (the compositionalapproach). We first prove that these two formulations are equivalent. A very ef- ficient algorithm was recently proposed by Hager and Bel- humeur using the additive approach that unfortunately

  17. Strain-Induced Alignment in Collagen Gels

    PubMed Central

    Vader, David; Kabla, Alexandre; Weitz, David; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayana

    2009-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular-network-forming protein in animal biology and is important in both natural and artificial tissues, where it serves as a material of great mechanical versatility. This versatility arises from its almost unique ability to remodel under applied loads into anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures. To explore the origins of this property, we develop a set of analysis tools and a novel experimental setup that probes the mechanical response of fibrous networks in a geometry that mimics a typical deformation profile imposed by cells in vivo. We observe strong fiber alignment and densification as a function of applied strain for both uncrosslinked and crosslinked collagenous networks. This alignment is found to be irreversibly imprinted in uncrosslinked collagen networks, suggesting a simple mechanism for tissue organization at the microscale. However, crosslinked networks display similar fiber alignment and the same geometrical properties as uncrosslinked gels, but with full reversibility. Plasticity is therefore not required to align fibers. On the contrary, our data show that this effect is part of the fundamental non-linear properties of fibrous biological networks. PMID:19529768

  18. Microvariation in Accentual Alignment in Basque Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elordieta, Gorka; Calleja, Nagore

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents patterns of accentual alignment in two varieties of Spanish spoken in the Basque Country: Lekeitio Spanish (LS), with speakers whose other native language is Lekeitio Basque (LB); and Vitoria Spanish (VS), with monolingual speakers of Spanish from the city of Vitoria. These patterns are compared to those of Madrid Spanish (MS),…

  19. AIRIX alignment and high current beam diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Villate; Ch. Bonnafond; A. Devin; E. Merle

    1995-01-01

    The high performance required for the French Radiographic Hydrotest Facility is tightly connected to the quality of the electron beam. As part of the AIRIX program an Integrated Test Stand named PIVAIR is achieved at CESTA. Many tools have been developed to control and optimize the beam parameters. At first, we describe the alignment technique chosen for PIVAIR. Since AIRIX

  20. Isotope-selective ionization utilizing field-free alignment of isotopologues with a train of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Hiroshi; Kasajima, Tatsuya; Kumada, Takayuki; Itakura, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-01

    We propose a strategy of isotope-selective ionization for a binary mixture of isotopologues of homonuclear diatomic molecules, utilizing field-free alignment with a train of femtosecond laser pulses. Field-free alignment can be achieved simultaneously for two isotopologues consisting of two atoms with the same atomic mass number ? or ? (?X2and ?X2) , utilizing a pulse train with their time interval of Tcomrev=? T?rev=? T?rev , where T?rev and T?rev are the rotational revival times of the isotopologues. We demonstrate experimentally that a train of four alignment pulses with their interval of Tcomrev(? =14 ,? =15 ) creates transiently aligned 14N2 and antialigned 15N2 just before Tcomrev/2 after the last alignment pulse and vice versa just after Tcomrev/2 . Highly isotope-selective N2 ionization is achieved at these timings with another femtosecond laser pulse, which induces the nonresonant multiphoton ionization with the cross section remarkably depending on the angle between the molecular axis and the laser-electric-field direction. The ion yield ratio I (15N2+) /I (14N2+) ranges from 0.49 to 2.00, which is wider than the range obtained with a single alignment pulse [H. Akagi et al., Appl. Phys. B 109, 75 (2012), 10.1007/s00340-012-5222-3].

  1. Alignment and Alignment Modulation of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. F.; Smalyukh, I. I.; Lavrentovich, O. D.; Yodh, A. G.

    2006-03-01

    We report alignment and local alignment modulation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed in a nematic solvent of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). Polarized optical absorption suggests that when SWNTs are coated with surfactant molecules, e.g., sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (NaDDBS), the SWNTs align along the nematic director of the LCLCs, possibly due to elastic interaction between the anisotropic SWNTs and the nematic field of the LCLCs. In contrast, if the SWNTs are not coated with surfactant, then SWNTs align normal to the LCLC nematic director, possibly due to ?-? interactions between the aromatic groups of the LCLCs and the graphitic surface of SWNTs. We describe these observations and show that SWNTs can easily be realigned via realignment of nematic LCLCs using a magnetic field of only a few KGauss. This work is supported by grants from NSF (MRSEC DMR 05-20020 and DMR-0505048) and NASA NAG8-2172.

