These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Pentosan Polysulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... a class of medications called low molecular weight heparins. It works by preventing irritation of the bladder ... you are allergic to pentosan polysulfate, danaparoid (Orgaran), heparin, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ...

2

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies, pentosan has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction in patients with mild radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) findings and OA-associated symptoms and signs. Methods Twenty patients were assessed clinically at Nagasaki University Hospital. The radiographic indications of OA were grade 1 to 3 using the Kellgren-Lawrence Grading System (K/L grade). Pentosan used in this study was manufactured and supplied in sterile injectable vials (100 mg/ml) by bene GmbH, Munich, Germany. The study was a single-center, open-label trial. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly subcutaneous injections (sc) of pentosan (2 mg/kg). Patients were clinically assessed at entry and 1 to 8, 11, 15, 24 & 52 weeks post treatment. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Dunnett's method. Results Hydrarthroses were reduced quickly in all cases. The clinical assessments, i.e., knee flexion, pain while walking, pain after climbing up and down stairs, etc, were improved significantly and these clinical improvements continued for almost one year. The dose used in this study affected the blood coagulation test, but was within safe levels. Slightly abnormal findings were noted in serum triglycerides. Conclusions Pentosan treatment in twenty patients with mild knee OA seemed to provide improvements in clinical assessments and C2C level of cartilage metabolism. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000002790 PMID:20346179

2010-01-01

3

Decreasing symptoms in interstitial cystitis patients: pentosan polysulfate vs. sacral neuromodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Oral pentosan polysulfate is the only FDA-approved drug for interstitial cystitis. Several studies have been conducted that show PPS will reduce IC symptoms. Sacral neuromodulation is a newer therapy for IC that has been FDA- approved in incontinent patients. Both therapies have studies documenting a reduction in IC symptoms, but no studies have compared these therapies to see which

Katy D. Price; Audrey Griffin

4

Intravesical instillation of pentosan polysulfate encapsulated in a liposome nanocarrier for interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

We determined the effect of intravesical instillation of pentosan polysulfate encapsulated in liposomes for refractory interstitial cystitis patients. This was an open label uncontrolled study. Subjects were recruited from a private urology practice. Inclusion criteria included patients who met NIDDK criteria for Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and who were responding poorly to conventional treatments. Exclusion criteria included evidence of a urinary tract infection, bladder cancer, or other forms of chronic cystitis. Patients received 400 mg of Pentosan Polysulfate (PP) encapsulated into liposomes as an intravesical instillation performed every 2 weeks for 3 months. Baseline and post treatment outcome measures were obtained that included the O’Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Questionnaire and the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency Patient symptom Scale tests. A total of 37 instillations were used and no adverse events occurred. Clinically significant decreases in symptom scores greater than 50% were seen in virtually all outcome measures at 3 month follow up. All subjects reported remarkable subjective improvement in pain symptoms marked by decreased use of narcotics and increased enjoyment of daily activities. No patients developed systemic symptoms or poor tolerance of the instillations. Intravesical Pentosan Polysulfate encapsulated into liposomes can significantly decrease frequency, urgency, pain and improve quality of life for two months after deployment. Additional studies are needed to determine cellular effects of glycosaminoglycan restoration, ideal doses, dosing intervals, safety and cost-effectiveness of this therapy. PMID:25374916

Lander, Elliot B; See, Jackie R

2014-01-01

5

Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS) treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (sc) injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. Methodology/Principal Findings One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly sc injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED)), or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED) for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly sc PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of sc treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, sc. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of sc PPS administration. Conclusions Once weekly sc administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from sc PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period. PMID:24964042

Frohbergh, Michael; Ge, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Karabul, Nesrin; Solyom, Alexander; Lai, Alon; Iatridis, James; Schuchman, Edward H.; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2014-01-01

6

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

7

Pentosan Polysulfate Decreases Myocardial Expression of the Extracellular Matrix Enzyme ADAMTS4 and Improves Cardiac Function In Vivo in Rats Subjected to Pressure Overload by Aortic Banding  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that cleavage of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans versican and aggrecan by ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) proteases, which contributes to stress-induced ECM-reorganization in atherogenesis and osteoarthritis, also play a role in heart failure development. Objectives The primary objective was to identify alterations in expression of ADAMTS versicanases and aggrecanases during development of heart failure, while evaluation of the effects of in vivo modulation of relevant changes in ADAMTS activity constituted the secondary objective. Methods Myocardial levels of versican, aggrecan, and their ADAMTS cleaving proteases were examined in Wistar rats six weeks after aortic banding (AB), and versican and selected ADAMTS versicanases were further analyzed in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCM) and cardiac fibroblasts (NFB) after stimulation by inflammatory mediators. Based on the initial findings, ADAMTS4 was selected the most promising therapeutic target. Thus, rats with AB were treated with pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a polysaccharide with known ADAMTS4-inhibitory properties, and effects on versican fragmentation, left ventricular function and geometry were evaluated. Results We discovered that myocardial mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS1 and -4, and mRNA levels of versican, aggrecan, and ADAMTS8 increased after AB, and TNF-? and IL-1? synergistically increased mRNA of versican and ADAMTS4 in NCM and NFB and secretion of ADAMTS4 from NCM. Furthermore, PPS-treatment improved systolic function, demonstrated by an improved fractional shortening (vehicle 48±3% versus PPS 60±1%, p<0.01) after AB. Following PPS-treatment, we observed an ?80% reduction in myocardial ADAMTS4 mRNA (p?=?0.03), and ?50% reduction in the extracellular amount of the p150 versican fragments (p?=?0.05), suggesting reduced versicanase activity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that AB induces an increase in myocardial ADAMTS4 versicanase activity, and that PPS-treatment improved systolic function in the pressure-overloaded heart, holding promise as a novel therapeutic agent in heart failure. PMID:24595230

Vistnes, Maria; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida G.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Carlson, Cathrine R.; Christensen, Geir

2014-01-01

8

Comparison of the Anti-Prion Mechanism of Four Different Anti-Prion Compounds, Anti-PrP Monoclonal Antibody 44B1, Pentosan Polysulfate, Chlorpromazine, and U18666A, in Prion-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Molecules that inhibit the formation of an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) in prion-infected cells are candidate therapeutic agents for prion diseases. Understanding how these molecules inhibit PrPSc formation provides logical basis for proper evaluation of their therapeutic potential. In this study, we extensively analyzed the effects of the anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (mAb) 44B1, pentosan polysulfate (PPS), chlorpromazine (CPZ) and U18666A on the intracellular dynamics of a cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) and PrPSc in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells to re-evaluate the effects of those agents. MAb 44B1 and PPS rapidly reduced PrPSc levels without altering intracellular distribution of PrPSc. PPS did not change the distribution and levels of PrPC, whereas mAb 44B1 appeared to inhibit the trafficking of cell surface PrPC to organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway that are thought to be one of the sites for PrPSc formation. In contrast, CPZ and U18666A initiated the redistribution of PrPSc from organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway to late endosomes/lysosomes without apparent changes in the distribution of PrPC. The inhibition of lysosomal function by monensin or bafilomycin A1 after the occurrence of PrPSc redistribution by CPZ or U18666A partly antagonized PrPSc degradation, suggesting that the transfer of PrPSc to late endosomes/lysosomes, possibly via alteration of the membrane trafficking machinery of cells, leads to PrPSc degradation. This study revealed that precise analysis of the intracellular dynamics of PrPC and PrPSc provides important information for understanding the mechanism of anti-prion agents. PMID:25181483

Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

2014-01-01

9

SuFEx-based synthesis of polysulfates.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight polysulfates are readily formed from aromatic bis(silyl ethers) and bis(fluorosulfates) in the presence of a base catalyst. The reaction is fast and proceeds well under neat conditions or in solvents, such as dimethyl formamide or N-methylpyrrolidone, to provide the desired polymers in nearly quantitative yield. These polymers are more resistant to chemical degradation than their polycarbonate analogues and exhibit excellent mechanical, optical, and oxygen-barrier properties. PMID:25100330

Dong, Jiajia; Sharpless, K Barry; Kwisnek, Luke; Oakdale, James S; Fokin, Valery V

2014-09-01

10

Digestibility of Sugar, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages.  

E-print Network

of other snb- stances than pentosans or protein. The soluble residue is in some cases digested more, in others, less, than the total soluble nitrogen-free extract. This soluble residue in- cludes the indefinite gooup of substances rendered insoluble... of Roughages G. S. FRAPS, PH. D., CHEMIST IN CHARGE; STATE CHEMIST. Comparatively little work has been done upon the composition and digestibility of the nitrogen-free extract of feeding-stuffs. The writer (Bulletin No. 172, N. C. Experiment Station, 1900...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1916-01-01

11

The effect of pentosan polysulphate on bone healing of rat cranial defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of pentosan polysulphate, used in combination with guided bone regeneration on rat skull defects. The study was conducted on 45 adult Wistar rats. On each animal two symmetrical 6 mm wide, full-thickness, skull defects were created in the parietal regions. The right defect was chosen as the experimental site and

Laurent Dupoirieux; Didier Pourquier; Marie-Christine Picot; Marcos Neves

1999-01-01

12

Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.  

PubMed

Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages. PMID:23810948

Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

2013-09-01

13

Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P?

Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

2014-06-01

14

Effects of C-reactive protein and pentosan polysulphate on human complement activation.  

PubMed

Complement (C) activation is believed to play an adverse role in several chronic degenerative disease processes, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease. We developed several in vitro quantitative assays to evaluate processes which activate C in human serum, and to assess candidates which might block that activation. Binding of C-reactive protein (CRP) to immobilized cell surfaces was used as a tissue-based method of activation, while immunoglobulin G in solution was used as a surrogate antibody method. Activation was assessed by deposition of C fragments on fixed cell surfaces, or by capture of C5b-9 from solution. We observed that several cell lines, including SH-SY5Y, U-937, THP-1 and ECV304, bound CRP and activated C following attachment of cells to a plastic surface by means of air drying. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with the reactive oxygen intermediates generated by xanthine (Xa) - xanthine oxidase (XaOx) prior to air drying or by hydrogen peroxide solutions after air drying, enhanced C activation, possibly through oxidation of the cell lipid membrane. Several C inhibitors were tested for their effectiveness in blocking these systems. Pentosan polysulphate (PPS), an orally active agent, blocked C activation in the same concentration range of 1-1000 microg/ml as heparin, dextran sulphate, compstatin and fucoidan. PPS may have practical application as a C inhibitor. PMID:12100726

Klegeris, Andis; Singh, Edith A; McGeer, Patrick L

2002-07-01

15

An injectable hydrogel incorporating mesenchymal precursor cells and pentosan polysulphate for intervertebral disc regeneration.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the leading causes of lower back pain and a major health problem worldwide. Current surgical treatments include excision or immobilisation, with neither approach resulting in the repair of the degenerative disc. As such, a tissue engineering-based approach in which stem cells, coupled with an advanced delivery system, could overcome this deficiency and lead to a therapy that encourages functional fibrocartilage generation in the IVD. In this study, we have developed an injectable hydrogel system based on enzymatically-crosslinked polyethylene glycol and hyaluronic acid. We examined the effects of adding pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a synthetic glycosaminoglycan-like factor that has previously been shown (in vitro and in vivo) to this gel system in order to induce chondrogenesis in mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) when added as a soluble factor, even in the absence of additional growth factors such as TGF-?. We show that both the gelation rate and mechanical strength of the resulting hydrogels can be tuned in order to optimise the conditions required to produce gels with the desired combination of properties for an IVD scaffold. Human immunoselected STRO-1+ MPCs were then incorporated into the hydrogels. They were shown to retain good viability after both the initial formation of the gel and for longer-term culture periods in vitro. Furthermore, MPC/hydrogel composites formed cartilage-like tissue which was significantly enhanced by the incorporation of PPS into the hydrogels, particularly with respect to the deposition of type-II-collagen. Finally, using a wild-type rat subcutaneous implantation model, we examined the extent of any immune reaction and confirmed that this matrix is well tolerated by the host. Together these data provide evidence that such a system has significant potential as both a delivery vehicle for MPCs and as a matrix for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:24050877

Frith, Jessica E; Cameron, Andrew R; Menzies, Donna J; Ghosh, Peter; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, Stan; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

2013-12-01

16

Endogenous release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor by topical application of an ointment containing mucopolysaccharide polysulfate to nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is released after the intravenous and subcutaneous administration of heparin and heparin-related drugs. Mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) is a preparation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) derived from mammalian cartilage, which has several structural and functional properties similar to heparin. Previous reports have shown that MPS is capable of releasing TFPI after intravenous administration. Therefore, this investigation was performed to determine the ability of topically administered MPS to release TFPI in a nonhuman primate model. A group of four monkeys were administered 3% MPS ointment in a dosage of 0.5 g/kg corresponding to 15 mg MPS/kg; another four monkeys were administered placebo ointment at a dosage of 0.5 g/kg once a day for 5 days in a period of 10 days. No effect of MPS was observed on the coagulation assays activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and Heptest or on the platelet count. However, both the total and free TFPI levels were significantly and progressively elevated over the 10-day period in comparison to the placebo control group (P<.05). It is proposed that the ability of the topically administered MPS to increase the free and total TFPI levels may be one of the modes of action that contributes to the anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory actions of this agent. PMID:11457474

Hoppensteadt, D A; Fareed, J; Raake, P; Raake, W

2001-07-15

17

Differential effects of polysulfated polysaccharide on experimental encephalomyelitis, proliferation of autoimmune T cells, and inhibition of heparanase activity.  

