Science.gov

Sample records for societal costs

  1. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  2. Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-Illness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n=118) to costs of families from the general population…

  3. Information System for Societal Cost and Benefit Analysis of Vocational and Manpower Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Mehar

    The study was directed toward developing a manual for establishing societal benefits and costs of vocational and manpower programs in Wisconsin. After first outlining the background of benefit-cost analysis, problems in establishing cost functions in education are presented along with some important cost concepts and uses of cost information in…

  4. Societal Economic Costs and Benefits from Death: Another Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2007-01-01

    B. Yang and D. Lester (2007) have produced an innovative contribution to the relevant literature. Unlike previous studies, they incorporate estimates of cost savings from suicide. Their argument could be strengthened in 3 ways. First, they may have underestimated some of the cost savings by relying on inflated estimates of mental health usage by…

  5. Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

  6. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Tanjima; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included), and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios. PMID:18786247

  7. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. Methods The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0–9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0–9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. Results From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30mcg, IFN beta-1b 250mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Conclusions Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier. PMID:26987055

  9. Societal costs of home and hospital end-of-life care for palliative care patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mo; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    In Canada, health system restructuring has led to a greater focus on home-based palliative care as an alternative to institutionalised palliative care. However, little is known about the effect of this change on end-of-life care costs and the extent to which the financial burden of care has shifted from the acute care public sector to families. The purpose of this study was to assess the societal costs of end-of-life care associated with two places of death (hospital and home) using a prospective cohort design in a home-based palliative care programme. Societal cost includes all costs incurred during the course of palliative care irrespective of payer (e.g. health system, out-of-pocket, informal care-giving costs, etc.). Primary caregivers of terminal cancer patients were recruited from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care in Toronto, Canada. Demographic, service utilisation, care-giving time, health and functional status, and death data were collected by telephone interviews with primary caregivers over the course of patients' palliative trajectory. Logistic regression was conducted to model an individual's propensity for home death. Total societal costs of end-of-life care and component costs were compared between home and hospital death using propensity score stratification. Costs were presented in 2012 Canadian dollars ($1.00 CDN = $1.00 USD). The estimated total societal cost of end-of-life care was $34,197.73 per patient over the entire palliative trajectory (4 months on average). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total societal costs between home and hospital death patients. Higher hospitalisation costs for hospital death patients were replaced by higher unpaid caregiver time and outpatient service costs for home death patients. Thus, from a societal cost perspective, alternative sites of death, while not associated with a significant change in total societal cost of end-of-life care, resulted in changes in the distribution of

  10. Long Term Societal Costs of Anterior Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) versus Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (CDA) for Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ghori, Ahmer; Konopka, Joseph F.; Cha, Thomas D.; Bono, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) have comparable clinical outcomes for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Given similar outcomes, an understanding of differences in long-term societal costs can help guide resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative long-term societal costs of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the treatment of single level cervical disc disease by considering upfront surgical costs, lost productivity, and risk of subsequent revision surgery. Methods We completed an economic and decision analysis using a Markov model to evaluate the long-term societal costs of ACDF and CDA in a theoretical cohort of 45-65 year old patients with single level cervical disc disease who have failed nonoperative treatment. Results The long-term societal costs for a 45-year old patient undergoing ACDF are $31,178 while long-term costs for CDA are $24,119. Long-term costs for CDA remain less expensive throughout the modeled age range of 45 to 65 years old. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that CDA remains less expensive than ACDF as long as annual reoperation rate remains below 10.5% annually. Conclusions Based on current data, CDA has lower long-term societal costs than ACDF for patients 45-65 years old by a substantial margin. Given reported reoperation rates of 2.5% for CDA, it is the preferred treatment for cervical radiculopathy from an economic perspective. PMID:26913221

  11. Artificial heart and assist devices: directions, needs, costs, societal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Van Citters, R L; Bauer, C B; Christopherson, L K; Eberhart, R C; Eddy, D M; Frye, R L; Jonsen, A R; Keller, K H; Levine, R J; McGoon, D C

    1985-11-01

    A Working Group appointed by the Director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHBLI) has reviewed the current status of mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS), and has examined the potential need for such devices, their cost, and certain societal and ethical issues related to their use. The media have reported the limited clinical investigative use of pneumatically energized total artificial hearts (which actually replace the patient's heart) and left ventricular assist devices (which support or replace the function of the left ventricle by pumping blood from the left heart to the aorta with the patient's heart in place). However, electrically energized systems, which will allow full implantation, permit relatively normal everyday activity, and involve battery exchange or recharge two or three times a day, are currently approaching long-term validation in animals prior to clinical testing. Such long-term left ventricular assist devices have been the primary goal of the NHLBI targeted artificial heart program. Although the ventricular assist device is regarded as an important step in the sequence of MCSS development, the Working Group believes that a fully implantable, long-term, total artificial heart will be a clinical necessity and recommends that the mission of the targeted program include the development of such systems. Past estimates of the potential usage of artificial hearts have been reviewed in the context of advances in medical care and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition, a retrospective analysis of needs was carried out within a defined population. The resulting projection of 17,000-35,000 cases annually, in patients below age 70, falls within the general range of earlier estimates, but is highly sensitive to many variables. In the absence of an actual base of data and experience with MCSS, projection of costs and prognoses was carried out using explicit sets of assumptions. The total cost of a left ventricular

  12. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  13. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

  15. Statistical Estimation of Dose-response Functions of Respiratory Diseases and Societal Costs of Haze-related Air Pollution in Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaman, K. A.; Ibrahim, N.

    - The effects on human health resulting from the January to April 1998 haze-related air pollution episode in Brunei Darussalam were analysed for five groups of diseases of the respiratory system. The analysis concentrated on the statistical estimation of dose-response functions which related the number of cases of respiratory diseases to the level of quality of ambient environment as measured by the pollutants standards index (PSI) and other environmental variables. The total number of cases of the five groups of diseases was shown to be significantly related to PSI and temperature. Societal costs were also estimated. The results showed that societal costs were significantly related to PSI, temperature and relative humidity. Societal costs increased with higher PSI and relative humidity but decreased with increasing temperature.

  16. Multicentre randomised control trial comparing real time teledermatology with conventional outpatient dermatological care: societal cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, R; Bloomer, S E; Corbett, R; Eedy, D J; Hicks, N; Lotery, H E; Mathews, C; Paisley, J; Steele, K; Loane, M A

    2000-01-01

    Objectives Comparison of real time teledermatology with outpatient dermatology in terms of clinical outcomes, cost-benefits, and patient reattendance. Design Randomised controlled trial with a minimum follow up of three months. Setting Four health centres (two urban, two rural) and two regional hospitals. Subjects 204 general practice patients requiring referral to dermatology services; 102 were randomised to teledermatology consultation and 102 to traditional outpatient consultation. Main outcome measures Reported clinical outcome of initial consultation, primary care and outpatient reattendance data, and cost-benefit analysis of both methods of delivering care. Results No major differences were found in the reported clinical outcomes of teledermatology and conventional dermatology. Of patients randomised to teledermatology, 55 (54%) were managed within primary care and 47 (46%) required at least one hospital appointment. Of patients randomised to the conventional hospital outpatient consultation, 46 (45%) required at least one further hospital appointment, 15 (15%) required general practice review, and 40 (39%) no follow up visits. Clinical records showed that 42 (41%) patients seen by teledermatology attended subsequent hospital appointments compared with 41 (40%) patients seen conventionally. The net societal cost of the initial consultation was £132.10 per patient for teledermatology and £48.73 for conventional consultation. Sensitivity analysis revealed that if each health centre had allocated one morning session a week to teledermatology and the average round trip to hospital had been 78 km instead of 26 km, the costs of the two methods of care would have been equal. Conclusions Real time teledermatology was clinically feasible but not cost effective compared with conventional dermatological outpatient care. However, if the equipment were purchased at current prices and the travelling distances greater, teledermatology would be a cost effective alternative

  17. Service and Wider Societal Costs of Very Young Children with Autism in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Sharac, Jessica; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Aldred, Catherine; Slonims, Vicky; Green, Jonathan; Bourne, Katy; Blazey, Laura; Holt, Clare; Kapadia, Dharmi; MacDonald, Wendy; Pickles, Andrew; White, Lydia; Houghton, Tori; Taylor, Carol; Cutress, Anna; Leach, Sue; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Barron, Sam; Colmer, Ruth; Randles, Sarah; Beggs, Karen; Collino, Julia; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with a substantial economic burden, but there is little evidence of the costs in the early years; the period in which children are increasingly likely to be diagnosed. We describe the services used by 152 children aged 24-60 months with autism, report family out-of-pocket expenses and productivity…

  18. Societal Costs and Benefits of Treatment with Trastuzumab in Patients with Early HER2neu-Overexpressing Breast Cancer in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab has revolutionized the way we treat early Her2Neu-positive breast cancer, as it significantly improves disease-free and overall survival. Little is known about the societal costs and benefits of treatment with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting in Southeast Asia. Methods Societal costs (benefits) were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect costs minus benefits in the base case. Direct costs were derived from 4 treatment centers in Singapore (2 private and 2 public, comprising 60-70% of all patients with cancer seen in the island-nation); indirect costs were assessed as the loss of productivity caused by the disease or treatment. Benefits to society were based on extra years of productivity, as measured by GNI per capita, resulting from the quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved with the use of trastuzumab as determined in the models by Kurian, Liberato and Garrison. Results Incremental costs in Singapore, in 2005 US dollars, were $26,971.05. Average Cost per QALY was $19,174.59 (Median: $18,993.70). Costs (benefits) to society ranged from a cost of $79.42 to a benefit of $9,263.06, depending on the model used (Average benefit: $4,375.89, Median $3,944.03). Sensitivity analysis ranged from a cost of $10,685.00 to a Benefit of US$17,298.79 Conclusions Treatment with adjuvant trastuzumab is likely to generate net societal economic benefits in Singapore. Nevertheless, the lower range of possible outcomes does not refute the possibility that treatment may actually generate costs. These costs however clearly fall within the usual range of acceptable cost-effectiveness. PMID:21586176

  19. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning. Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250 PMID:24496244

  20. Association between societal costs and treatment response in children and adolescents with ADHD and their parents. A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, Annemarie; Bouwmans, Clazien Am; Schawo, Saskia J; Buitelaar, Jan K; van Agthoven, Michel; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with considerable burden of illness at a patient, family and societal level. Although pharmacological treatment is recommended by authoritative guidelines, evidence on its influence on the broader burden of illness is limited. As treatment induces costs, proper healthcare decision making requires evidence on the associated societal costs or benefits and particularly the difference that response to treatment can make. Data on ADHD related resource use of patients 8-18 years and parents were collected by means of a cross-sectional, online survey amongst members of the Dutch parent association. Children were stratified to responders and non-responders to treatment according to pre-defined expert definitions. Analyses were performed on 618 questionnaires (428 responders; 190 non-responders to treatment). Children were 11.8 years on average and mainly boys (82 %). Total monthly costs for children were €578 and €839 for responders and non-responders, respectively (p = 0.021), with a breakdown to direct medical costs (€322 vs. €512; p = 0.068), direct non-medical costs (€222 vs. €296; p = 0.090), and indirect non-medical costs (€34 vs. €57; p < 0.001). For parents, total costs were €246 vs. €399 for the responding and non-responding children, respectively (p = 0.006), with a breakdown to direct medical costs (€130 vs. €211; p = 0.010) and indirect non-medical costs (€116 vs. €181; p = 0.092). Total monthly costs of children and their parents together were €824 and €1228 for responders and non-responders to treatment, respectively (p = 0.002). These results stress the importance of a focus on response to treatment, not only beneficial for patients and their family, but also resulting in considerable societal benefits. PMID:26155437

  1. Societal costs of exposure to toxic substances: economic and health costs of four case studies that are candidates for environmental causation.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, T; Zegarac, M

    2001-01-01

    Four outcomes that evidence suggests are candidates for "environmental causation" were chosen for analysis: diabetes, Parkinson's disease (PD), neurodevelopmental effects and hypothyroidism, and deficits in intelligence quotient (IQ). These are an enormous burden in the United States, Canada, and other industrial countries. We review findings on actual social and economic costs, construct estimates of some of the costs from pertinent sources, and provide several hypothetical examples consistent with published evidence. Many detailed costs are estimated, but these are fragmented and missing in coverage and jurisdiction. Nonetheless, the cumulative costs identified are very large, totaling $568 billion to $793 billion per year for Canada and the United States combined. Partial Canadian costs alone are $46 billion to $52 billion per year. Specifics include diabetes (United States and Canada), $128 billion per year; PD in the United States, $13 billion to $28.5 billion per year; neurodevelopmental deficits and hypothryoidism are endemic and, including estimates of costs of childhood disorders that evidence suggests are linked, amount to $81.5 billion to $167 billion per year for the United States and $2 billion per year in Ontario; loss of 5 IQ points cost $30 billion per year in Canada and $275 billion to $326 billion per year in the United States; and hypothetical dynamic economic impacts cost another $19 billion to $92 billion per year for the United States and Canada combined. Reasoned arguments based on the weight of evidence can support the hypothesis that at least 10%, up to 50% of these costs are environmentally induced--between $57 billion and $397 billion per year. PMID:11744507

  2. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  3. The societal burden of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Becker, David J; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis currently affects 10 million Americans and is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually. The financial burden of osteoporosis is substantial, with annual direct medical costs estimated at 17 to 20 billion dollars. Most of these costs are related to the acute and rehabilitative care following osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures. The societal burden of osteoporosis includes these direct medical costs and the monetary (eg, caregiver time) and nonmonetary costs of poor health. The aging of the US population is expected to increase the prevalence of osteoporosis and the number of osteoporotic fractures. Growth of the older adult population will pose significant challenges to Medicare and Medicaid, which bear most of the cost of osteoporosis. Efforts to address the looming financial burden must focus on reducing the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of costly fragility fractures. PMID:20425518

  4. Societal assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

  5. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

  6. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  7. The societal impact value of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ``de facto`` risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 {times} 10{sup 7}) NR{sub i}{sup 4/3} where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity.

  8. Effects of nurse-led motivational interviewing of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in preparation of rehabilitation treatment (PREPARE) on societal participation, attendance level, and cost-effectiveness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence and drop-out are major problems in pain rehabilitation. For patients with various health problems, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising effects to tackle these problems. In chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of MI is however unknown. Therefore, a MI-based pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) addressing motivation, expectations, and beliefs has been developed to prepare eligible patients for rehabilitation treatment. Methods/design Study design: A parallel randomized controlled trial including two interventions: a motivational interviewing pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) and a usual care (UC) control arm. Follow-up will be 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Study population: One hundred and sixty (n = 80 per arm) patients with chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain visiting an outpatient rehabilitation department, who are eligible to participate in an outpatient cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation program. Intervention: MIP consists of two sessions to prepare and motivate the patient for pain rehabilitation treatment and its bio psychosocial approach. UC consists of information and education about the etiology and the general rehabilitation approach of chronic pain. Both the MIP and UC contain two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. Objective: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MIP compared to UC in terms of an increase in the long-term level of societal participation and decrease of drop-out during rehabilitation treatment. Main study endpoints: Primary outcome is the change in level of participation (according to the ICF-definition: ‘involvement in a life situation’) 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Secondary outcomes are adherence and treatment drop-out, disability, pain intensity, self-reported main complaints, (pain-specific) self-efficacy, motivation, and quality of life. Costs are calculated including the costs

  9. The societal role of lifelong vaccination.

    PubMed

    Postma, Maarten J; Carroll, Stuart; Brandão, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The full economic and societal value of vaccination is complex to assess. Although direct protection is the immediate goal of vaccination programmes, it is rare that 100% uptake is attained. An important facet of vaccines value comes from the indirect (or herd) protection they provide. The evolving dynamics of our society, including the increase in the proportion of older individuals enhances the value of indirect protection in reducing disease transmission within the family setting and the society as a whole. For example, grandparents are increasingly involved in childcare, putting them at risk of disease transmission if they or the children are not vaccinated. Preventing disease in children can also reduce absenteeism for parents who otherwise would take days off work to care for their sick children, leading to a substantial societal burden. Preventing disease in working adults reduces absenteeism and presenteeism, enhancing productivity and contributing in turn to economic growth. Quality of life is essential at all ages. It is fundamental in children for their life chances, educational achievements, and healthy wellbeing. Additionally, preventing common diseases in adults and the elderly also contributes to their quality of life and helps to assure healthy ageing for growing ageing populations. These wider economic and societal values, although difficult to measure, should be taken into consideration in assessments of the economic value and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123178

  10. The societal role of lifelong vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Postma, Maarten J.; Carroll, Stuart; Brandão, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The full economic and societal value of vaccination is complex to assess. Although direct protection is the immediate goal of vaccination programmes, it is rare that 100% uptake is attained. An important facet of vaccines value comes from the indirect (or herd) protection they provide. The evolving dynamics of our society, including the increase in the proportion of older individuals enhances the value of indirect protection in reducing disease transmission within the family setting and the society as a whole. For example, grandparents are increasingly involved in childcare, putting them at risk of disease transmission if they or the children are not vaccinated. Preventing disease in children can also reduce absenteeism for parents who otherwise would take days off work to care for their sick children, leading to a substantial societal burden. Preventing disease in working adults reduces absenteeism and presenteeism, enhancing productivity and contributing in turn to economic growth. Quality of life is essential at all ages. It is fundamental in children for their life chances, educational achievements, and healthy wellbeing. Additionally, preventing common diseases in adults and the elderly also contributes to their quality of life and helps to assure healthy ageing for growing ageing populations. These wider economic and societal values, although difficult to measure, should be taken into consideration in assessments of the economic value and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123178

  11. History: Cooling and societal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldon, John

    2016-03-01

    The rise and fall of civilizations over the past two millennia was set against a backdrop of climate change. High-resolution climate records evince a link between societal change and a period of cooling in the sixth and seventh centuries.

  12. Societal Development and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the theories of three major writers on societal change: Chirot discusses the economic power struggles within and among core, peripheral, and semiperipheral societies, Toffler exposes a future in which major power shifts could have cataclysmic results, and Bruner emphasizes the importance of education to temper…

  13. Societal responses to the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Tickell, Crispin

    2011-03-13

    This article discusses the societal responses to the Anthropocene. First we need to confront the effects of our own population proliferation in all its aspects; next to look again at economics and replace consumerism as a goal; then to work out new ways of generating energy; to manage and adapt to what is in effect climate destabilization; to give higher priority to conservation of the natural world; and last to create the necessary institutional means of coping with global problems in a world in which society is more integrated than ever before. PMID:21282154

  14. New Observational Technologies Scientific and Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, F.; Zawadzki, I.

    INTRODUCTION REMOTE SENSING OF THE ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSORS AND THEIR SCIENTIFIC IMPACTS Air Temperature and Moisture Clouds and Precipitation Wind Others Related Scientific Considerations SOCIETAL IMPACTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

  15. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed. PMID:20883529

  16. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  17. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    2011-08-01

    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  18. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  19. Societal Factors in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, William Edward

    The purpose of this study was to show that societal problems such as energy and pollution should be included as a central and underlying theme in a college chemistry course. A questionnaire was administered to 156 college students in science and technology to determine whether the students felt that they would be more highly motivated in chemistry…

  20. From Burdens to Benefits: The Societal Impact of PDL-Enriched, Efficacy-Enhanced Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Rosenlund, David; Copas, Aimee; Huddleston, T. Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Societies continue to absorb increased burdens in cost for helping citizens unable to achieve at optimal levels. Building on past research, we project educational benefits to offset current societal burdens through enhanced educator capabilities. Studies reviewed show participation in a high-impact professional development and learning solution…

  1. Societal Impacts of Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J. L.

    2000-05-01

    Changes in solar electromagnetic radiation, which occur continuously and at all wavelengths of the spectrum, can have significant societal impacts on a wide range of time scales. Detection of climate change and ozone depletion requires reliable specification of solar-induced processes that mask or exacerbate anthropogenic effects. Living with, and mitigating, climate change and ozone depletion has significant economic, habitat and political impacts of international extent. As an example, taxes to restrict carbon emission may cause undue economic stress if the role of greenhouse gases in global warming is incorrectly diagnosed. Ignoring solar-induced ozone changes in the next century may lead to incorrect assessment of the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer by limiting the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Societal infrastructure depends in many ways on space-based technological assets. Communications and navigation for commerce, industry, science and defense rely on satellite signals transmitted through, and reflected by, electrons in the ionosphere. Electron densities change in response to solar flares, and by orders of magnitude in response to EUV and X-ray flux variations during the Sun's 11-year activity cycle. Spacecraft and space debris experience enhanced drag on their orbits when changing EUV radiation causes upper atmosphere densities to increase. Especially affected are spacecraft and debris in lower altitude orbits, such as Iridium-type communication satellites, and the International Space Station (ISS). Proper specification of solar-induced fluctuations in the neutral upper atmosphere can, for example, aid in tracking the ISS and surrounding space debris, reducing the chance of ISS damage from collisions, and maximizing its operations. Aspects of solar electromagnetic radiation variability will be briefly illustrated on a range of time scales, with specific identification of the societal impacts of different

  2. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on patients’ societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Methods Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Results Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants’ age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Conclusions Although patients’ satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients’ economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT. PMID:27275465

  3. Genetic Diversity and Societally Important Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A.; Kang, Jonathan T. L.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of genetic diversity within human populations varies in a way that reflects the sequence of migrations by which people spread throughout the world. Beyond its use in human evolutionary genetics, worldwide variation in genetic diversity sometimes can interact with social processes to produce differences among populations in their relationship to modern societal problems. We review the consequences of genetic diversity differences in the settings of familial identification in forensic genetic testing, match probabilities in bone marrow transplantation, and representation in genome-wide association studies of disease. In each of these three cases, the contribution of genetic diversity to social differences follows from population-genetic principles. For a fourth setting that is not similarly grounded, we reanalyze with expanded genetic data a report that genetic diversity differences influence global patterns of human economic development, finding no support for the claim. The four examples describe a limit to the importance of genetic diversity for explaining societal differences while illustrating a distinction that certain biologically based scenarios do require consideration of genetic diversity for solving problems to which populations have been differentially predisposed by the unique history of human migrations. PMID:26354973

  4. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  5. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  6. Reflections on societal change, adjustments, and responses.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, D; Okun, B

    2009-04-01

    Building on Davis (1963) and subsequent work, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a guide for the organization of empirical demographic research. Our approach is based on the notion that changes in nuptiality, fertility, and migration are not objectives in and of themselves, but means for reducing welfare gaps - defined as the gaps between actual welfare and that which could be attained with altered demographic and/or other behavior. We clarify theoretical issues concerning three levels of analysis. At the highest level, societal change leads to welfare gaps for families and/or individuals. In turn, behavioral adjustments are made to reduce these gaps. Finally, demographic responses at the community level result when large numbers of families and/or individuals adjust behavior in a particular manner. We consider and exemplify relationships among demographic and other responses in historical, agricultural contexts. PMID:19618558

  7. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  8. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

  9. Applications and societal benefits of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

  10. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasen, Margaret; Leben, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous twelve-year, high quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2007, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, OSTM, will be launched with the wide-swath ocean altimeter on board. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data has many societal benefits and has proven invaluable in many practical applications including; a) Ocean forecasting systems; b) Climate research and forecasting; c) Ship routing; d) Fisheries management; e) Marine mammal habitat monitoring; f) Hurricane forecasting and tracking; g) Debris tracking; and h) Precision marine operations such as cable-laying and oil production. The data has been cited in nearly 2,000 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  11. Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

    This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

  12. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  13. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  14. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  15. Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

  16. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  17. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  18. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  19. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

  20. Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1995-03-01

    Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications. PMID:11539240

  1. Union of Science and Societal Objectives: Why Did CLARREO Resonate with NRC Decadal Survey Priorities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. G.; Dykema, J. A.; Gero, J.; Leroy, S. S.; Revercomb, H. E.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey prioritization process for the Earth sciences involved eight criteria: (1) Contribution to the most important scientific questions facing Earth sciences today (scientific merit, discovery, exploration). (2) Contribution to applications and policy making (societal benefits). (3) Contribution to long-term observational record of the Earth. (4) Ability to complement other observational systems, including national and international plans. (5) Affordability (cost considerations, either total costs for mission or costs per year). (6) Degree of readiness (technical, resources, people). (7) Risk mitigation and strategic redundancy (backup of other critical systems). (8) Significant contribution to more than one thematic application or scientific discipline. CLARREO addresses key societal objectives closely related to key scientific questions that include: (1) the essential responsibility to present and future generations to put in place a benchmark climate record that is global, accurate in perpetuity, tested against independent strategies that reveal systematic errors, and pinned to international standards; (2) the development of an operational climate forecast that is tested and trusted through a disciplined strategy using state-of-the-art observations with mathematically rigorous techniques to systematically improve those forecasts to establish credibility. The means by which these objectives are addressed by CLARREO are presented.

  2. Markets, distribution, and exchange after societal cataclysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, R.A.; Henry, S.; Rayner, S.; Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI . Dept. of Sociology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    The report identifies constraints and opportunities for the restoration of economic exchange following nuclear war. Four survival scenarios are postulated based on high or low levels of damage to (1) institutions that signal trading opportunities, reduce transaction costs, and regulate and enforce contracts, and (2) resources that are used to create and define wealth. The four scenarios are best case, worst case, resource abundance, and an institution intensive case. Three kinds of literature were reviewed, (1) the economics literature on formal markets, (2) the sociological literature on informal markets, and (3) the economic anthropology literature on pre-capitalist and pre-industrial exchange. From this corpus a set of non-market and market exchange structures are derived and rendered as rules vectors describing their operation. Each of the four survival scenarios is expounded as a subset of the possible exchange structures that is logically compatible with the constraints defining that scenario. 242 refs.

  3. Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hay, T; Jones, L

    1994-01-01

    A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

  4. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  5. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating the economic costs and benefits of each

  6. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure StrategyU. S. Ocean Research in 2030

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to

  7. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

  8. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  9. Societal Boundaries on Cybernetic Action or Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Rosalind; Steg, Doreen E.

    This paper discusses the development, application, and implications of a statistical technique--a concordance index--for measuring the restrictions and constrictions (legal and societal) which inhibit individual decision making and adapting behavior. It was found that as sophistication sets in there will be less and less tolerance of these…

  10. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  11. White University Students' Responses to Societal Racism: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa A.; Oh, Euna; Poteat, V. Paul; Hund, Anita R.; McClair, Vetisha L.; Beer, Amanda M.; Clarke, Alexis M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to extend earlier conceptual and empirical literature on the ways in which White individuals respond to societal racism. To this end, the authors conducted in-depth interviews to examine 11 midwestern, non-Hispanic, White university students' reactions and experiences related to individual and institutional…

  12. Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  13. Individual Empowerment. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Marlon; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  14. Economic and Societal Factors. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in economic and societal factors. Activities included in the guide focus on areas such as (1) locating employment sources, (2) locating salaries in classified ads, (3) selecting suitable jobs, (4) learning about the services of the Texas employment commission, (5)…

  15. Teachers' Conceptions about Their Understanding of Societal Science Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.

    Teachers' scientific knowledge about societal science issues must be one of the prerequisites for the process of science teaching. Innovation in science teaching and its implications for students' scientific literacy depends on the understanding that teachers bring with them into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how…

  16. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  17. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, J. S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  18. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IV: Framework for Societal Structures: the Societal Systems.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a community/society is organized into 13 Societal Systems under the umbrella of an overall Coordination and Control System. This organization facilitates descriptions of a community/society or a component of a community for assessment at any designated time across the Temporal Phases of a disaster. Such assessments provide a picture of the functional status of one or more Systems that comprise a community. Since no system operates in isolation from the other systems, information of the concomitant status of several Societal Systems is crucial to gaining a complete understanding of compromised functions, as well as the effects and side effects of any intervention directed at restoring the functional state of the affected community or risk-reduction interventions of a community-at-risk. The 13 Societal Systems include: (1) Public Health; (2) Medical Care; (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supply; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structures; (9) Logistics and Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12) Economy; and (13) Education. Many functions and sub-functions of the Systems overlap, or share some common sub-functions with other systems. For the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign functions and sub-functions to only one of the Societal Systems. PMID:26568075

  19. A Societal Outcomes Map for Health Research and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Michele S.; Sarewitz, Daniel; Porter, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between decisions about health research and policy and actual health outcomes may be extraordinarily difficult to specify. We performed a pilot application of a “road mapping” and technology assessment technique to perinatal health to illustrate how this technique can clarify the relations between available options and improved health outcomes. We used a combination of data-mining techniques and qualitative analyses to set up the underlying structure of a societal health outcomes road map. Societal health outcomes road mapping may be a useful tool for enhancing the ability of the public health community, policymakers, and other stakeholders, such as research administrators, to understand health research and policy options. PMID:16449589

  20. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  1. Societal attitudes influence performance on the Cognistat Judgment subtest.

    PubMed

    Fouty, H Edward; Guzman, Daniel; Ailes, Erica L; Brown, Katelyn D; Lugar, Samantha D; Briceno, Karen Y; Santiago, Amaris J

    2016-01-01

    The Cognistat is a widely used screening instrument for assessing cognitive functioning. However, the manualized scoring guidelines for one of the questions in the Judgment subtest appear insensitive to responses when examinees answer in light of current societal attitudes. Penalization of examinees is likely to lead to an underestimation of functional ability and a decrease in test validity. Suggestions for correcting this issue are presented. PMID:26786807

  2. Promoting happiness: the malleability of individual and societal subjective wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Kuykendall, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to enhance the subjective wellbeing of individuals and societies? If so, what are the mental health interventions and economic mechanisms by which subjective wellbeing could be enhanced? We address these questions in our review of the literature on subjective wellbeing. Research now shows that although subjective wellbeing is heritable and stable, it can change substantially over time. Long-term changes can be affected by positive or negative life events; subjective wellbeing interventions have also proved to be effective for boosting wellbeing for as long as six months. At the societal level, economic factors matter for the subjective wellbeing of citizens. Economic wealth is shown to be a predictor of societal wellbeing across countries and over time. Also, high unemployment severely lowers the wellbeing of individuals and has spillover effects on other societal members, such as the employed. Given the weight of evidence, we are optimistic that subjective wellbeing can be enhanced. For practitioners, policy makers, and economists interested in the wellbeing of individuals, we propose that these findings have implications for mental health practice and economic policies. Future research and methodological issues are discussed. PMID:23551025

  3. The environmental, economic and societal consequences of inadequate nitrogen pollution controls.

    PubMed

    Randall, C W

    2004-01-01

    Because adequate nutrient controls were not established in the USA and other countries when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economic and societal impacts. The root problem is that political policies and processes have permitted municipalities, developers, industries and farmers to expand and operate without paying the full cost of their activities. Their expanded activities have occurred at the expense and displacement of those who rely on the productivity and recreational value of our estuarine and coastal waters. Some governments have developed remedial nutrient control programs, but most of them have been poorly conceived, under funded and inadequately enforced, resulting in small increments of progress that tend to be lost because of inadequate land use and immigration controls. It is proposed that establishment of comprehensive nutrient controls is needed throughout the world to preserve and protect estuarine and coastal waters, and to protect or re-establish fisheries, for both economic and societal stability. Nitrogen is the key nutrient for the establishment of control strategies. It is recommended that nutrient recovery from wastewaters and controlled reuse of both water and nutrients be widely implemented as a part of nutrient control strategies. PMID:15137403

  4. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions about Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Gemma E.; Samuel, Gabrielle N.