  2. Mechanical Alignment of Prolate Cosmic-Dust Grains: Cross Section Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Lazarian; M. Efroimsky; J. Ozik

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the quantitative analysis of a recently introduced mechanism of mechanical alignment of suprathermally rotating cosmic-dust grains. These grains, whose rapid rotation is mostly due to H2 formation, are insensitive to stochastic torques arising from gas-grain collisions and can be aligned either by gaseous torques during short periods of crossovers or by the so-called cross section mechanism,

  3. Interference Subspace Tracking for Network Interference Alignment in Cellular Systems

    E-print Network

    Haimovich, Alexander

    Interference Subspace Tracking for Network Interference Alignment in Cellular Systems Bo Niu the distributed interference alignment (IA) algorithm of [1] in a cellular communication system is proposed knowing a priori the interference covariance matrix, update directly the precoding and interference

  4. Structural Alignment Methods with Applications to Geospatial Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Cruz, Isabel F.

    Structural Alignment Methods with Applications to Geospatial Ontologies Isabel F. Cruz and William Methods Keywords: ontology alignment, geospatial ontologies, data integration, semantic web Corresponding correspondences between their con- cepts. We have tested our methods on geospatial ontologies pertaining

  5. Collective alignment of polar filaments by molecular motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Vershinin, M.; Gross, S. P.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Irvine

    2009-04-01

    We study the alignment of polar biofilaments, such as microtubules and actin, subject to the action of multiple molecular motors attached simultaneously to more than one filament. Focusing on a paradigm model of only two filaments interacting with multiple motors, we were able to investigate in detail the alignment dynamics. While almost no alignment occurs in the case of a single motor, the filaments become rapidly aligned due to the collective action of the motors. Our analysis shows that the alignment time is governed by the number of bound motors and the magnitude of the motors stepping fluctuations. We predict that the time scale of alignment is in the order of seconds, much faster than that reported for passive crosslink-induced bundling. In vitro experiments on the alignment of microtubules by multiple-motor covered beads are in qualitative agreement. We also discuss another mode of fast alignment of filaments, namely the cooperation between motors and passive crosslinks.

  6. Split-alignment of genomes finds orthologies more accurately.

    PubMed

    Frith, Martin C; Kawaguchi, Risa

    2015-01-01

    We present a new pair-wise genome alignment method, based on a simple concept of finding an optimal set of local alignments. It gains accuracy by not masking repeats, and by using a statistical model to quantify the (un)ambiguity of each alignment part. Compared to previous animal genome alignments, it aligns thousands of locations differently and with much higher similarity, strongly suggesting that the previous alignments are non-orthologous. The previous methods suffer from an overly-strong assumption of long un-rearranged blocks. The new alignments should help find interesting and unusual features, such as fast-evolving elements and micro-rearrangements, which are confounded by alignment errors. PMID:25994148

  7. A single beam laser tracker as an alignment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, B.T.; LeCocq, C.; Gaydosh, M.; Ruland, R.E.

    1992-07-01

    In December 1991 the Survey and Alignment team of the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a Chesapeake single beam laser tracker. This paper will discuss first experiences and applications with this new type of an alignment instrument.

  8. Alignment technique for polarization-based optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lie-yi; Lin, Bin; Xu, Senlu; Zhu, Lie-wei

    1992-12-01

    In this paper, the synthetical analyses on the derivation of alignment in the application of the polarization optical technique are presented upon the main error sources of this technique. Consequently, a novel alignment system is developed to improve the alignment technique, which is composed of a combination of two parallel polarizers, bidirectional-double path, two detectors, and electrical signa processor. Using this system, we have realized accurate alignments between PM fibers and their in-line devices.