PubMed

The extravasation of activated T lymphocytes through blood vessel walls and their migration to inflammatory loci are associated with secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which degrades heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of the ECM. The HS-degrading activity of heparanase was found to be inhibited by HS and heparin. Since induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires extravasation and migration of autoimmune T cells, degradation of ECM by heparanase is expected to be involved in induction of the disease. Herein, we examined whether laminarin sulfate, a polysulfated polysaccharide (PSS) isolated from the cell walls of seaweeds and subjected to chemical sulfation, could inhibit ECM degradation by mammalian heparanase, and could prevent EAE. PSS was a more potent inhibitor of heparanase-mediated degradation of ECM than heparin. In-vivo, PSS, injected once a week, inhibited the severity of actively-induced EAE in rats. However, inhibition of EAE was not due to an overall suppression of autoimmune T cells, since PSS enhanced the proliferation of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific, encephalitogenic T cells. PSS-activated autoimmune T cells, but not MBP-activated cells, failed to induce EAE in recipient rats. Moreover, rats injected with PSS-activated T cells were resistant to induction of EAE by anti-MBP CD4+ T cells. Thus, PSS may have potential clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8579728

Hershkoviz, R; Mor, F; Miao, H Q; Vlodavsky, I; Lider, O

1995-10-01

18

Polyelectrolyte-based Nanoparticles for Gene and Protein Delivery  

E-print Network

of several FGFs was enhanced by electrostatic interactions with polyanions. PEG was grafted to the polyanions pentosan polysulfate (PPS) and dextran sulfate (DS). The potential uses of polyanion conjugates were explored using a variety of spectroscopic...

Khondee, Supang

2011-05-31

19

Effects of bound versus soluble pentosan polysulphate in PEG/HA-based hydrogels tailored for intervertebral disc regeneration.  

PubMed

Previous reports in the literature investigating chondrogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) cultures have confirmed the chondro-inductive potential of pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a highly sulphated semi-synthetic polysaccharide, when added as a soluble component to culture media under standard aggregate-assay conditions or to poly(ethylene glycol)/hyaluronic acid (PEG/HA)-based hydrogels, even in the absence of inductive factors (e.g. TGF?). In this present study, we aimed to assess whether a 'bound' PPS would have greater activity and availability over a soluble PPS, as a media additive or when incorporated into PEG/HA-based hydrogels. We achieved this by covalently pre-binding the PPS to the HA component of the gel (forming a new molecule, HA-PPS). We firstly investigated the activity of HA-PPS compared to free PPS, when added as a soluble factor to culture media. Cell proliferation, as determined by CCK8 and EdU assay, was decreased in the presence of either bound or free PPS whilst chondrogenic differentiation, as determined by DMMB assay and histology, was enhanced. In all cases, the effect of the bound PPS (HA-PPS) was more potent than that of the unbound form. These results alone suggest wider applications for this new molecule, either as a culture supplement or as a coating for scaffolds targeted at chondrogenic differentiation or maturation. We then investigated the incorporation of HA-PPS into a PEG/HA-based hydrogel system, by simply substituting some of the HA for HA-PPS. Rheological testing confirmed that incorporation of either HA-PPS or PPS did not significantly affect gelation kinetics, final hydrogel modulus or degradation rate but had a small, but significant, effect on swelling. When encapsulated in the hydrogels, MPCs retained good viability and rapidly adopted a rounded morphology. Histological analysis of both GAG and collagen deposition after 21 days showed that the incorporation of the bound-PPS into the hydrogel resulted in increased matrix formation when compared to the addition of soluble PPS to the hydrogel, or the hydrogel alone. We believe that this new generation injectable, degradable hydrogel, incorporating now a covalently bound-PPS, when combined with MPCs, has the potential to assist cartilage regeneration in a multitude of therapeutic targets, including for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. PMID:24215733

Frith, Jessica E; Menzies, Donna J; Cameron, Andrew R; Ghosh, P; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, S; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

2014-01-01

20

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

21

Sodium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium levels? 1. What is the recommended dietary salt intake? The Food and Nutrition Board recommends a ... of sodium are often processed food to which salt is added during preparation, such as cheeses, soups, ...

22

[A study of crystallization on urolithiasis in vitro].  

PubMed

The formation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals were evaluated with a Coulter counter. CG-120 and sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) has inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate crystal formation, growth and aggregation in the seeded crystal system and whole urine system. In continuous crystallizer system, they inhibit the nucleation rate. A new system of observing the crystal formation and growth of fragmented stones after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has been developed. CG-120 has an inhibitory effect on their growth. The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the rat kidney was induced, and the, the volume and number of crystals were estimated using a Coulter counter. SPP has an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vivo. PMID:1721765

Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

1991-10-01

23

Sodium Bicarbonate  

MedlinePLUS

... is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate ... doctor immediately: severe headache nausea vomit that resembles coffee grounds loss of appetite irritability weakness frequent urge ...

24

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six – Surprising Foods that Add the ...

25

Assessment of prospective preventive therapies for chronic wasting disease in mule deer.  

PubMed

We compared prion infection rates among mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) receiving pentosan polysulfate, tannic acid, tetracycline HCl, or no treatment 14 days before to 14 days after (dpi) oral inoculation with tonsil tissue homogenate. All deer were infected, but the rapid disease course (230-603 dpi) suggested our challenge was overwhelming. PMID:22493139

Wolfe, Lisa L; Kocisko, David A; Caughey, Byron; Miller, Michael W

2012-04-01

26

Sodium and Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

... the Nutrition Facts label. Use the percent Daily Value (% DV) to help limit your sodium intake—5% ... Food Amount Range of Sodium Content (mg)% Daily Value (% DV) * for Sodium Breads, all types 1 oz ...

27

21 CFR 522.1850 - Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Dogs —(i) Indications for use . For control of signs associated with noninfectious degenerative and/or traumatic arthritis of canine synovial joints. (ii) Amount . 2 mg per pound of body weight by intramuscular injection twice weekly...

2012-04-01

28

21 CFR 522.1850 - Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Dogs —(i) Indications for use. For control of signs associated with noninfectious degenerative and/or traumatic arthritis of canine synovial joints. (ii) Amount. 2 mg per pound of body weight by intramuscular injection twice weekly...

2014-04-01

29

21 CFR 522.1850 - Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dogs —(i) Indications for use . For control of signs associated with noninfectious degenerative and/or traumatic arthritis of canine synovial joints. (ii) Amount . 2 mg per pound of body weight by intramuscular injection twice weekly...

2013-04-01

30

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

31

Diclofenac sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

32

Spooky sodium balance.  

PubMed

Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (? monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage. PMID:24107854

Titze, Jens; Dahlmann, Anke; Lerchl, Kathrin; Kopp, Christoph; Rakova, Natalia; Schröder, Agnes; Luft, Friedrich C

2014-04-01

33

Thermophysical properties of sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

1969-01-01

34

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

35

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21

36

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

37

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be ... as directed by your doctor. Shake the liquid (suspension) well before each use. Follow the directions on ...

38

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

Uthman, I; Raynauld, J; Haraoui, B

2003-01-01

39

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

40

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is

Mikkor; Mati

1981-01-01

41

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

42

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery. 3 figs.

Topouzian

1980-01-01

43

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

44

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

45

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

1987-07-01

46

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

47

Thermal energy storage composition comprising sodium sulfate decahydrate; sodium carbonate decahydrate; and sodium tetraborate decahydrate  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy storage composition is disclosed that stores heat upon melting and releases heat upon solidification. It is composed of a mixture of sodium sulfate decahydrate, sodium carbonate decahydrate, sodium borate decahydrate and a thickening agent. Its good heat transfer characteristics, relatively high latent heat of fusion, low cost, and favorable melting point allow this material to be particularly useful for space heating applications.

Chen, J.C.

1981-09-29

48

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2013-10-01

49

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2011-10-01

50

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2014-10-01

51

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2010-10-01

52

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2012-10-01

53

Sodium--sulfur storage battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a novel sodium--sulfur storage battery comprising a sodium reservoir made of metal (incorporating a heater) between double walls, a solid electrolyte connected to it, an anodic reactant contained in it and a cathode reactant outside of it, and a battery housing which contains the above-mentioned components. The battery is sealed at the upper part. According to

Kagawa

1977-01-01

54

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

55

21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

56

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium...

2010-04-01

57

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic...

2010-04-01

58

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

59

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

60

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

61

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

62

CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?  

MedlinePLUS

... tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have different sodium ... can: Develop and implement efforts that: Increase public awareness about the amount of sodium added to processed ...

63

21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid and sodium chloride buffer containing 0.1 percent w/v chlorocresol B.P. as a bactericide. (2)...

2013-04-01

64

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

65

PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PAINFUL BLADDER SYNDROME/INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Background Over 180 different types of therapy have been used in the treatment and management of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC), yet evidence from clinical trials remains inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological approaches to PBS/IC, quantify the effect size from randomized controlled trials, and begin to inform a clinical consensus of treatment efficacy for PBS/IC. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials for the pharmacological treatment of PBS/IC patients diagnosed on the basis of NIDDK or operational criteria. Study limitations include considerable patient heterogeneity as well as variability in the definition of symptoms and in outcome assessment. Results We included a total of 1470 adult patients from 21 randomized controlled trials. Only trials for pentosan polysulfate had sufficient numbers to allow a pooled analysis of effect. According to a random-effects model, the pooled estimate of the effect of pentosan polysulfate therapy suggested benefit, with a relative risk for patient-reported improvement in symptoms of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.34 – 2.35). This result was not heterogeneous (p= 0.47) and was without evidence of publication bias (p= 0.18). Current evidence also suggests efficacy of DMSO and amitryptiline. Hydroxyzine, intravesical BCG and RTX failed to demonstrate efficacy, but evidence was inconclusive due to methodological limitations. Conclusions Pentosan polysulfate may be modestly beneficial for symptoms of PBS/IC. There is insufficient evidence for other pharmacological treatments. A consensus on standardized outcome measures is urgently needed. PMID:17923590

Dimitrakov, Jordan; Kroenke, Kurt; Steers, William D.; Berde, Charles; Zurakowski, David; Freeman, Michael R.; Jackson, Jeffrey L.

2007-01-01

66

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-print Network

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01

67

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

68

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

69

Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed.

Freskakis, G.N.