    2016-01-01

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we…

  5. When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

  6. Visions for the North Sea: the societal dilemma behind specifying good environmental status.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alison J; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Langmead, Olivia; Mee, Laurence; Vermaat, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We augment discussions about the Good Environmental Status of the North Sea by developing two extreme visions and assessing their societal benefits. One vision ('Then') assumes restoration of benthic functioning; we contend that trawling had already degraded the southern North Sea a century ago. Available information is used to speculate about benthic functioning in a relatively undisturbed southern North Sea. The second vision ('Now') draws on recent benthic functioning. The supply of five ecosystem services, supported by benthic functioning, is discussed. 'Then' offers confidence in the sustainable supply of diverse services but restoration of past function is uncertain and likely to be paired with costs, notably trawling restraints. 'Now' delivers known and valued services but sustained delivery is threatened by, for example, climate change. We do not advocate either vision. Our purpose is to stimulate debate about what society wants, and might receive, from the future southern North Sea. PMID:24859919

  7. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  8. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  9. Societal Statistics by virtue of the Statistical Drake Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    The Drake equation, first proposed by Frank D. Drake in 1961, is the foundational equation of SETI. It yields an estimate of the number N of extraterrestrial communicating civilizations in the Galaxy given by the product N=Ns×fp×ne×fl×fi×fc×fL, where: Ns is the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; fp is the fraction of stars that have planetary systems; ne is the number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life; fl is the fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises; fi is the fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves; fc is the fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops; and fL is the fraction of planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization. The first three terms may be called "the astrophysical terms" in the Drake equation since their numerical value is provided by astrophysical considerations. The fourth term, fl, may be called "the origin-of-life term" and entails biology. The last three terms may be called "the societal terms" inasmuch as their respective numerical values are provided by anthropology, telecommunication science and "futuristic science", respectively. In this paper, we seek to provide a statistical estimate of the three societal terms in the Drake equation basing our calculations on the Statistical Drake Equation first proposed by this author at the 2008 IAC. In that paper the author extended the simple 7-factor product so as to embody Statistics. He proved that, no matter which probability distribution may be assigned to each factor, if the number of factors tends to infinity, then the random variable N follows the lognormal distribution (central limit theorem of Statistics). This author also proved at the 2009 IAC that the Dole (1964) [7] equation, yielding the number of Habitable Planets for Man in the Galaxy, has the same mathematical structure as the Drake equation. So the

  10. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies. PMID:16317190

  11. Non-medical costs of colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kempiński, Radosław; Michałowicz, Jerzy; Poniewierka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Europe and North America. Colonoscopy done every 10 years beginning at age 50 is the preferred method of screening. In Poland and some other countries examinations are offered to subjects free of charge. However, as well as direct medical costs there are direct non-medical costs, which include the cost of transportation and costs related to caregivers’ time, and indirect costs, which are costs related to patients’ time. These costs essentially augment the total societal costs of colonoscopy. PMID:25396000

  12. Estimating sign-dependent societal preferences for quality of life.

    PubMed

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; l'Haridon, Olivier; Pinto, Jose Luis

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the first to apply prospect theory to societal health-related decision making. In particular, we allow for utility curvature, equity weighting, sign-dependence, and loss aversion in choices concerning quality of life of other people. We find substantial inequity aversion, both for gains and losses, which can be attributed to both diminishing marginal utility and differential weighting of better-off and worse-off. There are also clear framing effects, which violate expected utility. Moreover, we observe loss aversion, indicating that subjects give more weight to one group's loss than another group's gain of the same absolute magnitude. We also elicited some information on the effect of the age of the studied group. The amount of inequity aversion is to some extent influenced by the age of the considered patients. In particular, more inequity aversion is observed for gains of older people than gains of younger people. PMID:26263893

  13. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  14. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  15. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations. PMID:24588019

  16. Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

  17. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  18. Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

    2005-12-01

    Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very

  19. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of

  20. Empowering Graduate Students to Lead on Interdisciplinary Societal Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Challenging societal problems that cannot be solved by one method or one discipline alone, like epidemic preparedness, mental health, and climate change, demand leadership and the ability to work across disciplines from those with specialized expertise. Teaching leadership at the graduate school level is a challenge that many schools are striving to meet, through mechanisms like project-based courses, leadership skill development workshops, and others. We argue that some of the most valuable but most difficult leadership skills to learn are those that require cultural norms that are fundamentally different from those traditionally encountered in graduate school. These include the ability to make informed decisions based on limited knowledge and resources, the need to make choices in the face of uncertainty, and the recognition that one ultimately bears responsibility for the outcomes. These skills are also among the most important for students planning on nonacademic careers. Acquiring such skills requires a focus on learning-by-doing and a culture of graduate student empowerment. This submission focuses on the experience of students in a student-centered, interdisciplinary, cross-campus leadership program called Emerging Leaders in Science and Society (ELISS), hosted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ELISS establishes the expectation that students act as leaders, which in itself reframes leadership as an achievable goal. A major finding from two years of experience with ELISS is the critical importance of establishing cultures of trust and empowerment at the graduate level in order to foster development of transferable skills. ELISS graduate students specifically focus on interdisciplinary collaboration (the 13 2015 fellows come from 13 academic disciplines); stakeholder engagement, primarily focused on outreach to both traditional and nontraditional experts in our communities outside of academia; and solution-generating rather

  1. Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hong-biao

    2013-01-01

    Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

  2. Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of national…

  3. The Societal Dimension in German Science Education--From Tradition towards Selected Cases and Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Stuckey, Marc; Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the theory and practice of societal-oriented science education in the past and present of German science teaching. Starting from a quite unique German justification for more thorough societal-oriented science education and some historical reflections a model for socio-scientific issues-based science teaching will be presented.…

  4. The Need for Change in Industrial Arts Based on Societal and Industrial Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Owen J.

    The author has presented a historical review of societal/industrial conditions affecting the development of manual education to determine if a need for change in industrial arts exists at the present time. Societal conditions, industrial conditions, and the resulting educational response are examined in: Russia (mid-19th century), Sweden (19th…

  5. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  6. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  7. Standard methods for land-use planning to determine the effects on societal risk.

    PubMed

    Laheij, G M; Post, J G; Ale, B J

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the individual risk and the societal risk are used in efforts to reduce the number of people exposed to the effects of an accident. In principle, the societal risk for each new land-use plan should be recalculated. Since this is proving increasingly cumbersome for planning agencies, several methods have been developed for SEVESO establishments and establishments for which in the Netherlands a generic zoning policy is used to determine the effects of new land-use plans on the societal risk. The methods give the uniform population density from a certain distance around the establishment at which the indicative limit for the societal risk is not exceeded. Correction factors are determined for non-uniform population distributions around the establishment, non-continuous residence times and deviating societal risk limits. Using these methods allows decision-making without the necessity of repeating quantified risk analyses for each alternative proposal. PMID:10677665

  8. Brief communication "Likelihood of societal preparedness for global change"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. M.; Rosner, A.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences on earth system processes are now pervasive, resulting in trends in river discharge, pollution levels, ocean levels, precipitation, temperature, wind, landslides, bird and plant populations and a myriad of other important natural hazards relating to earth system state variables. Thousands of trend detection studies have been published which report the statistical significance of observed trends. Unfortunately, such studies only concentrate on the null hypothesis of "no trend". Little or no attention is given to the power of such statistical trend tests, which would quantify the likelihood that we might ignore a trend if it really existed. The probability of missing the trend if it exists, known as the type II error, informs us about the likelihood of whether or not society is prepared to accommodate and respond to such trends. We describe how the power or probability of detecting a trend if it exists, depends critically on our ability to develop improved multivariate deterministic and statistical methods for predicting future trends in earth system processes. Several other research and policy implications for improving our understanding of trend detection and our societal response to those trends are discussed.

  9. Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2010-07-01

    Most food production depends, directly or indirectly, on freshwater resources. In the absence of importation of food commodities, population growth is constrained by the availability of local resources—including water—as well as by cultural and health-related factors. The global trade of massive amounts of food makes societies less reliant on locally available water resources, thereby allowing some populations to exceed the limits posed by their local water budget. Thus, international trade implies a virtual transfer of water resources from areas of food production to importing regions. While it is recognized that in the short term this globalization of (virtual) water resources may prevent malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, its long-term effects on the coupled human-natural system remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a minimalist modeling framework to investigate the effect of the uncontrolled trade of food products on the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Our results suggest that in the long run the globalization of water resources reduces the societal resilience with respect to water limitations in that it leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failure.

  10. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  11. Globalization of water, water solidarity, and societal resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2010-12-01

    In arid and semiarid regions the availability of freshwater resources has historically limited food production and population growth. Although international trade developed early in the history of civilization, until recently the growth of human populations has been constrained for most part by the availability of local resources as well as by other cultural and health-related factors. More recently, the global trade of massive amounts of food has allowed population growth to exceed in some dryland regions the limits posed by the local water budget. Here we show how the uncontrolled trade of food products and of water virtually embedded in these commodities reduces the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Globalization of virtual water may prevent in the short term malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, but in the long run leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failures. We propose a system of water solidarity as an alternative model of global allocation and redistribution of water resources, which limits the effects of drought-induced famine while maintaining societal resilience.

  12. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  13. Potential societal and economic impacts of wastewater nutrient removal and recycling.

    PubMed

    Randall, C W

    2003-01-01

    Because adequate nutrient controls were not established when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economical and societal impacts. The root of the problem is that the political policies and processes have permitted municipalities, developers, industries and farmers to expand and operate without paying the full cost of their activities, and this has been done at the expense of those who rely on the productivity and recreational value of our estuarine and coastal waters. Some governments have developed remedial nutrient control programs, but most of them have been under funded and inadequately enforced, resulting in small increments of progress that tend to be lost because of inadequate land use and immigration controls. It is believed that nutrient recovery and controlled reuse can provide a major tool for the control of nutrient pollution and should be widely implemented. Plans are currently being developed to promote widespread use of nutrient recovery and reuse in the Chesapeake Bay region of the USA. An example of phosphorus reuse is presented. PMID:12926616

  14. Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  15. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  16. The next decade of vaccines: societal and scientific challenges.

    PubMed

    Moxon, E Richard; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2011-07-23

    Vaccines against microbial diseases have improved the health of millions of people. In the next decade and beyond, many conceptual and technological scientific advances offer extraordinary opportunities to expand the portfolio of immunisations against viral and bacterial diseases and to pioneer the first vaccines against human parasitic and fungal diseases. Scientists in the public and private sectors are motivated as never before to bring about these innovations in immunisation. Many societal factors threaten to compromise realisation of the public health gains that immunisation can achieve in the next decade and beyond--understanding these factors is imperative. Vaccines are typically given to healthy individuals and safety issues loom high on the list of public concerns. The public needs to regain confidence in immunisation and trust the organisations responsible for the research, development, and implementation of vaccines. In the past, by use of a judicious amalgam of knowledge and empiricism, successful vaccines were largely developed by microbiologists who identified antigens that induced immune responses to conserved pathogen components. In the future, vaccines need to be developed against deadly diseases for which this strategy is often not feasible because of the extensive antigenic variability of relevant pathogens. High microbial diversity means that immunity after natural infection is often ineffective for prevention of disease on subsequent exposure, for example in HIV infection and malaria. Additionally, vaccines need to be generated to protect the people who are most vulnerable because of age or underlying diseases. Thus, in the future, a much deeper understanding of the immunological challenges--including the diversifying role of host genetics and environmental factors, leading perhaps to more personalised approaches-will be the touchstone for rational design and development of adjuvants that result in novel safe and effective vaccines. PMID

  17. AMISR in the Africa: Scientific and Societal Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Much of our understanding of equatorial electrodynamics is primarily based on observations from the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observatory (JRO), the only ISR in the equatorial region. The JRO is located in the American sector that is characterized by the large off-set in the magnetic to geodectic equators and the shift of the magnetic equator from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere. In the African sector, the geomagnetic and geodetic equators are approximately parallel, separated by at most 10 degrees. Data from satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, C/NOFS, DMSP) have indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. For example, ionospheric bubbles have been observed to be much deeper and to occur more frequently in the African sector. It has also been reported that ionospheric depletions more frequently rise to higher altitudes (up to 1000+ km) in the African sector than those in other longitude sectors. However, these observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in Africa. Thus, the causes or driving mechanisms of the unique density irregularities, bubbles, and depletions in the African sector remain unresolved. To address these issues, the U.S. National Science Foundation recently sponsored a workshop that held at Boston College to consider the possibility of relocating an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) to Ethiopia. Adding the ISR to the recently growing number of ground-based space science instruments on the continent, such as GPS, magnetometers, VHF, and Ionosonde, would be of significant scientific benefit and have a huge societal impact on the African space science community in particular and the science and engineering fields in general. The primary purpose of this workshop was to define the science goals motivating such a move and to examine the technical and

  18. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    PubMed

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level. PMID:26812759

  19. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  20. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  1. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B; Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  2. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, Chris. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  3. Near-term outlook for space solar power: societal trends and technological options in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Klineberg, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is becoming clear that the evolution of US energy policy in interaction with significant societal trends will generate continued and probably insurmountable opposition through the 1980s to any major R and D investment in space solar power. Recent public opinion polls reveal a dramatic disengagement from the traditional American faith in an unlimited future, a pervasive distrust of government and corporate leadership, a new skepticism about the benefits of science and technology, and a continuing concern for environmental protection. Much of public opinion is thus predisposed to resist costly investments in high-technology energy options. Moreover, the general slowing of economic growth, in conjunction with the success of conservation efforts and the widespread appeal of on-site renewable energy systems, make it appear unlikely that the unmet need for centrally-generated electricity will grow sufficiently in the 1980s to justify the level of front-end investment demanded by the SPS program. The near-term outlook for space solar power is dim. In the longer term, however, as societal patterns continue to evolve and US space capabilities expand, the SPS concept is likely to be given more serious consideration.

  4. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Sebastian P; Ellenbroek, Stéfan Ph; Meijer, Ingeborg; van Ark, Gerrit; Klasen, Eduard C

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre.The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles.Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  5. Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.

    2006-12-01

    -term Prediction Research and Transition (SpoRT) Center, generates 24 hour-forecasts twice daily utilizing the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF). Originally aimed at forecasts for the United States, the SPoRT team extended their work to cover the Mesoamerican region. Following testing at the RPC the system was installed in Panama and is currently producing forecasts that are used by tour guides, boat captains on river and ocean fishing tours, and cruise ship captains. This capability fits perfectly with NASA's goals since an existing project was modified, at minimal cost, to provide societal benefits to the population of a different geographic region. On June 30, 2006 several new applications matured and the inventory of decision support products was significantly expanded. As a result the SERVIR website was reorganized to reflect the changes. The degree of change was sufficient for the developers to designate it as a new release of SERVIR. The applications include a Real-Time Image Viewer, a customized version of NASA World Wind for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR- VIZ (developed by IAGT) and the SERVIR Data Portal (developed by the Water Center of the Humid Tropics Latin America and the Caribbean). The success of the SERVIR project is reflected by its choice by NASA as the decision support system for the Ecological Forecasting National Application. The SERVIR model is also under consideration for other regions of the globe. Potential areas for development are Africa, South America and the Caribbean.

  6. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  7. Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M

    2008-02-01

    Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and

  8. Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Scientific Advance and Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    The dawn of the 21st Century finds spaceborne sensors poised to revolutionize the atmospheric CO2 record by providing high-quality measurements with unprecedented spatio-temporal coverage and density. Space-based CO2 observations will augment local and regional measurements from ground and airborne sensors, providing global context for existing measurements and covering regions not readily accessible or instrumented by other means. Hyperspectral data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched in 2002, have been used to produce global maps of CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere. These data provide important new constraints on the global distribution and transport of CO2. Future satellite missions dedicated to CO2 observations will collect precise global measurements, enabling more detailed process studies and contributing to further improvements in coupled carbon-climate model development, initialization, and validation. Japan's GOSAT mission, scheduled for launch in January 2009 will measure CO2 and CH4 spectral radiances via thermal and near infrared spectrometry to study the transport mechanisms of greenhouse gases with an emphasis on identification of CO2 sources and sinks on sub-continental scales in support of the Kyoto protocol. NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled to launch in February 2009, will deliver measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the precision, temporal and spatial resolution, and coverage needed to characterize the variability of CO2 sources and sinks on regional spatial scales and seasonal to interannual time scales. Satellite CO2 observations, combined with continued ground and airborne measurements, will improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the atmospheric abundance and distribution of this important greenhouse gas, generating both scientific advance and societal benefit. Deriving actionable information from these observation

  9. The cost of an Ebola case

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Gorham, Katrin; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-01-01

    As the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues to grow since its initial recognition as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, an unanswered question is what is the cost of a case of Ebola? Understanding this cost will help decision makers better understand the impact of each case of EVD, benchmark this against that of other diseases, prioritize which cases may require response, and begin to estimate the cost of Ebola outbreaks. To date, the scientific literature has not characterized this cost per case. Therefore, we developed a mathematical model to estimate the cost of an EVD case from the provider and societal perspectives in the three most affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Our model estimates the total societal cost of an EVD case with full recovery ranges from $480 to $912, while that of an EVD case not surviving ranges from $5929 to $18 929, varying by age and country. Therefore, as of 10 December 2014, the estimated total societal costs of all reported EVD cases in these three countries range from $82 to potentially over $356 million. PMID:25578284

  10. The cost of an Ebola case.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Gorham, Katrin; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-02-01

    As the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues to grow since its initial recognition as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, an unanswered question is what is the cost of a case of Ebola? Understanding this cost will help decision makers better understand the impact of each case of EVD, benchmark this against that of other diseases, prioritize which cases may require response, and begin to estimate the cost of Ebola outbreaks. To date, the scientific literature has not characterized this cost per case. Therefore, we developed a mathematical model to estimate the cost of an EVD case from the provider and societal perspectives in the three most affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Our model estimates the total societal cost of an EVD case with full recovery ranges from $480 to $912, while that of an EVD case not surviving ranges from $5929 to $18 929, varying by age and country. Therefore, as of 10 December 2014, the estimated total societal costs of all reported EVD cases in these three countries range from $82 to potentially over $356 million. PMID:25578284

  11. Societal response to global climate change: Prospects for natural hazard reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigg, Joanne M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper provides a sociological perspective on societal responses to disasters (extreme natural hazard events). A definition is provided for a ``social,'' as opposed to a physical, disaster event. Several factors are identified which affect the ways societies adapt to hazard agents—societal resources, realistic expectations, vulnerability, and past experience. The ability of societies to anticipate future intensified or new disaster events under conditions of uncertainty is also addressed.

  12. The global costs of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Martin; Mangalore, Roshni; Simon, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease associated with a significant and long-lasting health, social, and financial burden, not only for patients but also for families, other caregivers, and the wider society. Many national and local studies have sought to estimate the societal burden of the illness--or some components of it--in monetary terms. Findings vary. We systematically reviewed the literature to locate all existing international estimates to date. Sixty-two relevant studies were found and summarized. Within- and between-country differences were analyzed descriptively. Despite the wide diversity of data sets and methods applied, all cost-of-illness estimates highlight the heavy societal burden of schizophrenia. Such information helps us to understand the health, health care, economic, and policy importance of schizophrenia, and to better interpret and explain the large within- and across-country differences that exist. PMID:15279046

  13. Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

  14. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  15. Cross-cultural variation in preference for replantation or revision amputation: Societal and surgeon views.

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Brianna L; Shauver, Melissa J; Nishizuka, Takanobu; Hirata, Hitoshi; Chung, Kevin C

    2016-04-01

    Treatment decisions after an injury like finger amputation are made based on injury and patient factors. However, decisions can also be influenced by provider and patient preferences. We compared hand surgeon and societal preferences and attitudes regarding finger amputation treatment in Japan and the US. We performed a cross-sectional survey with subjects derived from large tertiary care academic institutions in the US and Japan. We secured 100% participation of American hand surgeon members of the Finger Replantation and Amputation Multicenter Study and presenting hand surgeons at the 32nd Annual meeting of the Central Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand. Societal preferences were gathered from volunteers at the 2 universities in the US and Japan. There were no significant differences in estimations of function, sensation, or appearance after replantation; American and Japanese societal participants preferred replantation compared to surgeons, although this was more pronounced in Japan. The Japanese society displayed more negative attitudes toward finger amputees than did Japanese surgeons. American respondents anticipated more public stigmatisation of amputees than did American surgeons. Societal preference for replantation was not caused by inflated expectations of outcomes after replantation. Japanese societal preference was likely driven by negative views of finger amputees. American society noted no decrease in physical health after amputation, but did note a quality of life decrease attributed to public stigmatisation. Japanese society and surgeons had a stronger preference for replantation than American society and surgeons, possibly attributed to cultural differences. PMID:26961436

  16. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  17. Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in

  18. Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.

    Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

  19. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  20. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-03-18

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  1. Cost and cost threshold analyses for 12 innovative US HIV linkage and retention in care programs.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kriti M; Maulsby, Catherine; Brantley, Meredith; Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Zulliger, Rose; Riordan, Maura; Charles, Vignetta; Holtgrave, David R

    2016-09-01

    Out of >1,000,000 people living with HIV in the USA, an estimated 60% were not adequately engaged in medical care in 2011. In response, AIDS United spearheaded 12 HIV linkage and retention in care programs. These programs were supported by the Social Innovation Fund, a White House initiative. Each program reflected the needs of its local population living with HIV. Economic analyses of such programs, such as cost and cost threshold analyses, provide important information for policy-makers and others allocating resources or planning programs. Implementation costs were examined from societal and payer perspectives. This paper presents the results of cost threshold analyses, which provide an estimated number of HIV transmissions that would have to be averted for each program to be considered cost-saving and cost-effective. The methods were adapted from the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Per client program costs ranged from $1109.45 to $7602.54 from a societal perspective. The cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.32 to 1.19 infections averted, and the cost-effectiveness thresholds ranged from 0.11 to 0.43 infections averted by the programs. These results suggest that such programs are a sound and efficient investment towards supporting goals set by US HIV policy-makers. Cost-utility data are pending. PMID:27017972

  2. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Drosinis, Paul; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; McKellips, Fanny; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Design Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Setting Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Population Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Main outcome measures Costs included (1) delivery costs; (2) specialist remuneration; (3) costs associated with traditional (face-to-face) referrals initiated as a result of eConsult. Potential savings included (1) costs of traditional referrals avoided; (2) indirect patient savings through avoided travel and lost wages/productivity. Net potential societal cost savings were estimated by subtracting total costs from total potential savings. Results A total of 3487 eConsults were completed during the study period. In 40% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was originally contemplated but avoided as result of eConsult. In 3% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was not originally contemplated but was prompted as a result of the eConsult. From the societal perspective, total costs were estimated at $207 787 and total potential savings were $246 516. eConsult led to a net societal saving of $38 729 or $11 per eConsult. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate potential cost savings from the societal perspective, as patients avoided the travel costs and lost wages/productivity associated with face-to-face specialist visits. Greater savings are expected once we account for other costs such as avoided tests and visits and potential improved health outcomes associated with shorter wait times. Our findings are valuable for healthcare delivery decision-makers as they seek solutions to improve care in a patient-centred and efficient manner. PMID:27338880

  3. [Burnout of general practitioners in Belgium: societal consequences and paths to solutions].

    PubMed

    Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M

    2011-09-01

    The definition of burn-out the most often cited and proposed by Maslach and Jackson, clarifies the three cardinal symptoms affecting doctors, namely, emotional exhaustion, with depersonalization of their patients and reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment. The causes of this phenomenon are relatively well-known: individual psychological factors, stressful factors intrinsic to the medical practice and finally extrinsic factors related to the professional environment and its organization. The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of burnout within the population of Belgian family physicians and to understand both individual and societal consequences. About the method. This is a literature review using databases Medline, Cochrane Library, and the American Psychological Association from 2000 to 2011 with the keywords: primary health care, family practice, burnout, emotional exhaustion, psychological stressors, distress, fatigue, depersonalization, substance and alcohol abuse, depression, well-being, quality of life, job satisfaction, professional efficiency, patient care, physician-patient relations, medical errors, quality of health care, pharmaceutical/health expenditure/statistics-numerical data, obstacles to prevention, health system assessment, medical demography. Selecting of the most relevant articles through the reading of abstracts and then full text reading of 49 selected articles. In conclusion, the exact prevalence of burn-out amongst Belgian general practitioners is not known. From some works, it is estimated that about half of them would be achieved at least in terms of emotional exhaustion. The symptoms related to burn-out are potentially serious: ea depression, alcohol and tobacco abuse and cardiovascular complications. There are also arguments demonstrating the fact that this disorder amongst general practitioners influences negatively the quality of care, their cost, but also medical demography of primary care with as a

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density

  5. The Inter-Temporal Aspect of Well-Being and Societal Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicherl, Pavle

    2007-01-01

    The perceptions on well-being and societal progress are influenced also by the quantitative indicators and measures used in the measurement, presentation and semantics of discussing these issues. The article presents a novel generic statistical measure S-time-distance, with clear interpretability that delivers a broader concept to look at data, to…

  6. A Study of Societal Factors Influencing the Growth of Castleton State College: Implications for Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Robert F.

    Analyzed are certain societal factors--political, demographic, financial, public relations, student profiles, and mission statements as they have influenced the growth of Castleton State College since becoming a member of the Vermont State College system in 1961. Data for the study were gathered from a literature review of one of the daily…

  7. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SGEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from the SGEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  8. APPLICATION OF BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE TO SOCIETAL DECISIONS: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BASED ON BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-06-30

    This grant covered several areas of significant societal interest. It included an evaluation of the validity of scientific claims; developed an approach for stakeholder participation; and demonstrated the validity of the developed methods through the performance of a number of independent peer reviews.

  9. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Societal and Legal Constraints - Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is an introduction to the legal and societal considerations which must be appraised when land application systems are being designed. It serves as an introduction to the federal legislation and state guidelines pertaining to land treatment. The main thrust of this module is to point out some of the concerns which a community is likely…

  10. Education, Technology and Connectedness. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Veronika; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  11. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Grazing Lands: Societal Benefits and Policay Implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we examine the importance of ‘grazinglands’ in relation to the sequestration of soil organic carbon. Global estimates are that grazinglands occupy~ 3.6 billion ha and account for about one-fourth of potential C sequestration in world soils. Many environmental and societal benefits are provide...

  12. Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

  13. NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  14. Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

  15. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  16. The Teaching and Societal Services Nexus: Academics' Experiences in Three Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmén, Magnus; Ljungberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perception of academics regarding how their experiences from societal interaction (third mission) inform their teaching and vice versa. We report on a phone survey of Swedish academics in three engineering-related disciplines. The findings show that there is a perceived positive and bidirectional relationship…

  17. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  18. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  19. Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

  20. Planning Study and Research Programmes in the Context of Budget Restrictions and Societal Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Roy Antony

    1982-01-01

    Issues faced by institutions in many countries in a time of declining funding and increasing demands on higher education are discussed, including national and local academic planning approaches, institutional responsiveness to societal and industry demands, and problems inherent in program discontinuance. (Report of a May 1982 international OECD…

  1. Citizens of the Academic Community? A Societal Perspective on Leadership in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Richard; Gosling, Jonathan; O'Brien, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a societal perspective on academic leadership by exploring the preoccupations of academics as citizens rather than as employees, managers or individuals. It uses a listening post methodology to ask "what is it like to be a citizen of an academic institution in contemporary Britain?" Three listening posts, comprising…

  2. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  3. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  4. Piecing Together the Puzzle: Development of the Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Luci N.; Bulgrin, Amanda; Morgan, Betsy L.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the prevalence of autism creates a need for a reliable and valid measure of attitudes towards autism. The current study describes the development of a brief 16-item measure of Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) that exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between expert and general…

  5. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  6. Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Agent-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and providing measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. Agent-based modeling has been shown to provide a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these agent based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' agent-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from extreme weather across these and other cases provides evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.

  7. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  8. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points. PMID:24705824

  9. Cost of Depression Among Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008. Method: The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms. Results: The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression. Conclusions: Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population. PMID:21977377

  10. A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

    2008-01-01

    This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

  11. Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Stephane

    Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and

  12. Future Low Temperature Plasma Science and Technology: Attacking Major Societal Problems by Building on a Tradition of Scientific Rigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasma (LTP) science is unequivocally one of the most prolific areas for varied applications in modern technology. For example, plasma etching technology is essential for reliably and rapidly patterning nanometer scale features over areas approaching one square meter with relatively inexpensive equipment. This technology enabled the telecommunication and information processing revolution that has transformed human society. I explore two concepts in this talk. The first is that the firm scientific understanding of LTP is and has been the enabling feature of these established technological applications. And the second is that LTP technology is poised to contribute to several emerging societal challenges. Beyond the important, ongoing applications of LTP science to problems of materials processing related to energy generation (e.g. thin film solar cell manufacture), there are novel and less well known potential applications in food and agriculture, infection control and medicine. In some cases, the potentially low cost nature of the applications in so compelling that they can be thought of as examples of frugal innovation. Supported in part by NSF and DoE.

  13. Media use and children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Beidas, Rinad S; Babyar, Heather M; Kendall, Philip C

    2008-07-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats (i.e., crime, terrorism, earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods). An interactive model of television use and child anxiety in accounting for children's personal threat perceptions was supported, in which the strength of television consumption in predicting children's personal threat perceptions was greater for children with greater anxiety. Relationships were found neither between children's Internet use and threat perceptions nor between media use and perceptions of societal threat. PMID:18645752

  14. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite. [antenna coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a cooperative experimental program of the United States and Canadian governments. The CTS uses a high-power transponder at the frequencies of 14/12 GHz for two-way television and voice communication. The United States and Canada have agreed to share equally in the use of CTS. The U.S. program includes a variety of societal experiments. The ground stations for these experiments are located from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The satellite communications capabilities and the antenna coverage for the U.S. are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the U.S. societal experiments in the areas of education, health care, and community and special services; nine separate experiments are discussed.

  15. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

  16. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways

  17. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested. PMID:24670225

  18. Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-02-01

    In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

  19. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  20. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

  1. The influence of world societal forces on social tolerance. A time comparative study of prejudices in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Hadler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia. PMID:22616117

  2. The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Coffee-Borden, Brandon; Anton, Paul; Moore, Christopher; Valorose, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Most of the studies of the return on investment in early childhood education have focused on the big payoffs in reduced public and societal costs associated with child welfare, public assistance, crime and incarceration, and benefits related to increased education and earnings. Several studies focus specifically on costs and benefits within the…

  3. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites: Understanding Patterns among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Todd, Nathan R.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites (PCRW), which refer to consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. Extending research that identified 5 distinct constellations of costs of racism (L. B. Spanierman, V. P. Poteat, A. M.…

  4. Longitudinal Examination of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites across the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites, which refer to the consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. We examined how White students' affective costs of racism (i.e., White empathy, guilt, and fear) changed…

  5. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at < 32+0 weeks gestation is either imminent or threatened for the purpose of fetal neuroprotection. Methods Multiple decision tree models and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium sulphate is administered to patients in whom preterm birth is imminent. From a health system perspective and a societal perspective, respectively, a cost of $2,083 is incurred and a savings of $108,277 is obtained for each QALY gained and a cost of $28,755 is incurred and a savings of $1,494,500 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium sulphate is administered to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened. Conclusions Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is imminent is a dominant (i.e. cost-effective) strategy, no matter what cost perspective or measure of effectiveness is used. Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened is a dominant strategy from a societal perspective and is very likely to be cost-effective from a health system perspective. PMID:24350635

  6. “Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

  7. High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Delamontagne, R Georges

    2010-01-01

    This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies. PMID:22947824

  8. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  9. Advances in understanding societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of life and property damage from future tsunamis can be reduced if officials develop risk-reduction strategies and education programs that address how at-risk populations and communities are specifically vulnerable to tsunamis. Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, information concerning societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the U.S. was largely limited to state-level summaries of the number of residents within one kilometer of the coast. Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey has furthered the Nation’s understanding of societal vulnerability to tsunamis with several studies that describe the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of at-risk populations in tsunami-hazard zones. Community-level assessments have been completed in Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington to document variations in the number and types of people, businesses, and critical facilities in tsunami-prone areas. A method using midresolution satellite imagery was developed to identify community variations in the amount of developed land in tsunami-prone areas. Factor analysis and geospatial analysis were integrated to model variations in demographic sensitivity to tsunamis. Public workshops have been held to examine community sensitivity, adaptive capacity and post-tsunami recovery. Results demonstrate that social vulnerability to tsunamis varies throughout a community or region and that certain areas are likely to suffer disproportionately due to differences in pre-tsunami socioeconomic conditions and other demographic attributes. This presentation will summarize advances in understanding societal vulnerability in the U.S. to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as discuss opportunities and needs for further work.