  9. CE-MC: a multiple protein structure alignment server

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chittibabu Guda; Sifang Lu; Eric D. Scheeff; Philip E. Bourne; Ilya N. Shindyalov

    2004-01-01

    CE-MC server (http:\\/\\/cemc.sdsc.edu) provides a web- based facility for the alignment of multiple protein structures based on C-a coordinate distances, using combinatorial extension (CE) and Monte Carlo (MC) optimization methods. Alignments are possible for user-selected PDB (Protein Data Bank) chains as well as for user-uploaded structures or thecombinationofthetwo.Thewholeprocessofgen- erating multiple structure alignments involves three distinct steps, i.e. all-to-all pairwise alignment

  10. Funding Strategy

    Cancer.gov

    NCI understands that researchers applying for grants want to know about their chances of receiving funding for their grant applications. Therefore, every fiscal year, NCI makes its funding strategy information publicly available. For more information about how NCI makes funding decisions, see NCI Funding Determinations.

  11. Mapping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayati, A. Majid; Shariatifar, Sadegh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of using two visual while-reading strategies, knowledge-mapping (KM) and underlining, on the performance of intermediate students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in multiple-choice reading comprehension tests. In doing so, 60 Iranian intermediate EFL students were selected from a…

  12. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    No one can dispute that tests should measure important content, and for many (but not all) purposes, tests should be aligned with curricular goals. Thus in many cases, alignment is clearly better than the alternative, and nothing that follows here argues otherwise. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that alignment is sufficient protection…

  13. Alignment of parts in automatic assembly using vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronius Baksys; Nomeda Puodziuniene

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally vibrational alignment of parts in an assembly position under kinematical excitement of the movably based part. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Presents developed mathematical model for vibrational alignment when the kinematical excitement of movable part is applied along the insertion axis. Dependencies of alignment duration on stiffness of basing elements and excitation frequency

  14. Aligning Parallel EnglishChinese Texts Statistically with Lexical

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    experience with automatic alignment of sentences in parallel English­ Chinese texts. Our report concerns towards addressing this problem. In this paper, we describe our experience with automatic alignmentAligning Parallel English­Chinese Texts Statistically with Lexical Criteria Dekai Wu \\Lambda

  15. Multiple alignment using hidden Markov models Sean R. Eddy

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    Multiple alignment using hidden Markov models Sean R. Eddy Dept. of Genetics, Washington University for correctly sam- pling suboptimal multiple alignments according to their probability and the ClnstalW program. Simulatedannealing is better able to find near-global optimain the multiple alignment

  16. Grain alignment by radiative torques in special conditions and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2014-02-01

    Grain alignment by radiative torques (RATs) has been extensively studied for various environment conditions, including interstellar medium, dense molecular clouds and accretion discs, thanks to significant progress in observational, theoretical and numerical studies. In this paper, we explore the alignment by RATs and provide quantitative predictions of dust polarization for a set of astrophysical environments that can be tested observationally. We first consider the alignment of grains in the local interstellar medium and compare predictions for linear polarization by aligned grains with recent observational data for nearby stars. We then revisit the problem of grain alignment in accretions discs by taking into account the dependence of RAT alignment efficiency on the anisotropic direction of radiation fields relative to magnetic fields. Moreover, we study the grain alignment in interplanetary medium, including diffuse Zodiacal cloud and cometary comae, and calculate the degree of circular polarization (CP) of scattered light arising from single scattering by aligned grains. We also discuss a new type of grain alignment, namely the alignment with respect to the ambient electric field instead of the alignment with the magnetic field. We show that this type of alignment can allow us to reproduce the systematic features of CP observed across a cometary coma. Our findings suggest that polarized Zodiacal dust emission may be an important polarized foreground component, which should be treated carefully in cosmic microwave background experiments.

  17. Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

    1996-01-01

    Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

  18. Unstable resonator alignment using off-axis Gaussian beam propgation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Chao; A. D. Schnurr

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and safe operation of a laser requires precise alignment of the resonator. This paper describes a method for aligning an unstable resonator very accurately with off-axis injection of the alignment beam ultilizing multiple reflections of the Gaussian beam inside the resonator.

  19. Unstable resonator alignment using off-axis Gaussian beam propgation

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, S.L.; Schnurr, A.D.