1984-09-01

70

Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

71

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

72

Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

2011-01-01

73

Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

2011-01-01

74

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-print Network

mashed 1/2 small *Two units of Group A vegetables may be substituted for one unit from Group B. *One unit from the bread list may be substituted for one unit of Group C vegetables. If fresh, frozen or dietetic canned vegetables are used, the sodium... medium 1/4 cup 2 tablespoons 2 tablespoons use as desired 1 cup 1 large 1/2 cup 1 cup 7 BREADS Group A Yeast breads and rolls without salt One unit 5 mg sodium, 70 calories Bread Melba toast, unsalted Roll Group B 1 slice 4 pieces (3112...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

75

Sodium heat transfer system modeling  

SciTech Connect

The sodium heat transfer system of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator has been modeled. The computer code SOLTES (Simulator of Large Thermal Energy Systems), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was used to model this system. Based on data provided to Sandia by the IEA-SSPS/CRS project, the results from SOLTES are compared to measured data. The comparison between measured data and predictions from SOLTES is very good for the day evaluated.

Baker, A.F.; Fewell, M.E.

1983-01-01

76

Sodium nitroprusside: theory and practice  

PubMed Central

Sodium nitroprusside, by a peripheral vasodilator action, is a powerful hypotensive drug. In contrast to established agents, its hypotensive action is accompanied by an unchanged or augmented cardiac output. Intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside rapidly produces a profound and controllable hypotension. Normotension is swiftly restored by ceasing to infuse the agent, and antidotes are unnecessary. Its attributes make it especially suitable for neurosurgical anaesthesia, and although free cyanide is liberated during biotransformation, side effects are virtually absent provided that dosage is reasonable. Special contraindications to its use are hypothyroidism and altered cobalamin metabolism. PMID:4467853

Verner, Ian R.

1974-01-01

77

Distribution and Digestibility of the Pentosans of Feeds.  

E-print Network

.S., Director A. B. CoNNER, B. S., Assistant Director CHAS. A. FELKER, Chief Clerk A. S. WARE, Secretary DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE M. FRANCIS, D. V. S., Veterinarian in Charge H. ScHMIDT, D . V. M., Assistant Veter inarian DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY G....89 5.71 3.98 7.30 4238 Johnson grass hay .. . . . ..... 21.33 16.51 10 . 72 4.38 16.95 4.82 5.79 6.34 4546 Kafir fodder ... . ..... 19.68 14.63 9.39 3.35 16.33 5.05 5.24 6 .04 4247 Millet . .. . .. . . . ..... 20.18 11.03 10.11 4.57 15.61 9.15 .92 5...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01

78

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: present and future treatment perspectives.  

PubMed

Bladder pain syndrome/Interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown etiology. Treatment is not well defined and is still under intense investigation. The aim of this paper was to review existing literature on treatment of BPS/IC and examine current evidence on present and future perspective. PubMed database was researched and publications in English language on the topic were analyzed, emphasis was given to publications that occurred on the last five years. Mainstays of oral therapies are still empirical due to lack of knowledge on etiology of this disease. The few oral drugs that showed efficacy in placebo controlled trials are amytriptiline, pentosan polysulfate sodium, hydroxyzine and cyclosporine A. As for intravesical treatments reasonable evidence is available only for dimethyl sulfoxide and resection of visible Hunner's lesions. Reconstructive surgery can also be recommended in selected cases. Further studies into the causes and mechanisms of the disease are paramount for the development of effective treatments. Foreseeable therapeutic objectives will comprehend oral blockade of sensory nerve receptors, immune system modulation, peripheral nerve fiber inactivation/desensitization, anti-proliferative factor blockade and pain gene therapy. Identification of BPS/IC phenotypical subgroups should help delineate proper individualized treatment which will be aimed at the disease and its multiple manifestations rather than at focalized complaints. Present treatment of BPS/IC comprises pain control in conjunction with control of supposed underlying bladder disease. Based on identified possible therapeutic targets several treatment possibilities warrant further investigation. Identification of BPS/IC phenotype is a important step for correct management. PMID:24091479

Diniz, S; Dinis, P; Cruz, F; Pinto, R

2013-12-01

79

[Sodium transporters and aquaporins: future renal biomarkers?].  

PubMed

Renal sodium and water reabsorption is mediated by renal sodium transporters and water channels or aquaporins which are localized in the apical and basolateral membranes of tubular epithelial cells. The main apical sodium transporters and water channels located along the nephron are: sodium-proton exchanger subtype 3 (NHE-3) which reabsorbs most of the sodium coming from the glomerular filtrate, sodium-phosphate type II cotransporter (NaPiII) and aquaporin-1, all of which are located in the proximal tubule; sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) which plays a key role in sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb; the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule; and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and aquaporin-2 located in the collecting tubule. There are some experimental studies in which the role of these proteins has been associated with the pathophysiology of several sodium and water balance disorders. In humans, urine is the perfect source to obtain biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of kidney diseases and the assessment of disease progression without the use of invasive procedures. Thus, some of the renal sodium transporters or the aquaporins located in the apical membrane which are excreted in the tubular lumen and detected in urine could become biomarkers of some sodium and water balance disorders. Nowadays there are many studies investigating the role of these proteins in humans in clinical settings. PMID:17927939

Esteva-Font, Cristina; Torra Balcells, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

2007-09-29

80

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

81

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01

82

Adsorption of Sodium Hexanoate on ?-Alumina  

E-print Network

carbons and sodium persulfate as oxidizer supplied by GE Analytical instruments Ltd. The adsorption isotherm of sodium hexanoate was determined by the solution depletion method, where the change in adsorbate concentration (depletion) after contact...

Lee, Seung Yeon; Welbourn, Rebecca; Clarke, Stuart; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Clifton, Luke; Zarbakhsh, Ali

2013-06-27

83

Dietary Sodium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Sodium Sodium - af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual Harborview Medical Center Return to top Spanish (español) Sodio en la dieta Return to top Date last updated: 26 September 2013 Characters not displaying correctly on this ...

84

21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

85

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2013-04-01

86

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and...

2010-04-01

87

21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

88

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2012-04-01

89

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2013-04-01

90

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2014-04-01

91

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2 O3 ...010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared...defined in § 170.3(n)(26) of this chapter....

2010-04-01

93

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2012-04-01

95

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2012-04-01

96

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2013-04-01

97

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2013-04-01

98

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2011-04-01

99

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish powder with a slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium...

2010-04-01

100

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the...

2010-04-01

101

Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF)

Hillard

1978-01-01

102

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...citrate (C6 H5 Na3 O7 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a...

2012-04-01

103

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...citrate (C6 H5 Na3 O7 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a...

2013-04-01

104

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

105

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

106

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

108

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

109

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

110

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

111

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

112

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

114

Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

115

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

116

In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

2014-05-01

117

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

Vestergaard, B.

1992-09-01

118

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

119

Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.  

PubMed

In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms. PMID:22955490

Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

2013-04-01

120

Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60 % reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20 % reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions

ANN M. WOODHULL

1973-01-01

121

Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite.  

PubMed

A water deprived animal that ingests only water efficiently corrects its intracellular dehydration, but remains hypovolemic, in negative sodium balance, and with high plasma renin activity and angiotensin II. Therefore, it is not surprising that it also ingests sodium. However, separation between thirst and sodium appetite is necessary to use water deprivation as a method to understand the mechanisms subserving sodium appetite. For this purpose, we may use the water deprivation-partial repletion protocol, or WD-PR. This protocol allows performing a sodium appetite test after the rat has quenched its thirst; thus, the sodium intake during this test cannot be confounded with a response to thirst. This is confirmed by hedonic shift and selective ingestion of sodium solutions in the sodium appetite test that follows a WD-PR. The separation between thirst and sodium appetite induced by water deprivation permits the identification of brain states associated with sodium intake in the appetite test. One of these states relates to the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptors. Other states relate to cell activity in key areas, e.g. subfornical organ and central amygdala, as revealed by immediate early gene c-Fos immunoreactivity or focal lesions. Angiotensin II apparently sensitizes the brain of the water deprived rat to produce an enhanced sodium intake, as that expressed by spontaneously hypertensive and by young normotensive rat. The enhancement in sodium intake produced by history of water deprivation is perhaps a clue to understand the putative salt addiction in humans. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20226201

De Luca, Laurival A; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Vendramini, Regina C; David, Richard B; Menani, José V

2010-07-14

122

Sodium Fluxes in Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP. 1 The compound d-ATP

F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

1968-01-01

123

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

124

Anaphylaxis after intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium.  

PubMed

Diclofenac sodium is a 2-arylacetic acid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is widely used in pain management. Side effects such as urticaria, asthmatic attack, vasospastic angina, ischemic stroke, and Kounis syndrome may be seen after the use of diclofenac sodium. However, anaphylactic shock is rare. Anaphylactic shock secondary to injection of diclofenac sodium can be treated successfully with intramuscular injection of adrenaline. Because diclofenac sodium is commonly used in analgesic treatment in emergency departments, we present this case report to emphasize that anaphylactic shock may be seen after the use of that drug. PMID:24581886

Colak, Sahin; Gunes, Harun; Afacan, Mustafa Ahmet; Kandis, Hayati; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Ayranci, Mehmet; Saritas, Ayhan

2014-07-01

125

Refractive index of sodium iodide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr. 57, 494 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n = 1.839 ± 0.002) and 633 nm (n = 1.786 ± 0.002). These six measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a ?2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

Jellison, G. E.; Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Ramey, L. A.; Singh, D. J.

2012-02-01

126

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

127

SODIUM BENTONITE OR SODIUM BICARBONATE AS AIDS IN FEEDING HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS TO LAMBS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Studies were conducted to compare bento- nite and sodium bicarbonate as dietary aids in adaptation and subsequent performance of lambs fed high-concentrate diets under various conditions of protein supplementation. Three protein variations, including no supplemental protein (NSP), soybean meal (SBM) or urea, were factored with a control, 2% or 4% sodium bentonite, and 2% or 4% sodium bicarbonate in

G. B. Huntington; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

2010-01-01

128

Renal sodium excretion in normal aging: Decreased excretion rates lead to delayed handling of sodium loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of extracellular fluid balance including congestive heart failure and dehydration are prevalent in elderly patients. Aging itself is associated with changes in renal physiology that may predispose to these conditions. Current data regarding the ability of healthy elderly subjects to excrete sodium following a sodium challenge is incomplete, particularly for sodium challenges common in daily life. To define the

Loretta C. Fish; Donald J. Murphy; Dariush Elahi; Kenneth L. Minaker

1994-01-01

129

The effect of oxygen on tantalum-sodium compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxygen in both phases on the compatibility of tantalum with sodium was investigated at 600°C by exposing tantalum specimens to liquid sodium in static capsules. Increasing the initial oxygen concentration of the sodium from 50 to 12,000 ppm led to increased dissolution of the tantalum in the sodium; oxygen migrated from the sodium to the tantalum. As

R. L. Klueh

1972-01-01

130

Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

131

Voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel’s fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment. PMID:23531742

Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

2013-01-01

132

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

133

[Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].  

PubMed

In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

Sulyok, Endre

2013-09-22

134

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million and the level of...

2014-04-01

135

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of...

2014-04-01

136

Heat pipes for sodium-sulfur batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program was to develop a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) for the thermal management of sodium-sulfur batteries. The VCHP maintains the sodium sulfur battery within a specified temperature rise limit (20 C) while the battery discharges a thermal load from 0 watts to 500 watts. A preliminary full scale thermal management design was developed for the

John R. Hartenstine

1989-01-01

137

10 MWe SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR DESIGN REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design is presented for a 10-Mw(e) Sodium Deuterium ; Reactor (SDR) and its associated systems and facilities. The Calandria, fuel-; coolant tubes, barrier tubes, fuel elements, control rods, shielding, and pilot ; features are described. The following systems are discussed: sodium, DâO, ; nitrogen, organic, reactor control, refueling, and waste disposal. The site, ; containment buildings, and process

1959-01-01

138

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2013-04-01

139

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2014-04-01

140

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2012-04-01

141

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2011-04-01

142

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

143

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of beta''-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system; engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J. P.; Kupperman, D. S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S. L.; Jaross, R. A.; Johnson, D. L.; Gregar, J. S.; Poeppel, R. B.