  10. Beyond Climate and Weather Science: Expanding the Forecasting Family to Serve Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to "anticipate" the future is what makes information from the Earth sciences valuable to society - whether it is the prediction of severe weather or the future availability of water resources in response to climate change. An improved ability to anticipate or forecast has the potential to serve society by simultaneously improving our ability to (1) promote economic vitality, (2) enable environmental stewardship, (3) protect life and property, as well as (4) improve our fundamental knowledge of the earth system. The potential is enormous, yet many appear ready to move quickly toward specific mitigation and adaptation strategies assuming that the science is settled. Five important weakness must be addressed first: (1) the formation of a true "climate services" function and capability, (2) the deliberate investment in expanding the family of forecasting elements to incorporate a broader array of environmental factors and impacts, (3) the investment in the sciences that connect climate to society, (4) a deliberate focus on the problems associated with scale, in particular the difference between the scale of predictive models and the scale associated with societal decisions, and (5) the evolution from climate services and model predictions to the equivalent of "environmental intelligence centers." The objective is to bring the discipline of forecasting to a broader array of environmental challenges. Assessments of the potential impacts of global climate change on societal sectors such as water, human health, and agriculture provide good examples of this challenge. We have the potential to move from a largely reactive mode in addressing adverse health outcomes, for example, to one in which the ties between climate, land cover, infectious disease vectors, and human health are used to forecast and predict adverse human health conditions. The potential exists for a revolution in forecasting, that entrains a much broader set of societal needs and solutions. The

  11. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  12. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  13. Meeting the societal need for new antibiotics: the challenges for the pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Seamus

    2015-01-01

    The rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to clinicians being increasingly faced with clinical failure due to the lack of effective and safe treatment options. New antibiotics are needed now for current multi-drug resistant infections but also in preparation for emerging and anticipated threats. There are significant challenges for the pharmaceutical industry to discover and develop new antibiotics including a business model that balances reasonable reimbursement with appropriate use. This summary reviews the key challenges and collaborative interventions that may contribute to addressing a societal problem. PMID:25601037

  14. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  15. Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

  16. Optimizing Societal Benefit using a Systems Engineering Approach for Implementation of the GEOSS Space Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

  17. The stigmatisation of pregnancy: societal influences on pregnant women's physical activity Behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Mulken, Michelle R H; McAllister, Margaret; Lowe, John B

    2016-08-01

    Many women going through the major life transition of pregnancy experience decreases in physical activity behaviour, which may compromise maternal and infant health and wellbeing. Although research suggests that the social environment plays a large role in influencing women's physical activity behaviour, little is known about the association between societal attitudes and physical activity behaviour during the course of pregnancy. Through a qualitative longitudinal study, we explored women's physical activity experiences throughout pregnancy and how these were formed, supported and/or opposed by their social environment. This research included telephone interviews with 30 pregnant participants, recruited via a regional public hospital. Using a feminist standpoint analysis incorporating modern dialectics, three major tensions were identified, reflecting dominant societal discourses around physical activity and pregnancy: (1) engaging in physical activity and keeping the baby safe, (2) engaging in physical activity and obtaining social approval and (3) listening to oneself and to others. These findings present previously unrecognised opportunities for developing tailored and effective physical activity interventions among pregnant women. PMID:26967357

  18. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  19. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  20. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. Design Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. Results More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. Conclusion More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways. PMID:19898651

  1. A global assessment of the societal impacts of glacier outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Tweed, Fiona S.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier outburst floods are sudden releases of large amounts of water from a glacier. They are a pervasive natural hazard worldwide. They have an association with climate primarily via glacier mass balance and their impacts on society partly depend on population pressure and land use. Given the ongoing changes in climate and land use and population distributions there is therefore an urgent need to discriminate the spatio-temporal patterning of glacier outburst floods and their impacts. This study presents data compiled from 20 countries and comprising 1348 glacier floods spanning 10 centuries. Societal impacts were assessed using a relative damage index based on recorded deaths, evacuations, and property and infrastructure destruction and disruption. These floods originated from 332 sites; 70% were from ice-dammed lakes and 36% had recorded societal impact. The number of floods recorded has apparently reduced since the mid-1990s in all major world regions. Two thirds of sites that have produced > 5 floods (n = 32) have floods occurring progressively earlier in the year. Glacier floods have directly caused at least: 7 deaths in Iceland, 393 deaths in the European Alps, 5745 deaths in South America and 6300 deaths in central Asia. Peru, Nepal and India have experienced fewer floods yet higher levels of damage. One in five sites in the European Alps has produced floods that have damaged farmland, destroyed homes and damaged bridges; 10% of sites in South America have produced glacier floods that have killed people and damaged infrastructure; 15% of sites in central Asia have produced floods that have inundated farmland, destroyed homes, damaged roads and damaged infrastructure. Overall, Bhutan and Nepal have the greatest national-level economic consequences of glacier flood impacts. We recommend that accurate, full and standardised monitoring, recording and reporting of glacier floods is essential if spatio-temporal patterns in glacier flood occurrence, magnitude and

  2. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  3. Cost-effectiveness of systemic treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German health care setting.

    PubMed

    Küster, Denise; Nast, Alexander; Gerdes, Sascha; Weberschock, Tobias; Wozel, Gottfried; Gutknecht, Mandy; Schmitt, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Systemic treatments of moderate-to-severe psoriasis differ substantially in terms of effectiveness and costs. Comprehensive economic-evaluations of all systemic treatments for psoriasis from a societal perspective are missing. The objective of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness all systemic treatments approved for moderate-to-severe psoriasis from a societal perspective, by including all cost categories. An incremental cost-effectiveness-analysis was performed for all systemic treatments for psoriasis, currently recommended by the German S3-Guideline i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, fumaric acid esters, and retinoids, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. We used a Markov model with time-dependent transition probabilities and a time horizon of 2 years to investigate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Both direct and indirect costs were considered to reflect the societal perspective. Effectiveness outcome was PASI-75 response. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored the effect of treatment duration, discount rate, effectiveness, and the perspective (societal vs. healthcare system) on the findings. According to the base-case analysis a cost-effective treatment pathway for moderate-to-severe psoriasis starts with methotrexate, followed by ustekinumab 90 mg and infliximab, if methotrexate does not achieve or maintain PASI-75 response. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the general robustness of these findings with methotrexate being most cost-effective. However, from a third-party-payer perspective (without indirect cost) conventional therapies were generally more cost-effective than biologics. From a value-based healthcare perspective, methotrexate should be the systemic treatment of first choice, ustekinumab 90 mg second choice and infliximab third choice for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. From a societal perspective, the other treatments are less efficient according to our model. From a third

  4. A Cost-Effective Mindfulness Stress Reduction Program: A Randomized Control Trial for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Kip, Kevin E; Reich, Richard R; Craig, Benjamin M; Mogos, Mulubrhan; Ramesar, Sophia; Paterson, Carly L; Farias, Jerrica R; Pracht, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer survivors continue to experience residual symptoms including anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, and pain. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction intervention for breast cancer survivors was examined. The cost of the program was assessed from the societal perspective, accounting for both direct medical and patient opportunity costs. The cost per quality-adjusted life year was relatively low compared to the cost-utility findings of other published breast cancer interventions. The program appears to provide for significantly improved health-related quality of life at a comparativelv low cost. PMID:26477119

  5. Structural determinants of the abortion rate: a cross-societal analysis.

    PubMed

    Trent, K; Hoskin, A W

    1999-01-01

    Data for a sample of 89 countries are used to examine societal-level predictors of the legal status of abortion and its incidence as indicated by abortion rates. Measures of socioeconomic development, women's labor force participation, and dominant religion are considered as predictors of abortion. Logistic regression analysis reveals that socioeconomic development has a positive effect on the probability of abortion being legal. Both a greater dominance of Catholicism and Islam in a society reduce the probability that abortion is legal. Results of tobit analyses show that development has curvilinear effects on abortion rates, with lower rates of abortion at both the lower and higher ends of development. Findings also indicate a positive effect of female labor force participation on the abortion rate that initially grows stronger with increases in socioeconomic development, but weakens with further increases. Finally, a greater proportion of Catholics in a population lowers the abortion rate. PMID:10842502

  6. Hotspots of coastal vulnerability: A DPSIR analysis to find societal pathways and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Weichselgartner, Juergen

    2014-03-01

    Dramatic loss of life and economic losses in coastal zones have focused attention on natural and man-made hazards. The paper starts with a review of the coastal vulnerability terminology. Coastal zones are then presented as complex, socio-ecological systems. Four main coastal hotspots of vulnerability; namely Arctic coasts, small islands, river-mouth systems and urban coasts (including megacities) are analysed to demonstrate the complexity of coastal vulnerability. A DPSIR framework is used to explore the causes and consequences of coastal vulnerability. The paper then focuses in particular on societal, as well as floods, storm-surges and tsunamis to technological and engineering solutions. These include raising awareness, advancing forecasting, enhancing preparedness and improving governance.

  7. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): a matter of wide societal implication.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, C; Menon, S

    2000-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are ubiquitous on Earth and their radioactivity may become concentrated as a result of human activities. Numerous industries produce concentrated radioactivity in their by-products: the coal industry, petroleum extraction and processing, water treatment, etc. The present reference system of radiation protection does not provide a complete framework for the coherent management of all types of radioactively contaminated materials. Inconsistencies in waste management policy and practice can be noted across the board, and especially vis-à-vis the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear industry. This article reviews the present societal approach to manage materials that are radioactive but are often not recognised as being such, and place the management of radioactive materials from the nuclear industry in perspective. PMID:11302258

  8. Societal transformation in response to global environmental change: A review of emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Feola, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The study of societal transformation in response to environmental change has become established, yet little consensus exists regarding the conceptual basis of transformation. This paper aims to provide structure to the dialog on transformation, and to reflect on the challenges of social research in this area. Concepts of transformation are identified through a literature review, and examined using four analytical criteria. It is found that the term 'transformation' is frequently used merely as a metaphor. When transformation is not used as a metaphor, eight concepts are most frequently employed. They differ with respect to (i) system conceptualization, (ii) notions of social consciousness (deliberate/emergent), and (iii) outcome (prescriptive/descriptive). Problem-based research tends to adopt concepts of deliberate transformation with prescriptive outcome, while concepts of emergent transformation with no prescriptive outcome tend to inform descriptive-analytical research. Dialog around the complementarities of different concepts and their empirical testing are priorities for future research. PMID:25431335

  9. Overview of female middle childhood in societal context: implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Doswell, Willa M

    2002-12-01

    Preadolescence represents a time of becoming and of change less emphasized in popular and empirical literature than adolescence. Yet it is an important period and a critical time to teach children, while they are still sufficiently adult-dependent and adult-centered, to help that learning to persist. These are formative years during which children experience marked increases in development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial) and knowledge and an incremental shaping of values, attitudes, and behaviors that they will carry into adulthood. This period of life can also be called the "tween" years, as children during this period are transitioning to adolescence. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the societal context in which preteen girls are developing and provide some suggestions for testing and implementing health promotion strategies that may contribute toward a safe and successful transition for these children through adolescence to adulthood in this fast-paced society. PMID:12518279

  10. Responding to sexual discrimination: the effects of societal versus self-blame.

    PubMed

    Foster, M D; Matheson, K; Poole, M

    1994-12-01

    Although self-blame has been considered to be a useful coping tool for victims, its benefits within the context of group discrimination are equivocal. The present research hypothesized that women encouraged to engage in self-blame for sex discrimination would be more likely to endorse accepting the situation or to endorse the use of individual, normative actions. In contrast, women encouraged to engage in societal blame for sex discrimination would be more likely to participate in nonnormative actions aimed at enhancing the status of women as a group. Female students in Canada were subjected to a situation of discrimination and were encouraged to blame either themselves or society. They were then given the opportunity to respond to the discrimination by endorsing various actions. A profile analysis of the endorsed actions indicated that the women encouraged to blame themselves were most likely to endorse accepting the situation, whereas the women encouraged to blame society endorsed nonnormative individual confrontation. PMID:7869704

  11. Plant and Soil Nematodes: Societal Impact and Focus for the Future.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, K. R.; Hussey, R. S.; Krusberg, L. R.; Bird, G. W.; Dunn, R. A.; Ferris, H.; Ferris, V. R.; Freckman, D. W.; Gabriel, C. J.; Grewal, P. S.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Riddle, D. L.; Roberts, P. A.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology. PMID:19279875

  12. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Puterbaugh, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests. PMID:27429800

  13. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  14. Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided

  15. Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals’ clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quénec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michaël; Lacasse, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a

  16. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  17. The cost of cancer care: Part II.

    PubMed

    Eagle, David

    2012-11-01

    The rising cost of cancer treatment competes with the availability of effective therapy as a limiting factor in our war on cancer. Specific programs are being developed that have the potential to slow the growth in spending on oncology care. The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for containing healthcare costs, such as accountable care organizations and the Independent Payment Advisory Board. Within oncology, specific programs have emerged, including clinical pathways, episode-of-care based payment arrangements, and the oncology medical home. All models of cost containment have strengths and weaknesses. Outside of the United States, explicit rationing exists' through national health technology assessment organizations. Excessive demands on physicians to limit spending at the bedside could potentially create conflicts with their professional responsibility to patients. While spending for cancer care in the US is high, its "worth" is ultimately a societal decision. Recent economic modeling suggests that we may be achieving value for the money we spend. PMID:23330356

  18. Cost effectiveness of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) is the leading cause of diarrhea in young children in Oman, incurring substantial healthcare and economic burden. We propose to formally assess the potential cost effectiveness of implementing universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on reducing the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Oman Methods A Markov model was used to compare two birth cohorts, including children who were administered the RV5 vaccination versus those who were not, in a hypothetical group of 65,500 children followed for their first 5 years of life in Oman. The efficacy of the vaccine in reducing RGE-related hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and office visits, and days of parental work loss for children receiving the vaccine was based on the results of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST). The outcome of interest was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from health care system and societal perspectives. Results A universal RV5 vaccination program is projected to reduce, hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits and parental work days lost due to rotavirus infections by 89%, 80%, 67% and 74%, respectively. In the absence of RV5 vaccination, RGE-related societal costs are projected to be 2,023,038 Omani Rial (OMR) (5,259,899 United States dollars [USD]), including 1,338,977 OMR (3,481,340 USD) in direct medical costs. However, with the introduction of RV5, direct medical costs are projected to be 216,646 OMR (563,280 USD). Costs per QALY saved would be 1,140 OMR (2,964 USD) from the health care payer perspective. An RV5 vaccination program would be considered cost saving, from the societal perspective. Conclusions Universal RV5 vaccination in Oman is likely to significantly reduce the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis and may be cost-effective from the payer perspective and cost saving from the societal

  19. Rationales for Determining Student Contributions to Costs of Post-Secondary Education. Research and Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, Steve

    Student financial contributions toward postsecondary education are examined in this report from the Minister's Task Force in Alberta, Canada. Critical examination of various rationales are made as a basis for determining the directions in which student costs should move. This includes a discussion of social equity, societal investment and benefit,…

  20. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  1. The Use of Engineering Design Scenarios to Assess Student Knowledge of Global, Societal, Economic, and Environmental Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on…

  2. USGEO National Earth Observation Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Earth Observing Systems to Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The second National Civil Earth Observation Assessment identifies the inputs and relative contributions of the portfolio of observing systems currently relied upon by Federal agencies to meet key Earth observing objectives. The Assessment employs a hierarchical value-tree framework that traces the pathways through which Earth observing systems contribute value across 13 societal benefit areas, utilizing multiple levels to provide logical traceability. This presentation describes the methods used to construct societal benefit area value-trees that include key objectives and the information products, services, and research derived from Earth observations that help satisfy them. It describes the methods for weighting nodes at multiple levels of each value-tree and the expert elicitation process for assessing the relative contributions of Earth observing systems to the development of information products, services, and research. The methodology employed in the Assessment is especially useful at assessing the interdependence and relative contributions of multiple Earth observing systems on the development of blended information products and tracing information pathways from direct observations through intermediate products, such as models, to end-products used to improve decision-making. This presentation will highlight case study examples from the 13 societal benefit areas (agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy and mineral resources, human health, ocean and costal resources, space weather, transportation, water resources weather, and reference measurements) to demonstrate tractability from Earth observing systems, through information products and research that satisfy key objectives, to societal benefit.

  3. STAPOL: A Simulation of the Impact of Policy, Values, and Technological and Societal Developments upon the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Dennis; Feller, Richard

    The Institute for the Future has been conducting research in technological and societal forecasting, social indicators, value change, and simulation gaming. This paper describes an effort to bring together parts of that research into a simulation game ("State Policy," or STAPOL) for analysis of the impact of government policy, social values, and…

  4. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  5. The Evolution of English Language Teaching during Societal Transition in Finland--A Mutual Relationship or a Distinctive Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaatinen, Riitta; Saarivirta, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the evolution of English language teaching in Finland and looks into the connections of the societal and educational changes in the country as explanatory factors in the process. The results of the study show that the language teaching methodology and the status of foreign languages in Finland are clearly connected to the…

  6. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  7. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  8. A method to measure the costs of counseling for HIV prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, R D

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the true resource costs of counseling for HIV prevention. The method includes identifying the resources used in counseling, determining the true unit costs of the resources used, and calculating the total costs of counseling. Cost equations and sample calculations of total and expected costs per client in a specified time period are provided. This method of estimating costs provides a systematic application of a standard set of procedures, including sample tables and calculations. It uses the societal perspective on resource cost to determine true resource costs. This method can be used for resource allocation decisions among programs and as inputs for cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Since the method minimizes the burden of data collection and calculations, it is useful for the nonspecialist in cost analysis. The method provides a rational approach for realistic decision making and planning in public health. PMID:8862166

  9. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal

  10. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  11. The Needs of the Highly Able and the Needs of Society: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Talent Differentiation and Its Significance to Gifted Education and Issues of Societal Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    Does gifted education affect societal inequality, and does societal inequality suppress and/or distort the development of high ability? Drawing from several academic disciplines and current political discourse, a differentiated use of terms used to describe the highly able is explored in this article. A social evolutionary framework is proposed as…

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of New York City’s Safe Routes to School Program

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Michael; DiMaggio, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a package of roadway modifications in New York City funded under the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program. Methods. We used a Markov model to estimate long-term impacts of SRTS on injury reduction and the associated savings in medical costs, lifelong disability, and death. Model inputs included societal costs (in 2013 US dollars) and observed spatiotemporal changes in injury rates associated with New York City’s implementation of SRTS relative to control intersections. Structural changes to roadways were assumed to last 50 years before further investment is required. Therefore, costs were discounted over 50 consecutive cohorts of modified roadway users under SRTS. Results. SRTS was associated with an overall net societal benefit of $230 million and 2055 quality-adjusted life years gained in New York City. Conclusions. SRTS reduces injuries and saves money over the long run. PMID:24832430

  13. What is the societal burden of endometriosis-associated symptoms? a prospective Belgian study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Meuleman, Christel; Dirksen, Carmen; Dunselman, Gerard; Simoens, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects a large number of women of reproductive age and imposes a significant burden on patients and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnosis, comorbidities, healthcare resource use, treatment patterns, costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis seen in a Belgian tertiary care centre. A total of 134 patients were included in a prospective questionnaire-based cost-of-illness study. Patients were diagnosed after a median delay of 2 years after onset of symptoms. Almost all patients reported having at least one comorbidity. Total annual costs per patient were €9872 (95% confidence interval €7930–11,870), with costs of productivity loss representing 75% of total costs. Hospitalizations, surgeries, infertility treatments, pain and anxiety increased total costs significantly (P 0.001). Patients generated an average of 0.82 QaLY over a 1-year time horizon. This study showed that direct and indirect costs attributable to endometriosis-associated symptoms are substantial. Earlier diagnosis and cost-effective treatment of endometriosis may decrease productivity loss, quality of life impairment and healthcare consumption and consequently reduce total costs to patients and society. PMID:24268732

  14. Assessing societal vulnerability of U.S. Pacific Northwest communities to storm-induced coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Heather M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ruggerio, Peter; Allan, Jonathan; Corcoran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Progressive increases in storm intensities and extreme wave heights have been documented along the U.S. West Coast. Paired with global sea level rise and the potential for an increase in El Niño occurrences, these trends have substantial implications for the vulnerability of coastal communities to natural coastal hazards. Community vulnerability to hazards is characterized by the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of human-environmental systems that influence potential impacts. To demonstrate how societal vulnerability to coastal hazards varies with both physical and social factors, we compared community exposure and sensitivity to storm-induced coastal change scenarios in Tillamook (Oregon) and Pacific (Washington) Counties. While both are backed by low-lying coastal dunes, communities in these two counties have experienced different shoreline change histories and have chosen to use the adjacent land in different ways. Therefore, community vulnerability varies significantly between the two counties. Identifying the reasons for this variability can help land-use managers make decisions to increase community resilience and reduce vulnerability in spite of a changing climate.

  15. Ecologising Societal Metabolism and Recycling of Phosphorus At Household and Neighbourhood Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, B.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    The pressures of humanity on a fragile water resource base, and the corresponding need for environmental and freshwater protection requires that human excreta and other societal wastes (solid and liquid) be recycled and used as a resource. The Bel- lagio principles underpin the basis for this new approach to environmental sanitation. There are two main concepts emanating from the Bellagio principles, which make the basis of this paper. Firstly, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) puts the household at the focal point of environmental sanitation planning and; sec- ondly, the Circular System of Resource Management (CSRM) that emphasises conser- vation, local recycling and reuse of resources. Recycling of Phosphorus (P) in urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) is used in this paper to assess the feasibility of these concepts. An inventory of annual P-fluxes based on characterisation of input goods, processes, transformation, output fluxes and storage was conducted for a high-density suburb in Harare, Zimbabwe where agriculture is already a major activity. Using systems thinking approach and material flow account- ing two compartments or subsystems are defined to enable accounting and analysis of P-bearing materials. The "household" (consumption/use and excretion/waste) and "agriculture" (soil-plant interaction). With a population of about 100 000 inhabitants, P inflows amount to about 26 600 kg/a and 1 900 kg/a as food/beverages and deter- gents respectively within the "household" subsystem. Storage is taken as negligible, whilst 85

  16. Good governance and good health: The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Menon-Johansson, Anatole S

    2005-01-01

    Background Only governments sensitive to the demands of their citizens appropriately respond to needs of their nation. Based on Professor Amartya Sen's analysis of the link between famine and democracy, the following null hypothesis was tested: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is not associated with governance". Methods Governance has been divided by a recent World Bank paper into six dimensions. These include Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and the Control of Corruption. The 2002 adult HIV prevalence estimates were obtained from UNAIDS. Additional health and economic variables were collected from multiple sources to illustrate the development needs of countries. Results The null hypothesis was rejected for each dimension of governance for all 149 countries with UNAIDS HIV prevalence estimates. When these nations were divided into three groups, the median (range) HIV prevalence estimates remained constant at 0.7% (0.05 – 33.7%) and 0.75% (0.05% – 33.4%) for the lower and middle mean governance groups respectively despite improvements in other health and economic indices. The median HIV prevalence estimates in the higher mean governance group was 0.2% (0.05 – 38.8%). Conclusion HIV prevalence is significantly associated with poor governance. International public health programs need to address societal structures in order to create strong foundations upon which effective healthcare interventions can be implemented. PMID:15850480

  17. Brief Communication: Likelihood of societal preparedness for global change: trend detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. M.; Rosner, A.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2013-07-01

    Anthropogenic influences on earth system processes are now pervasive, resulting in trends in river discharge, pollution levels, ocean levels, precipitation, temperature, wind, landslides, bird and plant populations and a myriad of other important natural hazards relating to earth system state variables. Thousands of trend detection studies have been published which report the statistical significance of observed trends. Unfortunately, such studies only concentrate on the null hypothesis of "no trend". Little or no attention is given to the power of such statistical trend tests, which would quantify the likelihood that we might ignore a trend if it really existed. The probability of missing the trend, if it exists, known as the type II error, informs us about the likelihood of whether or not society is prepared to accommodate and respond to such trends. We describe how the power or probability of detecting a trend if it exists, depends critically on our ability to develop improved multivariate deterministic and statistical methods for predicting future trends in earth system processes. Several other research and policy implications for improving our understanding of trend detection and our societal response to those trends are discussed.

  18. Statistically small effects of the Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Anthony G; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, and Banaji (2009; GPUB hereafter) reported an average predictive validity correlation of r̄ = .236 for Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures involving Black-White racial attitudes and stereotypes. Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013; OMBJT) reported a lower aggregate figure for correlations involving IAT measures (r̄ = .148). The difference between the estimates of the 2 reviews was due mostly to their use of different policies for including effect sizes. GPUB limited their study to findings that assessed theoretically expected attitude-behavior and stereotype-judgment correlations along with others that the authors expected to show positive correlations. OMBJT included a substantial minority of correlations for which there was no theoretical expectation of a predictive relationship. Regardless of inclusion policy, both meta-analyses estimated aggregate correlational effect sizes that were large enough to explain discriminatory impacts that are societally significant either because they can affect many people simultaneously or because they can repeatedly affect single persons. PMID:25402677

  19. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  20. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  1. Infrastructure for collaborative science and societal applications in the Columbia River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, António M.; Seaton, Charles; Wilkin, Michael P.; Riseman, Sarah F.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Maier, David; Turner, Paul J.; Kärnä, Tuomas; Lopez, Jesse E.; Herfort, Lydie; Megler, V. M.; McNeil, Craig; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Spitz, Yvette H.; Simon, Holly M.

    2015-12-01

    To meet societal needs, modern estuarine science needs to be interdisciplinary and collaborative, combine discovery with hypotheses testing, and be responsive to issues facing both regional and global stakeholders. Such an approach is best conducted with the benefit of data-rich environments, where information from sensors and models is openly accessible within convenient timeframes. Here, we introduce the operational infrastructure of one such data-rich environment, a collaboratory created to support (a) interdisciplinary research in the Columbia River estuary by the multi-institutional team of investigators of the Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction and (b) the integration of scientific knowledge into regional decision making. Core components of the operational infrastructure are an observation network, a modeling system and a cyber-infrastructure, each of which is described. The observation network is anchored on an extensive array of long-term stations, many of them interdisciplinary, and is complemented by on-demand deployment of temporary stations and mobile platforms, often in coordinated field campaigns. The modeling system is based on finiteelement unstructured-grid codes and includes operational and process-oriented simulations of circulation, sediments and ecosystem processes. The flow of information is managed through a dedicated cyber-infrastructure, conversant with regional and national observing systems.

  2. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  3. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, D.W.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Wuy, L.D.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

  4. Measuring the patient health, societal and economic benefits of US pediatric therapeutics legislation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, John A; Shortenhaus, Scott H; Mayer, Mark H; Allen, Albert J; Golec, Joseph H

    2012-10-01

    Through at least the mid-1990s, children were often referred to as 'therapeutic orphans' for whom many treatments were administered without the benefit of appropriate studies to guide drug labeling for dosing and other critical therapeutic decisions. At that time, there were no incentives for manufacturers to pursue such work, nor regulatory requirements to compel these studies. Congress addressed this by including an important provision titled the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization and Accountability Act. This was complemented by another key piece of legislation, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) in 2003. The former Act and its successors created an incentive for firms to study on-patent drugs in pediatric populations by extending the market exclusivity of a medicine by 6 months. The latter was a requirement that provided the US FDA with the authority to require studies of drugs in children if an adult indication also occurs in children. In the current paper, we consider the effects of both pieces of legislation in terms of the health, societal, and economic benefits they have likely imparted and will continue to provide in the future. We conclude that the gains have been substantial - both in terms of safer and more effective use of medicines in children and in terms of new research that has been incentivized by the BPCA exclusivity provision. We estimate the gross economic benefits from the latter alone to be approximately $US360 billion. PMID:22775493

  5. Societal Projection: Beliefs Concerning the Relationship between Development and Inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Thornton, Arland; Wang, Guangzhou; Lai, Qing

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the relationship between development and inequality at the societal level is perceived and evaluated by ordinary Chinese people. We hypothesize that because the Chinese have recently experienced rapid increases in both economic growth and social inequality, they tend to view economic development as a driving force of social inequality. To address this question, we conducted a social survey in 2006 in six Chinese provinces (n = 4,898). The survey data reveal that a large proportion of Chinese people have internalized a causal model in which they project high levels of inequality onto countries they view as more developed and low levels of inequality onto countries they see as less developed. However, results also show that a smaller proportion of Chinese believe in a negative relationship between development and inequality. Hence, the study reveals heterogeneity among ordinary Chinese in their perceptions of the causal relationship between development and inequality. Surprisingly, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics provide no explanatory power in explaining this heterogeneity. PMID:23017918

  6. VASA: Interactive Computational Steering of Large Asynchronous Simulation Pipelines for Societal Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sungahn; Zhao, Jieqiong; Xia, Jing; Afzal, Shehzad; Wang, Xiaoyu; Abram, Greg; Elmqvist, Niklas; Kne, Len; Van Riper, David; Gaither, Kelly; Kennedy, Shaun; Tolone, William; Ribarsky, William; Ebert, David S

    2014-12-01

    We present VASA, a visual analytics platform consisting of a desktop application, a component model, and a suite of distributed simulation components for modeling the impact of societal threats such as weather, food contamination, and traffic on critical infrastructure such as supply chains, road networks, and power grids. Each component encapsulates a high-fidelity simulation model that together form an asynchronous simulation pipeline: a system of systems of individual simulations with a common data and parameter exchange format. At the heart of VASA is the Workbench, a visual analytics application providing three distinct features: (1) low-fidelity approximations of the distributed simulation components using local simulation proxies to enable analysts to interactively configure a simulation run; (2) computational steering mechanisms to manage the execution of individual simulation components; and (3) spatiotemporal and interactive methods to explore the combined results of a simulation run. We showcase the utility of the platform using examples involving supply chains during a hurricane as well as food contamination in a fast food restaurant chain. PMID:26356899

  7. Optimal diabetes care--can we afford it?: evidence-based diabetes care could be highly cost effective.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, T A; Bennett-Richards, P

    2013-11-01

    Management of diabetes is expensive and set to get costlier. Managing the condition and it's devastating complications imposing a huge societal and economic toll on healthcare systems worldwide. While many interventions to reduce complications are available, a number of interventions do not have a strong basis in evidence, and lack cost effectiveness. In a time of economic austerity, and unprecedented pressure to reduce costs of health care in the UK, are there ways improving care, without driving up cost? PMID:23824944

  8. Acceptable cost for the patient and society.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Georgina M; Adamson, G David; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    2013-08-01

    Alongside the debate around clinical, scientific, and ethical aspects of assisted reproductive technology (ART), there exists a parallel debate around the economics of ART treatment and what is the most appropriate funding framework for providing safe, equitable, and cost-effective treatment. The cost of ART treatment from a patient perspective exhibits striking differences worldwide due to the costliness of underlying health care systems and the level of public and third-party subsidization. These relative cost differences affect not only who can afford to access ART treatment but how ART is practiced in terms of embryo transfer practices; in turn significantly impacting the health outcomes and costs of caring for ART conceived children. Although empirical evidence indicates that ART treatment is "good value money" from a societal and patient perspective, the challenge remains to communicate this to policy makers, primarily because fertility treatments are not easily accommodated by traditional health economic methods. Furthermore, with global demand for ART treatment likely to increase, it is important that future funding decisions are informed by what has been learned about how costs and economic incentives influence equity of access and clinical practice. In this review we provide an international perspective on the costs and consequences of ART and summarize key economic considerations from the perspective of ART patients, providers, and society as a whole in the coming decade. PMID:23905708

  9. Rationale for cost-effective laboratory medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A

    1994-01-01

    There is virtually universal consensus that the health care system in the United States is too expensive and that costs need to be limited. Similar to health care costs in general, clinical laboratory expenditures have increased rapidly as a result of increased utilization and inflationary trends within the national economy. Economic constraints require that a compromise be reached between individual welfare and limited societal resources. Public pressure and changing health care needs have precipitated both subtle and radical laboratory changes to more effectively use allocated resources. Responsibility for excessive laboratory use can be assigned primarily to the following four groups: practicing physicians, physicians in training, patients, and the clinical laboratory. The strategies to contain escalating health care costs have ranged from individualized physician education programs to government intervention. Laboratories have responded to the fiscal restraints imposed by prospective payment systems by attempting to reduce operational costs without adversely impacting quality. Although cost containment directed at misutilization and overutilization of existing services has conserved resources, to date, an effective cost control mechanism has yet to be identified and successfully implemented on a grand enough scale to significantly impact health care expenditures in the United States. PMID:8055467

  10. The Growth of Hydrological Understanding: Observations, Theories and Societal Influences that have Shaped the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, M.

    2009-12-01

    “Progress in science depends on new techniques, new discoveries and new ideas, probably in that order.” Sydney Brenner (1980). ______________ Science never progresses smoothly or uniformly on all fronts. History of science tells us that progress cannot be meticulously planned, and elaborate plans do not always end up at their intended targets. Breakthroughs tend to happen by themselves through human ingenuity, which cannot be precisely predicted nor pre-planned. All sciences go through periods of euphoria, stagnation, pessimism and then recovery. New theories/ideas, or new measurements/data sources or new analysis techniques have alternated in generating vital breakthroughs. Progress in science is also not immune from other societal and technological influences, including wars. Hydrology is no exception. However, at this point in time it is not clear if hydrologic science is limited by data (and our ability to measure or monitor water cycle dynamics) or by theories or vital ideas that can help us understand how the hydrologic system works and will evolve. We can map the surface of Mars in search of the presence of water, but cannot close the water balance here on Earth. We have instruments that can help us observe pore scale processes in the laboratory, but still cannot predict how these will evolve in time in real places, at much larger scales. We are dealing with a complex adaptive system that evolves at all time and space scales. There is a great need for data to close the water balance, but there is an even greater need to understand and predict in all places in such a dynamic environment. It sometimes happens that every time a new measurement technology or data analysis technique is introduced we get excited and pour enormous resources on their development only to be disappointed that we have gone down a narrow alley. In spite of occasional breakthroughs in our measurement capability, the bigger challenge remains our inability to extrapolate beyond the

  11. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  12. Lingering Problems of Currency and Scope in Daniels's Argument for a Societal Obligation to Meet Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Norman Daniels's new book, Just Health, brings together his decades of work on the problem of justice and health. It improves on earlier writings by discussing how we can meet health needs fairly when we cannot meet them all and by attending to the implications of the socioeconomic determinants of health. In this article I return to the core idea around which the entire theory is built: that the principle of equality of opportunity grounds a societal obligation to meet health needs. I point, first, that nowhere does Daniels say just what version of that principle he accepts. I then proceed to construct a principle on his behalf, based on a faithful reading of Just Health. Once we actually nail down the principle, I argue, we will find that there are two problems: it is implausible in itself, and it fails to ground a societal obligation to meet health needs. PMID:20634271

  13. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  14. Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: lessons learned and implications for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doswell, Charles A.