    1984-07-01

    Efficient and safe operation of a laser requires precise alignment of the resonator. This paper describes a method for aligning an unstable resonator very accurately with off-axis injection of the alignment beam ultilizing multiple reflections of the Gaussian beam inside the resonator.

  20. Unstable resonator alignment based on the fringe analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sihua Fu; Xuejun Long; Hongjun Mao; Yongjun Hu

    2011-01-01

    The existing cavity mirrors alignment method aligns cavities according to the symmetry of the near-field interference fringes of the guided lights by the unstable resonator. Its precision is restricted due to the lack of objective criterion for the fringe symmetry. This article proposes a high-precision cavity mirrors alignment method using the grey projection of fringe patterns as a solution to

  1. Technology of alignment mark in electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Tang; Chen, Baoqin; Niu, Jiebin

    2014-08-01

    Electron beam direct wring lithography has been an indispensable approach by which all sorts of novel nano-scale devices include many kinds optical devices can be fabricated. Alignment accuracy is a key factor especially to those devices which need multi-level lithography. In addition to electron beam lithography system itself the quality of alignment mark directly influences alignment accuracy. This paper introduces fundamental of alignment mark detection and discusses some techniques of alignment mark fabrication along with considerations for obtaining highly accurate alignment taking JBX5000LS and JBX6300FS e-beam lithography systems for example. The fundamental of alignment mark detection is expounded first. Many kinds of factors which can impact on the quality of alignment mark are analyzed including mark materials, depth of mark groove and influence of multi-channel process. It has been proved from experiments that material used as metal mark with higher average atomic number is better beneficial for getting high alignment accuracy. Depth of mark groove is required to 1.5?5 ?m on our experience. The more process steps alignment mark must pass through, the more probability of being damaged there will be. So the compatibility of alignment mark fabrication with the whole device process and the protection of alignment mark are both need to be considered in advance.

  2. Refining Methods for Estimating Critical Values for an Alignment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-01-01

    The alignment among standards, assessments, and teachers' instruction is an essential element of standards-based educational reforms. The Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) is the only common tool that can be used to measure the alignment among all three of these sources (Martone & Sireci, 2009). Prior SEC alignment work has been limited…

  3. Patterning Multiple Aligned Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Light

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Patterning Multiple Aligned Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Light Declan Ryan, Babak Amir Parviz, aligned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using light at different wavelengths. It describes the synthesis describes a method for patterning a gold substrate with three aligned regions of self-assembled monolayers

  4. Evaluating ontology alignment methods (extended Jrme Euzenat1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluating ontology alignment methods (extended abstract) Jérôme Euzenat1 INRIA Rhône for aligning ontologies. These methods use such different techniques that they can hardly be compared to the definition and the performance of the eval- uation of ontology alignments during 2004. We draw lessons from

  5. Sensitive Technique For Detecting Alignment Of Seed Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    1994-01-01

    Frequency response near resonance measured. Improved technique for detection and quantification of alignment of injection-seeding laser with associated power-oscillator laser proposed. Particularly useful in indicating alignment at spectral purity greater than 98 percent because it becomes more sensitive as perfect alignment approached. In addition, implemented relatively easily, without turning on power-oscillator laser.

  6. 1 Dalhousie University Libraries Strategic Alignment 2013-2015 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    #12;1 Dalhousie University Libraries Strategic Alignment 2013-2015 Introduction The Dalhousie student, faculty, staff and public access to the information resources and services required for teaching University Libraries Strategic Alignment Plan aligns our previous strategic plan with Dalhousie University

  7. Alignment Systems For Subassemblies Of Overmolded Optoeletronic Modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benson Chan; Paul F. Fortier; Francois M. Guindon; Glen W. Johnson; Martial A. Letourneau; John H. Sherman; Real Tetreault

    2003-01-01

    Alignment systems for optoelectronic modules with overmolded chip carriers include drilled or milled substrate corners for engaging dowel pins to precisely align the substrate in a mold for molding an overmold frame on the substrate. The overmold frame includes slot and trilobe holes for receiving retainer posts to precisely align a retainer assembly on the overmold frame. Cooperating standoff pads

  8. Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Matsunaga; Takashi Sakou; Kenji Nakanisi