1992-01-01

144

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01

145

Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*  

PubMed Central

Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

1973-01-01

146

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

147

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

148

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

149

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

150

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

151

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

152

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

153

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

154

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

155

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

156

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

157

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

158

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

159

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

160

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

161

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

162

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

163

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

164

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

165

21 CFR 522.144 - Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUGS § 522.144 Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection. (a...arsylene]dithio diacetic acid, sodium salt. (b) Specifications...0 milligrams of arsenamide sodium. (c) Sponsor. See No...1978; 45 FR 56798, Aug. 26, 1980; 55 FR 26683,...

2010-04-01

166

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19

167

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650...1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a...generically as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783...processed, or used in the employer's workplace, the employer...

2012-07-01

168

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650...1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a...generically as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783...processed, or used in the employer's workplace, the employer...

2014-07-01

169

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650...1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a...generically as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783...processed, or used in the employer's workplace, the employer...

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). 721.10393 Section...Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as sodium bromide MDA complex (PMN P-10-433) is...

2012-07-01

171

40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). 721.10393 Section...Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as sodium bromide MDA complex (PMN P-10-433) is...

2014-07-01

172

40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). 721.10393 Section...Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as sodium bromide MDA complex (PMN P-10-433) is...

2013-07-01

173

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

174

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2014-07-01

175

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2012-07-01

176

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2013-07-01

177

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2010-07-01

178

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2011-07-01

179

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2010-07-01

180

40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 ...Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to...

2011-07-01

181

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a...substances identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs...

2011-07-01

182

CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets  

MedlinePLUS

... caregivers can When cooking at home, try different spices, herbs, and vegetables instead of salt. Use 'low ... reduce added sodium. Replace sodium with alternatives like spices, herbs, and vegetables. Shop around for lower sodium ...

183

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation  

E-print Network

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera lines of sodium and magnesium nuclear charge Z=11­12, respectively . The cited values; magnesium; oscillator strengths; sodium; tran- sition probabilities; uncertainties. CONTENTS 1. Introduction

Magee, Joseph W.

184

40 CFR 180.487 - Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...487 Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium, (sodium 2-chloro-6-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)thio]benzoate),...

2013-07-01

185

The role of angiotensin II on sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) on sodium appetite in rats subjected to a normal or a low-sodium diet (1% or > 0.1% NaCl) for 4 days. During sodium restriction, a reduction in water intake, urinary volume and sodium excretion was observed. After a low-sodium diet, we observed decreased plasma protein concentrations and haematocrit associated with a slight reduction in arterial pressure, without any significant changes in heart rate, natraemia, corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone levels. After providing hypertonic saline, there was an increase in saline intake followed by a small increase in water intake, resulting in an enhanced saline intake ratio and the recovery of arterial pressure. Sodium deprivation increased plasma but not brain Ang I and II concentrations. A low-sodium diet increased kidney renin and liver angiotensinogen mRNA levels but not lung angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression. Moreover, Ang II type 1a receptor mRNA expression was increased in the subfornical organ and the dorsal raphe nucleus and decreased in the medial preoptic nuclei, without changes in the paraventricular nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract after a low-sodium diet. Blockade of AT(1) receptors or brain Ang II synthesis led to a reduction in sodium intake after a low-sodium diet. Intracerebroventricular injection of Ang II led to a similar increase in sodium and water intake in the control and low-sodium diet groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Ang II is involved in the increased sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet. PMID:23002791

Mecawi, A S; Vilhena-Franco, T; Fonseca, F V; Reis, L C; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

2013-03-01

186

Sodium nitroprusside suppresses male fertility in vitro.  

PubMed

Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor involved in the regulation of the motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, and acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the molecular basis for the effects of sodium nitroprusside on different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on subsequent oocyte fertilization and embryo development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (1, 10, and 100 ?M) for 90 min. Our results showed that sodium nitroprusside inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics in a dose-dependent manner by significantly enhancing intracellular iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing Ca(2+), and adenosine triphosphate levels in spermatozoa. Moreover, short-term exposure of spermatozoa to sodium nitroprusside increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins involved in PKA-dependent regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which induced a robust AR. Finally, sodium nitroprusside significantly decreased the rates of fertilization and blastocyst formation during embryo development. Based on these results, we propose that sodium nitroprusside increases ROS production and precocious AR may alter overall sperm physiology, leading to poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. PMID:25180787

Rahman, M S; Kwon, W-S; Lee, J-S; Kim, J; Yoon, S-J; Park, Y-J; You, Y-A; Hwang, S; Pang, M-G

2014-11-01

187

A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

2012-07-01

188

Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake  

PubMed Central

Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs. PMID:22580974

Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

2013-01-01

189

A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

2013-01-01

190

Engineering developments for sodium heat engine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report preliminary results of testing and analysis of the stresses induced in tubular beta-double prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) membranes as used in sodium heat engine (SHE) cells due to thermal gradients, neutral sodium absorption in the surfaces and bulk material and residual stresses remaining from tube manufacture. The authors report results from experiments conducted on a recirculating single tube vapor-fed cell module operated continuously under load for 850. The electromagnetic pump system used to recirculate the sodium working fluid for this test cell was redesigned and its performance is also discussed.

Hunt, T. K.; Pantolin, J.; Sievers, R. K.; Kummer, J. T.; Novak, Robert F.

191

Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium  

SciTech Connect

This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000/sup 0/F (427 and 538/sup 0/C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators.

McCown, J J

1983-11-01

192

Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

S. E. Bays

2007-09-01

193

Molecular origin of Io's fast sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutral sodium emissions encircling Jupiter exhibit an intricate and variable structure that is well matched by a simple loss process from Io's atmosphere. These observations imply that fast neutral sodium is created locally in the Io plasma torus, both near Io and as much as 8 hours downstream. Sodium-bearing molecules may be present in Io's upper atmosphere, where thay are ionized by the plasma torus and swept downstream. The molecular ions dissociate and dissociatively recombine on a short time scale, releasing neutral fragments into escape trajectories from Jupiter. This theory explains a diverse set of sodium observations, and it implies that molecular reactions (particularly electron impact ionization and dissociation) are important at the top of Io's atmosphere.

Schneider, Nicholas M.; Wilson, Jody K.; Trauger, John T.; Brown, David I.; Evans, Robin W.; Shemansky, Donald E.

1991-01-01

194

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a performance evaluation, conducted with a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP), studying the effects of injecting anhydrous sodium carbonate into the exhaust of a utility boiler burning Western coal. In situ resistivity measurements, ESP operating conditio...

195

21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... O, CAS Reg. No. 533-96-0) is prepared by: (1) Partial carbonation of soda ash solution followed by crystallization, centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

2010-04-01

196

21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... O, CAS Reg. No. 533-96-0) is prepared by: (1) Partial carbonation of soda ash solution followed by crystallization, centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

2011-04-01

197

Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.  

PubMed

The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow. PMID:17501423

Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

2007-04-20

198

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is...

2010-04-01

199

Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... eliminate salt in cooking. Experiment with spices, garlic, onions, or lemon instead. Look for low-sodium products ... sauce, ketchup, chili sauce, cooking sherry and wine, onion salt, mustard, garlic salt, soy sauce, tamari, meat ...

200

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled...

2010-04-01

201

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15

202

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination...

2013-04-01

203

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination...

2011-04-01

204

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination...

2012-04-01

205

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination...

2014-04-01

206

Electron-stimulated desorption of sodium atoms from sodium layers adsorbed on a gold film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield and energy distributions of sodium atoms upon their electron-stimulated desorption from sodium layers adsorbed on tungsten coated by a gold film are measured for the first time as functions of the energy of bombarding electrons, the thickness of the gold film, and the amount of adsorbed sodium. The electron-stimulated desorption channel associated with the excitation of core levels of gold is revealed for the first time.

Ageev, V. N.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.

2008-02-01

207

Sodium transport modes in AMTEC electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Sodium transport has been characterized in a variety of AMTEC electrodes and several different transport modes clearly exist. Free molecular flow is the dominant transport mechanism in clean porous molybdenum and tungsten electrodes, and contributes to sodium transport in all porous electrodes, including WPt{sub 2}, WRh{sub 3}, and TiN. Molybdenum and tungsten electrodes containing phases such as Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} exhibit very efficient sodium ion transport through the electrode in the ionic conducting phase. These electrodes also show reversible electrochemical reactions in which sodium ions and electrons are inserted or removed from into phases such as Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 6} which are present in the electrode WPt{sub 2} and WRh{sub 3} electrodes typically exhibit both free molecular flow transport as well as an enhanced thermally activated transport mode which is probably surface and/or grain boundary diffusion of sodium in the alloy electrode. Data for large area WPt{sub 2} electrodes within a cylindrical heat shield are reported in this paper. Sodium transport away from these electrodes is effected by both the electrode's properties and the exterior environment which inhibits sodium gas flow to the condenser. Liquid alloy electrodes have been examined and have fairly efficient transport properties by liquid phase diffusion, but have generally not been considered advantageous for development. Titanium nitride, TiN, electrodes used in AMTEC cells, and similar electronically conducting refractory compounds such as TiB{sub 2} and NbN are always physically porous to some degree as formed by sputter deposition or screen printing, and these compounds sinter quite slowly. Hence free molecular flow is always a significant sodium transport mode in these electrodes. However, the sodium transport rate computed from the physical morphology of the electrodes is not as efficient as actual sodium transport in TiN electrodes, implicating an enhanced transport mode, which remains operational at lower AMTEC operating temperatures. Some TiN electrodes also have been found to exhibit electrochemical reactions involving electrode phases which persist in sodium exposure test cells at 1223K, as reported in this paper.

Williams, R.M.; Homer, M.L.; Lara, L.; Cortez, R.H.; Miller, J.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M.L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Shields, V.B.; Manatt, K.S.; Ryan, M.A.

1998-07-01

208

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

209

Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

210

Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter. PMID:6322694

Borbolla, M G; Rosen, B P

1984-02-15

211

Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer  

E-print Network

The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fit by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 microhertz to 4 millhertz. The best fitting power law was found to be 10^\\beta \

D. S. Davis; P. Hickson; G. Herriot; C. Y. She

2006-09-12

212

Sodium sensing in the brain.  

PubMed

Sodium (Na) homeostasis is crucial for life, and the Na(+) level ([Na(+)]) of body fluids is strictly maintained at a range of 135-145 mM. However, the existence of a [Na(+)] sensor in the brain has long been controversial until Nax was identified as the molecular entity of the sensor. This review provides an overview of the [Na(+)]-sensing mechanism in the brain for the regulation of salt intake by summarizing a series of our studies on Nax. Nax is a Na channel expressed in the circumventricular organs (CVOs) in the brain. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the principal site for the control of salt intake behavior, where Nax populates the cellular processes of astrocytes and ependymal cells enveloping neurons. A local expression of endothelin-3 in the SFO modulates the [Na(+)] sensitivity for Nax activation, and thereby Nax is likely to be activated in the physiological [Na(+)] range. Nax stably interacts with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase whereby Na(+) influx via Nax is coupled with activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase associated with the consumption of ATP. The consequent activation of anaerobic glucose metabolism of Nax-positive glial cells upregulates the cellular release of lactate, and this lactate functions as a gliotransmitter to activate GABAergic neurons in the SFO. The GABAergic neurons presumably regulate hypothetic neurons involved in the control of salt intake behavior. Recently, a patient with essential hypernatremia caused by autoimmunity to Nax was found. In this case, the hypernatremia was considered to be induced by the complement-mediated cell death in the CVOs, where Nax specifically populates. PMID:25491503

Noda, Masaharu; Hiyama, Takeshi Y

2014-12-10

213

Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

2008-02-01

214

Ion transport in proximal colon of the rat. Sodium depletion stimulates neutral sodium chloride absorption.  