    It is well known that the United States has the greatest number of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes of any nation worldwide. Therefore, in the United States, a substantial infrastructure has evolved in response to the numerous natural hazards (not limited to severe thunderstorms and tornadoes) in an effort to reduce the societal impacts of these hazards. In addition to keeping records of the events, there are state and national programs (public and private) to help reduce the economic and social impacts on local communities that might otherwise have to prepare for severe storms and rebuild using only the limited local resources. This paper reviews the basics of the infrastructure that has been developed to deal with severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, and describes its history briefly, as well as considering some of its successes and problems. Although the American system should not be used as a simple template for Europe, it does need to be considered as Europe begins to address how to deal with the unique character of European severe storm hazards. Given that severe thunderstorm and tornado event frequencies are generally lower in Europe, as well as the smaller areas of individual European nations, each country has a correspondingly low annual event frequency, especially for the rare "high end" events that have the potential create major disasters. Collectively, however, the severe weather threat is almost certainly larger for Europe as a whole than most Europeans realize. Any decision concerning the phenomena that will be considered "severe weather" in Europe needs to be made in a purely European context. It is suggested that severe weather is best dealt with as the pan-European hazard it truly represents. Pan-European severe weather forecasting and research centers are proposed and issues that will need to be confronted are reviewed.

  15. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers). PMID:26206166

  16. The Contribution of Operational and Research Applications from the Joint Polar Satellite System to Societal Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    Applications of satellite data are paramount to transform science and technology to product and services which are used in critical decision making. For the satellite community, good representations of technology are the satellite sensors, while science provides the instrument calibration and derived geophysical parameters. Weather forecasting is an application of the science and technology provided by remote sensing satellites. The Joint Polar Satellite System, which includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) provides formidable science and technology to support many applications and includes support to 1) weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are used to forecast weather events out to 7 days - nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites; 2) environmental monitoring -data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color; and 3) climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be presented along with how the data and applications support a large number of societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS).

  17. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pijnacker, Roan; Heusinkveld, Moniek; Enserink, Remko; Zuidema, Rody; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children experienced AGE (0.95 episodes/parent-year and 2.25 episodes/child-year). Healthcare utilization was 18.3% (children) and 8.6% (parents), with 1.6% children hospitalized. Work absenteeism was 55.6% (median 1.5 days) and day-care absenteeism was 26.2% (median 1 day). Besides chronic enteropathies, antacid use, non-breastfeeding, and toddling age, risk factors for childhood AGE were having developmental disabilities, parental occupation in healthcare, multiple siblings, single-parent families, and ≤12-month day-care attendance. Risk factors for parental AGE were female gender, having multiple or developmentally-disabled day-care-attending children, antimicrobial use, and poor food-handling practices. Parents of AGE-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold increased AGE risk. We concluded that AGE-causing agents spread widely in families with preschool children, causing high healthcare-seeking behaviours and productivity losses. Modifiable risk factors provide targets for AGE-reducing initiatives. Children may acquire some immunity to AGE after one year of day-care attendance. PMID:26917406

  18. Merging Field Measurements and High Resolution Modeling to Predict Possible Societal Impacts of Permafrost Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Marchenko, S. S.; Cable, W.; Panda, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    A general warming trend in permafrost temperatures has triggered permafrost degradation in Alaska, especially at locations influenced by human activities. Various phenomena related to permafrost degradation are already commonly observed, including increased rates of coastal and riverbank erosion, increased occurrences of retrogressive thaw slumps and active layer detachment slides, and the disappearance of tundra lakes. The combination of thawing permafrost and erosion is damaging local community infrastructure such as buildings, roads, airports, pipelines, water and sanitation facilities, and communication systems. The potential scale of direct ecological and economical damage due to degrading permafrost has just begun to be recognized. While the projected changes in permafrost are generally available on global and regional scales, these projections cannot be effectively employed to estimate the societal impacts because of their coarse resolution. Intrinsic problems with the classical "spatial grid" approach in spatially distributed modeling applications preclude the use of this modeling approach to solve the above stated problem. Two types of models can be used to study permafrost dynamics in this case. One approach is a site-specific application of the GIPL2.0 permafrost model and another is a very high (tens to hundred meter) resolution spatially distributed version of the same model. The results of properly organized field measurements are also needed to calibrate and validate these models for specific locations and areas of interest. We are currently developing a "landscape unit" approach that allows practically unlimited spatial resolution of the modeling products. Classification of the study area into particular "landscape units" should be performed in accordance with the main factors controlling the expression of climate on permafrost in the study area, typically things such as vegetation, hydrology, soil properties, topography, etc. In areas with little

  19. The debate over food biotechnology in the United States: is a societal consensus achievable?

    PubMed

    Groth, E

    2001-07-01

    Unless the public comes to agree that the benefits of food biotechnology are desirable and the associated risks are acceptable, our society may fail to realize much of the potential benefits. Three historical cases of major technological innovations whose benefits and risks were the subject of heated public controversy are examined, in search of lessons that may suggest a path toward consensus in the biotechnology debate. In each of the cases--water fluoridation, nuclear power and pesticides--proponents of the technology gathered scientific evidence that they believed established that the innovations were safe. In each case, the federal government was heavily involved in oversight, safety regulation, and in the first two cases, active promotion of the technology. Supporters of the technologies employed a variety of communications strategies, ranging from massive "educational" campaigns (e.g. "Our Friend The Atom") to vituperative ad hominem attacks on leading opponents. None of these strategies succeeded in achieving broad societal acceptance of the technologies. Fluoridation today is opposed as vigorously by activist groups as it was when first introduced around 1950; it has not been universally adopted even in the U.S., and it has been rejected in most other countries. The American nuclear power industry is moribund, and the public has essentially rejected the technology. The pesticide industry is thriving, with new generations of products succeeding older more hazardous chemicals in a constant cycle. However, strong regulation has failed to prevent adverse health and ecological effects, which have been empirically associated with pesticide uses after the chemicals were dispersed in the environment. Debate over whether risks of such effects are acceptable has been heated for four decades, with scientists and the public divided. PMID:11506421

  20. Extreme Weather Events on the Last Frontier: Meteorological Analyses and Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuromski, L.; Walsh, J. E.; Thoman, R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service lacks a comprehensive compilation of major weather events in Alaska. Creating a repository of the effects of past storms and other extreme weather events on society, together with documentation of the meteorological evolution of the events, will facilitate the NWS and other government agencies to analyze this data. Such analysis will improve their strategies, such as sharpening local and state responses to extreme weather and enhancing forecasts for the events, to create a more weather-ready society in Alaska. This research examines six high-impact weather events in Alaska, ranging in dates from 1974 until 2012. Atmospheric data was gathered from the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)'s 6-Hour National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Reanalysis Composites and from 3-Hour NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Composites. Reanalysis composites of sea-level pressure, temperature, geopotential height, and vector wind allowed for the storms to be tracked and for weather pattern anomalies to be recognized. Societal impacts were investigated by using the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC)'s online Storm Events Database and by utilizing microfilms of Alaskan newspapers detailing the events. Synthesizing facts from NCDC and newspapers, along with incorporating meteorological knowledge from the atmospheric reanalysis composites, summaries of the events could then be created. In the future, this research will be continued to include a broader range of high-impact Alaskan weather events. This work will further serve as a basis for analysis for decision-makers to better plan for extreme events and their aftermath. The completed research, though a small portion of the anticipated project, provides a template for future data assimilation, and it initiates the efforts towards a more weather-prepared Alaska.

  1. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pijnacker, Roan; Heusinkveld, Moniek; Enserink, Remko; Zuidema, Rody; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children experienced AGE (0.95 episodes/parent-year and 2.25 episodes/child-year). Healthcare utilization was 18.3% (children) and 8.6% (parents), with 1.6% children hospitalized. Work absenteeism was 55.6% (median 1.5 days) and day-care absenteeism was 26.2% (median 1 day). Besides chronic enteropathies, antacid use, non-breastfeeding, and toddling age, risk factors for childhood AGE were having developmental disabilities, parental occupation in healthcare, multiple siblings, single-parent families, and ≤ 12-month day-care attendance. Risk factors for parental AGE were female gender, having multiple or developmentally-disabled day-care-attending children, antimicrobial use, and poor food-handling practices. Parents of AGE-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold increased AGE risk. We concluded that AGE-causing agents spread widely in families with preschool children, causing high healthcare-seeking behaviours and productivity losses. Modifiable risk factors provide targets for AGE-reducing initiatives. Children may acquire some immunity to AGE after one year of day-care attendance. PMID:26917406

  2. Climatic and Societal Causes for Abrupt Environmental Change in the Mediterranean During the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Noble, P. J.; Archer, C.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cifnani, G.; Passigli, S.; Piovesan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We compare climatic and societal causes for abrupt environmental change for the last 2000 years in the Rieti Basin, central Italy using high-resolution sedimentary paleoenvironmental proxies, historical documents, and annually resolved independent climate reconstructions of temperature and precipitation. Pollen zones, identified from temporally constrained cluster analysis, coincide with historic periods developed from well-established ceramic sequences corresponding to the Roman Imperial through Late Antique (1 to 600 CE) Early Medieval (600 to 875 CE), Medieval through Late Medieval (875 to 1400 CE), Renaissance and Modern (1400 to 1725 CE), and Contemporary periods (1725 CE to present). Non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination showed that each temporal period occupied a unique ecologic space suggesting that a new landscape was created during each successive historic period. During Roman time, between 1 and 500 CE, a modest decline in forest coincides with a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and drier climate; however mesophyllous forest is preserved. Steep decline in forest cover between 850 and 950 CE coincides with positive temperature anomalies in Europe and a positive NAO. Although this would seem to suggest climate as a cause, temperature and precipitation changes are modest and the magnitude and rapidity of the vegetation change suggests climate played a small role. Archaeological evidence from across Europe identifies socioeconomic factors that produced forest clearing. In contrast, cooler temperatures and a negative NAO (increased ppt) appears to have been a catalyst for land abandonment and forest recovery in the 13th to 14th centuries. The NAO produces opposite effects on societies in the eastern and western Mediterranean with the negative phase in 1400 CE leading to cool wet climate and land abandonment in central Italy but an abrupt shift to drier conditions and change from sedentary village life to nomadism in Syria.

  3. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  4. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this project aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. This proposal assesses societal transformations from the perspective of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. Yet each risk mitigation measure is built on a narrative of exchanges and relations between people and therefore may condition the outputs. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this project will focus on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. The policy dimension of adaptation, predominantly decisions on the societal admissible level of vulnerability and risk, will be evaluated by a human-environment interaction approach using multiple methods and the assessment of social capacities of stakeholders across scales. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. In addressing the relationship between these dimensions of adaptation on different temporal and spatial scales, this

  5. Societal expectations and the profession's responsibility to reform the dental workforce to ensure access to care for children.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2011-07-01

    Societal expectations raise the issue of the nature of a profession and a profession's relationship with society. Influential policy leaders want reform of the oral health workforce and delivery system in such a manner as to ensure that improvements are made for accessing care, particularly for vulnerable and disadvantaged populations, especially children. This essay is based on a presentation to the House of Delegates of the California Dental Association on Nov.13, 2009. PMID:21905546

  6. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of pazopanib in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Delea, T.E.; Amdahl, J.; Nakhaipour, H.R.; Manson, S.C.; Wang, A.; Fedor, N.; Chit, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the phase iii palette trial of pazopanib compared with placebo in patients with advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (sts) who had received prior chemotherapy, pazopanib treatment was associated with improved progression-free survival (pfs). We used an economic model and data from palette and other sources to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pazopanib in patients with advanced sts who had already received chemotherapy. Methods We developed a multistate model to estimate expected pfs, overall survival (os), lifetime sts treatment costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (qalys) for patients receiving pazopanib or placebo as second-line therapy for advanced sts. Cost-effectiveness was calculated alternatively from the health care system and societal perspectives for the province of Quebec. Estimated pfs, os, incidence of adverse events, and utilities values for pazopanib and placebo were derived from the palette trial. Costs were obtained from published sources. Results Compared with placebo, pazopanib is estimated to increase qalys by 0.128. The incremental cost of pazopanib compared with placebo is CA$20,840 from the health care system perspective and CA$15,821 from the societal perspective. The cost per qaly gained with pazopanib in that comparison is CA$163,336 from the health care system perspective and CA$124,001 from the societal perspective. Conclusions Compared with placebo, pazopanib might be cost-effective from the Canadian health care system and societal perspectives depending on the threshold value used by reimbursement authorities to assess novel cancer therapies. Given the unmet need for effective treatments for advanced sts, pazopanib might nevertheless be an appropriate alternative to currently used treatments. PMID:25489263

  8. Component costs of foodborne illness: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments require high-quality scientific evidence to prioritize resource allocation and the cost-of-illness (COI) methodology is one technique used to estimate the economic burden of a disease. However, variable cost inventories make it difficult to interpret and compare costs across multiple studies. Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify the component costs and the respective data sources used for estimating the cost of foodborne illnesses in a population. This review was accomplished by: (1) identifying the research question and relevant literature, (2) selecting the literature, (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the results. All pertinent data were extracted at the level of detail reported in a study, and the component cost and source data were subsequently grouped into themes. Results Eighty-four studies were identified that described the cost of foodborne illness in humans. Most studies (80%) were published in the last two decades (1992–2012) in North America and Europe. The 10 most frequently estimated costs were due to illnesses caused by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. being the most commonly studied. Forty studies described both individual (direct and indirect) and societal level costs. The direct individual level component costs most often included were hospital services, physician personnel, and drug costs. The most commonly reported indirect individual level component cost was productivity losses due to sick leave from work. Prior estimates published in the literature were the most commonly used source of component cost data. Data sources were not provided or specifically linked to component costs in several studies. Conclusions The results illustrated a highly variable depth and breadth of individual and societal level component costs, and a wide range of data sources being used. This scoping review can be used as evidence that there is a lack of standardization in cost inventories in

  9. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  10. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  11. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  12. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brandon S.; Nelson, Richard E.; Jackson, Brian R.; Grenache, David G.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Schmidt, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS) but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1) determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2) compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS. Study Design Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer. Results From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective. Conclusions From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS. PMID:26133556

  13. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease

  14. The effects of an environmental/science-technology-societal issues curriculum on preservice teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngongbo, Lucie Ngwidibah

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an environmental/science-technology-societal issues curriculum on preservice teachers as regards their environmental literacy, perceptions and attitudes towards STS issues, and perceptions and attitudes towards teaching STS issues to elementary students. The STS issues curriculum is designed to help preservice teachers improve their knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards STS issues. A modified posttest only design was used for the study, with a sample of 138 preservice teachers. Eighty-four of the subjects received the experimental treatment (CI427), while 54 of the subjects received the comparison treatment (CI426) for 16 weeks. A pretest on the variables GPA and familial/personal environmental sensitivity was administered to all the subjects prior to the treatments to ascertain the equivalence of the two groups. A posttest was administered to all subjects and data were collected on the following variables: familiarity with issues, perceived knowledge of issues, perceived skills of action, self-reported citizenship actions, issue identification, issue analysis, citizen action plan selection, perceived importance of STS issues, perceived interest in STS issues, perceived skills in investigating and evaluating STS issues, perceived skills in resolving STS issues, perceived importance of elementary students becoming knowledgeable about STS issues, perceived willingness to teach STS issues to elementary students, perceived skills to teach elementary students to investigate and evaluate STS issues, and perceived skills to help elementary students resolve STS issues. The experimental group numerically outscored the comparison group on all variables. All variables achieved statistical significance at the.05 level except self reported citizenship action (p =.009), citizen action plan selection (p =.015), perceived importance of elementary students becoming knowledgeable about STS issues (p = 0.51), and

  15. Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification versus Metformin Therapy for the Prevention of Diabetes in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Background In Singapore, as diabetes is an increasingly important public health issue, the cost-effectiveness of pursuing lifestyle modification programs and/or alternative prevention strategies is of critical importance for policymakers. While the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) compared weight loss through lifestyle modification with oral treatment of diabetes drug metformin to prevent/delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in pre-diabetic subjects, no data on either the actual or potential cost effectiveness of such a program is available for East or South-east Asian populations. This study estimates the 3-year cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification and metformin among pre-diabetic subjects from a Singapore health system and societal perspective. Methodology Cost effectiveness was analysed from 2010–2012 using a decision-based model to estimate the rates of getting diabetes, healthcare costs and health-related quality of life. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was estimated using costs relevant to the time horizon of the study from Singapore. All costs are expressed in 2012 US dollars. Principal Findings The total economic cost for non-diabetic subjects from the societal perspective was US$25,867, US$28,108 and US$26,177 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. For diabetic patients, the total economic cost from the societal perspective was US$32,921, US$35,163 and US$33,232 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. Lifestyle modification relative to placebo is likely to be associated with an incremental cost per QALY gained at US$36,663 while that of metformin intervention is likely to be US$6,367 from a societal perspective. Conclusion Based on adaptation of the DPP data to local conditions, both lifestyle modification and metformin intervention are likely to be cost-effective and worth implementing in Singapore to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. However

  16. The Global Diffusion of Societal Verification Tools: A Quantitative Assessment of the Public’s Ability to Engage Nonproliferation Treaty Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2015-07-11

    The spread of nuclear and dual-use technologies and the need for more robust, effective and efficient nonproliferation and arms control treaties has led to an increasing need for innovative verification approaches and technologies. This need, paired with advancements in online computing, mobile devices, commercially available satellite imagery and the evolution of online social networks, has led to a resurgence of the concept of societal verification for arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the event a country accepts its citizens’ assistance in supporting transparency, confidence-building and societal verification, the host government will need a population that is willing and able to participate. While scholarly interest in societal verification continues to grow, social scientific research on the topic is lacking. The aim of this paper is to begin the process of understanding public societal verification capabilities, extend the availability of quantitative research on societal verification and set in motion complementary research to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge on this topic. This paper presents a potential framework and outlines a research roadmap for the development of such a societal verification capability index.

  17. Societal and Public Policy Trends Taking Us into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Rick

    1989-01-01

    This conference paper discusses seven trends with implications for pharmacy: changing demographics (to a more elderly population), setting limits (health care costs), wellness and health promotion, organizational and structural changes in the health care industry, driving diseases (mental health, heart disease, AIDS), driving discoveries, and…

  18. Cost of Illness of Multiple Sclerosis - A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ernstsson, Olivia; Gyllensten, Hanna; Alexanderson, Kristina; Tinghög, Petter; Friberg, Emilie; Norlund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost-of-illness (COI) studies of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are vital components for describing the economic burden of MS, and are frequently used in model studies of interventions of MS. We conducted a systematic review of studies estimating the COI of MS, to compare costs between studies and examine cost drivers, emphasizing generalizability and methodological choices. Material and method A literature search on studies published in English on COI of MS was performed in PubMed for the period January 1969 to January 2014, resulting in 1,326 publications. A mapping of studies using a bottom-up approach or top-down approach, respectively, was conducted for the 48 studies assessed as relevant. In a second analysis, the cost estimates were compared between the 29 studies that used a societal perspective on costs, human capital approach for indirect costs, presenting number of patients included, time-period studied, and year of price level used. Results The mapping showed that bottom-up studies and prevalence approaches were most common. The cost ratios between different severity levels within studies were relatively stable, to the ratio of 1 to 2 to 3 for disability level categories. Drugs were the main cost drivers for MS-patients with low disease severity, representing 29% to 82% of all costs in this patient group, while the main cost components for groups with more advanced MS symptoms were production losses due to MS and informal care, together representing 17% to 67% of costs in those groups. Conclusion The bottom-up method and prevalence approach dominated in studies of COI of MS. Our findings show that there are difficulties in comparing absolute costs across studies, nevertheless, the relative costs expressed as cost ratios, comparing different severity levels, showed higher resemblance. Costs of drugs were main cost drivers for less severe MS and informal care and production losses for the most severe MS. PMID:27411042

  19. Assessing societal impacts when planning restoration of large alluvial rivers: a case study of the Sacramento River project, California.

    PubMed

    Golet, Gregory H; Roberts, Michael D; Larsen, Eric W; Luster, Ryan A; Unger, Ron; Werner, Gregg; White, Gregory G

    2006-06-01

    Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider this in a comprehensive manner. Most river restoration projects also fail to take into account opportunities for revitalization of large-scale river processes, focusing instead on opportunities presented at individual parcels. In an effort to avoid these pitfalls while planning restoration of the Sacramento River, we conducted a set of coordinated studies to evaluate societal impacts of alternative restoration actions over a large geographic area. Our studies were designed to identify restoration actions that offer benefits to both society and the ecosystem and to meet the information needs of agency planning teams focusing on the area. We worked with local partners and public stakeholders to design and implement studies that assessed the effects of alternative restoration actions on flooding and erosion patterns, socioeconomics, cultural resources, and public access and recreation. We found that by explicitly and scientifically melding societal and ecosystem perspectives, it was possible to identify restoration actions that simultaneously improve both ecosystem health and the services (e.g., flood protection and recreation) that the Sacramento River and its floodplain provide to people. Further, we found that by directly engaging with local stakeholders to formulate, implement, and interpret the studies, we were able to develop a high level of trust that ultimately translated into widespread support for the project. PMID:16523370

  20. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Geosciences and Societal Impacts Research and Education via Dynamically Adaptive, Interoperable Data and Forecasting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J.; Domenico, B.; Chiswell, S.; Baltzer, T.

    2005-12-01

    The problems monitoring, predicting, and responding to coastal inundation and inland flooding situations are inherently multidisciplinary. Predicting precipitation and streamflow require expertise in meteorology and hydrology. Oceanography also enters the picture in the cases where the severe storm occurs in a coastal area. Appropriate responses to such natural hazards requires integration of infrastructure and demographics data systems associated with the societal impacts community. Building and disseminating a system that will address this problem in a comprehensive and coherent manner can only be done by a team with the a broad range of technological and scientific expertise and community connections. Efforts are underway to develop interoperable data systems among the atmospheric science, hydrology, coastal oceans, and societal impacts communities, so they may conveniently and rapidly share data among their systems in cases where hazardous events threaten infrastructure and human health. The basic approach is to build on a dynamically adaptive data access and high resolution, local forecasting system being developed for the LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) project. At present, the LEAD technology is confined to local weather forecasts automatically steered by algorithms analyzing data from national forecasts. But efforts are underway to develop an expanded team that would include expertise in coupling atmospheric forecast models with hydrological and storm surge forecast models and, in turn, to coordinate those data systems with those of the GIS (Geographic Information System) community which contain most of the demographic and infrastructure information related to societal impacts. The paper will provide an update on the status of these efforts and a demonstration of how such a dynamically adaptive forecasting system focused high resolution local forecast model runs on Hurricane Katrina.

  1. Is there a societal need for decadal local sea level forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.

    2010-12-01

    deglaciation, rapid LSL changes altered coast lines within decades. But large-scale built environment was absent and the much smaller number of human beings could easily adopt to shifting coast lines. Today, with wide-spread built environment and crucial, potentially polluting infrastructure in coastal zones, rapid changes in coast lines and increased inundation risks during storm surges would be economically and environmentally devastating. In the absence of actionable century-scale GSL and LSL predictions, and in the face of low-probability but extremely high-risk rapid LSL events, there is a growing societal need for forecasts of LSL changes on decadal time scales. To a certain extent, a decadal sea level forecasting service would be comparable to the ongoing sky-watch for near-Earth objects, which aims to provide early detection of the low-probability/high-risk event of a large object approaching Earth. Key elements of a decadal LSL forecasting service would be a Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) and models capable of assimilating GCW and other observations as a basis for reliable decadel LSL forecasts. Such a service could facilitate mitigation and adaptation where and when necessary. Setting up such a service now would enable the assessment of its predictive capabilities.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple economic model

    PubMed Central

    Alkoshi, Salem; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Libya. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. Methods We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and societal. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in some values of the variables selected. Results The three hospitals received 545 diarrhea patients aged≤5 with 311 (57%) rotavirus positive test results during a 9-month period. The societal cost for treatment of a case of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at US$ 661/event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with a vaccine price of US$ 27 per course was US$ 8,972 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the health care perspective. From a societal perspective, the analysis shows cost savings of around US$ 16 per child. Conclusion The model shows that rotavirus vaccination could be economically a very attractive intervention in Libya. PMID:25499622

  3. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  4. Cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab in the treatment of visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Haig, Jennifer; Barbeau, Martin; Ferreira, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Objective Ranibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor designed for ocular use, has been deemed cost-effective in multiple indications by several Health Technology Assessment bodies. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab monotherapy or combination therapy (ranibizumab plus laser photocoagulation) compared with laser monotherapy for the treatment of visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods A Markov model was developed in which patients moved between health states defined by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) intervals and an absorbing 'death' state. The population of interest was patients with DME due to type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline characteristics were based on those of participants in the RESTORE study. Main outputs were costs (in 2013 CA$) and health outcomes (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. This cost-utility analysis was conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives in Quebec. Results From a healthcare system perspective, the ICERs for ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy vs laser monotherapy were CA$24 494 and CA$36 414 per QALY gained, respectively. The incremental costs per year without legal blindness for ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy vs laser monotherapy were CA$15 822 and CA$20 616, respectively. Based on the generally accepted Canadian ICER threshold of CA$50 000 per QALY gained, ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy were found to be cost-effective compared with laser monotherapy. From a societal perspective, ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy provided greater benefits at lower costs than laser monotherapy (ranibizumab therapy dominated laser therapy). Conclusions Ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy resulted in increased quality-adjusted survival and time without legal blindness and lower costs from a societal perspective compared with

  5. Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Itria, Alexander; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Rama, Cristina Helena; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. PMID:26017797

  6. The cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi Jarrahi, Yasaman; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Sadigh, Nader; Esmaeelpoor Langeroudy, Keyhan; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Besharat, Mehdi; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. Effective vaccines have recently been approved and successful vaccination program implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of mass rotavirus vaccination program in Iran. We developed a Markov model that reflects key features of rotavirus natural history. Parameters of the model were assessed by field study or developed through literature search and published data. We applied the model to the 2009 Iranian birth cohort and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of including the rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) into Iranian expanded immunization program (EPI). With an estimated hospitalization rate of 0.05 and outpatient rate of 0.23 cases per person-year, vaccinating cohort of 1231735 infants in Iran with 2 doses of (Rotarix®), would prevent 32092 hospitalizations, 158750 outpatient visits, and 1591 deaths during 5 y of follow-up. Under base-case assumption of $10 cost per course of vaccine, the vaccination would incur an extra cost of $1,019,192 from health care perspective and would avert 54680 DALYs. From societal perspective, there would be $15,192,568 saving for the society with the same averted DALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio showed a cost of $19 US dollars per averted DALY from health care perspective and a saving of $278 US dollars for each averted DALY from societal perspective. Introducing rotavirus vaccine into EPI program would be highly cost-effective public health intervention in Iran. PMID:26360331

  7. Societal-Equity-Enhancing Criteria and Facility-Host Incentives Supporting Five Key Elements in the January 2012 Blue Ribbon Commission Report - 13015

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; George, Critz H.

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, the Obama Administration announced it would abandon USA's only candidate SNF/HLW-disposal facility since 1987. In 2010, all related activities were stopped and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future was established 'to recommend a new strategy for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle', which it did in January 2012, emphasizing eight key elements. However, Key Element 1, 'A new, consent-based approach to siting future nuclear facilities', is qualitative/indeterminate rather than quantitative/measurable. It is thus highly-susceptible to semantic permutations that could extend rather than, as intended, expedite the siting of future nuclear facilities unless it also defines: a) Whose consent is needed?; and b) What constitutes consent? The following 'generic', radiation-risk- and societal-equity-based criteria address these questions: 1. Identify areas affected by projected radiation and other health risks from: a. The proposed nuclear facility (facility stakeholders); and b. The related nuclear-materials-transportation routes (transportation stakeholders); then 2. Surround each stakeholder area with a buffer zone and use this enlarged foot print to identify: a. Stakeholder hosts; and b. Areas not hosting any stakeholder category (interested parties). 3. Define 'consent-based' as being at least 60 percent of the 'population' in the respective stakeholder category and apply this yardstick to both 'in favor' and 'against' votes. Although criteria 1 and 2 also need facility-based definitions to make Key Element 1 measurable, the described siting approach, augmented by related facility-host incentives, would expedite the schedule and reduce the cost for achieving Key Elements 4-6 and 8, politics permitting. (authors)

  8. Overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: an estimation of costs

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Anne; Callinan, Aoife; Doherty, Edel; O'Neill, Ciaran; McVeigh, Treasa; Sweeney, Mary Rose; Staines, Anthony; Kearns, Karen; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Sharp, Linda; Kee, Frank; Hughes, John; Balanda, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide continues to compromise population health and creates a wider societal cost in terms of productivity loss and premature mortality. Despite extensive international literature on the cost of overweight and obesity, findings are inconsistent between Europe and the USA, and particularly within Europe. Studies vary on issues of focus, specific costs and methods. This study aims to estimate the healthcare and productivity costs of overweight and obesity for the island of Ireland in 2009, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Methods Costs were estimated across four categories: healthcare utilisation, drug costs, work absenteeism and premature mortality. Healthcare costs were estimated using Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs). PAFs were applied to national cost data for hospital care and drug prescribing. PAFs were also applied to social welfare and national mortality data to estimate productivity costs due to absenteeism and premature mortality. Results The healthcare costs of overweight and obesity in 2009 were estimated at €437 million for the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and €127.41 million for NI. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity was up to €865 million for ROI and €362 million for NI. The main drivers of healthcare costs are cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, colon cancer, stroke and gallbladder disease. In terms of absenteeism, low back pain is the main driver in both jurisdictions, and for productivity loss due to premature mortality the primary driver of cost is coronary heart disease. Conclusions The costs are substantial, and urgent public health action is required in Ireland to address the problem of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, which if left unchecked will lead to unsustainable cost escalation within the health service and unacceptable societal costs. PMID:25776042

  9. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods.

    PubMed

    Jo, Changik

    2014-12-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  10. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  11. The impact of formal, informal, and societal support networks on the psychological well-being of black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M S; Peebles-Wilkins, W

    1992-07-01

    Although several researchers argue that informal support systems provide economic and psychological resources for black families, little empirical research is available to inform policy and intervention programs. This article examines the impact of informal, formal, and societal support systems on the mental health of black adolescent mothers. Using the social work generalist theoretical framework, several types of resources are considered separately to determine whether they contribute similarly to psychological well-being. Data from a survey of black teenage mothers show that both lay and professional supports were important for the young mother's psychological well-being. Support from a male partner, caseworker contact, and membership in a support group decreased psychological distress and depression. Support from the male partner also enhanced psychological well-being. Support from friends, on the other hand, was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. A professional service plan that effectively incorporates informal and societal supports in a complementary manner offers the best possibility for reducing the distress of black teenage mothers. PMID:1641689

  12. Developing a theory of the societal lifecycle of cigarette smoking : explaining and anticipating trends using information feedback.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Richardson, George P.

    2010-12-01

    Cigarette smoking presented the most significant public health challenge in the United States in the 20th Century and remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in this country. A number of System Dynamics models exist that inform tobacco control policies. We reviewed them and discuss their contributions. We developed a theory of the societal lifecycle of smoking, using a parsimonious set of feedback loops to capture historical trends and explore future scenarios. Previous work did not explain the long-term historical patterns of smoking behaviors. Much of it used stock-and-flow to represent the decline in prevalence in the recent past. With noted exceptions, information feedbacks were not embedded in these models. We present and discuss our feedback-rich conceptual model and illustrate the results of a series of simulations. A formal analysis shows phenomena composed of different phases of behavior with specific dominant feedbacks associated with each phase. We discuss the implications of our society's current phase, and conclude with simulations of what-if scenarios. Because System Dynamics models must contain information feedback to be able to anticipate tipping points and to help identify policies that exploit leverage in a complex system, we expanded this body of work to provide an endogenous representation of the century-long societal lifecycle of smoking.