    1999-01-01

    Very little detailed biomechanical examination of the alignment of the cervical spine following laminoplasty has been reported. We performed a comparative study regarding the buckling-type alignment that follows laminoplasty and laminectomy to know the mechanical changes in the alignment of the cervical spine. Lateral images of plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine were put into a computer and examined using

  9. Alignment technique for polarization-based optical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lie-Yi Sheng; Bin Lin; Sen-Lu Xu; Lie-Wei Zhu

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the synthetical analyses on the derivation of alignment in the application of the polarization optical technique are presented upon the main error sources of this technique. Consequently, a novel alignment system is developed to improve the alignment technique, which is composed of a combination of two parallel polarizers, bidirectional-double path, two detectors, and electrical signa processor. Using

  10. Automatic Optical Fiber Alignment System Using Genetic Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Murakawa; Hirokazu Nosato; Tetsuya Higuchi

    2003-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an automatic optical fiber align- ment system using genetic algorithms. Connecting optical fibers is dif- ficult because the connecting edges should be aligned with sub-micron- meter resolution. It, therefore, takes long time even for a human expert. Although automatic fiber alignment systems are being developed, they cannot be used practically if the degrees of freedom of

  11. MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Jay Lynch; Hernando Trujillo

    Students enter college chemistry courses with different sources of motivation, appropriate or inappropriate assumptions about\\u000a their probability of success and how to study. This study is theoretically aligned with self-regulated learning research.\\u000a Clearly, academic performance is closely related to student motivational beliefs and learning strategies. This study investigated\\u000a the motivational beliefs and learning strategies of 2 years of college students in

  12. PocketAlign a novel algorithm for aligning binding sites in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Yeturu, Kalidas; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2011-07-25

    A fundamental task in bioinformatics involves a transfer of knowledge from one protein molecule onto another by way of recognizing similarities. Such similarities are obtained at different levels, that of sequence, whole fold, or important substructures. Comparison of binding sites is important to understand functional similarities among the proteins and also to understand drug cross-reactivities. Current methods in literature have their own merits and demerits, warranting exploration of newer concepts and algorithms, especially for large-scale comparisons and for obtaining accurate residue-wise mappings. Here, we report the development of a new algorithm, PocketAlign, for obtaining structural superpositions of binding sites. The software is available as a web-service at http://proline.physics.iisc.ernet.in/pocketalign/. The algorithm encodes shape descriptors in the form of geometric perspectives, supplemented by chemical group classification. The shape descriptor considers several perspectives with each residue as the focus and captures relative distribution of residues around it in a given site. Residue-wise pairings are computed by comparing the set of perspectives of the first site with that of the second, followed by a greedy approach that incrementally combines residue pairings into a mapping. The mappings in different frames are then evaluated by different metrics encoding the extent of alignment of individual geometric perspectives. Different initial seed alignments are computed, each subsequently extended by detecting consequential atomic alignments in a three-dimensional grid, and the best 500 stored in a database. Alignments are then ranked, and the top scoring alignments reported, which are then streamed into Pymol for visualization and analyses. The method is validated for accuracy and sensitivity and benchmarked against existing methods. An advantage of PocketAlign, as compared to some of the existing tools available for binding site comparison in literature, is that it explores different schemes for identifying an alignment thus has a better potential to capture similarities in ligand recognition abilities. PocketAlign, by finding a detailed alignment of a pair of sites, provides insights as to why two sites are similar and which set of residues and atoms contribute to the similarity. PMID:21662242

  13. Self-stigma regarding mental illness: Definition, impact, and relationship to societal stigma.

    PubMed

    Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L

    2015-06-01

    In October 2013, we brought together 30 researchers in the area of mental illness self-stigma to discuss the current state of the field and to identify future priorities ("Reducing Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness: Mapping Future Directions," Baltimore Maryland). These included the differences between and relationships among self-stigma and related constructs; exploring models or theories of the development, maintenance, and amelioration of self-stigma; validating new and existing measures of self-stigma with a variety of populations; and advancing strategies and programs designed to prevent, reduce, or eliminate self-stigma. That small working meeting was the impetus for this special issue. A call for papers was circulated widely, and final authors include both conference attendees and others. The resulting articles push forward our knowledge about and inquiry into the effects and dynamics of internalized stigma associated with mental illness as well as potential avenues and strategies for intervening to reduce it. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075527