PubMed Central

The model of sodium and chloride transport proposed for the colon is based on studies performed in the distal segment and tacitly assumes that ion transport is similar throughout the colon. In rat distal colon, neutral sodium-chloride absorption accounts for the major fraction of overall sodium absorption and aldosterone stimulates electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Since we have demonstrated qualitative differences in potassium transport in proximal and distal segments of rat colon, unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated proximal colon of control and sodium-depleted rats with secondary hyperaldosteronism. In the control group, net sodium absorption (JNanet) (7.4 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2) was greater than Isc (1.4 +/- 0.1 mu eq/h . cm2), and JClnet was 0 in Ringer solution. Residual flux (JR) was -5.2 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2 consistent with hydrogen ion secretion suggesting that neutral sodium absorption may represent sodium-hydrogen exchange. 1 mM mucosal amiloride, which inhibits sodium-hydrogen exchange in other epithelia, produced comparable decreases in JNanet and JR (4.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively) without a parallel fall in Isc. Sodium depletion stimulated JNanet, JClnet, and Isc by 7.0 +/- 1.4, 6.3 +/- 1.9, and 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, and 1 mM amiloride markedly inhibited JNanet and JClnet by 6.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.0 +/- 1.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, with only a minimal reduction in Isc. Conclusions: the predominant neutral sodium-absorptive mechanism in proximal colon is sodium-hydrogen exchange. Sodium depletion stimulates electroneutral chloride-dependent sodium absorption (most likely as a result of increasing sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchanges), not electrogenic chloride-independent sodium transport. The model of ion transport in the proximal colon is distinct from that of the distal colon. PMID:2418060

Foster, E S; Budinger, M E; Hayslett, J P; Binder, H J

1986-01-01

215

Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A. [UNAM (Mexico)] [and others

1995-11-01

216

Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-one children aged 10.5 ñ 0.2 years (range, 8.0ÃÂ15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 ñ 36.6 g (range, 765ÃÂ1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = ÃÂ0.445, P < 0.005) between reported dietary sodium intake and the neonatal lowest serum sodium level (NLS) recorded for each child as an index of sodium loss. The relationship of NLS and dietary sodium intake was found in both boys and girls and in both Arab and Jewish children, despite marked ethnic differences in dietary sources of sodium. Hence, low NLS predicts increased intake of dietary sodium in low birth weight children some 8ÃÂ15 yr later. Taken together with other recent evidence, it is now clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

Adi Shirazki (University of Haifa Pscyhology); Zalman Weintraub (Galilee Medical Center); Dan Reich (Ha'Emeq Medical Center); Edith Gershon (University of Haifa Psychology); Micah Leshem (University of Haifa Psychology)

2006-12-14

217

NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

2013-09-01

218

U. S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing  

SciTech Connect

Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered. (DLC)

Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

1982-05-01

219

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

220

Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor  

PubMed Central

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

2011-01-01

221

Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate in Hyperkalemia.  

PubMed

Background Hyperkalemia (serum potassium level, >5.0 mmol per liter) is associated with increased mortality among patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes. We investigated whether sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), a novel selective cation exchanger, could lower serum potassium levels in patients with hyperkalemia. Methods In this multicenter, two-stage, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 753 patients with hyperkalemia to receive either ZS-9 (at a dose of 1.25 g, 2.5 g, 5 g, or 10 g) or placebo three times daily for 48 hours. Patients with normokalemia (serum potassium level, 3.5 to 4.9 mmol per liter) at 48 hours were randomly assigned to receive either ZS-9 or placebo once daily on days 3 to 14. The primary end point was the exponential rate of change in the mean serum potassium level at 48 hours. Results At 48 hours, the mean serum potassium level had decreased from 5.3 mmol per liter at baseline to 4.9 mmol per liter in the group of patients who received 2.5 g of ZS-9, 4.8 mmol per liter in the 5-g group, and 4.6 mmol per liter in the 10-g group, for mean reductions of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.7 mmol per liter, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons) and to 5.1 mmol per liter in the 1.25-g group and the placebo group (mean reduction, 0.3 mmol per liter). In patients who received 5 g of ZS-9 and those who received 10 g of ZS-9, serum potassium levels were maintained at 4.7 mmol per liter and 4.5 mmol per liter, respectively, during days 3 to 15, as compared with a level of more than 5.0 mmol per liter in the placebo group (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Rates of adverse events were similar in the ZS-9 group and the placebo group (12.9% and 10.8%, respectively, in the initial phase; 25.1% and 24.5%, respectively, in the maintenance phase). Diarrhea was the most common complication in the two study groups. Conclusions Patients with hyperkalemia who received ZS-9, as compared with those who received placebo, had a significant reduction in potassium levels at 48 hours, with normokalemia maintained during 12 days of maintenance therapy. (Funded by ZS Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01737697 .). PMID:25415807

Packham, David K; Rasmussen, Henrik S; Lavin, Philip T; El-Shahawy, Mohamed A; Roger, Simon D; Block, Geoffrey; Qunibi, Wajeh; Pergola, Pablo; Singh, Bhupinder

2014-11-21

222

The effect of oxygen on tantalum-sodium compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxygen in both phases on the compatibility of tantalum with sodium was investigated at 600C by exposing tantalum\\u000a specimens to liquid sodium in static capsules. Increasing the initial oxygen concentration of the sodium from 50 to 12,000\\u000a ppm led to increased dissolution of the tantalum in the sodium; oxygen migrated from the sodium to the tantalum. As

R. L. Klueh

1972-01-01

223

Water and sodium balance in space.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that fluid balances and body fluid regulation in microgravity (microG) differ from those on Earth (Drummer et al, Eur J Physiol 441:R66-R72, 2000). Arriving in microG leads to a redistribution of body fluid-composed of a shift of fluid to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid balance adaptation in weightlessness. PMID:11532707

Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

2001-09-01

224

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

225

Mass-spectrometric examination of vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates was examined by high-temperature mass spectrometry. The inverse\\u000a temperature dependences of the vapor pressure logarithm for these compounds were presented. Enthalpies of vaporization and\\u000a standard enthalpies of formation of gaseous NaNO2, NaNO3, and KNO3 were determined.

G. P. Dukhanin; S. I. Lopatin

2011-01-01

226

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS G.R. CRAMER Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200 University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve

Cramer, Grant R.

227

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alterna- tive splicing of

Jianguo Tan; Zhiqi Liu; Yoshiko Nomura; Alan L. Goldin; Ke Dong

2002-01-01

228

Early Responses of Sodium-Deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. Plants to Sodium Application  

PubMed Central

Effects of sodium application on sodium-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor seedlings were studied. Thirty-day-old A. tricolor seedlings grown without sodium received either 0.5 millimolar of NaCl or KCl, and the changes in the growth rate, chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and dark-oxygen consumption, and some enzyme activities were compared. Following the sodium treatment, the sodium concentration in the leaves increased from the initial value of 0.4 millimolar to 2 to 3 millimolar within 24 hours, and also the relative growth rate and O2 evolution were enhanced within 24 hours. The stimulation of O2 evolution was greater in the upper leaves than in the lower leaves. Although total chlorophyll concentration did not increase significantly, the increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio was apparent within 24 hours. There were not significant increases in the C4 photosynthetic enzyme activities; however, nitrate reductase activity increased by 350% by the sodium treatment within 24 hours, and this increase is considered not to be one of the consequences of the improved photosynthesis. Results suggest that the sodium treatment promoted CO2 and nitrate assimilation resulting in the growth enhancement, and that sodium can be involved in some other functions than C4 photosynthesis in A. tricolor plants. PMID:16665382

Ohta, Daisaku; Matoh, T?ru; Takahashi, Eiichi

1987-01-01

229

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

230

Sodium heat engine/AMTEC system experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a high efficiency device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. The SHE system operates as a thermally regenerative concentration cell using sodium as the working fluid. Its operation relies on the high sodium ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity of sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte. The SHE/AMTEC is a static system employing no moving parts, uses sodium as the single working fluid, and offers the prospect of excellent reliability. The major operating features of the SHE/AMTEC system have been tested in lab studies of systems at power levels up to 100 W. Goals of the present program include the design, construction and testing of systems at power levels up to the 1 kW level. While these and all previously tested SHE systems have been designed for terrestrial applications, several concepts to be considered in the design of kW level devices should yield information useful for the development of systems for space power applications.

Hunt, T. K.; Lasecki, J. V.; Novak, R. F.; McBride, J. R.; Brockway, J. T.

231

Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions.  

PubMed

Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a hydrophilic derivative of ascorbic acid, which has improved stability arising from its chemical structure. It is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations since it has many favorable effects in the skin, the most important being antioxidant action. In order to achieve this, it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degradation in the skin. In the present work, o/w and w/o microemulsions composed of the same ingredients, were selected as carrier systems for topical delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. We showed that sodium ascorbyl phosphate was stable in both types of microemulsion with no significant influence of its location in the carrier system. To obtain liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application, their viscosity was increased by adding thickening agents. On the basis of rheological characterization, 4.00% (m/m) colloidal silica was chosen as a suitable thickening agent for w/o microemulsions and 0.50% (m/m) xanthan gum for the o/w type. The presence of thickening agent and the location of sodium ascorbyl phosphate in the microemulsion influenced the in vitro drug release profiles. When incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, sustained release profiles were observed. This study confirmed microemulsions as suitable carrier systems for topical application of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. PMID:12695012

Spiclin, Polona; Homar, Miha; Zupancic-Valant, Andreja; Gasperlin, Mirjana

2003-04-30

232

Composition of sodium cholate micellar solutions.  

PubMed

To study the composition of sodium cholate solutions, an investigation was carried out at 25 degrees C and in N(CH3)4Cl, as a constant ionic medium, at three different concentrations (W = 0.100; 0.500 and 0.800 mol dm(-3)). Electromotive force measurements of three different galvanic cells, the first involving a glass electrode for hydrogen ions, the second an electrode for sodium ions and the third a lead amalgam electrode, were performed. Independently, lead (II) cholate solubility measurements in the presence of sodium ions were performed, as well. The experimental results obtained from both approaches were explained by assuming the formation of aggregates in cholate and sodium of different composition depending on W and on the cholate concentration. The maximum aggregation found number for cholate was 24 and even aggregation numbers were markedly predominant. Only two species with odd aggregation number were found, but at a low percentage. The assumed species and the relative constants were compared with those found for the other sodium salt of cholanic acids. PMID:16235782

Bottari, Emilio; Buonfigli, Alessio; Festa, Maria Rosa

2005-01-01

233

Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from coronagraphic imaging of Mercury's sodium tail over a 7 deg field of view. Several sets of observations made at the McDonald Observatory since May 2007 show a tail of neutral sodium atoms stretching more than 1000 Mercury radii (R(sub m)) in length, or a full degree of sky. However, no tail was observed extending beyond 120 R(sub m) during the January 2008 MESSENGER Fly-by period, or during a similar orbital phase of Mercury in July 2008. Large changes in Mercury's heliocentric radial velocity cause Doppler shifts about the Fraunhofer absorption features; the resultant change in solar flux and radiation pressure is the primary cause of the observed variation in tail brightness. Smaller fluctuations in brightness may exist due to changing source rates at the surface, but we have no explicit evidence for such changes in this data set. The effects of radiation pressure on Mercury's escaping atmosphere are investigated using seven observations spanning different orbital phases. Total escape rates of atmospheric sodium are estimated to be between 5 and 13 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s and show a correlation to radiation pressure. Candidate sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include desorption by UV sunlight, thermal desorption, solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, and micro-meteor impacts. Wide-angle observations of the full extent of Mercury's sodium tail offer opportunities to enhance our understanding of the time histories of these source rates.

Schmidt, Carl A.; Wilson, Jody K.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

2009-01-01

234

Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.  

PubMed

Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research. PMID:23568374

Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

2013-06-01

235

Mesosphere Sodium Column Density and the Sodium Laser Guide Star Brightness  

E-print Network

The first time simultaneous measurements of sodium column density and the absolute flux from a sodium laser guide star, created by a monochromatic 3 W cw laser, tuned to the peak of the sodium D2 hyperfine structure, were conducted at the MMT and CFA 60 inch telescope in 1997. The results show that linearly and circularly polarized laser returns are proportional to the simultaneous sodium column density. Moreover, circularly polarized laser provides about 30% increase in fluorescent return over linearly polarized laser. A laser guide star with R = 10.3 mag. or absolute flux of 8.4x10^5 photons/s/m^2, could be formed from a 1 watt projected circularly polarized sodium laser beam when sodium layer abundance N(Na) = 3.7x10^9 /cm^2. Together with the distributed column density measurements (e.g. seasonal and diurnal variations), we can project laser power requirements for any specified guide star brightness. The mesosphere sodium column density variation was measured above Tucson sky throughout the year, through sodium absorption line measurements in stellar and solar spectra. Previous measurements, e.g. Papen et al, 1996, have not been made at this latitude (32 degrees). Further, our absorption method is more direct and may be more accurate than the lidar methods normally used. The seasonal variation amplitude is smaller than that at higher latitudes. While the annual mean sodium column density tends to be lower than at higher latitudes. Diurnal sodium column density tends to vary by as much as a factor of two within an hour.