  13. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  14. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  15. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Methods Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method), household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Results Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector) were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia); 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Conclusions Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our findings contribute important

  16. Benefits and costs of supported employment from three perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clark, R E; Xie, H; Becker, D R; Drake, R E

    1998-02-01

    Administrators, consumers, and policy makers are increasingly interested in supported employment as a way of helping persons with severe mental illness get and keep competitive jobs. However, in an atmosphere of increased expectations for performance and declining public financing, administrators want to know the costs and benefits of different approaches before they reallocate scarce treatment or rehabilitative dollars. This article discusses the net benefits of two approaches to supported employment that were compared in a randomized trial: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) and Group Skills Training (GST). The authors analyze costs and benefits from societal, government, and consumer perspectives. Although a previous analysis showed that IPS participants were significantly more likely to find work, worked more hours, and had higher earnings, net benefits of the two programs were not significantly different. The authors also discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of cost-benefit analysis in mental health care and suggest future directions for policy and research. PMID:9516291

  17. Cost considerations in the management of atrial fibrillation – impact of dronedarone

    PubMed Central

    Khaykin, Yaariv; Shamiss, Yana

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At the societal level, AF carries an enormous cost. Strategies aimed at reducing AF morbidity and mortality and containing the associated fiscal burden are of paramount importance. This review will discuss AF treatment strategies and economics, focusing on the impact of dronedarone, a novel antiarrhythmic agent. PMID:22427725

  18. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  19. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program.

    PubMed

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario Status Quo (SQ). The analyses took government and societal perspectives to age 65. We assigned probabilities of Independent, Semi-dependent or Dependent living based on projected IQ. Costs per person (in Canadian dollars) were ascribed to each living setting. From a government perspective, the ESDM-PD produced an additional 0.17 DFLYs for $8600 less than SQ. From a societal perspective, the ESDM-I produced an additional 0.53 DFLYs for $45,000 less than SQ. Pre-diagnosis interventions targeting ASD symptoms warrant further investigation. PMID:25936527

  1. Cost-effectiveness of extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomized comparison with conventional herniorrhaphy. Coala trial group.

    PubMed Central

    Liem, M S; Halsema, J A; van der Graaf, Y; Schrijvers, A J; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair seems superior to open techniques with respect to short-term results. An issue yet to be studied in depth remains the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. As part of a multicenter randomized study in which >1000 patients were included, a cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal point of view was performed. METHODS: After informed consent, all resource costs, both in and outside the hospital, for patients between August 1994 and July 1995 were recorded prospectively. Actual costs were calculated in a standardized fashion according to international guidelines. The main measures used for the evaluation of inguinal hernia repair were the number of averted recurrences and quality of life measured with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. RESULTS: Resource costs were recorded for 273 patients, 139 in the open and 134 in the laparoscopic group. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Average total hospital costs were Dfl 1384.91 (standard deviation: Dfl 440.15) for the open repair group and Dfl 2417.24 (standard deviation: Dfl 577.10) for laparoscopic repair, including a disposable kit of Dfl 676. Societal costs, including costs for days of sick leave, were lower for the laparoscopic repair and offset the hospital costs by Dfl 780.83 (75.6%), leaving the laparoscopic repair Dfl 251.50 more expensive (Dfl 4665 versus Dfl 4916.50). At present, the recurrence rate is 2.6% lower after laparoscopic repair. Thus, 38 laparoscopic repairs, costing an additional Dfl 9,557, prevent the occurrence of one recurrent hernia. Quality of life was better after laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION: A better quality of life in the recovery period and the possibility of replacing parts of the disposable kit with reusable instruments may result in the laparoscopic repair becoming dominantly better--that is, less expensive and more effective from a

  2. BENEFITS AND COSTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMS FOR STATE PRISON INMATES: RESULTS FROM A LIFETIME SIMULATION MODEL

    PubMed Central

    ZARKIN, GARY A.; COWELL, ALEXANDER J.; HICKS, KATHERINE A.; MILLS, MICHAEL J.; BELENKO, STEVEN; DUNLAP, LAURA J.; HOUSER, KIMBERLY A.; KEYES, VINCE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society’s drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefits. In this paper, we simulate the lifetime costs and benefits of improving prison-based substance abuse treatment and post-release aftercare for a cohort of state prisoners. Our model captures the dynamics of substance abuse as a chronic disease; estimates the benefits of substance abuse treatment over individuals’ lifetimes; and tracks the costs of crime and criminal justice costs related to policing, adjudication, and incarceration. We estimate net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system of the current treatment system and five policy scenarios. We find that four of the five policy scenarios provide positive net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system relative to the current treatment system. Our study demonstrates the societal gains to improving the drug treatment system for state prisoners. PMID:21506193

  3. Costs of Alcohol-Involved Crashes, United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.; Blincoe, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates total and unit costs of alcohol-involved crashes in the U.S. in 2010. With methods from earlier studies, we estimated costs per crash survivor by MAIS, body part, and fracture/dislocation involvement. We multiplied them times 2010 crash incidence estimates from NHTSA data sets, with adjustments for underreporting of crashes and their alcohol involvement. The unit costs are lifetime costs discounted at 3%. To develop medical costs, we combined 2008 Health Care Utilization Program national data for hospitalizations and ED visits of crash survivors with prior estimates of post-discharge costs. Productivity losses drew on Current Population Survey and American Time Use Survey data. Quality of life losses came from a 2011 AAAM paper and property damage from insurance data. We built a hybrid incidence file comprised of 2008–2010 and 1984–86 NHTSA crash surveillance data, weighted with 2010 General Estimates System weights. Fatality data came from the 2010 FARS. An estimated 12% of 2010 crashes but only 0.9% of miles driven were alcohol-involved (BAC > .05). Alcohol-involved crashes cost an estimated $125 billion. That is 22.5% of the societal cost of all crashes. Alcohol-attributable crashes accounted for an estimated 22.5% of US auto liability insurance payments. Alcohol-involved crashes cost $0.86 per drink. Above the US BAC limit of .08, crash costs were $8.37 per mile driven; 1 in 788 trips resulted in a crash and 1 in 1,016 trips in an arrest. Unit costs for crash survivors by severity are higher for impaired driving than for other crashes. That suggests national aggregate impaired driving cost estimates in other countries are substantial underestimates if they are based on all-crash unit costs. PMID:24406941

  4. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required. PMID:22640030

  5. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  6. The use of engineering design scenarios to assess student knowledge of global, societal, economic, and environmental contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-07-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on student attitudes and perceptions about engineering and abilities to extend and refine knowledge about broader contexts. Two design scenarios were created: one related to dental hygiene and one related to vaccination delivery. Design scenarios were used to (1) assess knowledge of broader contexts, and (2) test variability of student responses across different contextual situations. Results from pre- to post-surveying revealed improved student perceptions of knowledge of broader contexts. Significant differences were observed between the two design scenarios. The findings support the assumption that different design scenarios elicit consideration of different contexts and design scenarios can be constructed to target specific contextual considerations.

  7. Societal Context and the Production of Immigrant Status Based Health Inequalities: A Comparative Study of the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Ornelas, India J.; Quinn, Kelly; Zuberi, Dan; Nguyen, Quynh C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We compare disparities in health status between first generation immigrants and others in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We used data from the Joint Canada-United States Survey of Health. Regression models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health insurance (U.S.). Results In both nations, the health advantage belonged to immigrants. Fewer disparities between immigrants and those native-born were seen in Canada versus the U.S. Canadians of every immigrant/race group fared better than American native-born whites. Discussion Fewer disparities in Canada and better overall health of all Canadians suggest societal context may create differences in access to the resources, environments and experiences that shape health and health behaviors. PMID:23447028

  8. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  9. Societal preferences for distributive justice in the allocation of health care resources: a latent class discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Skedgel, Chris; Wailoo, Allan; Akehurst, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that resources should be allocated in a way that produces the greatest outputs, on the grounds that maximizing output allows for a redistribution that could benefit everyone. In health care, this is known as QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) maximization. This justification for QALY maximization may not hold, though, as it is difficult to reallocate health. Therefore, the allocation of health care should be seen as a matter of distributive justice as well as efficiency. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to test consistency with the principles of QALY maximization and to quantify the willingness to trade life-year gains for distributive justice. An empirical ethics process was used to identify attributes that appeared relevant and ethically justified: patient age, severity (decomposed into initial quality and life expectancy), final health state, duration of benefit, and distributional concerns. Only 3% of respondents maximized QALYs with every choice, but scenarios with larger aggregate QALY gains were chosen more often and a majority of respondents maximized QALYs in a majority of their choices. However, respondents also appeared willing to prioritize smaller gains to preferred groups over larger gains to less preferred groups. Marginal analyses found a statistically significant preference for younger patients and a wider distribution of gains, as well as an aversion to patients with the shortest life expectancy or a poor final health state. These results support the existence of an equity-efficiency tradeoff and suggest that well-being could be enhanced by giving priority to programs that best satisfy societal preferences. Societal preferences could be incorporated through the use of explicit equity weights, although more research is required before such weights can be used in priority setting. PMID:25145575

  10. GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI): Undergraduate curricular modules that feature geodetic data applied to critical social topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, B. J.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Walker, B.; Miller, M. S.; Charlevoix, D.

    2014-12-01

    The GETSI project is a three-year NSF funded project to develop and disseminate teaching and learning materials that feature geodesy data applied to critical societal issues such as climate change, water resource management, and natural hazards (http://serc.carleton.edu/getsi). GETSI was born out of requests from geoscience faculty for more resources with which to educate future citizens and future geoscience professionals on the power and breadth of geodetic methods to address societally relevant topics. Development of the first two modules started at a February 2014 workshop and initial classroom testing begins in fall 2014. The Year 1 introductory module "Changing Ice and Sea Level" includes geodetic data such as gravity, satellite altimetry, and GPS time series. The majors-level Year 1 module is "Imaging Active Tectonics" and it has students analyzing InSAR and LiDAR data to assess infrastructure vulnerability to demonstratively active faults. Additional resources such as animations and interactive data tools are also being developed. The full modules will take about two weeks of class time; module design will permit portions of the material to be used as individual projects or assignments of shorter duration. Ultimately a total of four modules will be created and disseminated, two each at the introductory and majors-levels. GETSI is working in tight partnership with the Science Education Resource Center's (SERC) InTeGrate project on the module development, assessment, and dissemination to ensure compatibility with the growing number of resources for geoscience education. This will allow for an optimized module development process based on successful practices defined by these earlier efforts.

  11. RESEARCH: Triage Law Enforcement: Societal Impacts on National Forests in the West.

    PubMed

    Chavez; Tynon

    2000-10-01

    / Uses of outdoor natural areas, like National Forests in the United States, have been undergoing change. Some changes, including criminal activities and domestic terrorism, may have quite important impacts to outdoor enthusiasts and managers. Activities include some relatively traditional management challenges, like arson and thefts, and newer challenges, such as domestic violence and murder. To better understand the prevalence and impacts of these activities, selected managers in the western United States were interviewed in summer and fall 1998. Results indicate criminal activities and domestic terrorism are found in both urban-interface and rural sites. The most prevalent challenges were arson, criminal damage, domestic violence, dumping of household trash and landscape materials, marijuana cultivation, satanic cult activity, and thefts. Not as prevalent but found in almost all study sites were body dumping, extremist group activity, gang activity, murders, and suicides. Managers felt that most outdoor recreationists were unaffected by the activities. Most managers noted the increasing prevalence and the costs to management in time, personnel, and in other ways. They noted that their job had ceased being one of natural resources law enforcement and became one of "city" law enforcement. The findings of the study raise serious issues that require additional research. PMID:10954803

  12. Utilizing Societal Concerns in Nanomaterials R and D Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    Nanotechnology has demonstrated the potential to transform many aspects of human existence. From extraordinary ways to deliver pharmaceuticals to the tiniest of electronic circuits to the finest of filters, technologies made with nanomaterials can shrink the computer chip or remove contaminants from water. Nanotechnology systems can deliver drugs to targets inside individual cells or serve as components in sensors that detect chemical and biological agents. As nanomaterials are commercialized, there are potential consequences, both positive and negative. At each stage of development of nanotechnology, it is important to assess both the potential benefits and the potential costs. Scientists need more tools to simultaneously develop new technologies and consider whether their methods or materials might contribute to health or environmental hazards down the line. Early information on potential risks guides the development of these materials as they move toward industrial production. Some indications of problems have turned-up. If thorough assessments are not done, the potential exists to extend projects (and their related expense) long past the point where "fatal flaws" could be identified. As nanotechnology graduates from infancy and it is possible to predict the course and impacts of the technology beyond the next several years. There are well-founded concerns with nanotechnology, especially relating to human health, the environment, and public perception in general. This paper will include a matrix of potential effects, means of ranking or scoring them and examples of how the technique can be applied to current research and development.

  13. AIDS costs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Newton, E

    1994-01-01

    In 1983, there were only eight registered cases of AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago, all among male homosexuals and bisexuals. By the beginning of 1992, however, Trinidad and Tobago was ranked 17th worldwide among 164 countries for which AIDS-case data had been collected in terms of the number of reported cases of AIDS per 100,000 population. Moreover, by 1992, of the 175 new cases reported for which risk factors could be established, 77.1% were from among the heterosexual population, with 10.3% of cases with known risk factors being in the pediatric category. 143 people had died of AIDS in the country by the end of November 1993. IV drug use has not been much of a problem in Trinidad and Tobago. The prospective costs of HIV and AIDS depend upon the course taken by the epidemic over the next few years, but it has already, in terms of the human capital approach, made an impact upon national GDP. The authors developed projections of AIDS incidence for Trinidad and Tobago through the year 2020 based upon assumptions of plausible patterns of HIV prevalence. The AIDS Projection Model and DemProj, a demographic projection model used mainly to generate estimates of the age distribution of AIDS incidence, were employed. Even the most conservative of projections suggests that the number of cases will rise by a factor of 4-5 by the year 2000. It is hoped that a better appreciation of the full costs of AIDS will help in the development of policies designed to contain the spread of the disease and ensure that the level of societal investment necessary is undertaken to save upon prospective private and social costs. Sections describe unfolding scenarios, estimates of social monetary costs, hospitalization costs, foregone earnings, and prevention programs. PMID:12346421

  14. Estimating Development Cost of an Interactive Website Based Cancer Screening Promotion Program

    PubMed Central

    Lairson, David R.; Chung, Tong Han; Smith, Lisa G.; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Champion, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the initial development costs for an innovative talk show format tailored intervention delivered via the interactive web, for increasing cancer screening in women 50 to 75 who were non-adherent to screening guidelines for colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Methods The cost of the intervention development was estimated from a societal perspective. Micro costing methods plus vendor contract costs were used to estimate cost. Staff logs were used to track personnel time. Non-personnel costs include all additional resources used to produce the intervention. Results Development cost of the interactive web based intervention was $.39 million, of which 77% was direct cost. About 98% of the cost was incurred in personnel time cost, contract cost and overhead cost. Conclusions The new web-based disease prevention medium required substantial investment in health promotion and media specialist time. The development cost was primarily driven by the high level of human capital required. The cost of intervention development is important information for assessing and planning future public and private investments in web-based health promotion interventions. PMID:25749548

  15. Economic burden of road traffic injuries: a micro-costing approach.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the economic burden incurred from road traffic injuries in Thailand. It was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective, employing a micro-costing bottom-up approach. It covered direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost or productivity loss. Productivity loss covers the costs of work absence or death due to road traffic injuries suffered by persons of working age. We collected data on road traffic injuries and resource utilization which occurred in the fiscal year 2004. A simple random sampling was used to select 200 patients for analysis. The average cost of road traffic injuries per patient was USD 2,596 at 2004 prices. This can be divided into direct cost (USD 102, or 4%) and indirect cost (USD 2,494, or 96%). From these results, we can see that the indirect cost far outweighed the direct cost. To base decisions regarding road safety campaigns on savings of direct costs, particularly direct medical costs, is inadequate. Therefore, data on the complete cost of illness should be taken into account in the planning and creation of a road safety policy. PMID:19062706

  16. Cost-effectiveness of postural exercise therapy versus physiotherapy in computer screen-workers with early non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD); a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Exercise therapies generate substantial costs in computer workers with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD). Aims To study if postural exercise therapy is cost-effective compared to regular physiotherapy in screen-workers with early complaints, both from health care and societal perspective. Methods Prospective randomized trial including cost-effectiveness analysis; one year follow-up. Participants: Eighty-eight screen-workers with early non-specific WRULD; six drop-outs. Interventions: A ten week postural exercise program versus regular physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Effectiveness measures: Pain: visual analogous scale (VAS), self-perceived WRULD (yes/no). Functional outcome: Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand- Dutch Language Version (DASH-DLV). Quality of life outcome: EQ-5D. Economic measures: health care costs including patient and family costs and productivity costs resulting in societal costs. Cost-effectiveness measures: health care costs and societal costs related to the effectiveness measures. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline; three, six and twelve months after baseline. Results At baseline both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics except scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and comparable for costs. No significant differences between the groups concerning effectiveness at one year follow-up were found. Effectiveness scores slightly improved over time. After one year 55% of participants were free of complaints. After one year the postural exercise group had higher mean total health care costs, but lower productivity costs compared to the physiotherapy group. Mean societal costs after one year (therefore) were in favor of postural exercise therapy [- €622; 95% CI -2087; +590)]. After one year, only self- perceived WRULD seemed to result in acceptable cost-effectiveness of the postural exercise strategy over physiotherapy; however the probability of acceptable cost-effectiveness did not exceed

  17. Cost and threshold analysis of positive charge, a multi-site linkage to HIV care program in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Maulsby, Cathy; Zulliger, Rose; Jain, Kriti; Charles, Vignetta; Riordan, Maura; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Holtgrave, David R

    2015-10-01

    Positive Charge (PC) is a linkage to HIV care initiative implemented by AIDS United with sites in New York, Chicago, Louisiana, North Carolina, and the San Francisco/Bay Area. This study employed standard methods of cost and threshold analyses, as recommended by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine, to calculate cost-saving and cost effective thresholds of the initiative. The overall societal cost of the linkage to care programs ranged from $48,490 to $370,525. The study found that PC's five unique evidence-based linkage to care programs have relatively low costs per client served and highly achievable cost-saving and cost-effectiveness thresholds. The findings from this study suggest that HIV linkage to care programs have the potential to be a highly productive use of public health resources. PMID:26139421

  18. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  19. The cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine versus paroxetine in treating people with depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Renee; Patel, Anita; Knapp, Martin; Thomas, Christine

    2004-05-01

    Currently, there are no data available comparing cost-effectiveness of two antidepressants in the primary care setting in the UK. Alongside a randomized, double-blind, 24-week study of mirtazapine and paroxetine, data were prospectively collected on patients' use of hospital and non-hospital services and days off work. Costs were estimated in each treatment arm from National Health Service (NHS) and societal perspectives, and were compared with selected outcome measures (numbers of 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-HAMD) responders and changes in Quality of Life in Depression Scale scores between baseline and 24-week endpoint) to explore and compare relative cost-effectiveness. Mirtazapine treatment resulted in a statistically significantly greater improvement in quality of life than paroxetine at endpoint (P=0.021). Although the 17-HAMD response rates were higher for the mirtazapine users at endpoint, the difference (7%) was not statistically significant (P=0.31). However, mean total societal costs per patient were 375 pounds less with mirtazapine (1850 pounds) compared to paroxetine (2225 pounds; P=0.32). Mean total NHS costs per patient were also lower (120 pounds) with mirtazapine (1408 pounds) compared to paroxetine (1528 pounds). The advantage for mirtazapine remained present on all variables analysed after performing sensitivity analyses. The results suggest that mirtazapine may be a cost-effective treatment choice compared to paroxetine for depression in a primary care setting. PMID:15107654

  20. Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Vary; Morose, Willy; Schwartzman, Kevin; Oxlade, Olivia; Barr, Graham; Grimard, Franque; Menzies, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling), we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion. PMID:16911786

  1. The Challenges of Producing Societally-useful Projections of Future Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, K.; Redmond, K. T.; Karl, T. R.; Easterling, D. R.; Liang, X.

    2010-12-01

    The design of dams, roads, storm sewers, housing developments, and other types of infrastructure must consider the climatology of extreme precipitation. Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimates are needed for reservoir and spillway design where under-design would be catastrophic. Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) values are used in design situations where there is tradeoff between the losses arising from occasional exceedances of those values and the costs of building in additional resilience. An underlying consideration is that many such structures are build to last for many decades. Any structures built today are expected to last through a period of time when anthropogenically-forced changes in climate may be quite large. However, the uncertainties surrounding possible future changes in extreme precipitation climatology are also very large and reduction of those uncertainties is a major challenge. Possible avenues toward more reliable estimates of future changes in extreme precipitation climatology include the following: 1. Weather models, theoretical and expert analysis: : As an example, PMP estimates are derived in part from inclusion and maximization of all the major factors that influence precipitation rates and duration in well-tested empirical precipitation algorithms.. Future changes in some of these factors are likely to be amenable to theoretical consideration, such as water vapor availability. This factor is largely driven by temperature, both of the atmosphere and the ocean surface, and is much better defined in future climate models compared to mean precipitation. For these reasons, uncertainties about future changes in mean precipitation do not necessarily translate to uncertainties about extreme precipitation rates. 2. Climate model improvements: Accurate precipitation simulation poses a particular challenge for models, as relevant processes occur over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, including important processes at sub

  2. Managing costs. [Resource recovery facility costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, M.P. ); Strouse, R.K. )

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the costs associated with a resource recovery facility in Indianapolis and how keeping these costs low provides flexibility for enacting economic incentives and new funding mechanisms that are generally needed today to encourage cost-effective recycling. The topics discussed in the article include project development, program finances, cogeneration, and the future outlook.

  3. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  4. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  5. Attribution of Library Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)

  6. Cost Effectiveness of Implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses Program in District Faridabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Mohan, Pavitra; Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Bhandari, Nita; van den Hombergh, Henri; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the evidence for preventing childhood morbidity and mortality, financial resources are cited as a constraint for Governments to scale up the key health interventions in some countries. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of implementing IMNCI program in India from a health system and societal perspective. Methods We parameterized a decision analytic model to assess incremental cost effectiveness of IMNCI program as against routine child health services for infant population at district level in India. Using a 15-years time horizon from 2007 to 2022, we populated the model using data on costs and effects as found from a cluster-randomized trial to assess effectiveness of IMNCI program in Haryana state. Effectiveness was estimated as reduction in infant illness episodes, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALY). Incremental cost per DALY averted was used to estimate cost effectiveness of IMNCI. Future costs and effects were discounted at a rate of 3%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken to estimate the probability of IMNCI to be cost effective at varying willingness to pay thresholds. Results Implementation of IMNCI results in a cumulative reduction of 57384 illness episodes, 2369 deaths and 76158 DALYs among infants at district level from 2007 to 2022. Overall, from a health system perspective, IMNCI program incurs an incremental cost of USD 34.5 (INR 1554) per DALY averted, USD 34.5 (INR 1554) per life year gained, USD 1110 (INR 49963) per infant death averted. There is 90% probability for ICER to be cost effective at INR 2300 willingness to pay, which is 5.5% of India’s GDP per capita. From a societal perspective, IMNCI program incurs an additional cost of USD 24.1 (INR 1082) per DALY averted, USD 773 (INR 34799) per infant death averted and USD 26.3 (INR 1183) per illness averted in during infancy. Conclusion IMNCI program in Indian context is very cost effective and should be scaled-up as a major child survival

  7. Social Scientific Research and Societal Practice: Action Research and Cultural-Historical Research in Methodological Light from Kurt Lewin and Lev S. Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The main interest is the relationship between social scientific research and societal practice, with specific attention on action research and cultural-historical research. To provide a productive way to engage with these research traditions, a historically-grounded, superordinate perspective is formulated that places practice in the centre. This…

  8. The Role of Wilderness Protection and Societal Engagement as Indicators of Well-Being: An Examination of Change at the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    A societal decision to protect over 9 million acres of land and water for its wilderness character in the early 1960s reflected US wealth in natural resources, pride in the nation's cultural history and our commitment to the well-being of future generations to both experience wild nature and enjoy benefits flowing from these natural ecosystems.…

  9. Communique Declaration: The New Dynamics of Higher Education and Research for Societal Change and Development (2nd UNESCO Higher Education Assembly July, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the communique declaration on the new dynamics of higher education and research for societal change and development. This declaration begins with a preamble and focuses on (1) social responsibility of higher education; (2) access, equity and quality; (3) internationalisation, regionalisation and globalisation; (4) learning…

  10. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  11. Bringing the Body Back: The (Mis)Languaging of Bodies in Bio-Medical, Societal and Poststructuralist Discourses on Diabetes and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi; Makoni, Sinfree

    2007-01-01

    Recent scholarship on "disabilities" and bodies has tended to be extreme in its orientation and has, on the whole, not been able to speak of chronic disabilities and bodily breakdown in humanistic ways. In its verve toward finding "cures," biomedical discourses, from which societal discourses draw their strength, have emphasized malfunctioning…

  12. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  13. Impact of Alternative Medical Device Approval Processes on Costs and Health

    PubMed Central

    George, Benjamin P.; Venkataraman, Vinayak; Dorsey, E. Ray; Johnston, S. Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical devices are often introduced prior to randomized-trial evidence of efficacy and this slows completion of trials. Alternative regulatory approaches include restricting device use outside of trials prior to trial evidence of efficacy (like the drug approval process) or restricting out-of-trial use but permitting coverage within trials such as Medicare’s Coverage with Study Participation (CSP). Methods We compared the financial impact to manufacturers and insurers of three regulatory alternatives: (1) limited regulation (current approach), (2) CSP, and (3) restrictive regulation (like the current drug approval process). Using data for patent foramen ovale closure devices, we modeled key parameters including recruitment time, probability of device efficacy, market adoption, and device cost/price to calculate profits to manufacturers, costs to insurers, and overall societal impact on health. Results For manufacturers, profits were greatest under CSP—driven by faster market adoption of effective devices—followed by restrictive regulation. Societal health benefit in total quality-adjusted life years was greatest under CSP. Insurers’ expenditures for ineffective devices were greatest with limited regulation. Findings were robust over a reasonable range of probabilities of trial success. Conclusions Regulation restricting out-of-trial device use and extending limited insurance coverage to clinical trial participants may balance manufacturer and societal interests. PMID:25185975

  14. Costs of Addressing Heroin Addiction in Malaysia and 32 Comparable Countries Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Luekens, Craig; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop and apply new costing methodologies to estimate costs of opioid dependence treatment in countries worldwide. Data Sources/Study Setting Micro-costing methodology developed and data collected during randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving 126 patients (July 2003–May 2005) in Malaysia. Gross-costing methodology developed to estimate costs of treatment replication in 32 countries with data collected from publicly available sources. Study Design Fixed, variable, and societal cost components of Malaysian RCT micro-costed and analytical framework created and employed for gross-costing in 32 countries selected by three criteria relative to Malaysia: major heroin problem, geographic proximity, and comparable gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Principal Findings Medication, and urine and blood testing accounted for the greatest percentage of total costs for both naltrexone (29–53 percent) and buprenorphine (33–72 percent) interventions. In 13 countries, buprenorphine treatment could be provided for under $2,000 per patient. For all countries except United Kingdom and Singapore, incremental costs per person were below $1,000 when comparing buprenorphine to naltrexone. An estimated 100 percent of opiate users in Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic could be treated for $8 and $30 million, respectively. Conclusions Buprenorphine treatment can be provided at low cost in countries across the world. This study's new costing methodologies provide tools for health systems worldwide to determine the feasibility and cost of similar interventions. PMID:22091732

  15. The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a warming climate in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles E., Jr.