  14. Thematic roles, markedness alignment and processing complexity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the second NP (nominative vs. accusative) were manipulated in the first experiment and the markings of the first NP (nominative vs. topic) were manipulated in the second experiment. Results revealed that the animacy manipulation and the nominative-topicality manipulation showed measurable influence on the participants' reading of the complex sentences. Also, the effect of the prominence misalignment caused by animacy seems to have a stronger effect on reading than the effect caused by the nominative-topicality manipulation. The experiments suggested that on-line processing of Korean complex sentences are affected by the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of NPs. PMID:25341491

  15. DAPS: Database of Aligned Protein Structures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mallick, Parag; Rice, Danny; Eisenberg, David

    How is DAPS constructed? We begin with the set of all chains from the current release of the PDB. An all on all search is done on the list to find pairs that have the same fold acoording to both the FSSP and CATH databases and clustered into groups by a representative structure (representative structures have less than 25% sequence identity to each other). For each protein pair, regions aligned by the DALI program are extracted from the corresponding FSSP file, or recomputed using DALI-lite. In domain DAPS, only regions that are called "domains" by CATH are included in the alignment. The amino acid type, secondary structure type, and solvent accessibility are extracted from the DSSP file and written pairwise into the database. DAPS is updated with updates of CATH.[Taken from http://nihserver.mbi.ucla.edu/DAPS/daps_help.html

  16. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  17. Diversity as strategy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David A

    2004-09-01

    IBM's turnaround in the last decade is an impressive and well-documented business story. But behind that success is a less told people story, which explains how the corporation dramatically altered its already diverse composition and created millions of dollars in new business. By the time Lou Gerstner took the helm in 1993, IBM had a long history of progressive management when it came to civil rights and equal-opportunity employment. But Gerstner felt IBM wasn't taking full advantage of a diverse market for talent, nor was it maximizing the potential of its diverse customer and employee base. So in 1995, he launched a diversity task force initiative to uncover and understand differences among people within the organization and find ways to appeal to an even broader set of employees and customers. Gerstner established a task force for each of eight constituencies: Asians; blacks; the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered community; Hispanics; white men; Native Americans; people with disabilities; and women. He asked the task forces to research four questions: What does your constituency need to feel welcome and valued at IBM? What can the corporation do, in partnership with your group, to maximize your constituency's productivity? What can the corporation do to influence your constituency's buying decisions so that IBM is seen as a preferred solution provider? And with which external organizations should IBM form relationships to better understand the needs of your constituency? The answers to these questions became the basis for IBM's diversity strategy. Thomas stresses that four factors are key to implementing any major change initiative: strong support from company leaders, an employee base that is fully engaged with the initiative, management practices that are integrated and aligned with the effort, and a strong and well-articulated business case for action. All four elements have helped IBM make diversity a key corporate strategy tied to real growth. PMID:15449859

  18. Customer responsive supply chain strategy: An unnatural act?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Godsell; Alan Harrison; Caroline Emberson; John Storey

    2006-01-01

    There has been a shift in the last few years from prescriptive models of supply chain strategy to more embracing frameworks that accommodate a range of different approaches. However, there has been a tendency for these models to differentiate by product type. In order to achieve alignment between demand creation and fulfilment this basis for differentiation should, we conclude, change

  19. China's New National Curriculum Reform: Innovation, Challenges and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Qun; Meng, Wanjin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents systematically China's New National Curriculum Reform (CNNCR). It covers the background, origin, essence, goals, features, evolvement, schedule, implementation, the alignment in primary, secondary and middle schools' curricula and inter-subjects, the outcomes and the challenges and strategies of CNNCR.

  20. Linking order winning and external supply chain integration strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gioconda Quesada; Ram Rachamadugu; Marvin Gonzalez; Juan Luis Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present empirical results of an analysis of the strategic alignment between order winners selection and external supply chain integration strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research instrument is an international survey from IMSS II. It was applied in 23 countries. ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Findings – The findings show that firms