Jian Ge; J. R. P. Angel; B. D. Jacobsen; T. Roberts; T. Martinez; W. Livingston; B. McLeod; M. Lloyd-Hart; P. McGuire; R. Noyes

1997-08-29

236

A one hundred watt sodium heat engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a sodium heat engine (SHE) that converts heat directly to electricity are described, and the effects of temperature and system configuration on the performance of the SHE are investigated. The SHE is a closed container partially filled with liquid sodium and physically divided into two regions by a pump and a solid electrolyte membrane; the operation of the device is discussed. Consideration is given to the cell design, electrical connections, sodium recirculation, thermal input, and electrodes. The device was tested over the operating temperature range 600-800 C and at electrical output power levels of about 100 W. The current-voltage relationship, output power performance characteristics, and internal impedance of the device are evaluated. It is observed that the SHE performed well in the operating temperature range from 600-800 C and at electrical output levels above 100 W.

Lasecki, J. V.; Novak, R. F.; McBride, J. R.; Brockway, J. T.; Hunt, T. K.

237

An emerging antiarrhythmic target: late sodium current.  

PubMed

The cardiac late sodium current (INa,L) has been in the focus of research in the recent decade. The first reports on the sustained component of voltage activated sodium current date back to the seventies, but early studies interpreted this tiny current as a product of a few channels that fail to inactivate, having neither physiologic nor pathologic implications. Recently, the cardiac INa,L has emerged as a potentially major arrhythmogenic mechanism in various heart diseases, attracting the attention of clinicians and researchers. Research activity on INa,L has exponentially increased since Ranolazine, an FDA-approved antianginal drug was shown to successfully suppress cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting INa,L. This review aims to summarize and discuss a series of papers focusing on the cardiac late sodium current and its regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. We will discuss critical evidences implicating INa,L as a potential target for treating myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:25354179

Banyasz, T; Szentandrassy, N; Magyar, J; Szabo, Z; Nanasi, P P; Chen-Izu, Y; Izu, L T

2015-01-01

238

Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide.  

PubMed

We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential. PMID:25554168

Alcaraz, O; Demmel, F; Trullas, J

2014-12-28

239

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

240

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

241

Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

Alcaraz, O.; Demmel, F.; Trullas, J.

2014-12-01

242

Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

1987-08-01

243

Serum Sodium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus  

PubMed Central

Objective Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is an uncommon type of large bowel obstruction. This study sought to determine serum sodium concentrations in patients with SV. Materials and Methods The records of 89 patients with SV and 40 patients with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were reviewed retrospectively Results The mean serum sodium concentrations in patients with SV and in those with ORC were 138.4±4.5 mEq/L and 137.7±3.2 mEq/L, respectively (t:0.7, P>0.05). The numbers of hyponatremic and hypernatremic patients were 13 vs. 4 and 1 vs. 0, respectively, in the SV and ORC groups (x2:0.5, P>0.05). Conclusion No cause-effect relationship was determined between serum sodium concentrations and SV.

Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Ozturk, Gurkan; Ozogul, Bunyami; K?saoglu, Abdullah; Akbas, Ahmet

2009-01-01

244

Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

Nollet, Billy K.

245

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01

246

Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell  

DOEpatents

A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

1985-04-02

247

Stability of ceftazidime sodium and teicoplanin sodium in a peritoneal dialysis solution.  

PubMed

The stability of ceftazidime sodium and teicoplanin sodium separately and in combination in a peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution was studied. PD solutions containing ceftazidime 100 micrograms/mL (as the sodium salt), teicoplanin 25 micrograms/mL (as the sodium salt), or ceftazidime 100 micrograms/mL plus teicoplanin 24 micrograms/mL were prepared in triplicate for each of two conditions: condition A, storage at 25 degrees C (room temperature) for 24 hours, then at 37 degrees C for eight hours; and condition B, storage for seven days at 4 degrees C, followed by 16 hours at 25 degrees C and 8 hours at 37 degrees C. The dialysis solution used was Dianeal PD-2 with 1.5% dextrose. Samples were removed at intervals and analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Under condition A, ceftazidime sodium alone was stable for 24 hours at 25 degrees C but only 2 hours when then heated to 37 degrees C. Under condition B, ceftazidime sodium alone was stable throughout the observation period. Teicoplanin sodium alone was stable throughout the observation periods under both conditions. In combination, the drugs were stable if initially refrigerated and then brought to room temperature one week later, but were unstable when initially stored at 25 degrees C. No visual changes were noted, and pH did not vary substantially. Ceftazidime 100 micrograms/mL (as the sodium salt) and teicoplanin 25 micrograms/mL (as the sodium salt) combined in a PD solution were unstable when first kept at 25 degrees C before storage at 37 degrees C. The drugs in the combination remained stable when the solution was kept at 4 degrees C before storage at 37 degrees C. PMID:8931816

Manduru, M; Fariello, A; White, R L; Fox, J L; Bosso, J A

1996-11-15

248

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2011-07-01

249

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2012-07-01

250

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2014-07-01

251

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2013-07-01

252

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2014-04-01

253

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2013-04-01

254

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2013-04-01

256

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2012-04-01

257

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2011-04-01

258

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2014-04-01

259

Sodium ion distribution in the vitreous body  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation behavior, and thus the dynamic properties, of the sodium ion in the vitreous body at different temperatures. The23Na NMR spectrum exhibits a resonance, the intensity of which accounts for an ion visibility of 100%. The23Na longitudinal and transverse relaxation times, at all temperatures but the highest, present two components, suggesting that

C. A. Boicelli; A. M. Giuliani

1996-01-01

260

Electrical transport properties of small sodium clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present calculations on electric transport properties of small sodium clusters NaN (N<=9), based on the Landauer formalism combined with an approximate density-functional approach. For a given cluster size N, the resistance depends sensitively on the cluster geometry (isomers). As a function of cluster size, an even-odd oscillation of the minimal resistance is found.

Gutiérrez, R.; Grossmann, F.; Knospe, O.; Schmidt, R.

2001-07-01

261

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

262

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

263

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2010-04-01

264

Producer-gas process using sodium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of manufacturing fuel gas low in carbon dioxide from solid carbonaceous fuel in a gas generator by mixing it with a specified weight of a sodium compound which is capable of reacting with the fuel and evolving a continuous stream of the alkali metal vapor. This forms said mixture into a fuel bed, which is

A. H. White; D. A. Fox

1934-01-01

265

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

266

Atmospheric Motions from Sodium Cloud Drifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal motions from 25 sodium cloud experiments are examined in the alti- tude range from 70 to 190 km. The outstanding characteristics of the apparent motion are pro- nounced velocity oscillations in the 70- to 130-km layer; they reach a maximum near 105 km and attenuate at greater heights. A quiescent zone appears from 140 to 190 km, where, despite

Adam Kochanski

1964-01-01

267

Structural elucidation of rabeprazole sodium photodegradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabeprazole sodium is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. It is known to be an acid-labile drug, however, few data about its stability under other factors are available. The aim of this work was to study the photodegradation of rabeprazole, to determine its kinetics and to elucidate the structures of the main

Cássia V. Garcia; Norma S. Nudelman; Martin Steppe; Elfrides E. S. Schapoval

2008-01-01

268

Oscillator strength of instantaneous diatomic sodium molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce definitely the notion of instantaneous molecules, real or fictitious, in spite of its utilization in certain fields of the supraconductivity, genetics and advanced medical research. Calculation of the oscillator strength of instantaneous sodium diatomic molecules gives [ f mol]Na 2( i)=6,86. This method is transposable at lithium and other Ia elements.

Perny, G.

1991-12-01

269

The Circadian Clock Modulates Renal Sodium Handling  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock contributes to the control of BP, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed circadian rhythms in kidneys of wild-type mice and mice lacking the circadian transcriptional activator clock gene. Mice deficient in clock exhibited dramatic changes in the circadian rhythm of renal sodium excretion. In parallel, these mice lost the normal circadian rhythm of plasma aldosterone levels. Analysis of renal circadian transcriptomes demonstrated changes in multiple mechanisms involved in maintaining sodium balance. Pathway analysis revealed the strongest effect on the enzymatic system involved in the formation of 20-HETE, a powerful regulator of renal sodium excretion, renal vascular tone, and BP. This correlated with a significant decrease in the renal and urinary content of 20-HETE in clock-deficient mice. In summary, this study demonstrates that the circadian clock modulates renal function and identifies the 20-HETE synthesis pathway as one of its principal renal targets. It also suggests that the circadian clock affects BP, at least in part, by exerting dynamic control over renal sodium handling. PMID:22440902

Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Pradervand, Sylvain; Centeno, Gabriel; Zavadova, Vlasta; Tokonami, Natsuko; Maillard, Marc; Bonny, Olivier

2012-01-01

270

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

271

COMPATIBILITY OF REACTOR MATERIALS IN FLOWING SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of various types of compatibility tests is briefly ; discussed, particularly the severe limitations of static experiments. ; Differences expected between sodium and NaK are noted. A typical corrosion test ; rig is described and its application to radioactive mass-transfer measurements ; discussed. The types of specimens used, the measurements made before and after ; tests, the assessment

M. Davis; A. Draycott

1959-01-01

272

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

273

Induction of sodium channel clustering by oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As oligodendrocytes wrap axons of the central nervous system (CNS) with insulating myelin sheaths, sodium channels that are initially continuously distributed along axons become segregated into regularly spaced gaps in the myelin called nodes of Ranvier1. It is not known whether the regular spacing of nodes results from regularly spaced glial contacts or is instead intrinsically specified by the axonal

M. R. Kaplan; A. Meyer-Franke; S. Lambert; V. Bennett; I. D. Duncan; S. R. Levinson; B. A. Barres

1997-01-01

274

CONTROL ELEMENTS FOR SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of three control element designs for sodium-graphite ; reactors is presented: the first design utilizes wire rope supporting a rod of ; neutron absorber material, permitting installation of the complete actuator in ; the upper end of a control rod thimble below the reactor loading face; the second ; concept uses overlapping fuel and absorber elements, enabling the

Shaw

1961-01-01

275

SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

276

Investigation of diffusion processes in liquid sodium and sodium-hydrogen melt by quasielastic neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasielastic neutron scattering experiments on liquid sodium (at T = 378, 573, and 693 K) and sodiumhydrogen melt ( T = 693 K, hydrogen concentration ˜ 0.4 at %) were performed with the DIN-2PI time-of-flight spectrometer. The characteristics of the diffusion mobility for particles comprising the liquids studied are extracted from the experimental results and analyzed with the help of the phenomenological and "relaxing cage" models. The self-diffusion coefficient in liquid sodium obtained for all temperatures is in the agreement with the values known from literature. The diffusion mobility in pure sodium and in sodium-hydrogen melt were found to be coinciding; it leads to the conclusion that in our experimental conditions hydrogen exists and diffuses in melt in the form of hydride NaH.

Blagoveshchenskii, N. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Puchkov, A. V.; Savostin, V. V.; Shamaev, M. S.; Zasorin, I. I.