    In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a social-ecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, numerical model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. warming climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost warming. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high

  16. Cost-effectiveness of a helpline for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Pil, Lore; Pauwels, Kirsten; Muijzers, Ekke; Portzky, Gwendolyn; Annemans, Lieven

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of a suicide helpline in Belgium, consisting of a telephone- and a chat service. An age- and gender-dependent Markov model with a ten-year time horizon and a one-year cycle length was developed, assuming a societal perspective, to predict cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in the helpline users. The model included six transition states: the initial state (at risk), first attempt, re-attempt, follow-up, suicide and death from other causes. Data on the effect of the helpline and costs associated with model states were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to capture uncertainty. In addition, the budget impact of the helpline was analysed. Over ten years, the telephone- as well as the chat service could avoid about 36% of suicides and attempts in this high-risk population. In males, 0.063 QALYs (95% confidence interval, CI 0.030-0.097) and 0.035 QALYs (95%CI -0.026-0.096) were gained by users of the telephone- and chat service respectively. The corresponding values for females were 0.019 QALYs (95%CI -0.015-0.052) and a QALY-neutral result of -0.005 (95%CI -0.071-0.062). There were net societal savings of respectively €2382 (95%CI 1953-2859) and €2282 (95%CI 1855-2758) in male users; €2171 (95%CI 1735-2664) and €2458 (95%CI 1945-3025) in female users. At the population level, an investment of €218,899 saved €1,452,022 for the public health service (national health insurance), mainly due to the telephone service. The analysis predicted that both means of telemedicine for suicide prevention in Flanders are cost-saving, and have a modest effect on QALYs. PMID:24163237

  17. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  18. Life Cycle Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  19. Neuropathic pain: quality-of-life impact, costs and cost effectiveness of therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Alec B

    2009-01-01

    cost-effective therapies such as tricyclic antidepressants for post-herpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy may improve the HR-QOL of patients and decrease societal costs. Head-to-head clinical trials comparing NP therapies are needed to help assess the relative clinical efficacy of treatments, ideally using HR-QOL and utility outcomes. The full costs to society of NP, including productivity loss costs, have not been determined for chronic NP. Improved relative efficacy, utility and cost estimates would facilitate future cost-effectiveness research in NP. PMID:19254044

  20. Cost-Utility Analysis of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures in Thais.

    PubMed

    Wajanavisit, Wiwat; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Sawatriawkul, Sansanee; Lertbusayanukul, Chatchawal; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2015-09-01

    A prospective study was conducted among osteoporotic hip fracture in 2008. It was aimed to assess cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) of hip fracture in the context of a developing country. The patients who were diagnosed as hip fracture and admitted to the orthopedic wards were included. Any pathological fractures or missing data were discarded from the analysis. Median cost was evaluated from a societal perspective. EQ-5D was used to assess health utility state and then converted into a time trade off Cost per QALYwas estimated at one year of follow-up. Forty-two patients completed a quality of life assessment. The average age was 75.6 years old and 71% were female. Most of them were undergone either hemiarthroplasty or internal fixation. The median total cost per year was US$ 4,210.60. The median QALY was 0.636 and cost per QALY was US$ 6,620.52. Cost utility of a hip fracture in Thai setting was lower than other developed countries due to strong family support and insufficient rehabilitation. However it has high impact on 78.8% of the Thai Gross National Product. Prevention of hip fracture is needed in underdeveloped countries as much as others, worldwide. PMID:26529817

  1. Economic Cost of a Listeria monocytogenes Outbreak in Canada, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Vriezen, Rachael; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Currie, Andrea; Schlech, Walter; Fazil, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estimates of the economic costs associated with foodborne disease are important to inform public health decision-making. In 2008, 57 cases of listeriosis and 24 deaths in Canada were linked to contaminated delicatessen meat from one meat processing plant. Costs associated with the cases (including medical costs, nonmedical costs, and productivity losses) and those incurred by the implicated plant and federal agencies responding to the outbreak were estimated to be nearly $242 million Canadian dollars (CAD, 2008). Case costs alone were estimated at approximately $2.8 million (CAD, 2008) including loss of life. This demonstrates the considerable economic burden at both the individual and population levels associated with foodborne disease and foodborne outbreaks in particular. Foodborne outbreaks due to severe pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and those that result in product recalls, are typically the most costly from the individual and/or societal perspective. Additional economic estimates of foodborne disease would contribute to our understanding of the burden of foodborne disease in Canada and would support the need for ongoing prevention and control activities. PMID:26583272

  2. Exploring the cost effectiveness of an immunization programme for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lorgelly, P K; Joshi, D; Iturriza Gómara, M; Gray, J; Mugford, M

    2008-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years old, two new vaccines have recently been developed which can prevent associated morbidity and mortality. While apparently safe and efficacious, it is also important to establish whether rotavirus immunization is cost effective. A decision analytical model which employs data from a review of published evidence is used to determine the cost effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine. The results suggest that some of the health sector costs, and all of the societal costs, of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children can be avoided by an immunization programme. The additional cost to the health sector may be considered worthwhile if there is a sufficient improvement in the quality-of-life of children and parents affected by gastroenteritis; this study did not find any evidence of research which has measured the utility gains from vaccination. PMID:17335631

  3. Exploring the cost effectiveness of an immunization programme for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    LORGELLY, P. K.; JOSHI, D.; ITURRIZA GÓMARA, M.; GRAY, J.; MUGFORD, M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years old, two new vaccines have recently been developed which can prevent associated morbidity and mortality. While apparently safe and efficacious, it is also important to establish whether rotavirus immunization is cost effective. A decision analytical model which employs data from a review of published evidence is used to determine the cost effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine. The results suggest that some of the health sector costs, and all of the societal costs, of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children can be avoided by an immunization programme. The additional cost to the health sector may be considered worthwhile if there is a sufficient improvement in the quality-of-life of children and parents affected by gastroenteritis; this study did not find any evidence of research which has measured the utility gains from vaccination. PMID:17335631

  4. Evaluating cost benefits of combination therapies for advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ivar S.; Zacherle, Emily; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Zhang, Jie; Yin, Wes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a number of monoimmunotherapies and targeted therapies are available to treat BRAF+ advanced melanoma, response rates remain relatively low in the range of 22–53% with progression-free survival (PFS) in the range of 4.8–8.8 months. Recently, combination targeted therapies have improved response rates to about 66–69%, PFS to 11.0–12.6 months and overall survival (OS) to 25.1–25.6 months. While combination immunotherapies have improved response rates of 67 compared with 19–29% with monotherapies and improved PFS of 11.7 compared with 4.4–5.8 months with monotherapies, the OS benefit is yet to be established in phase 3 trials. As healthcare costs continue to rise, US payers have a predominant interest in assessing the value of available treatments. Therefore, a cost-benefit model was developed to evaluate the value of treating BRAF+ advanced melanoma with two combination therapies: nivolumab + ipilimumab (N+I) and dabrafenib + trametinib (D+T). Scope: The model was used to estimate total costs, total costs by expenditure category, cost per month of PFS and cost per responder for the payer, and societal perspectives of treating advanced melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation using combination targeted therapy (D+T) or combination immunotherapy (N+I). The model followed patients from initiation of treatment to the point of progression or death. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results and to understand the dispersion of simulated results. Findings: Based on a hypothetical payer with one million covered lives, it was expected that fourteen metastatic melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation would be treated each year. Cost-benefit with N+I and D+T was simulated from the payer perspective. The cost per month of PFS for N+I was $22,162, while that for D+T was $17,716 (−$4,446 cost difference); the cost per responder for N+I was $388,746 and that for D+T was

  5. Cost of hypertension treatment.

    PubMed

    Odell, T W; Gregory, M C

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted of the cost of hypertension care at one internal medicine clinic, looking at the cost of office visits, laboratory tests, and medications. Cost of hypertension care was $947 the first year of treatment, $575 the second year, and $420 per year thereafter. Drug costs were the major determinant of cost of care, comprising 80% of the total cost of treatment after the first year of therapy. PMID:8770721

  6. A cost comparison analysis of partial versus whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. . E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Pierce, Lori J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To assess, if and for whom, there are cost savings associated with alternate breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques when compared with the conventional external beam-based whole-breast RT with a boost (WBRT-B). Methods and Materials: Treatment planning and delivery utilization data were modeled for eight different breast RT techniques: (1) WBRT-B: 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (2) WBRT: 50 Gy in 25 fractions; (3) WBRT-accelerated (AC): 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions; (4) WBRT-intensity-modulated RT (IMRT): 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (5) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)-IC, MammoSite: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (6) APBI-IT, HDR interstitial: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (7) APBI three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT): 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; or (8) APBI-IMRT: 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions. Costs incurred by payer (i.e., direct medical costs; 2003 Medicare Fee Schedule) and patient (i.e., direct nonmedical costs; time and travel) were estimated. Total societal costs were then calculated for each treatment approach. Results: Not all efforts to reduce overall treatment time result in total cost savings. The least expensive partial breast-based RT approaches were the external beam techniques (APBI-3D-CRT, APBI-IMRT). Any reduced cost to patients for the HDR brachytherapy-based APBI regimens were overshadowed by substantial increases in cost to payers, resulting in higher total societal costs; the cost of HDR treatment delivery was primarily responsible for the increased direct medical cost. For the whole breast-based RT approaches, treating without a boost (WBRT) or with WBRT-AC reduced total costs. Overall, WBRT-AC was the least costly of all the regimens, in terms of costs to society; APBI approaches, in general, were favored over whole-breast techniques when only considering costs to patients. Conclusions: Based on societal cost considerations, WBRT-AC appears to be the preferred approach. If one were to pursue a partial-breast RT

  7. Personal and Societal Construction of Illness Among Individuals With Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder: A Life-Trajectory Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jenkins, Janis H.; Safavi, Roknedin; West, Jane A.; Cassidy, Kristin A.; Meyer, William J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental illness associated with substantial impairment in quality of life and function. Although there has been tremendous growth in understanding bipolar disorder with respect to treatments, very little study has focused on the viewpoint of affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective experience of illness among 19 men and women with rapid cycling bipolar disorder receiving treatment at an academic psychiatry clinic. Methods Personal constructs of illness with respect to life-trajectory and societal reaction to the individual, specifically the issue of stigma, were evaluated using a semistructured, open-ended anthropological interview. Results Participants perceived bipolar disorder as a disease with biologic underpinnings. Stigma was a major issue for all individuals. In common with individuals without serious mental illness, individuals with bipolar disorder work at mastering developmental tasks appropriate for their life stage. At times, younger individuals appeared to have difficulty separating their own identity from the effects of illness. For older individuals with bipolar disorder, life was perceived to be disrupted by bipolar disorder, with early plans and dreams often “derailed.” Conclusion Although bipolar disorder may severely alter an individual’s planned life trajectory, accomplishment of life goals can at least partially offset the sense of loss that is often seen in bipolar illness. PMID:18070834

  8. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  9. The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: victim blaming and reduced support for the public good.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2011-06-01

    Choice makes North Americans feel more in control, free, and independent, and thus has many positive consequences for individuals' motivation and well-being. We report five studies that uncovered novel consequences of choice for public policy and interpersonal judgments. Studies 1 through 3 found that activating the concept of choice decreases support for policies promoting intergroup equality (e.g., affirmative action) and societal benefits (e.g., reducing environmental pollution), but increases support for policies promoting individual rights (e.g., legalizing drugs). Studies 4 and 5 found that activating the concept of choice increases victim blaming and decreases empathy for disadvantaged people. Study 5 found that choice does not decrease Indians' empathy for disadvantaged individuals, indicating that the social and interpersonal consequences of choice are likely culture-specific. This research suggests that the well-known positive effects of choice for individuals can be accompanied by an array of previously unexamined and potentially negative outcomes for other people and for society. PMID:21537057

  10. Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; McCormick, Michael; di Cosmo, Nicola; Sigl, Michael; Jungclaus, Johann; Wagner, Sebastian; Krusic, Paul J.; Esper, Jan; Kaplan, Jed O.; de Vaan, Michiel A. C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Wacker, Lukas; Tegel, Willy; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes during the first half of the Common Era have been suggested to play a role in societal reorganizations in Europe and Asia. In particular, the sixth century coincides with rising and falling civilizations, pandemics, human migration and political turmoil. Our understanding of the magnitude and spatial extent as well as the possible causes and concurrences of climate change during this period is, however, still limited. Here we use tree-ring chronologies from the Russian Altai and European Alps to reconstruct summer temperatures over the past two millennia. We find an unprecedented, long-lasting and spatially synchronized cooling following a cluster of large volcanic eruptions in 536, 540 and 547 AD (ref. ), which was probably sustained by ocean and sea-ice feedbacks, as well as a solar minimum. We thus identify the interval from 536 to about 660 AD as the Late Antique Little Ice Age. Spanning most of the Northern Hemisphere, we suggest that this cold phase be considered as an additional environmental factor contributing to the establishment of the Justinian plague, transformation of the eastern Roman Empire and collapse of the Sasanian Empire, movements out of the Asian steppe and Arabian Peninsula, spread of Slavic-speaking peoples and political upheavals in China.

  11. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  13. A sense of coherence and health. Salutogenesis in a societal context: Åland, a special case?

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Monica; Lindström, Bengt; Lilja, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Antonovsky's salutogenic concept of a sense of coherence (SOC) has proved most influential in the way that health is now perceived. Aim To (1) describe the distribution of SOC among 40–70‐year‐old Ålanders; (2) examine the distribution of depression in Åland, Finland, and its relationship with SOC; and (3) discuss the findings within a salutogenic framework in a societal context. Design A cross‐sectional study design was adopted. Antonovsky's SOC Questionnaire (13 items) and the Beck Depression Inventory (13 items) were used. In addition, in a separate questionnaire, sociodemographic information about each participant was sought, together with a question specific to this study and designed to measure self‐rated health. Setting Åland, an autonomous island province of Finland. Results The proportion of respondents reporting good health was high (64%). The overall mean (SD) SOC was 70.7 (11.7) points, whereas for farmers and fishermen it was 73.88 (8.8) and 74.33 (9.2) points, respectively. SOC was significantly and strongly related to the self‐rated health score. The higher the SOC, the better was the health of the respondents. Furthermore, the study provided clear evidence of the potential of the SOC concept as a positive mental health indicator. Conclusion The SOC seems to be a health‐promoting resource that supports the development of a positive subjective state of health. PMID:17630366

  14. The urban rise and fall of air lead (Pb) and the latent surge and retreat of societal violence.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Zahran, Sammy

    2012-08-01

    We evaluate air Pb emissions and latent aggravated assault behavior at the scale of the city. We accomplish this by regressing annual Federal Bureau of Investigation aggravated assault rate records against the rise and fall of annual vehicle Pb emissions in Chicago (Illinois), Indianapolis (Indiana), Minneapolis (Minnesota), San Diego (California), Atlanta (Georgia), and New Orleans (Louisiana). Other things held equal, a 1% increase in tonnages of air Pb released 22 years prior raises the present period aggravated assault rate by 0.46% (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.64). Overall our model explains 90% of the variation in aggravated assault across the cities examined. In the case of New Orleans, 85% of temporal variation in the aggravated assault rate is explained by the annual rise and fall of air Pb (total=10,179 metric tons) released on the population of New Orleans 22 years earlier. For every metric ton of Pb released 22 years prior, a latent increase of 1.59 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.83, p<0.001) aggravated assaults per 100,000 were reported. Vehicles consuming fuel containing Pb additives contributed much larger quantities of Pb dust than generally recognized. Our findings along with others predict that prevention of children's lead exposure from lead dust now will realize numerous societal benefits two decades into the future, including lower rates of aggravated assault. PMID:22484219

  15. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  16. Political conservatism, authoritarianism, and societal threat: voting for Republican representatives in U.S. Congressional elections from 1946 to 1992.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-07-01

    The author found that the degree of national societal threat preceding congressional elections from 1946 to 1992 was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives, supporting a conventional threat-authoritarianism hypothesis. However, threat was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives in conservative states but not in liberal states, and the conventional threat-authoritarianism link was entirely driven by the relation in conservative states. The author classified states with a composite measure (alpha = .92) on the basis of state ideological identification, religious fundamentalism, composite policy liberalism, Republican Party elite ideology, and Democratic Party elite ideology. These results offer support to an interactive threat-authoritarianism hypothesis derived from the authoritarian dynamic theory of K. Stenner (2005), which postulates that only authoritarian persons are activated to manifest authoritarian behavior in times of normative threat. Also, the author discusses potential alternative explanations on the basis of system justification, need for closure, and terror-management theories. PMID:19606642

  17. The feasibility of a high-altitude aircraft platform with consideration of technological and societal constraints. Thesis - Kansas Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely piloted aircraft performing year around missions at an altitude of 70,000 feet is determined. Blimp and airplane type vehicles employing solar-voltaic, microwave, or nuclear propulsion systems were considered. A payload weighing 100 pounds and requiring 1000 watts of continuous power was assumed for analysis purposes. Results indicate that a solar powered aircraft requires more solar cell area than is available on conventional aircraft configurations if designed for the short days and high wind speeds associated with the winter season. A conventionally shaped blimp that uses solar power appears feasible if maximum airspeed is limited to about 100 ft/s. No viable airplane configuration that uses solar power and designed to withstand the winter environment was found. Both a conventionally shaped blimp and airplane appear feasible using microwave power. Nuclear powered aircraft of these type are also feasible. Societal attitudes toward the use of solar power in high altitude aircraft appear favorable. The use of microwave power for this purpose is controversial, even though the ground station required would transmit power at levels comparable to existing satellite communications stations.

  18. Diversity, Geosciences, and Societal Impact: Perspectives From a Geoscientist, Workforce Development Specialist, and Former Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    In order for the United States to remain competitive in the STEM fields, all available interested citizens must be engaged, prepared, and retained in the geoscience workforce. The misperception that the geosciences do little to support the local community and give back to fellow citizens contributes to the lack of diversity in the field. Another challenge is that the assumptions of career paths for someone trained in geosciences are often limited to field work, perpetuated by visuals found in media, popular culture and recruiting materials and university websites. In order to combat these views it is critical that geoscientists make visible both the diverse career opportunities for those trained in geoscience and the relevance of the field to societal issues. In order to make a substantive change in the number of underrepresented minorities pursuing and working in geosciences we must rethink how we describe our work, its impacts and its relevance to society. At UNAVCO, we have undertaken this charge to change they way the future generation of geoscientists views opportunities in our field. This presentation will include reflections of a trained geoscientist taking a non-field/research career path and the opportunities it has afforded as well as the challenges encountered. The presentation will also highlight how experience managing a STEM program for middle school girls, serving as a Congressional Science Fellow, and managing an undergraduate research internship program is aiding in shaping the Geoscience Workforce Initiative at UNAVCO.

  19. Time, Monetary and Other Costs of Participation in Family-Based Child Weight Management Interventions: Qualitative and Systematic Review Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Lisa; Panca, Monica; Morris, Steve; Curtis-Tyler, Katherine; Lucas, Patricia J.; Roberts, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity have health and economic impacts on individuals and the wider society. Families participating in weight management programmes may foresee or experience monetary and other costs which deter them from signing up to or completing programmes. This is recognised in the health economics literature, though within this sparse body of work, costs to families are often narrowly defined and not fully accounted for. A societal perspective incorporating a broader array of costs may provide a more accurate picture. This paper brings together a review of the health economics literature on the costs to families attending child weight management programmes with qualitative data from families participating in a programme to manage child overweight and obesity. Methods A search identified economic evaluation studies of lifestyle interventions in childhood obesity. The qualitative work drew on interviews with families who attended a weight management intervention in three UK regions. Results We identified four cost-effectiveness analyses that include information on costs to families. These were categorised as direct (e.g. monetary) and indirect (e.g. time) costs. Our analysis of qualitative data demonstrated that, for families who attended the programme, costs were associated both with participation on the scheme and with maintaining a healthy lifestyle afterwards. Respondents reported three kinds of cost: time-related, social/emotional and monetary. Conclusion Societal approaches to measuring cost-effectiveness provide a framework for assessing the monetary and non-monetary costs borne by participants attending treatment programmes. From this perspective, all costs should be considered in any analysis of cost-effectiveness. Our data suggest that family costs are important, and may act as a barrier to the uptake, completion and maintenance of behaviours to reduce child obesity. These findings have implications for the development and

  20. The cost of doing a cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    A model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate for Deep Space Network (DSN) projects that range from $0.1 to $100 million is presented. The cost of the cost estimate in thousands of dollars, C(sub E), is found to be approximately given by C(sub E) = K(/C(sub p)/(sup 0.35)) where C(sub p) is the cost of the project being estimated in millions of dollars and K is a constant depending on the accuracy of the estimate. For an order-of-magnitude estimate, K = 24; for a budget estimate, K = 60; and for a definitive estimate, K = 115. That is, for a specific project, the cost of doing a budget estimate is about 2.5 times as much as that for an order-of-magnitude estimate, and a definitive estimate costs about twice as much as a budget estimate. Use of this model should help provide the level of resources required for doing cost estimates and, as a result, provide insights towards more accurate estimates with less potential for cost overruns.

  1. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  2. GME: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2003-11-01

    Current computing methods impede determining the real cost of graduate medical education. However, a more accurate estimate could be obtained if policy makers would allow for the application of basic cost-accounting principles, including consideration of department-level costs, unbundling of joint costs, and other factors. PMID:14626704

  3. Design-to-cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts made to design to costs equipment, vehicles and subsystems for various space projects are discussed. A systematic approach, based on mission requirement analysis, definition of a mission baseline design, benefit and cost analysis, and a benefit-cost analysis was proposed for implementing the cost control program.

  4. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  5. SPS cost considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent solar power satellite (SPS) system definition studies have emphasized cost estimation for the operational phase of an SPS program, in order to assess economic practicality of SPS. A cost analysis approach is described. Cost results for a silicon photovoltaic SPS are reported, showing SPS costs from $1700 to $2700 per kilowatt and busbar power costs from 3 cents to 7 cents per kilowatt-hour. Rationales behind the estimates are discussed.

  6. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  7. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  8. The Cost of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients Who Develop Neutralizing Antibodies during Interferon Beta Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iannazzo, Sergio; Santoni, Laura; Iaffaldano, Antonio; Di Lecce, Valentina; Manni, Alessia; Lavolpe, Vito; Tortorella, Carla; D'Onghia, Mariangela; Direnzo, Vita; Puma, Elisa; Trojano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients treated with interferon beta (IFN beta) can develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that reduce treatment efficacy. Several clinical studies explored the association of NAb+ status with increased disease activity. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of RRMS patients who develop NAbs while treated with IFN beta by the Italian National Healthcare Service (NHS) and the Italian Society perspectives. Methods The clinical data derived from a published observational study on 567 RRMS Italian patients treated with IFN beta. The management cost data derived from the published literature. Cost data were inflated to Euro 2014. Results The annual direct cost to treat a patient was estimated in €15,428 in the NAb+ cohort and €14,317 in the NAb- cohort. The annual societal cost was estimated in €33,890 and €30,790 in NAb+ and NAb- patients, respectively. The cost increase related to the NAb+ status was €3,100 in the Italian societal perspective and €1,111 in the Italian NHS perspective. Conclusion The results of this economic evaluation suggest the presence of an association between NAb+ status and increased costs for the management of RRMS in Italy. Further pharmacoeconomic research will be needed to confirm this first result. PMID:27390865

  9. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  10. Cost-effectiveness of surgery plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Nosyk, Bohdan; Fisher, Charles G.; Dvorak, Marcel; Patchell, Roy A.; Regine, William F.; Loblaw, Andrew; Bansback, Nick; Guh, Daphne; Sun, Huiying; Anis, Aslam . E-mail: aslam.anis@ubc.ca

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A recent randomized clinical trial has demonstrated that direct decompressive surgery plus radiotherapy was superior to radiotherapy alone for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. The current study compared the cost-effectiveness of the two approaches. Methods and Materials: In the original clinical trial, clinical effectiveness was measured by ambulation and survival time until death. In this study, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Costs related to treatment and posttreatment care were estimated and extended to the lifetime of the cohort. Weibull regression was applied to extrapolate outcomes in the presence of censored clinical effectiveness data. Results: From a societal perspective, the baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was found to be $60 per additional day of ambulation (all costs in 2003 Canadian dollars). Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 50% of all generated ICERs were lower than $57, and 95% were lower than $242 per additional day of ambulation. This analysis had a 95% CI of -$72.74 to 309.44, meaning that this intervention ranged from a financial savings of $72.74 to a cost of $309.44 per additional day of ambulation. Using survival as the measure of effectiveness resulted in an ICER of $30,940 per life-year gained. Conclusions: We found strong evidence that treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression with surgery in addition to radiotherapy is cost-effective both in terms of cost per additional day of ambulation, and cost per life-year gained.

  11. The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for the major psychiatric diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    Psychotherapy is an effective and often highly cost-effective medical intervention for many serious psychiatric conditions. Psychotherapy can also lead to savings in other medical and societal costs. It is at times the firstline and most important treatment and at other times augments the efficacy of psychotropic medication. Many patients are in need of more prolonged and intensive psychotherapy, including those with personality disorders and those with chronic complex psychiatric conditions often with severe anxiety and depression. Many patients with serious and complex psychiatric illness have experienced severe early life trauma in an atmosphere in which family members or caretakers themselves have serious psychiatric disorders. Children and adolescents with learning disabilities and those with severe psychiatric disorders can also require more than brief treatment. Other diagnostic groups for whom psychotherapy is effective and cost-effective include patients with schizophrenia, anxiety disorders (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, and substance abuse. In addition, psychotherapy for the medically ill with concomitant psychiatric illness often lowers medical costs, improves recovery from medical illness, and at times even prolongs life compared to similar patients not given psychotherapy. While "cost-effective" treatments can yield savings in healthcare costs, disability claims, and other societal costs, "cost-effective" by no means translates to "cheap" but instead describes treatments that are clinically effective and provided at a cost that is considered reasonable given the benefit they provide, even if the treatments increase direct expenses. In the current insurance climate in which Mental Health Parity is the law, insurers nonetheless often use their own non-research and non-clinically based medical necessity guidelines to subvert it and limit access to appropriate psychotherapeutic treatments. Many patients, especially those who need

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Guided Self-help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Method Participants were 123 adult members of an HMO (mean age = 37.2, 91.9% female, 96.7% non-Hispanic White) who met criteria for eating disorders involving binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Fairburn & Cooper, 1993). Participants were randomized either to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus CBT-GSH. The clinical outcomes were binge-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); total societal cost was estimated using costs to patients and the health plan, and related costs. Results Compared to the group receiving TAU only, those who received TAU + CBT-GSH experienced 25.2 more binge-free days and had lower total societal costs of $427 over 12 months following the intervention (incremental CEA ratio -$20.23 per binge-free day or −$26,847 per QALY). Lower costs in the TAU + CBT-GSH group were due to reduced use of TAU services in that group, resulting in lower net costs for the TAU + CBT group despite the additional cost of CBT-GSH. Conclusions Findings support CBT-GSH dissemination for recurrent binge-eating treatment. PMID:20515208

  13. Dynamic modeling of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children <5 years of age. Indirect protection accounted for 40% and 60% reduction in severe and mild rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Cost per life year gained was US $18,044 from a societal perspective and US $23,892 from a health care perspective. Comparing the 2 key parameters of cost-effectiveness, mortality rates and vaccine cost at costs would be entirely offset. To further evaluate efficacy of a vaccine program, benefits of indirect protection conferred by vaccination warrant further study. PMID:24378188

  14. Oral serotonin receptor agonists: a review of their cost effectiveness in migraine.

    PubMed

    Lofland, Jennifer H; Nash, David B

    2005-01-01

    Migraine headache is a highly prevalent chronic, episodic condition. The direct and indirect costs of migraine headache have a tremendous economic impact in the US. Research has shown that serotonin (5HT(1B/D)) receptor agonists reduce healthcare costs, improve health-related QOL (HR-QOL), decrease migraine disability and keep patients effective in the workplace. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the cost effectiveness of oral 5HT(1B/D) receptor agonists for the treatment of migraine headache. In general, 5HT(1B/D) receptor agonists are associated with increases in direct healthcare costs; however, they are also associated with reductions in the indirect costs associated with migraine headache. Therefore, it appears that the relatively high acquisition cost of these medications is offset and, as a class, these medications appear to be cost effective and demonstrate net benefits from the societal perspective. Based on meta-analyses in which data on eletriptan were not available, it appears that within the class, almotriptan and rizatriptan are the most cost effective. In a prospective study comparing eletriptan with sumatriptan, it appears that the former may be more cost effective than the latter. Additional investigations are needed to further explore the application of the friction-cost approach and QALYs to cost-effectiveness analyses of this class of medication. PMID:15836007

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination of Infants in Malawi: A Postintroduction Analysis Using Individual Patient–Level Costing Data

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Pecenka, Clint; Chikafa, Jean; Mvula, Hazzie; Wachepa, Richard; Mwansambo, Charles; Mhango, Themba; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Crampin, Amelia C.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Costello, Anthony; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Atherly, Deborah; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus vaccination reduces childhood hospitalization in Africa, but cost-effectiveness has not been determined using real-world effectiveness and costing data. We sought to determine monovalent rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness in Malawi, one of Africa's poorest countries and the first Gavi-eligible country to report disease reduction following introduction in 2012. Methods. This was a prospective cohort study of children with acute gastroenteritis at a rural primary health center, a rural first referral–level hospital and an urban regional referral hospital in Malawi. For each participant we itemized household costs of illness and direct medical expenditures incurred. We also collected Ministry of Health vaccine implementation costs. Using a standard tool (TRIVAC), we derived cost-effectiveness. Results. Between 1 January 2013 and 21 November 2014, we recruited 530 children aged <5 years with gastroenteritis. Costs did not differ by rotavirus test result, but were significantly higher for admitted children and those with increased severity on Vesikari scale. Adding rotavirus vaccine to the national schedule costs Malawi $0.42 per dose in system costs. Vaccine copayment is an additional $0.20. Over 20 years, the vaccine program will avert 1 026 000 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 78 000 inpatient admissions, 4300 deaths, and 136 000 disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs). For this year's birth cohort, it will avert 54 000 cases of rotavirus and 281 deaths in children aged <5 years. The program will cost $10.5 million and save $8.0 million in averted healthcare costs. Societal cost per DALY averted was $10, and the cost per rotavirus case averted was $1. Conclusions. Gastroenteritis causes substantial economic burden to Malawi. The rotavirus vaccine program is highly cost-effective. Together with the demonstrated impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing population hospitalization burden, its cost-effectiveness makes a strong argument

  16. Generational changes in materialism and work centrality, 1976-2007: associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Kasser, Tim

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether culture-level indices of threat, instability, and materialistic modeling were linked to the materialistic values of American 12th graders between 1976 and 2007 (N = 355,296). Youth materialism (such as the importance of money and of owning expensive material items) increased over the generations, peaking in the late 1980s to early 1990s with Generation X and then staying at historically high levels for Millennials (GenMe). Societal instability and disconnection (e.g., unemployment, divorce) and social modeling (e.g., advertising spending) had both contemporaneous and lagged associations with higher levels of materialism, with advertising most influential during adolescence and instability during childhood. Societal-level living standards during childhood predicted materialism 10 years later. When materialistic values increased, work centrality steadily declined, suggesting a growing discrepancy between the desire for material rewards and the willingness to do the work usually required to earn them. PMID:23637277

  17. A Comparison of the Societal Impacts and Warning Operations for the 1989 and 2010 Huntsville, Alabama Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt-Negron, A. M.; Coyne, M.; Scotten, K.; Lee, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The city of Huntsville, Alabama lies within a region of the United States known as the Tennessee Valley, which is not traditionally associated with “Tornado Alley”. However, latest research indicates that most tornado fatalities occur in the lower Arkansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi River Valleys. Huntsville has had its share of tornadic events, including the two tornadoes in this study. On 15 November 1989, a large F4 tornado tracked through south Huntsville with little to no advance warning at the start of the evening rush hour. There were a total of 21 fatalities and 463 injuries. On 21 January 2010, an EF2 tornado moved through downtown Huntsville during peak evening rush hour, but this time there were no fatalities and only three injuries. The choices made by both the National Weather Service and core partners of the agency during these two tornadic events will be discussed, as well as how these choices either mitigated or amplified the environmental effects registered by the general populous of Huntsville. While the decision support services such as warning decisions and communications provided by National Weather Services' Huntsville are important, the resulting action taken by the public is just as crucial; an investigation into the societal impacts pertaining to these two tornadoes will be shared. Future National Weather Services' Huntsville decision support services and choices will be shaped by the present research in an effort to mitigate the impacts of another tornado striking Huntsville. This research was conducted as part of an internship for the NOAA Educational Partnership Program scholarship in which I participate.

  18. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  19. Economic Evaluation of Mental Health Interventions: A Guide to Costing Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shearer, James; McCrone, Paul; Romeo, Renee

    2016-07-01

    Costing approaches in the economic evaluation of mental health interventions are complicated by the broad societal impacts of mental health, and the multidisciplinary nature of mental health interventions. This paper aims to provide a practical guide to costing approaches across a wide range of care inputs and illness consequences relevant to the treatment of mental health. The resources needed to deliver mental health interventions are highly variable and depend on treatment settings (institutional, community), treatment providers (medical, non-medical) and formats (individual, group, electronic). Establishing the most appropriate perspective is crucial when assessing the costs associated with a particular mental health problem or when evaluating interventions to treat them. We identify five key cost categories (social care, informal care, production losses, crime and education) impacted by mental health and discuss contemporary issues in resource use measurement and valuation, including data sources and resource use instruments. PMID:26922076

  20. The effects, costs and benefits of Salmonella control in the Danish table-egg sector.

    PubMed

    Korsgaard, H; Madsen, M; Feld, N C; Mygind, J; Hald, T

    2009-06-01

    A public plan for eradicating Salmonella in Danish table-egg production was implemented in 1996. During 2002, the poultry industry took over the responsibility of the programme. The proportion of infected layer flocks was reduced from 13.4% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2006. The public-health impact of the plan has been quite marked. In 1997, 55-65% of the 5015 cases of human salmonellosis were estimated to be associated with eggs. In 2006, these figures were reduced to 1658 and 5-7%, respectively. Based on an assessment of the number of human cases attributable to table eggs, we used probabilistic modelling to estimate the avoided societal costs (health care and lost labour), and compared these with the public costs of control. The probable avoided societal costs during 1998-2002 were estimated to be 23.3 million euros (95% CI 16.3-34.9), and the results showed a continuous decreasing cost-benefit ratio reaching well below 1 in 2002. Further reductions in the primary production based on effective surveillance and control are required to ensure continued success. PMID:18644168

  1. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle costs

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1982-02-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

  3. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles. PMID:27372714

  4. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although annual influenza vaccination could decrease the significant economic and humanistic burden of influenza in the United States, immunization rates are below recommended levels, and concerns remain whether immunization programs can be cost beneficial. The research objective was to compare cost benefit of various immunization strategies from employer, employee, and societal perspectives. Methods An actuarial model was developed based on the published literature to estimate the costs and benefits of influenza immunization programs. Useful features of the model included customization by population age and risk-level, potential pandemic risk, and projection year. Various immunization strategies were modelled for an average U.S. population of 15,000 persons vaccinated in pharmacies or doctor’s office during the 2011/12 season. The primary outcome measure reported net cost savings per vaccinated (PV) from the perspective of various stakeholders. Results Given a typical U.S. population, an influenza immunization program will be cost beneficial for employers when more than 37% of individuals receive vaccine in non-traditional settings such as pharmacies. The baseline scenario, where 50% of persons would be vaccinated in non-traditional settings, estimated net savings of $6 PV. Programs that limited to pharmacy setting ($31 PV) or targeted persons with high-risk comorbidities ($83 PV) or seniors ($107 PV) were found to increase cost benefit. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the scenario-based findings. Conclusions Both universal and targeted vaccination programs can be cost beneficial. Proper planning with cost models can help employers and policy makers develop strategies to improve the impact of immunization programs. PMID:22835081

  5. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective. PMID:27094234

  7. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption. PMID:26617452

  8. Managing Information On Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  9. Cost-Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  10. APPLICATION OF A BIP CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION MODEL COMBINED WITH NASA's ATLAS MODEL TO OPTIMIZE THE SOCIETAL BENEFITS OF THE USA's INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION AND UTILIZATION INITIATIVE OF 1/14/04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Glover, Fred W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Laguna, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The 1/14/04 USA Space Exploratiofltilization Initiative invites all Space-faring Nations, all Space User Groups in Science, Space Entrepreneuring, Advocates of Robotic and Human Space Exploration, Space Tourism and Colonization Promoters, etc., to join an International Space Partnership. With more Space-faring Nations and Space User Groups each year, such a Partnership would require Multi-year (35 yr.-45 yr.) Space Mission Planning. With each Nation and Space User Group demanding priority for its missions, one needs a methodology for obiectively selecting the best mission sequences to be added annually to this 45 yr. Moving Space Mission Plan. How can this be done? Planners have suggested building a Reusable, Sustainable, Space Transportation Infrastructure (RSSn) to increase Mission synergism, reduce cost, and increase scientific and societal returns from this Space Initiative. Morgenthaler and Woodcock presented a Paper at the 55th IAC, Vancouver B.C., Canada, entitled Constrained Optimization Models For Optimizing Multi - Year Space Programs. This Paper showed that a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) Constrained Optimization Model combined with the NASA ATLAS Cost and Space System Operational Parameter Estimating Model has the theoretical capability to solve such problems. IAA Commission III, Space Technology and Space System Development, in its ACADEMY DAY meeting at Vancouver, requested that the Authors and NASA experts find several Space Exploration Architectures (SEAS), apply the combined BIP/ATLAS Models, and report the results at the 56th Fukuoka IAC. While the mathematical Model is in Ref.[2] this Paper presents the Application saga of that effort.

  11. The Costs of Participating in a Diabetes Quality Improvement Collaborative: Variation Among Five Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Neha A.; Nocon, Robert S.; Hughes, Brenna; Peek, Monica E.; Chin, Marshall H.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2016-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) support rapid testing and implementation of interventions through the collective experience of participating organizations to improve care quality and reduce costs. Although QICs have been societally cost-effective in improving the care of chronic diseases, they may not be adopted by outpatient clinics if their costs are high. Diabetes QICs warrant reexamination as secular trends in the quality of diabetes care, new care guidelines for diabetes, and evolving strategies for quality improvement may have altered implementation costs. Methods The costs over the first four years—from June 2009 through May 2013—of an ongoing diabetes QIC were characterized by activities and over time. The QIC, linking six clinics on Chicago’s South Side, tailored interventions to minority populations and built community partnerships. Costs were calculated from clinic surveys regarding activities, labor, and purchases. Results Data were obtained from five of the six participating clinics. Cost/diabetic patient/year ranged across clinic sites from $6 (largest clinic) to $68 (smallest clinic). Clinics spent 62%–88% of their total QIC costs on labor. The cost/diabetic patient/year changed over time from Year 1 (range across clinics, $5–$51), Year 2 ($11–$84), Year 3 ($4–$57), to Year 4 ($4–$80), with costs peaking at Year 2 for all clinics except Clinic 4, where costs peaked at Year 4. Discussion Cost experiences of QICs in clinics were diverse over time and setting. High per-patient costs may stem from small clinic size, a sicker patient population, and variation in personnel type used. Cost decreases over time may represent increasing organizational learning and efficiency. Sharing resources may have achieved additional cost savings. This practical information can help administrators and policy makers predict, manage, and support costs of QICs as payers increasingly seek high-value health care. PMID

  12. Kiovig for primary immunodeficiency: reduced infusion and decreased costs per infusion.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark; Simoens, Steven

    2011-09-01

    Kiovig is a ready-to-use 10% liquid immunoglobulin preparation that is medically indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency. This study aims to conduct an economic evaluation which compares the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations Kiovig, Multigam, and Sandoglobulin from the Belgian societal perspective. As three prospective studies have observed no difference in outcomes, a cost-minimization analysis is considered appropriate to evaluate differences in treatment costs that can arise from IVIgs. A decision-analytic model simulated treatment costs attributed to one infusion. Resource use data were derived from a Dutch costing study. Cost items included immunoglobulin costs, pharmacy administration and nursing costs, mini-forfait for hospital infusion, costs of adverse events, and lost productivity with 2009 as base year. Cost data were identified from published sources and Belgian hospital administrators. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored the impact of parameter uncertainty on cost results. Costs per infusion cycle in adult primary immunodeficiency patients were €1,046 (95% confidence interval: €1,006-1,093) with Kiovig; €1,102 (€1,064-1,147) with Multigam; and €1,147 (€1,108-1,193) with Sandoglobulin. The average cost savings per infusion with Kiovig as compared to Multigam and Sandoglobulin amounted to €56 and €101 per infusion. In conclusion, treatment costs with Kiovig were shown to be lower as compared to other IVIgs in Belgium. Reduced costs per infusion were attributed to lower costs associated with treating adverse events and the opportunity cost of nursing time and time off work for working adults. PMID:21570491

  13. Wellhead treatment costs for groundwater contaminated with pesticides: A preliminary analysis for pineapple in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Guerrero, Ephraim D.; Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    In Hawaii, trace concentrations of pesticides used in the production of pineapple were found in the groundwater supplies of Mililani Town in the Pearl Harbor Basin on the island of Oahu. Groundwater serves as the major source of drinking water and residents pay for wellhead treatment of the contaminated water, via their monthly water bill. The agricultural chemical users within the Pearl Harbor Basin do not include these wellhead treatment costs in their production costs. The agricultural industry benefits from using pesticides but does not pay the entire societal cost of using these chemicals. In this study we evaluate the specific financial cost of wellhead treatment, and not the economic value of groundwater. While wellhead treatment costs could conceivably be shared by several parties, this study focuses on the financial impact of the pineapple industry alone. This study factors annual wellhead treatment costs into annual pineapple production costs to measure the effect on annual financial return from pineapple production. Wellhead treatment costs are calculated from the existing granulated activated carbon (GAC) water treatment facility for Millilani Wells I and II. Pineapple production costs are estimated from previous cost of production studies. The inclusion of wellhead treatment costs produces different production-cost results, depending on the scale of analysis. At the local scale, the Mililani wellhead treatment costs can be factored into the production costs of the pineapple fields, which were probably responsible for contamination of the Mililani Wells, without causing a deficit in economic return. At the larger regional scale, however, the return from all of the pineapple grown in the Pearl Harbor Basin can not sustain the cost of wellhead treatmentfor the entire water supply of the basin. Recommendations point to the prevention of groundwater contamination as more cost-effective measure than wellhead treatment.

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349

  15. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  16. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  17. Plagiarism and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    It is costly for faculty to deal with cheating. Keith-Spiegel et al. (1998) identified several of these costs and argued that they can be grouped into four categories: emotionality, difficult, fear, and denial. I argue that the emotional and fear costs for faculty make it unlikely that the common approaches to dealing with plagiarism will be…

  18. COST OF MTBE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these cost, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Undergr...

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Cost of Preventing, Managing, and Treating Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Diseases in Sweden before the Introduction of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Leval, Amy; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Bäcklund, Magnus; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Costs associated with HPV-related diseases such as cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts have not been evaluated in Sweden. These costs must be estimated in order to determine the potential savings if these diseases were eradicated and to assess the combined cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. The present study aimed to estimate prevention, management, and treatment costs associated with cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts from a societal perspective in Sweden in 2009, 1 year before the quadrivalent HPV vaccination program was implemented. Methods and Materials Data from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program was used to calculate the costs associated with prevention (cytological cervical cancer screening), management (colposcopy and biopsy following inadequate/abnormal cytological results), and treatment of CIN. Swedish official statistics were used to estimate treatment costs associated with cervical cancer. Published epidemiological data were used to estimate the number of incident, recurrent, and persistent cases of genital warts; a clinical expert panel assessed management and treatment procedures. Estimated visits, procedures, and use of medications were used to calculate the annual cost associated with genital warts. Results From a societal perspective, total estimated costs associated with cervical cancer and genital warts in 2009 were €106.6 million, of which €81.4 million (76%) were direct medical costs. Costs associated with prevention, management, and treatment of CIN were €74 million; screening and management costs for women with normal and inadequate cytology alone accounted for 76% of this sum. The treatment costs associated with incident and prevalent cervical cancer and palliative care were €23 million. Estimated costs for incident, recurrent and persistent cases of genital warts were €9.8 million. Conclusion Prevention, management, and treatment costs

  1. Age-Dependent Cost-Utility of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Yeh, Susan T.; Seshamani, Meena; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Tobey, Emily A.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Frick, Kevin D.; Niparko, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implantation has become the mainstay of treatment for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, despite mounting evidence on the clinical benefits of early implantation, little data are available on the long-term societal benefits and comparative effectiveness of this procedure across various ages of implantation--a choice parameter for parents and clinicians with high prognostic value for clinical outcome. As such, the aim of the current study is to evaluate a model of the consequences of the timing of this intervention from a societal economic perspective. Average cost-utility of pediatric cochlear implantation by age at intervention will be analyzed. Design Prospective, longitudinal assessment of health-utility and educational placement outcomes in 175 children recruited from 6 US centers between November 2002 and December 2004, who had severe-to-profound SNHL onset within 1 year of age, underwent cochlear implantation before 5 years of age, and had up to 6 years of post-implant follow-up that ended in November 2008 to December 2011. Costs of care were collected retrospectively and stratified by pre-operative, operative, and post-operative expenditures. Incremental costs and benefits of implantation were compared between the three age groups and relative to a non-implantation baseline. Results Children implanted at <18 months of age gained an average of 10.7 QALYs over their projected lifetime as compared to 9.0 and 8.4 QALYs for those implanted between 18 and 36 months and at >36 months of age, respectively. Medical and surgical complication rates were not significantly different between the 3 age groups. Additionally, mean lifetime costs of implantation were similar between the 3 groups, at approximately $2,000/child/year (77.5 year life expectancy), yielding costs of $14,996, $17,849, and $19,173 per QALY for the youngest, middle, and oldest implant age groups, respectively. Full mainstream classroom

  2. Creating a 'Born Digital' Introductory Online Geology Course with a Community of Inquiry that Supports Discussion of Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Schwartz, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    With earth science relevant to so many societal challenges, we created an introductory geology course as a forum for students to explore the interplay between geoscience and society. With new media and digital tools enabling such rich collaboration, we designed the course as a fully online lecture and laboratory experience that meets the natural science general education requirements of our university. We hook students by using popular Hollywood blockbusters paired with documentary films that address related science content. Student ask questions using an online question ranking tool (Google Moderator) to guide the direction of further content delivery using the slide sharing/collaboration tool 'VoiceThread.' It allows instructors to post slides, add video narration, and invite students to comment or answer specific questions using video, voice, or text. Students report that VoiceThread makes an asynchronous class feel like a face-to-face experience. Student also collect data using online tools and pool their data in Google Spreadsheets. They discuss their collective findings in VoiceThread. With these tools in place, each content unit culminates with a challenge scenario. Students work in teams to come to a consensus about a real-world decision that requires them to apply their geologic knowledge. Examples include whether or not to evacuate a town in light of volcanic activity, which house to purchase in an earthquake prone area, which industry was polluting local groundwater, and whether or not to sell mineral rights for hydraulic fracturing. While many of these activities are widely utilized, our approach using them in an integrated online lecture/lab environment is unique. A survey of student attitudes towards the course revealed that students felt a stronger personal connection to the course instructor and one another than typical face-to-face GE classes, including those from our own department. Students' self-report of how much they learned was strongly

  3. The GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories - GSNL 2.0: improving societal benefits of Geohazard science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative began with the "Frascati declaration" at the conclusion of the 3rd International Geohazards workshop of GEO held in November 2007 in Frascati, Italy. The recommendation of the workshop was "to stimulate an international and intergovernmental effort to monitor and study selected reference sites by establishing open access to relevant datasets according to GEO principles, to foster the collaboration between all various partners and end-users". This recommendation was later formalized in the GEO Work Plan as Component 2 of the GEO task DI-01, part of the GEO Disasters Societal Benefit Area. Today GSNL has grown to a voluntary collaboration among monitoring agencies, scientific community and the CEOS space agencies, working to improve the scientific understanding of earthquake and volcanic phenomena and enable better risk assessment and emergency management. According to its principles, actions in GSNL are focused on specific areas of the world, the Supersites, for which large amounts of in situ and satellite data are made openly available to all scientists. These areas are selected based on the importance of the scientific problems, as well as on the amount of population at risk, and should be evenly distributed among developed and less developed countries. Seven Supersites have been established to date, six of which on volcanic areas (Hawaii, US; Icelandic volcanoes; Mt. Etna, IT; Campi Flegrei, IT; Ecuadorian volcanoes, Taupo, NZ), and one on a seismic area (Western North Anatolian fault, TR). One more proposals is being evaluated: the Corinth Gulf in Greece. The Supersites have succeeded in promoting new scientific developments by providing a framework for an easier access to EO and in situ data. Coordination among researchers at the global scale has been achieved only where the Supersite activities were sustained through well established projects. For some Supersites a close coordination between

  4. Undergraduate teaching modules featuring geodesy data applied to critical social topics (GETSI: GEodetic Tools for Societal Issues)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The GETSI project, funded by NSF TUES, is developing and disseminating teaching and learning materials that feature geodesy data applied to critical societal issues such as climate change, water resource management, and natural hazards (serc.carleton.edu/getsi). It is collaborative between UNAVCO (NSF's geodetic facility), Mt San Antonio College, and Indiana University. GETSI was initiated after requests by geoscience faculty for geodetic teaching resources for introductory and majors-level students. Full modules take two weeks but module subsets can also be used. Modules are developed and tested by two co-authors and also tested in a third classroom. GETSI is working in partnership with the Science Education Resource Center's (SERC) InTeGrate project on the development, assessment, and dissemination to ensure compatibility with the growing number of resources for geoscience education. Two GETSI modules are being published in October 2015. "Ice mass and sea level changes" includes geodetic data from GRACE, satellite altimetry, and GPS time series. "Imaging Active Tectonics" has students analyzing InSAR and LiDAR data to assess infrastructure earthquake vulnerability. Another three modules are in testing during fall 2015 and will be published in 2016. "Surface process hazards" investigates mass wasting hazard and risk using LiDAR data. "Water resources and geodesy" uses GRACE, vertical GPS, and reflection GPS data to have students investigating droughts in California and the High Great Plains. "GPS, strain, and earthquakes" helps students learn about infinitesimal and coseismic strain through analysis of horizontal GPS data and includes an extension module on the Napa 2014 earthquake. In addition to teaching resources, the GETSI project is compiling recommendations on successful development of geodesy curricula. The chief recommendations so far are the critical importance of including scientific experts in the authorship team and investing significant resources in

  5. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  6. Costs of groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

  7. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly. PMID:12220092

  8. Cost-effectiveness of integrated COPD care: the RECODE cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Melinde R S; Kruis, Annemarije L; Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Coert M G; Chavannes, Niels H; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) disease management (COPD-DM) programme in primary care, called RECODE, compared to usual care. Design A 2-year cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 40 general practices in the western part of the Netherlands. Participants 1086 patients with COPD according to GOLD (Global Initiative for COPD) criteria. Exclusion criteria were terminal illness, cognitive impairment, alcohol or drug misuse and inability to fill in Dutch questionnaires. Practices were included if they were willing to create a multidisciplinary COPD team. Interventions A multidisciplinary team of caregivers was trained in motivational interviewing, setting up individual care plans, exacerbation management, implementing clinical guidelines and redesigning the care process. In addition, clinical decision-making was supported by feedback reports provided by an ICT programme. Main outcome measures We investigated the impact on health outcomes (quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), Clinical COPD Questionnaire, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and exacerbations) and costs (healthcare and societal perspective). Results The intervention costs were €324 per patient. Excluding these costs, the intervention group had €584 (95% CI €86 to €1046) higher healthcare costs than did the usual care group and €645 (95% CI €28 to €1190) higher costs from the societal perspective. Health outcomes were similar in both groups, except for 0.04 (95% CI −0.07 to −0.01) less QALYs in the intervention group. Conclusions This integrated care programme for patients with COPD that mainly included professionally directed interventions was not cost-effective in primary care. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register NTR2268. PMID:26525419

  9. Financial and Economic Costs of the Elimination and Eradication of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Eun; Sicuri, Elisa; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa. Methods We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals—control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation. Results The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013–2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million) than the control scenario ($47 million), intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems. Conclusions The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance

  10. Echo-based screening of rheumatic heart disease in children: a cost-effectiveness Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Justin P.; Samnaliev, Mihail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To project the cost-effectiveness of population-based echo screening to prevent rheumatic heart disease (RHD) consequences. Background RHD is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity during adolescence and young adulthood in low- and middle-per capita income settings. Echocardiography-based screening approaches can dramatically expand the number of children identified at risk of progressive RHD. Cost-effectiveness analysis can inform public health agencies and payers about the net economic benefit of such large-scale population-based screening. Methods A Markov model was constructed comparing a no-screen to echo screen approach. The echo screen program was modeled as a 2-staged screen of a cohort of 11-year-old children with initial short screening performed by dedicated technicians and follow-up complete echo by cardiologists. Penicillin RHD prophylaxis was modeled to only reduce rheumatic fever recurrence-related exacerbation. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and societal costs (in 2010 Australian dollars) associated with each approach were estimated. One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed on RHD prevalence and transition probabilities; echocardiography test characteristics; and societal level costs including supplies, transportation, and labor. Results The incremental costs and QALYs of the screen compared to no screen strategy were −$432 (95% CI = −$1357 to $575) and 0.007 (95% CI = −0.0101 to 0.0237), respectively. The joint probability that the screen was both less costly and more effective exceeded 80%. Sensitivity analyses suggested screen strategy dominance depends mostly on the probability of transitioning out of sub-clinical RHD. Conclusion Two-stage echo RHD screening and secondary prophylaxis may achieve modestly improved outcomes at lower cost compared to clinical detection and deserves closer attention from health policy stakeholders. PMID:25629653

  11. The Costs and Benefits of Employing an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group. Objective This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers. Methods Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Results and Conclusion Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored. PMID

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention among Adherent Participants

    PubMed Central

    Herman, William H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Montez, Maria G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Zhang, Ping; Saudek, Christopher D.; Brown, Morton B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We report the 10 year effectiveness and within-trial cost-effectiveness of the The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) interventions among participants who were adherent to the interventions. STUDY DESIGN DPP was a 3-year randomized clinical trial followed by 7-years of open-label modified intervention followup. METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality-of-life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. Lifestyle adherence was defined as achieving and maintaining a 5% reduction in initial body weight and metformin adherence as taking metformin at 80% of study visits. RESULTS The relative risk reduction was 49.4% among adherent lifestyle participants and 20.8% among adherent metformin participants compared to placebo. Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted, per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for adherent lifestyle participants ($4,810) than adherent metformin participants ($2,934) or placebo ($768). Over 10 years, the cumulative, per capita non-intervention-related direct medical costs were $4,250 greater for placebo participants compared to adherent lifestyle participants and $3,251 greater compared to adherent metformin participants. The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.80) than metformin (6.74) or placebo (6.67). Without discounting, from both a modified societal perspective (excluding participant time), lifestyle cost <$5,000 per QALY-gained and metformin was cost-saving compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, lifestyle intervention and metformin were cost-saving compared to placebo. These analyses confirm that lifestyle and metformin represent a good value for money. PMID:23544761

  13. Concepts of Cost and Cost Analysis for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Allen, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts of costs and cost analysis in higher education are examined, along with how to prepare for a cost study. Specific cost analysis techniques are identified, along with types of data generated and potential problems. In preparing for cost studies, it is important to consider: purpose, types of cost analysis, types of cost, common…

  14. Societal responsibility and moral hazard: How much are we willing to pay for quality-adjusted life?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Megan A; Abbott, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Health care spending in the United States continues to rise with cancer care consuming a disproportionate amount of that spending. As the US population ages and cancer treatment options become more complex, cost containment strategies have become essential in oncology. Patient-centered decision-making will help to contain costs but requires a well-informed patient who is able to reconcile potential treatment choices with their beliefs and values. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:269-274. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074976

  15. The Burden of Dengue and the Financial Cost to Colombia, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Raúl Castro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Porras, Alexandra; Galera-Gelvez, Katia; Yescas, Juan Guillermo Lopez; Rueda-Gallardo, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden of dengue and its economic costs can help guide health policy decisions. However, little reliable information is available for Colombia. We therefore calculated the burden of the disease, expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for two scenarios: endemic years (average number of cases in non-epidemic years 2011 and 2012) and an epidemic year (2010, when the highest number of dengue cases was reported in the study period). We also estimated the total economic cost of the disease (U.S. dollars at the average exchange rate for 2012), including indirect costs to households derived from expenses such as preventing entry of mosquitos into the home and costs to government arising from direct, indirect, and prevention and monitoring activities, as well as the direct medical and non-medical costs. In the epidemic year 2010, 1,198.73 DALYs were lost per million inhabitants versus 83.88 in endemic years. The total financial cost of the disease in Colombia from a societal perspective was US$167.8 million for 2010, US$129.9 million for 2011, and US$131.7 million for 2012. The cost of mosquito prevention borne by households was a major cost driver (accounting for 46% of the overall cost in 2010, 62% in 2011, and 64% in 2012). PMID:26928834

  16. The cost of HIV medication adherence support interventions: results of a cross-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schackman, B R; Finkelstein, R; Neukermans, C P; Lewis, L; Eldred, L

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of HIV adherence support programmes participating in a cross-site evaluation in the US. Data on the frequency, type, and setting of adherence encounters; providers' professions; and adherence tools provided were collected for 1,122 patients enrolled in 13 interventions at 9 sites. The site staff estimated the average duration of each type of encounter and national wage rates were used for labour costs. The median (range) adherence encounters/year among interventions was 16.5 (4.3-104.6) per patient; encounters lasted 24.6 (8.9-40.9) minutes. Intervention direct cost was correlated with the average frequency of encounters (r = 0.57), but not with encounter duration or providers' professions. The median direct cost/month was 35 dollars(5 dollars-58 dollars) per patient, and included direct provider costs (66%); incentives (17%); reminders and other tools (8%); and direct administrative time, provider transportation, training, and home delivery (9%). The median direct cost/month from a societal perspective, which includes patient time and travel costs, was 47 dollars(24 dollars-114 dollars) per patient. Adherence interventions with moderate efficacy costing < or =100 dollars/month have been estimated to meet a cost-effectiveness threshold that is generally accepted in the US. Payers should consider enhanced reimbursement for adherence support services. PMID:16265786

  17. The Burden of Dengue and the Financial Cost to Colombia, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Castro Rodríguez, Raúl; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Porras, Alexandra; Galera-Gelvez, Katia; Lopez Yescas, Juan Guillermo; Rueda-Gallardo, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    Data on the burden of dengue and its economic costs can help guide health policy decisions. However, little reliable information is available for Colombia. We therefore calculated the burden of the disease, expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for two scenarios: endemic years (average number of cases in non-epidemic years 2011 and 2012) and an epidemic year (2010, when the highest number of dengue cases was reported in the study period). We also estimated the total economic cost of the disease (U.S. dollars at the average exchange rate for 2012), including indirect costs to households derived from expenses such as preventing entry of mosquitos into the home and costs to government arising from direct, indirect, and prevention and monitoring activities, as well as the direct medical and non-medical costs. In the epidemic year 2010, 1,198.73 DALYs were lost per million inhabitants versus 83.88 in endemic years. The total financial cost of the disease in Colombia from a societal perspective was US$167.8 million for 2010, US$129.9 million for 2011, and US$131.7 million for 2012. The cost of mosquito prevention borne by households was a major cost driver (accounting for 46% of the overall cost in 2010, 62% in 2011, and 64% in 2012). PMID:26928834

  18. Biocontrol of tamarisk in the western United States: an event underway with significant ecological and societal implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful and economically costly plant invaders in the western United States. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. Traditional er...

  19. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  20. Low cost MCFC anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

  1. Heliostat cost optimization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  2. Electric propulsion cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric cost model for mercury ion propulsion modules is presented. A detailed work breakdown structure is included. Cost estimating relationships were developed for the individual subsystems and the nonhardware items (systems engineering, software, etc.). Solar array and power processor unit (PPU) costs are the significant cost drivers. Simplification of both of these subsystems through applications of advanced technology (lightweight solar arrays and high-efficiency, self-radiating PPUs) can reduce costs. Comparison of the performance and cost of several chemical propulsion systems with the Hg ion module are also presented. For outer-planet missions, advanced solar electric propulsion (ASEP) trip times and O2/H2 propulsion trip times are comparable. A three-year trip time savings over the baselined NTO/MMH propulsion system is possible with ASEP.

  3. Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

    2014-10-01

    Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

  4. NASA's attack on costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, George M.

    1994-01-01

    This article's concern is regarding the high costs of space travel and the need to minimize or reduce these costs in order to effectively provide the continuation of the space programs and space exploration needs of the future. Discussed is the possibility and need to optimize payloads in order to lower the costs associated with them. Design phase principles and implementation phase points are discussed.

  5. Engine costs for reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Carla M.; Lansaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The advanced Launch System (ALS) program goals demand an order-of-magnitude reduction in costs over existing launch vehicle propulsion systems. Studies suggest that reusable engines provide cost advantages over expendable propulsion systems. Early studies are quantifying operations costs, and cost sensitivities to engine production and operations variables. ALS production and operations philosophies enhance the potential of an affordable, operationally flexible launch vehicle propulsion system. The assumptions made and criteria set during the initial planning for the operations phase of the ALS highlight the changes for implementing such a system.

  6. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  7. Designers' unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  8. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  9. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections. PMID:24835258

  10. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  11. Designer's unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, William T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Swanson, G. D.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. The approach, goals, plans, and progress is presented for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  12. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  13. The snow storm of 8 March 2010 in Catalonia (Spain): a paradigmatic wet-snow event with a high societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, M. C.; Turco, M.; Quintana-Seguí, P.; Llasat-Botija, M.

    2014-02-01

    A heavy precipitation event swept over Catalonia (NE Spain) on 8 March 2010, with a total amount that exceeded 100 mm locally and snowfall of more than 60 cm near the coast. Unusual for this region and at this time of the year, this snowfall event affected mainly the coastal region and was accompanied by thunderstorms and strong wind gusts in some areas. Most of the damage was due to "wet snow", a kind of snow that favours accretion on power lines and causes line-breaking and subsequent interruption of the electricity supply. This paper conducts an interdisciplinary analysis of the event to show its great societal impact and the role played by the recently developed social networks (it has been called the first "Snowfall 2.0"), as well to analyse the meteorological factors associated with the major damage, and to propose an indicator that could summarise them. With this aim, the paper introduces the event and its societal impact and compares it with other important snowfalls that have affected the Catalan coast, using the PRESSGAMA database. The second part of the paper shows the event's main meteorological features and analyses the near-surface atmospheric variables responsible for the major damage through the application of the SAFRAN (Système d'analyse fournissant des renseignements atmosphériques à la neige) mesoscale analysis, which, together with the proposed "wind, wet-snow index" (WWSI), allows to estimate the severity of the event. This snow storm provides further evidence of our vulnerability to natural hazards and highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in analysing societal impact and the meteorological factors responsible for this kind of event.

  14. Cosmic airburst debris, climate anomalies and societal reactions at 4.2kyr BP: from North Syria to Adelie Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coqueugniot, E.; Courty, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The linkages established between dust spikes, unprecedented drought and societal disruption at 4.2 kyr BP have yet failed elucidating the marked increase in aerosol. The volcanic dust component or the erratic spatial pattern are among other puzzling anomalies for a global climate event. We examine here the 4.2 kyr BP debris records from high quality sedimentary archives across the two hemispheres: (1) at Tell Dja'de (Syria), a carbonaceous surface sealed by a EB III/IV Bronze age cemetery; (2) at Tell Ahmar (Syria), the nearly intact collapsed wood frame of the Akkad palace sandwiched between the last 3rd millennium BC plastered floors and massive destruction layers of the monumental buildings; (3) debris accumulation from human processed slags in late Akkaddian contexts at Tell Leilan, Tell Chuera, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak (North Syria) and in an EB III/IV one at Umbaschi (South Syria); (4) a tsunami layer at Banda Aceh (Sumatra); (5) deep sea cores from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, the Indian and Austral oceans. Using an in situ multi-analytical protocol, we focus on the carbonaceous polymorphs and the composite elements that we formerly defined to tracing hypervelocity cosmic airbursts. A meticulous control of their spatial pattern and structural characteristics at meso to nano-scales has helped to distinguishing the intact debris fall of airburst origin from their human processed-byproducts. The later trace the occurrence in the debris airbursts of highly valuable resources, i.e. fossil combustible with singular properties, that have been exploited since the prehistoric time. Evidence for an oceanic impact at 4.2 kyr BP in the Austral ocean are provided by the 3 m record in the Adelie land high resolution marine core (MD03-2601) showing sudden discharge of ice rafted fine debris with impact features. Their fresh fingerprints in the high to low latitude records from the southern hemisphere indicate massive dispersion of impact debris by air and surface

  15. TIPP and Lichtenstein modalities for inguinal hernia repair: a cost minimisation analysis alongside a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Koning, G G; Adang, E M M; Stalmeier, P F M; Keus, F; Vriens, P W H E; van Laarhoven, C J H M

    2013-12-01

    The transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) technique using a soft mesh with a memory ring was developed recently for inguinal hernia repair. To compare TIPP with the Lichtenstein method, a randomised trial was conducted (ISRCTN93798494). The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the TIPP modality compared to the Lichtenstein modality from both a hospital and societal perspective alongside the clinical trial. The TULIP study was a double-blind randomised clinical trial comparing two techniques for inguinal hernia repair (TIPP and Lichtenstein). Correct generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and follow-up were used/applied according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook. Next to the cost drivers, the short-form-36 health survey (SF-36) data from the TULIP trial was used to determine utility. The SF-36 data from the TULIP trial were revised using the SF-6D algorithm according to Brazier. Two scenarios-a hospital and a societal perspective-were presented. If the analyses showed no difference in effects (on the SF-6D) the cost effectiveness decision rule to cost minimisation was altered. No significant difference in SF-6D utility between both modalities was found (mean difference: 0.888, 95% CI -1.02 to 1.23); consequently, the economic decision rule became cost minimisation. For the hospital perspective no significant differences in costs were found (mean difference: euro -13, 95% CI euro -130 to euro 104). However, when including productivity gains in the analysis, significant differences (P = 0.037) in costs favouring the TIPP modality (mean saving: euro 1,472, 95% CI euro 463- euro 2,714) were found. The results show that TIPP is a cost-saving inguinal hernia repair technique compared to the Lichtenstein modality against equal effectiveness expressed as quality adjusted life week at 1 year given a societal perspective. In the trial, TIPP patients showed on average a quicker recovery of 6.5 days compared to

  16. COST DIGEST: COST SUMMARIES OF SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes cost data on over 20 environmental control technologies. The cost parameters presented include total capital investment, net annual operating expenses, and unit annualized costs. These cost estimates are given over an appropriate range of system capacities f...

  17. A transactional perspective on the interrelationship of the societal power structure, the mental health establishment, the individual, and the community: a commentary on Nassi.

    PubMed

    Dokecki, P R

    1978-01-01

    While agreeing in part with Nassi's (1978) radical position on the failure of community control to be meaningfully implemented by the mental health establishment, a complementary analysis is proposed as being more complete by virtue of integrating a variety of societal and individual perspectives. This analysis builds on transactional epistemology and a multi-level model of service delivery, also bringing to bear developmental and social evolutionary theory. A new service delivery role, the human development liaison specialist, is advanced as consistent with these notions. PMID:10306098

  18. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  19. Modelling lifetime cost consequences of ReSTOR® in cataract surgery in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    Lafuma, Antoine; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the lifetime costs of liberating patients from spectacles after cataract surgery by implanting the multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) 'ReSTOR®' versus monofocal IOLs in France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Methods A Markov model was created to follow patient cohorts from cataract surgery until death. Prevalence rates of patients not needing spectacles after cataract surgery were obtained from clinical trials. Resource utilisation included implant surgery, IOLs, spectacles, visits to ophthalmologists and eye centres, transport, and time lost by patients. Economic perspectives were those of Society and Sickness Funds (SFs). Results The mean number of spectacles purchased after ReSTOR® was 1.34–1.61 and after monofocal IOLs 6.05–7.27. From the societal perspective, total cost estimates discounted by 3% were between €3,551 and €4,052 with ReSTOR® compared to €3,989 and €5,548 with monofocal IOLs. Undiscounted savings related to ReSTOR® ranged from €815 to €2,164. From the SFs' perspective total cost estimates discounted by 3% were between €2,150 and €2,524 with ReSTOR® compared to €2,324 and €2,610 with monofocal IOLs. Savings related to ReSTOR®, once costs discounted, ranged from €61 to €219. Discount and spectacle freedom prevalence rates were the most sensitive parameters. Conclusion The bulk of the savings related to ReSTOR® were realized outside the SF. From both a societal and SF perspective, savings, after a 3% discounting, achieved by liberating patients from spectacles counterbalanced the initially higher cost of ReSTOR®. ReSTOR® is a cost saving alternative to spectacles for patients requiring cataract surgery. PMID:18627594

  20. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example. PMID:15768682

  1. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities. PMID:26946936

  2. Modeling the cost effectiveness of injury interventions in lower and middle income countries: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M; Hyder, Adnan A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of five interventions that could counter injuries in lower and middle income countries(LMICs): better traffic enforcement, erecting speed bumps, promoting helmets for bicycles, promoting helmets for motorcycles, and storing kerosene in child proof containers. Methods We adopt an ingredients based approach to form models of what each intervention would cost in 6 world regions over a 10 year period discounted at both 3% and 6% from both the governmental and societal perspectives. Costs are expressed in local currency converted into US $2001. Each of these interventions has been assessed for effectiveness in a LMIC in limited region, these effectiveness estimates have been used to form models of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted for various regions, taking account of regional differences in the baseline burden of injury. Results The interventions modeled in this paper have cost effectiveness ratios ranging from US $5 to $ 556 per DALY averted depending on region. Depending on local acceptability thresholds many of them could be judged cost-effective relative to interventions that are already adopted. Enhanced enforcement of traffic regulations is the most cost-effective interventions with an average cost per DALY of $64 Conclusion Injury counter measures appear to be cost-effective based on models. More evaluations of real interventions will help to strengthen the evidence basis. PMID:16423285

  3. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  4. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy. PMID:8444618

  5. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  6. Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Joe J.