2014-02-01

277

The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

Meihui Wang

1992-06-01

278

Conversion reactions for sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Research on sodium-ion batteries has recently been rediscovered and is currently mainly focused on finding suitable electrode materials that enable cell reactions of high energy densities combined with low cost. Naturally, an assessment of potential electrode materials requires a rational comparison with the analogue reaction in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, we systematically discuss the broad range of different conversion reactions for sodium-ion batteries based on their basic thermodynamic properties and compare them with their lithium analogues. Capacities, voltages, energy densities and volume expansions are summarized to sketch out the scope for future studies in this research field. We show that for a given conversion electrode material, replacing lithium by sodium leads to a constant shift in cell potential ?E°(Li-Na) depending on the material class. For chlorides ?E°(Li-Na) equals nearly zero. The theoretical energy densities of conversion reactions of sodium with fluorides or chlorides as positive electrode materials typically reach values between 700 W h kg(-1) and 1000 W h kg(-1). Next to the thermodynamic assessment, results on several conversion reactions between copper compounds (CuS, CuO, CuCl, CuCl2) and sodium are being discussed. Reactions with CuS and CuO were chosen because these compounds are frequently studied for conversion reactions with lithium. Chlorides are interesting because of ?E°(Li-Na)? 0 V. As a result of chloride solubility in the electrolyte, the conversion process proceeds at defined potentials under rather small kinetic limitations. PMID:23936905

Klein, Franziska; Jache, Birte; Bhide, Amrtha; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-10-14

279

Sodium balance modulates thirst in normal man.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that angiotensin II (AII) plays an important physiologic role in the control of thirst in laboratory animals but a conflicting one in humans. Sodium (Na+) balance plays a key role in the control of the renin-angiotensin system, but studies assessing the effect of sodium balance on thirst perception in humans are limited at best. To address this question, we studied the relationship between thirst perception and plasma osmolality during 5% saline infusion (.08 ml/kg/min x 120 min) in 5 healthy volunteers while in metabolic balance on both a 10 mEq. sodium (LS) and 200 mEq. sodium (HS) diet with and without infusion of AII (5 ng/kg/min). Thirst perception was quantified using a linear visual analogue scale. The relationship between serum Na+ (a measure of osmolality) and thirst perception was analyzed using linear regression. The mean x-intercept ([Na+] mEq/l) which represents the osmotic threshold to thirst was 138.2 +/- 0.5 in LS vs 140.7 +/- 0.8 in HS, p < 0.05. We conclude that the osmotic threshold for thirst is lower in LS (high endogenous AII) vs HS (low endogenous AII). There was no evidence for substantial extracellular volume change in HS vs LS with no significant differences in weight, hematocrit or total serum protein. Acute AII infusion did not result in changes in slope or x-intercept, but the pressor response to exogenous AII may have inhibited its dipsogenic effect (as has been shown in animal studies). These data suggest a physiologic role of sodium balance (possibly mediated via endogenous AII) in the control of thirst in normal humans. PMID:9430825

Gordon, M S; Majzoub, J A; Williams, G H; Gordon, M B

1997-11-01

280

21 CFR 520.2261 - Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms. 520.2261...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2261 Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage...

2010-04-01

281

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral administration...liothyronine at 60 or 120 micrograms per tablet, as the sodium salt. (b...orally to dogs at levels up to 12.8 micrograms per...

2010-04-01

282

Sodium sensitivity of blood pressure in Chinese populations.  

PubMed

Clinical trials have demonstrated that a reduced intake of dietary sodium lowers blood pressure. However, blood pressure reduction in response to a decrease in dietary sodium intake varies considerably among different individuals-a phenomenon described as sodium sensitivity. The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study was a large family-based dietary-feeding study conducted in rural north China. This study indicated that approximately 39% of Chinese adults were sodium-sensitive. Sodium sensitivity was more common in women and in persons who were older and had higher usual blood pressure. Sodium sensitivity was also more common in individuals with higher responses to a cold pressor test and in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors may play an important role in determining sodium sensitivity in the Chinese population. A better understanding of the genetic and environmental determinants of sodium sensitivity has important public health and clinical implications. PMID:20424958

Chen, Jing

2010-04-01

283

Striking a Balance: Less Sodium (Salt), More Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

Striking a Balance: Less Sodium (Salt), More Potassium Updated:Oct 7,2014 In your battle against high blood pressure, sodium (salt) ... and calcium and magnesium. Potassium also affects the balance of fluids in your body. So talk to ...

284

Low-sodium diet versus low-sodium\\/high-potassium diet for treatment of hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 21 patients with essential hypertension the effects of moderate sodium restriction from the usual 200 mmol Na\\/day to 80 mmol\\/day over 4 weeks were compared with the effects of a combined low-sodium\\/high-potassium intake (80 mmol Na\\/120 mmol K) which was also given over 4 weeks in an open crossover trial. Systolic blood pressure in nine untreated patients with

F. Skrabal; R. W. Gasser; G. Finkenstedt; H. P. Rhomberg; A. Lochs

1984-01-01

285

Effect of sex chromosome complement on sodium appetite and Fos-immunoreactivity induced by sodium depletion.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate a sex chromosome complement (SCC) effect on the angiotensin II-sexually dimorphic hypertensive and bradycardic baroreflex responses. We sought to evaluate whether SCC may differentially modulate sexually dimorphic-induced sodium appetite and specific brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the rennin angiotensin system. For this purpose, we used the "four core genotype" mouse model, in which the effect of gonadal sex and SCC is dissociated, allowing comparisons of sexually dimorphic traits between XX and XY females as well as in XX and XY males. Gonadectomized mice were sodium depleted by furosemide (50 mg/kg) and low-sodium diet treatment; control groups were administered with vehicle and maintained on normal sodium diet. Twenty-one hours later, the mice were divided into two groups: one group was submitted to the water-2% NaCl choice intake test, while the other group was perfused and their brains subjected to the Fos-immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) procedure. Sodium depletion, regardless of SCC (XX or XY), induced a significantly lower sodium and water intake in females than in males, confirming the existence in mice of sexual dimorphism in sodium appetite and the organizational involvement of gonadal steroids. Moreover, our results demonstrate a SCC effect on induced brain FOS-ir, showing increased brain activity in XX-SCC mice at the paraventricular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and lateral parabrachial nucleus, as well as an XX-SCC augmented effect on sodium depletion-induced brain activity at two circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and area postrema, nuclei closely involved in fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:24259464

Dadam, Florencia M; Caeiro, Ximena E; Cisternas, Carla D; Macchione, Ana F; Cambiasso, María J; Vivas, Laura

2014-02-01

286

Effects of dynamic electrodes on sodium sulfur cell performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the construction and performance of a sodium sulfur cell with dynamic sodium and sulfur electrodes are described. The cell was constructed with a sodium feed into a β{double prime}-alumina tube and a sulfur feed into an annular sulfur electrode. Low-resistance graphite felt was tightly packed around the β{double prime}-alumina tube. Sodium pentasulfide was removed from the sulfur

H. Tokoi; N. Watahiki; I. Sumida

1991-01-01

287

Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

2006-01-01

288

[Progress in sodium channelopathies and biological functions of voltage-gated sodium channel blockers].  

PubMed

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), which are widely distributed in the excitable cells, are the primary mediators of electrical signal amplification and propagation. They play important roles in the excitative conduction of the neurons and cardiac muscle cells. The abnormalities of the structures and functions of VGSCs can change the excitability of the cells, resulting in a variety of diseases such as neuropathic pain, epilepsy and arrhythmia. At present, some voltage-gated sodium channel blockers are used for treating those diseases. In the recent years, several neurotoxins have been purified from the venom of the animals, which could inhibit the current of the voltage-gated sodium channels. Usually, these neurotoxins are compounds or small peptides that have been further designed and modified for targeted drugs of sodium channelopathies in the clinical treatment. In addition, a novel cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRBGP) has been isolated and purified from the buccal gland of the lampreys (Lampetra japonica), and it could inhibit the Na+ current of the hippocampus and dorsal root neurons for the first time. In the present study, the progress of the sodium channelopathies and the biological functions of voltage-gated sodium channel blockers are analyzed and summarized. PMID:25212005

Wang, Hongyan; Gou, Meng; Xiao, Rong; Li, Qingwei

2014-06-01

289

Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na 1 + 2 w + x - y + z Mw(II)Mx(III)My(V) M2- w - x - y (IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

2015-01-01

290

Photodynamic Alteration of Sodium Currents in Lobster Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic alteration of lobster giant axons drastically changed the magnitude and kinetics of sodium currents seen under voltage clamp using the sucrose gap technique. Illumination of axons following treatment with acridine orange or eosin Y decreased the maximum sodium conductance to a zero asymptote as an exponential function of illumination time. Normal sodium inactivation was slowed, with rh more than

JOHN POOLER

1972-01-01

291

Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

1968-01-01

292

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

2011-04-01

293

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

2014-04-01

295

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

2013-04-01

297

Sodium--sulfur electric cell. [P and Se possible cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a new structure for a sodium--sulfur cell. Such a cell comprises a cathode tank containing sulfur, an electrolyte tube closed at its lower end containing sodium and immersed in sulfur, a sodium anode tank, and a ceramic support holding the tank and the tube. The cathode tank is fitted with graphite felt washers to ensure cathode

G. Desplanches; Y. Lazennec; A. Wicker

1977-01-01

298

Sodium--sulfur battery and process for its production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable galvanic battery contains liquid sodium as the negative electrochemically active material, liquid sulfur as the positive electrochemically active material, and a ceramic solid electrolyte which is capable of conducting sodium ions. The sodium is completely absorbed in a fine-pored metal felt or mat. The sulfur is completely absorbed in a graphite felt or mat. The metal felt has

W. Baukal; R. Knodler; W. H. Kuhn

1977-01-01

299

Strategies to Reduce Sodium Consumption: A Food Industry Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products.

Mariska Dötsch; Johanneke Busch; Max Batenburg; Gie Liem; Erwin Tareilus; Rudi Mueller; Gert Meijer

2009-01-01

300

21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176.320 Food...and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component...

2010-04-01

301

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

302

21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176.320 Food...and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component...

2011-04-01

303

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development

K. Natesan; Y. Momozaki; M. Li; D. L. Rink

2012-01-01

304

Development of ultrasonic waveguide sensor for under-sodium inspection in a sodium-cooled fast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) cannot be examined visually due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the in-vessel structures is possible using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. A plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor using a leaky Lamb wave (A0 mode) has been developed for under-sodium visual inspection of the reactor core and in-vessel

Young-Sang Joo; Chang-Gyu Park; Jae-Han Lee; Jong-Bum Kim; Sa-Hoe Lim

2011-01-01

305

76 FR 74039 - Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium in consumers' food intakes...and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium in consumers' food...

2011-11-30

306

40 CFR 180.383 - Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...Specific Tolerances § 180.383 Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...combined residues of the herbicide sodium salt of acifluorfen, sodium...

2014-07-01

307

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2010-04-01

308

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2014-04-01

309

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2011-04-01

310

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2013-04-01

311

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2012-04-01

312

Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

313

ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A 3-year collaborative project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Bruce A. Moyer) and the University of North Texas (Prof. Alan P. Marchand) is proposed to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide and other predominant sodium salts such as sodium nitrate f...

314

Diagnosing the bladder as the source of pelvic pain: successful treatment for adults and children.  

PubMed

The key to successful therapy of interstitial cystitis (IC) is to correctly diagnose it. The significant majority of patients with IC have a dysfunctional bladder epithelium that allows urinary solutes (primarily potassium) to leak into the bladder wall, causing symptoms and tissue damage. Drugs that correct this dysfunction and suppress symptoms are important to achieve successful outcomes in patients. Today over 95% of females with IC are misdiagnosed as having gynecologic chronic pelvic pain, vulvodynia, vaginitis, endometriosis, overactive bladder or urinary tract infection. Men are misdiagnosed as having prostatitis. Often children are not diagnosed at all. Multimodal drug therapy may be required and can achieve successful resolution of IC in over 90% of patients. IC in children can be treated successfully with pentosan polysulfate. PMID:25300387

Parsons, C Lowell

2014-07-01

315

Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

Nickel, J. Curtis

2002-01-01

316

Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

1985-08-01

317

Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

1985-01-01

318

Magnetoelectric behavior of sodium doped lanthanum manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline samples of sodium doped manganites with compositional formula La1-xNaxMnO3 (0.025?x?0.25) were prepared by polyvinyl alcohol assisted precursor method. After characterizing the samples by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy a systematic investigation of electrical, magnetic, and thermopower properties has been undertaken. The resistivity data were analyzed using effective medium approximation. From the analysis it has been found that the metallic fraction is increasing up to x=0.10 and remains constant with further doping. A close examination of the resistivity data clearly indicates that the sodium doped samples are slowly transformed from colossal magnetoresistance behavior to charge ordering behavior. Thermoelectric power data at low temperatures were analyzed by considering the magnon drag concept, while the high temperature data were explained by small polaron conduction mechanism.