    This paper examines the particular problems involved in analyzing the costs of bilingual education and suggests that cost analysis of bilingual education requires a fundamentally different approach than that followed in other recent school finance studies. Focus of the discussion is the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA)…

  7. An Eye on Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Presents the 11th annual residence hall construction report showing larger sized residence halls are costing less to construct. Statistics are presented of cost ranges for residence hall construction, the amenities being added to today's residence halls, and classroom- and science-building construction. (GR)

  8. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  9. Cost versus Enrollment Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard K.; Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The defining characteristic of a bubble is unsustainable growth that eventually reverses. Bubbles typically arise when uncertainty leads to unsustainable trends, and the authors argue that there are two areas in which higher education has experienced what appear to be unsustainable trends, namely, college costs (the costs to students, parents, and…

  10. Analyzing Costs of Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James O.; Black, Talbot

    A simplified method to gather and analyze cost data is presented for administrators of Handicapped Children's Early Education Programs, and specifically for members of the Technical Assistance Development System, North Carolina. After identifying benefits and liabilities associated with analyzing program costs, attention is focused on the internal…

  11. Designing for Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1991-01-01

    Designing for cost is a state of mind. Of course, a lot of technical knowledge is required and the use of appropriate tools will improve the process. Unfortunately, the extensive use of weight based cost estimating relationships has generated a perception in the aerospace community that the primary way to reduce cost is to reduce weight. Wrong! Based upon an approximation of an industry accepted formula, the PRICE H (tm) production-production equation, Dean demonstrated theoretically that the optimal trajectory for cost reduction is predominantly in the direction of system complexity reduction, not system weight reduction. Thus the phrase "keep it simple" is a primary state of mind required for reducing cost throughout the design process.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Combination Therapies for Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Meheus, Filip; Balasegaram, Manica; Olliaro, Piero; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Faiz, Md. Abul; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies. Methods and Findings We assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) from a societal perspective using a decision analytical model based on a decision tree. Primary data collected in each country was combined with data from the literature and an expert poll (Delphi method). The cost per patient treated and average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios expressed as cost per death averted were calculated. Extensive sensitivity analysis was done to evaluate the robustness of our estimations and conclusions. With a cost of US$92 per death averted, the combination miltefosine-paromomycin was the most cost-effective treatment strategy. The next best alternative was a combination of liposomal amphotericin B with paromomycin with an incremental cost-effectiveness of $652 per death averted. All other strategies were dominated with the exception of a single dose of 10mg per kg of liposomal amphotericin B. While strategies based on liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) were found to be the most effective, its current drug cost of US$20 per vial resulted in a higher average cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis showed the conclusion to be robust to variations in the input parameters over their plausible range. Conclusions Combination treatments are a cost-effective alternative to current monotherapy for VL. Given their expected impact on the emergence of drug resistance, a switch to combination therapy should be considered once final results from clinical trials are available. PMID:20838649

  13. The costs of asthma.

    PubMed

    Barnes, P J; Jonsson, B; Klim, J B

    1996-04-01

    At present, asthma represents a substantial burden on health care resources in all countries so far studied. The costs of asthma are largely due to uncontrolled disease, and are likely to rise as its prevalence and severity increase. Costs could be significantly reduced if disease control is improved. A large proportion of the total cost of illness is derived from treating the consequences of poor asthma control-direct costs, such as emergency room use and hospitalizations. Indirect costs, which include time off work or school and early retirement, are incurred when the disease is not fully controlled and becomes severe enough to have an effect on daily life. In addition, quality of life assessments show that asthma has a significant socioeconomic impact, not only on the patients themselves, but on the whole family. Underuse of prescribed therapy, which includes poor compliance, significantly contributes towards the poor control of asthma. The consequences of poor compliance in asthma include increased morbidity and sometimes mortality, and increased health care expenditure. To improve asthma management, international guidelines have been introduced which recommend an increase in the use of prophylactic therapy. The resulting improvements in the control of asthma will reduce the number of hospitalizations associated with asthma, and may ultimately produce a shift within direct costs, with subsequent reductions in indirect costs. In addition, costs may be reduced by improving therapeutic interventions and through effective patient education programmes. This paper reviews current literature on the costs of asthma to assess how effectively money is spent and, by estimating the proportion of the cost attributable to uncontrolled disease, will identify where financial savings might be made. PMID:8726924

  14. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  15. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management. PMID:25894271

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  17. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products

    PubMed Central

    Yearley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required. PMID:19447816

  18. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Prenatal Distribution of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lubinga, Solomon J.; Atukunda, Esther C.; Wasswa-Ssalongo, George; Babigumira, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer) and modified societal perspectives. Methods and Findings To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution), we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.0% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.55%, 1.95%), mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13%) and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03). Mean costs were higher with prenatal misoprostol distribution from governmental by US$3.3 (95% CrI: 2.1, 4.2) and modified societal (by US$1.3; 95% CrI: -1.6, 2.8) perspectives. ICERs were US$191 (95% CrI: 82, 443) per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$73 (95% CI: -86, 256) per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective. Conclusions Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be

  19. Cassini tour cost reductions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The original design of the Cassini tour violated the cost constraint for the mission operations and data analysis by more than 30 percent. This challenge was addressed by performing tradeoffs in order to establish a modified risk and performance posture for the operations organization. This new posture accepted more data acquisition risk with minimal impact to the mission objectives, and brought the operation costs to within the program's constraints. The methodology employed within the Cassini program in order to address the tour cost, risk and performance parameters is presented.

  20. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  1. A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment, relative to standard care—an international randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, N R; Colagiuri, S; Schofield, D; Olson, A D; Shrestha, R; Holzapfel, C; Wolfenstetter, S B; Holle, R; Ahern, A L; Hauner, H; Jebb, S A; Caterson, I D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity there is a need to identify cost-effective approaches for weight loss in primary care and community settings. Objective: We evaluated the cost effectiveness of two weight loss programmes of 1-year duration, either standard care (SC) as defined by national guidelines, or a commercial provider (Weight Watchers) (CP). Design: This analysis was based on a randomised controlled trial of 772 adults (87% female; age 47.4±12.9 years; body mass index 31.4±2.6 kg m−2) recruited by health professionals in primary care in Australia, United Kingdom and Germany. Both a health sector and societal perspective were adopted to calculate the cost per kilogram of weight loss and the ICER, expressed as the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Results: The cost per kilogram of weight loss was USD122, 90 and 180 for the CP in Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, respectively. For SC the cost was USD138, 151 and 133, respectively. From a health-sector perspective, the ICER for the CP relative to SC was USD18 266, 12 100 and 40 933 for Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, respectively. Corresponding societal ICER figures were USD31 663, 24 996 and 51 571. Conclusion: The CP was a cost-effective approach from a health funder and societal perspective. Despite participants in the CP group attending two to three times more meetings than the SC group, the CP was still cost effective even including these added patient travel costs. This study indicates that it is cost effective for general practitioners (GPs) to refer overweight and obese patients to a CP, which may be better value than expending public funds on GP visits to manage this problem. PMID:22929209

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany.

    PubMed

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature. PMID:25933182

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature. PMID:25933182

  4. Analysis of direct costs of hypertension treatment among adolescents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Anna; Koligat, Dorota; Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents, arterial hypertension (AH) is diagnosed much more frequently than previously thought--it affects 3.2% of the population aged 11-18. In Poland, at present, there are no cost analyses of treatment arterial hypertension among adolescents. The aim of the conducted studies was to analyze direct medical and non-medical costs in the time horizon of one calendar year (2010) of AH treatment in adolescents in Poland. A retrospective study from the societal perspective was based on data from 480 patients medical history cards obtained from the archives of the hospital. From this group, according to the criteria for inclusion in the study, a research group was selected consisting of 36 patients aged 16-18 years, with a diagnosed and treated hypertension. Analysis covered direct medical costs (costs of pharmacotherapy, doctors' visits and laboratory tests, hospitalization) and direct non-medical costs (cost of transport to the outpatient clinic). Average annual cost of hypertension treatment per patient was 89.96 Euro. The largest part of the structure of total costs related with hypertension treatment in adolescents in Poland were the costs of medical consultation with lab tests and diagnostic examinations--35.04% and pharmacotherapy costs--32.95%, with hospital stays rating somewhat lower with 19.12%, and the smallest part were the costs of the patient's transportation to the hypertension outpatient clinic--12.89%. Early identification of risk factors of such cardiovascular diseases as hypertension as early as in the developmental age, and their subsequent elimination, should be considered a good investment in the reduction of costs associated with hypertension treatment in adulthood. PMID:24779208

  5. How much does it cost to identify a critically ill child experiencing electrographic seizures?

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Topjian, Alexis A; Williams, Sankey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Electrographic seizures in critically ill children may be identified by continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four electrographic seizure identification strategies (no EEG monitoring and EEG monitoring for 1 hour, 24 hours, or 48 hours). Methods We created a decision tree to model the relationships among variables from a societal perspective. To provide input for the model, we estimated variable costs directly related to EEG monitoring from their component parts, and we reviewed the literature to estimate the probabilities of outcomes. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to identify the tradeoff between cost and effectiveness at different willingness-to-pay values. Results Our analysis found that the preferred strategy was EEG monitoring for 1 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours if the decision maker was willing to pay <$1,666, $1,666–$22,648, and >$22,648 per critically ill child identified with electrographic seizures, respectively. The 48 hour strategy only identified 4% more children with electrographic seizures at substantially higher cost. Sensitivity analyses found that all three strategies were acceptable at lower willingness-to-pay values when children with higher electrographic seizure risk were monitored. Conclusions Our results support monitoring of critically ill children for 24 hours because the cost to identify a critically ill child with electrographic seizures is modest. Further study is needed to predict better which children may benefit from 48 hours of EEG monitoring since the costs are much higher. PMID:25626776

  6. A Method for Estimating Costs and Benefits of Space Assembly and Servicing By Astronauts and Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.; Benfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One aspect of designing future space missions is to determine whether Space Assembly and Servicing (SAS) is useful and, if so, what combination of robots and astronauts provides the most effective means of accomplishing it. Certain aspects of these choices, such as the societal value of developing the means for humans to live in space, do not lend themselves to quantification. However, other SAS costs and benefits can be quantified in a manner that can help select the most cost-effective SAS approach. Any space facility, whether it is assembled and serviced or not, entails an eventual replacement cost due to wear and obsolescence. Servicing can reduce this cost by limiting replacement to only failed or obsolete components. However, servicing systems, such as space robots, have their own logistics cost, and astronauts can have even greater logistics requirements. On the other hand, humans can be more capable than robots at performing dexterous and unstructured tasks, which can reduce logistics costs by allowing a reduction in mass of replacement components. Overall, the cost-effectiveness of astronaut SAS depends on its efficiency; and, if astronauts have to be wholly justified by their servicing usefulness, then the serviced space facility has to be large enough to fully occupy them.

  7. Planning for Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaebitz, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat pump life-cycle cost analysis is used to explain the technique. Items suggested for the life-cycle analysis approach include lighting, longer-life batteries, site maintenance, and retaining experts to inspect specific building components. (MLF)

  8. Cost of Computer Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenery, Peter J.

    1973-01-01

    The program described has the primary objective of making Federally generated technology and research information available to public and private agencies. Cost analysis, data banks, and search strategies are explained. (Author/DH)

  9. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  10. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  11. Operational cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  12. 20 CFR 627.435 - Cost principles and allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OMB Circulars identified in DOL's regulations at 29 CFR 97.22(b). (c) Costs allocable to another... unforeseen events; (7) Costs prohibited by 29 CFR part 93 (Lobbying Restrictions) or costs of any salaries or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost principles and allowable costs....

  13. 20 CFR 627.435 - Cost principles and allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OMB Circulars identified in DOL's regulations at 29 CFR 97.22(b). (c) Costs allocable to another... unforeseen events; (7) Costs prohibited by 29 CFR part 93 (Lobbying Restrictions) or costs of any salaries or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost principles and allowable costs....

  14. Costs of a Motivational Enhancement Therapy Coupled with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Brief Advice for Pregnant Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Ruger, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare costs of a nurse-administered behavioral intervention for pregnant substance users that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) to brief advice (BA) administered by an obstetrical provider. Both interventions were provided concurrent with prenatal care. Methods We conducted a micro-costing study that prospectively collected detailed resource utilization and unit cost data for each of the two intervention arms (MET-CBT and BA) within the context of a randomized controlled trial. A three-step approach for identifying, measuring and valuing resource utilization was used. All cost estimates were inflation adjusted to 2011 U.S. dollars. Results A total of 82 participants received the MET-CBT intervention and 86 participants received BA. From the societal perspective, the total cost (including participants’ time cost) of the MET-CBT intervention was $120,483 or $1,469 per participant. In contrast, the total cost of the BA intervention was $27,199 or $316 per participant. Personnel costs (nurse therapists and obstetric providers) for delivering the intervention sessions and supervising the program composed the largest share of the MET-CBT intervention costs. Program set up costs, especially intervention material design and training costs, also contributed substantially to the overall cost. Conclusions Implementation of an MET-CBT program to promote drug abstinence in pregnant women is associated with modest costs. Future cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses integrating costs with outcomes and benefits data will enable a more comprehensive understanding of the intervention in improving the care of substance abusing pregnant women. PMID:24760017

  15. Societal and Commercial Issues Affecting the Future of Biotechnology in the United States: A Survey of Researchers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabino, Isaac

    A 1995 survey of 1,257 U.S. recombinant DNA researchers assessed how they view outside factors affecting their work, including public and media attention; regulation; funding; international competition; commercialization of research and university/industry collaboration; health care reform efforts; and patenting laws and policies. Generally, respondents view public attention as having had positive effects on biotechnology progress, but they are concerned about the decrease in R&D funding, especially from government; the loss of scientific openness and basic-research quality caused by academic/industrial collaboration; international competition, particularly from Japan and Germany; overly stringent regulations that control R&D processes rather than products; inefficient regulatory agencies focused on irrelevant criteria; and threats to basic biomedical research from the short-term cost focus of managed-care companies.

  16. The estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction in recent light-duty vehicles on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane, 2012). Societal fatality risk includes the risk to both the occupants of the case vehicle as well as any crash partner or pedestrians. The current analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. This paper replicates the Kahane analysis and extends it by testing the sensitivity of his results to changes in the definition of risk, and the data and control variables used in the regression models. An assessment by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in Kahane's previous studies, and is statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars (Wenzel, 2012a). The estimated effects of a reduction in mass or footprint (i.e. wheelbase times track width) are small relative to other vehicle, driver, and crash variables used in the regression models. The recent historical correlation between mass and footprint is not so large to prohibit including both variables in the same regression model; excluding footprint from the model, i.e. allowing footprint to decrease with mass, increases the estimated detrimental effect of mass reduction on risk in cars and crossover utility vehicles (CUVs)/minivans, but has virtually no effect on light trucks. Analysis by footprint deciles indicates that risk does not consistently increase with reduced mass for vehicles of similar footprint. Finally, the estimated effects of mass and footprint reduction are sensitive to the measure of exposure used (fatalities per induced exposure crash, rather than per VMT), as well as other changes in the data or control variables used. It appears that the safety penalty from lower mass can be mitigated with careful vehicle design, and that manufacturers can

  17. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Design Multilevel analysis of cross‐sectional data. Setting 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Participants Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Mean outcome measures Poor self‐rated health. Results There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20‐fold difference). Ecologically, the age‐ and sex‐standardised prevalence of poor self‐rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = −0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country‐level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10‐point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Conclusion Societal measures of prosperity and corruption

  18. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  19. CB7-05: Incremental Cost-effectiveness of Preventing Depression in At-risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, John; Clarke, Greg; Beardslee, William; Weersing, V. Robin; Gladstone, Tracey; Porta, Giovanna; Brent, David; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Adolescent depression is common and leads to many negative personal, social, and economic consequences for youth and their families; unfortunately, most youth who experience major depression do not receive any treatment. Depression prevention programs can reduce these negative consequences, but they must be affordable to be widely disseminated and useful for health care systems. Decision-makers need to weigh relative costs and benefits of providing efficacious prevention programs to depressed adolescents, but little cost-effectiveness analysis exists. The Prevention of Depression trial (POD) was a brief prevention program that compared a group cognitive- behavioral preventive (CBP) intervention to usual care (UC) to reduce depression risk in at-risk youth; the intervention decreased the number of days with depression. We present an incremental cost- effectiveness analysis of the group CBP program relative to UC, from the societal perspective, for 9 months following the intervention. Methods POD was conducted in four U.S. academic and community clinics. Participants were 316 youth aged 13–17 with a past history of depression and/or current elevated, but sub-diagnostic, depressive symptoms. They were randomly assigned to the CBP group consisting of 8 weekly, 90- minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions or to UC alone. The main clinical outcome measures were depression-free days (DFD) and quality-adjusted life-years based on DFD (DFD-QALYs). Costs of intervention, non-protocol services, and families were included. Results CBP achieved 13 additional DFD (p=.008), 0.022 more DFD-QALYs (p=.008). CBP cost $591 (SD=286) on average. Cost per DFD was $59 (ICER = $59; 95% CI: 11–263), $35,434 per DFD-QALY (ICER=$35,434; 95% CI: 6,350 – 157,594). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analyses suggest a 69% probability that CBP is more cost-effective at a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY. CBP had a higher net benefit for

  20. How much does curation cost?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    NIH administrators have recently expressed concerns about the cost of curation for biological databases. However, they did not articulate the exact costs of curation. Here we calculate the cost of biocuration of articles for the EcoCyc database as $219 per article over a 5-year period. That cost is 6–15% of the cost of open-access publication fees for publishing biomedical articles, and we estimate that cost is 0.088% of the cost of the overall research project that generated the experimental results. Thus, curation costs are small in an absolute sense, and represent a miniscule fraction of the cost of the research. PMID:27504008

  1. Costing the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for satellite power system costing, places approximate limits on the accuracy possible in cost estimates made at this time, and outlines the use of probabilistic cost information in support of the decision-making process. Reasons for using probabilistic costing or risk analysis procedures instead of standard deterministic costing procedures are considered. Components of cost, costing estimating relationships, grass roots costing, and risk analysis are discussed. Risk analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation model is used to estimate future costs.

  2. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  3. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  4. The cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in existing German dwellings--a decision theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Florian

    2010-11-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring inert radioactive gas found in soils and rocks that can accumulate in dwellings, and is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. This study aims to analyze the cost effectiveness of different intervention strategies to reduce radon concentrations in existing German dwellings. The cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) was conducted as a scenario analysis, where each scenario represents a specific regulatory regime. A decision theoretic model was developed, which reflects accepted recommendations for radon screening and mitigation and uses most up-to-date data on radon distribution and relative risks. The model was programmed to account for compliance with respect to the single steps of radon intervention, as well as data on the sensitivity/specificity of radon tests. A societal perspective was adopted to calculate costs and effects. All scenarios were calculated for different action levels. Cost effectiveness was measured in costs per averted case of lung cancer, costs per life year gained and costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Univariate and multivariate deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were based on Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 model runs. The results show that legal regulations with mandatory screening and mitigation for indoor radon levels >100 Bq/m(3) are most cost effective. Incremental cost effectiveness compared to the no mitigation base case is 25,181 euro (95% CI: 7371 euro-90,593 euro) per QALY gained. Other intervention strategies focussing primarily on the personal responsibility for screening and/or mitigative actions show considerably worse cost effectiveness ratios. However, targeting radon intervention to radon-prone areas is significantly more cost effective. Most of the uncertainty that surrounds the results can be ascribed to the relative risk of radon exposure. It can be concluded that in the light of

  5. Cost analysis of inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescents: hospital and caregiver perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew; Katzman, Debra K.; Akseer, Nadia; Steinegger, Cathleen; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Admission to hospital is the treatment of choice for anorexia nervosa in adolescent patients who are medically unstable; however, stays are often prolonged and frequently disrupt normal adolescent development, family functioning, school and work productivity. We sought to determine the costs of inpatient treatment in this population from a hospital and caregiver perspective, and to identify determinants of such costs. Methods We used micro-costing methods for this cohort study involving all adolescent patients (age 12–18 yr) admitted for treatment of anorexia nervosa at a tertiary care child and adolescent eating disorder program in Toronto, between Sept. 1, 2011, and Mar. 31, 2013. We used hospital administrative data and Canadian census data to calculate hospital and caregiver costs. Results We included 73 adolescents in our cohort for cost-analysis. We determined a mean total hospital cost in 2013 Canadian dollars of $51 349 (standard deviation [SD] $26 598) and a mean total societal cost of $54 932 (SD $27 864) per admission, based on a mean length of stay of 37.9 days (SD 19.7 d). We found patient body mass index (BMI) to be the only significant negative predictor of hospital cost (p < 0.001). For every unit increase in BMI, we saw a 15.7% decrease in hospital cost. In addition, we found higher BMI (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.05) to be significant negative predictors of caregiver costs. Interpretation The economic burden of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa on hospitals and caregivers is substantial, especially among younger patients and those with lower BMI. Recognizing the symptoms of eating disorders early may preclude the need for admission to hospital altogether or result in admissions at higher BMIs, thereby potentially reducing these costs. PMID:26389097

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. Methods A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Results Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Conclusions Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective. PMID:27322384

  7. Using Benefit-Cost Ratio to Select Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Test Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Heather L.; Neely, Stephen T.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Current protocols presumably use criteria that are chosen on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity rates they produce. Such an approach emphasizes test performance, but does not include societal implications of the benefit of early identification. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate an approach to selecting criteria for use in UNHS programs that utilizes BCR to demonstrate an alternative method to audiologists, administrators, and others involved in UNHS protocol decisions. Design Existing data from over 1200 ears were used to analyze benefit-cost ratio (BCR) as a function of DPOAE level. These data were selected because both audiometric and DPOAE data were available on every ear. Although these data were not obtained in newborns, this compromise was necessary because audiometric outcomes (especially in infants with congenital hearing loss) in neonates are either lacking or limited in number. As such, it is important to note that the characteristics of responses from the group of subjects that formed the bases of the present analyses are different from those for neonates. This limits the extent to which actual criterion levels can be selected but should not affect the general approach of using BCR as a framework for considering UNHS criteria. Estimates of the prevalence of congenital hearing loss identified through UNHS in 37 states and U.S. territories in 2004 were used to calculate BCR. A range of estimates for the lifetime monetary benefits and yearly costs for UNHS were used, based on data available in the literature. Still, exact benefits and costs are difficult to know. Both one-step (DPOAE alone) and two-step (DPOAE followed by AABR) screening paradigms were considered in the calculation of BCR. The influence of middle-ear effusion was simulated by incorporating a range of expected DPOAE level reductions into an additional BCR analyses. Results Our calculations indicate that for a range of proposed benefit and cost estimates

  8. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Sill, A.E.; Warren, S.; Dillinger, J.D.; Cloer, B.K.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. This study was conducted by implementing both top-down and bottom-up strategies. The top-down approach used prosperity gaming methodology to identify future health care delivery needs. This effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements. The bottom-up approach identified and ranked interventional therapies employed in existing care delivery systems for a host of health-related conditions. Economic analysis formed the basis for development of care pathway interaction models for two of the most pervasive, chronic disease/disability conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Societal cost-benefit relationships based on these analyses were used to evaluate the effect of emerging technology in these treatment areas. 17 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Costs and Difficulties of Interstellar 'Messaging' and the Need for International Debate on Potential Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingham, J.; Benford, James

    We advocate international consultations on societal and technical issues to address the risk of Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence (METI) transmissions, and a moratorium on future transmissions until such issues are resolved. Instead, we recommend continuing to conduct SETI by listening, with no innate risk, while using powerful new search systems to give a better total probability of detection of beacons and messages than METI for the same cost, and with no need for a long obligatory wait for a response. Realistically, beacons are costly. In light of recent work on the economics of contact by radio, we offer alternatives to the current standard methods of SETI searches. METI transmissions to date are faint and very unlikely to be detected, even by nearby stars. We show that historical leakage from Earth has been undetectable for Earth-scale receiver systems. Future space microwave and laser power systems will likely be more detectable.

  10. Using DRGs and standard costs to control nursing labor costs.

    PubMed

    Meeting, D T; Saunders, G; Curcio, R F

    1988-09-01

    Nursing care is a very significant part of a healthcare organization's costs. However, until recently, methods of controlling nursing costs were largely ineffective. With the implementation of the prospective payment system and the use of diagnosis related groups, budgeting and controlling nursing costs are now possible with the use of standard costing. In this article, methods and procedures are discussed and explained for controlling inpatient nursing costs with the use of DRGs and standard costs. PMID:10312677

  11. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  12. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction

  13. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation.

    PubMed

    Louwerse, A; Eussen, M L J M; Van der Ende, J; de Nijs, P F A; Van Gool, A R; Dekker, L P; Verheij, C; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were administered in childhood (ages 6-12) and in adolescence (ages 12-20) to 72 individuals with a pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). ADOS calibrated severity scores showed a large stability (r = .51). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence were not associated with ASD severity in adolescence. Mental health care use (87 %) and special education needs were high (71 %). Reevaluation of ASD severity and psychiatric comorbidity later in life seem useful when PDD-NOS is diagnosed in childhood. PMID:26395112

  14. Contributions of societal and geographical environments to "chronic Lyme disease": the psychopathogenesis and aporology of a new "medically unexplained symptoms" syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Leonard H; Hassett, Afton L

    2002-01-01

    Lyme disease is a relatively well-described infectious disease with multisystem manifestations. Because of confusion over conflicting reports, anxiety related to vulnerability to disease, and sensationalized and inaccurate lay media coverage, a new syndrome, "chronic Lyme disease," has become established. Chronic Lyme disease is the most recent in a continuing series of "medically unexplained symptoms" syndromes. These syndromes, such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivity, meet the need for a societally and morally acceptable explanation for ill-defined symptoms in the absence of objective physical and laboratory findings. We describe factors involved in the psychopathogenesis of chronic Lyme disease and focus on the confusion and insecurity these patients feel, which gives rise to an inability to adequately formulate and articulate their health concerns and to deal adequately with their medical needs, a state of disorganization termed aporia. PMID:12194894

  15. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. PMID:23928985

  16. Containing Health Care Costs

    PubMed Central

    Derzon, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

  17. Cost effective tools for soil organic carbon monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Keith; Aynekulu, Ermias

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing demand for data on soil properties at fine spatial resolution to support management and planning decisions. Measurement of soil organic carbon has attracted much interest because (i) soil organic carbon is widely cited as a useful indicator of soil condition and (ii) of the importance of soil carbon in the global carbon cycle and climate mitigation strategies. However in considering soil measurement designs there has been insufficient attention given to careful analysis of the specific decisions that the measurements are meant to support and on what measurements have high information value for decision-making. As a result, much measurement effort may be wasted or focused on the wrong variables. A cost-effective measurement is one that reduces risk in decisions and does not cost more than the societal returns to additional evidence. A key uncertainty in measuring soil carbon as a soil condition indicator is what constitutes a good or bad level of carbon on a given soil. A measure of soil organic carbon concentration may have limited value for informing management decisions without the additional information required to interpret it, and so expending further efforts on improving measurements to increase precision may then have no value to improving the decision. Measuring soil carbon stock changes for carbon trading purposes requires high levels of measurement precision but there is still large uncertainty on whether the costs of measurement exceed the benefits. Since the largest cost component in soil monitoring is often travel to the field and physically sampling soils, it is generally cost-effective to meet multiple objectives by analysing a number of properties on a soil sample. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy is playing a key role in allowing multiple soil properties to be determined rapidly and at low cost. The method provides estimation of multiple soil properties (e.g. soil carbon, texture and mineralogy) in one measurement

  18. Cost of illness of patient-reported adverse drug events: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Petzold, Max; Carlsten, Anders; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost of illness (COI) of individuals with self-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) from a societal perspective and to compare these estimates with the COI for individuals without ADE. Furthermore, to estimate the direct costs resulting from two ADE categories, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and subtherapeutic effects of medication therapy (STE). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The adult Swedish general population. Participants The survey was distributed to a random sample of 14 000 Swedish residents aged 18 years and older, of which 7099 responded, 1377 reported at least one ADE and 943 reported an ADR or STE. Main outcome measures Societal COI, including direct and indirect costs, for individuals with at least one self-reported ADE, and the direct costs for prescription drugs and healthcare use resulting from self-reported ADRs and STEs were estimated during 30 days using a bottom-up approach. Results The economic burden for individuals with ADEs were (95% CI) 442.7 to 599.8 international dollars (Int$), of which direct costs were Int$ 279.6 to 420.0 (67.1%) and indirect costs were Int$ 143.0 to 199.8 (32.9%). The average COI was higher among those reporting ADEs compared with other respondents (COI: Int$ 442.7 to 599.8 versus Int$ 185.8 to 231.2). The COI of respondents reporting at least one ADR or STE was Int$ 468.9 to 652.9. Direct costs resulting from ADRs or STEs were Int$ 15.0 to 48.4. The reported resource use occurred both in hospitals and outside in primary care. Conclusions Self-reported ADRs and STEs cause resource use both in hospitals and in primary care. Moreover, ADEs seem to be associated with high overall COI from a societal perspective when comparing respondents with and without ADEs. There is a need to further examine this relationship and to study the indirect costs resulting from ADEs. PMID:23794552

  19. The individual-level and societal-level effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Rupp, Agnes E.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Wang, Philip S.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To update estimates of the associations between mental disorders and earnings from those of Rice et al. for 1985 and Harwood et al. for 1992. Current estimates, for 2002, are based on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Methods The NCS-R is a nationally representative survey of the US household population administered in 2001–03. Following the same basic approach as the prior studies, with some modifications to improve model-fitting, we predicted personal earnings in the 12 months before interview from information about 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders among respondents ages 18–64, controlling for socio-demographics and substance disorders. We used conventional demographic rate standardization methods to distinguish predictive effects of mental disorders on amount earned by people with earnings from predictive effects on probability of having any earnings. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV serious mental illness (SMI) significantly predicted reduced earnings. Other 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV/CIDI disorders did not. Respondents with SMI had 12-month earnings averaging $16,306 less than other respondents with the same values on control variables ($26,435 among males; $9,302 among females), for a societal-level total of $193.2 billion. Of this total, 75.4% was due to reduced earnings among mentally ill people with any earnings (79.6% males; 69.6% females). The remaining 24.6% was due to reduced probability of having any earnings. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders are associated with substantial societal-level impairments that should be taken into consideration in making decisions about the allocation of treatment and research resources. PMID:18463104

  20. Economic Impact of Dementia by Disease Severity: Exploring the Relationship between Stage of Dementia and Cost of Care in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Li-Jung Elizabeth; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Shih, Pei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the shortage of cost-of-illness studies in dementia outside of the Western population, the current study estimated the annual cost of dementia in Taiwan and assessed whether different categories of care costs vary by severity using multiple disease-severity measures. Methods This study included 231 dementia patient–caregiver dyads in a dementia clinic at a national university hospital in southern Taiwan. Three disease measures including cognitive, functional, and behavioral disturbances were obtained from patients based on medical history. A societal perspective was used to estimate the total costs of dementia according to three cost sub-categories. The association between dementia severity and cost of care was examined through bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Total costs of care for moderate dementia patient were 1.4 times the costs for mild dementia and doubled from mild to severe dementia among our community-dwelling dementia sample. Multivariate analysis indicated that functional declines had a greater impact on all cost outcomes as compared to behavioral disturbance, which showed no impact on any costs. Informal care costs accounted for the greatest share in total cost of care for both mild (42%) and severe (43%) dementia patients. Conclusions Since the total costs of dementia increased with severity, providing care to delay disease progression, with a focus on maintaining patient physical function, may reduce the overall cost of dementia. The greater contribution of informal care to total costs as opposed to social care also suggests a need for more publicly-funded long-term care services to assist family caregivers of dementia patients in Taiwan. PMID:26859891