Kalyana Lakshmi, Y.; Venkataiah, G.; Reddy, P. Venugopal

2009-07-01

319

Hydrogen production from ammonia using sodium amide.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new type of process for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts. Effecting the decomposition of NH3 using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na), this represents a significant departure in reaction mechanism compared with traditional surface catalysts. In variable-temperature NH3 decomposition experiments, using a simple flow reactor, the Na/NaNH2 system shows superior performance to supported nickel and ruthenium catalysts, reaching 99.2% decomposition efficiency with 0.5 g of NaNH2 in a 60 sccm NH3 flow at 530 °C. As an abundant and inexpensive material, the development of NaNH2-based NH3 cracking systems may promote the utilization of NH3 for sustainable energy storage purposes. PMID:24972299

David, William I F; Makepeace, Joshua W; Callear, Samantha K; Hunter, Hazel M A; Taylor, James D; Wood, Thomas J; Jones, Martin O

2014-09-24

320

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

321

Sodium\\/Potassium Ratio in Rainwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. B. C. V. ODDIE has commented1 on a portion of my recent article ``Surface of the Ocean as a Source of Air-Borne Nitrogenous Material and Other Plant Nutrients''2 with particular reference to the sodium\\/potassium ratio in rain-water. In this article I presented results of the analysis of New Zealand snows and proposed that there exists on the surface of

A. T. Wilson

1960-01-01

322

Chemiluminescent Determination of Menadione Sodium Bisulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemiluminescence (CL) system for menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) combined with a flow-injection system is presented in this paper. It is based on CL produced by the oxidation of bisulfite liberated from MSB by Ce(IV). The system responds linearly to MSB concentration in the range of 0.01 ? 10 ?g\\/mL with the detection limit (3?f) of 2 x 10 ?g\\/mL.

Yuming Huang; Zhiqiong Chen; Zhujun Zhang

1999-01-01

323

Sodium sulphur cells. [design for current collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sodium sulfur cell, the cathode current collector in the sulfur\\/polysulfide cathodic reactant comprises an impermeable tube, e.g., a carbon or graphite tube, which is inert to the cathodic reactant and contains a solid metal core, e.g., an aluminum core, and a deformable electronic conductor, e.g., graphite felt, as a conducting interface between the impermeable tube and the core.

I. W. Jones; G. Robinson; T. L. Bird

1978-01-01

324

Sodium sulphur cells. [current collector design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sodium--sulfur cell, the cathode current collector in the sulfur\\/polysulfide cathodic reactant comprises a carbon or graphite tube containing a solid metal, e.g., aluminum, core and a deformable electronic conductor, e.g., graphite felt, as a conducting interface between the carbon or graphite tube and the core. In a preferred construction, the current collector is axially located within a cylindrical

I. W. Jones; G. Ribinson; T. L. Bird

1977-01-01

325

Investigation of steel--sodium--iron shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of experimental data from 21 fast reactor shield configurations containing steel, sodium, and iron were made as part of a study of the upper axial shielding needs of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. The measured data were analyzed using both one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes and several cross section libraries based on ENDF\\/B-IV data with group

E. M. Oblow; R. E. Maerker

1978-01-01

326

Sodium fluoride therapy in stapedial otosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-operative sodium fluoride (NaF) has been used in 21 out of 192 consecutive cases of active footplate stapedial otosclerosis\\u000a in moderate doses (20 mgms twice daily) for six months. These 21 cases had vascular type of otosclerotic lesion which was\\u000a earlier confirmed on tympanotomy. Out of 16 of these cases in 11 cases (68.8%) significant decrease in vascularity of the

P. C. Chamyal; K. J. S. Ahluwalia; S. R. V. Kessar

1990-01-01

327

Plasma 11-Hydroxycorticoid Levels after Carbenoxolone Sodium  

PubMed Central

A definite rise in plasma 11-hydroxycorticoid levels has been shown in eight patients with duodenal ulcer following the oral administration of carbenoxolone sodium. A similar rise was seen in one patient with sarcoidosis whose pituitary A.C.T.H. secretion had been acutely suppressed with dexamethasone. No such rise, however, was seen in three patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency. It is suggested that carbenoxolone acts directly on the adrenal cortex, causing an increased production of corticosteroids. PMID:4318278

Mattingly, D.; Tyler, Christine; Bilton, Elaine

1970-01-01

328

Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited

A. Alexas; S. Jordan; W. Lindner

1979-01-01

329

Kainate Receptor Modulation by Sodium and Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent\\u000a of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity\\u000a is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation\\u000a by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property

Andrew J. R. Plested

330

THE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR: TOMMORROW'S POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the Advanced Sodium Graphite Reactor Power ;\\u000a Plant, including the reactor, heat transfer systems, generatirg plant, control ;\\u000a systems, and the economics of producing 256 Mw(e). The safety of this design is ;\\u000a due to its unusually low operating pressure, absence of chemically incompatible ;\\u000a materials in the core, and excellent stability under atatic and

R. J. Beeley; E. G. Lowell; H. Polak; J. Renard

1960-01-01

331

Bioassay of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate for possible carcinogenicity.  

PubMed

A bioassay of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50 rats of each sex were administered sodium diethyldithiocarbamate at one of two doses, either 1,250 or 2,500 ppm, for 104 weeks. Groups of 50 mice of each sex were administered sodium diethyldithiocarbamate at one of two doses, either 500 or 4,000 ppm, for 108 or 109 weeks. Matched controls consisted of 16 untreated male rats, 20 untreated female rats and 20 untreated mice of each sex. All surviving rats and mice were killed at the end of administration of the test chemical. Mean body weights of all dosed groups of rats and mice were lower that those of corresponding controls and were dose related throughout the bioassay except those of the low-dose male rats, which were essentially unaffected by administration of the test chemical. Survivals of the rat and mice were unaffected, and no other clinical signs could be related to administration of the test chemical; thus, the animals may have been able to tolerate higher doses. Sufficient numbers of dosed and control animals of each species and sex were at risk for the development of late-appearing tumors. No tumors occurred in the rats or mice of either sex at incidences that were significantly higher in the dosed groups than in the control groups. It is concluded that under the conditions of this bioassay, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was not carcinogenic for F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice of either sex. PMID:12799691

1979-01-01

332

Mercury's seasonal sodium exosphere: MESSENGER orbital observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variation but there is little or no year-to-year variation; we do not see the episodic variability reported by ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere is about 1200 K, much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J.

2015-03-01

333

Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications  

SciTech Connect

Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

Posthumus, K.J.C.M. [Royal Netherlands Navy, The Hague (Netherlands). Directorate Material; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-11-01

334

Variability in Mercury's Escaping Sodium Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During each elongation since May 2007, wide field coronagraphic images of Mercury were taken at the McDonald Observatory. This data set shows large variations in a tail of neutral sodium atoms escaping the planet. At certain orbital phases of Mercury, this tail stretches more than 1000 planetary radii in length, while in other phases the tail disappears beyond our limit of detectability. These changes are attributed to large modulations in radiation pressure with orbital longitude, which affect the escape, acceleration and brightness of sodium at Mercury. Sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, sputtering from UV sunlight, meteorite impacts and thermal evaporation. Each image contains a history of Mercury's atmospheric escape over several hours, documenting possible short term changes in ion and meteor sputtered sources within the observed day-to-day and month-to-month variations. These observations can help in understanding the variability and relative strengths of these processes in Mercury's atmosphere.

Schmidt, Carl; Wilson, J.; Baumgardner, J.; Mendillo, M.

2009-09-01

335

A promising cathode material of sodium iron-nickel hexacyanoferrate for sodium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium ion batteries are attracting great attention due to the naturally alternative energy storage for large-scale applications. The reliable and high performance cathode materials are urgently needed for their practical applications. Here, we report sodium iron-nickel hexacyanoferrate (FeNiHCF) with Prussian blue structure by substitution of a portion of iron ions with nickel ions, and characterize it as cathode material of sodium ion battery for the first time. The low-spin Fe2+/Fe3+ couple in FeNiHCF is sufficiently activated for sodium storage, which leads to higher capacity contribution at larger potential and better stability on redox energy comparing with the single metal hexacyanoferrate of FeHCF or NiHCF. The FeNiHCF cathode presents synergistic advantages of high capacity, remarkable cycling stability, superior rate capability and good Coulombic efficiency. Significant improvement on electrochemical performance have been achieved with a discharge capacity of 106 mAh g-1, a Coulombic efficiency of ?97% and excellent capacity retention of 96% over 100 cycles. Impressively, the FeNiHCF cathode present a good and stable cycling at high current densities, e.g. a capacity of 71 mAh g-1 and 100% capacity retention at a current density as high as 500 mA g-1. The intercalation chemistry manner for improving the sodium storage of material may shed light on improving the Na-storage performance of Prussian blue analogues.

Yu, Shenglan; Li, Yong; Lu, Yunhao; Xu, Ben; Wang, Qiuting; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

2015-02-01

336

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst  

PubMed Central

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

337

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09

338

Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

Cao Guangxiang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Song Xinyu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Haiyun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan Chunhua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yin Zhilei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun Sixiu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

2006-02-02

339

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01

340

Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

2010-04-01

341

Toxins that modulate the sodium channel gating mechanism.  

PubMed

A variety of toxins and chemicals has been shown to modulate the gating kinetics of the sodium channel. Studies of batrachotoxin, grayanotoxins and pyrethroids are summarized here as examples. Batrachotoxin and grayanotoxins eliminate the sodium channel inactivation thereby causing a prolonged, steady-state sodium current to flow during a depolarizing step. The sodium channel activation kinetics are not affected markedly. Batrachotoxin appears to bind to a site in the sodium channel to which the inactivation gate normally binds, thus causing an inhibition of sodium inactivation. Single channel recording experiments have shown that the mean open time of individual sodium channels is greatly prolonged by batrachotoxin. It appears that individual sodium channels are modified by batrachotoxin in an all-or-none manner. Pyrethroids which are synthetic derivatives of pyrethrins also modify the kinetics of sodium channels in a very drastic manner. In the presence of type I pyrethroids which lack a cyano group at the alpha position (e.g., allethrin and tetramethrin), a large steady-state sodium current appears during a step depolarization and a large slowly decaying sodium tail current appears upon repolarization. Thus both the activation and inactivation kinetics are slowed. Type II pyrethroids which contain an alpha-cyano group (e.g., deltamethrin, cyphenothrin, and fenvalerate) exert effects on sodium channels qualitatively similar to those of type I pyrethroids. However, the amplitudes of the steady-state sodium current and sodium tail current are smaller and the time constant of tail current decay is much longer. The mean open time of single sodium channels is greatly prolonged by the pyrethroids, and the effect is much more pronounced in type II than in type I pyrethroids. A high degree of stereospecificity has been found among four isomers of tetramethrin, (+)-trans and (+)-cis isomers being highly active and (-)-trans and (-)-cis isomers almost totally inactive. The inactive isomers bind to the sodium channel sites, thus preventing the action of the active isomers. Because of the unique action of pyrethroids in modulating the sodium channels, they are becoming useful tools for channel physiology and pharmacology. PMID:2433987

Narahashi, T

1986-01-01

342

Reaction between chlorocarbon vapors and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the reactions between tetrachloromethane (CCl{sub 4}), 1,2-dichloroethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}), or chlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Cl) and sodium carbonate were investigated using evolved gas analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Sodium carbonate reacted with CCl{sub 4} between 600 and 900 K to form over 90% carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and less than 10% tetrachloroethene (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}). This reaction followed the three-dimensional diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 105 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of 5000 {+-} 3000 min{sup {minus}1}. The reaction between C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2} and sodium carbonate produced CO{sub 2}, ethanal (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O), water (H{sub 2}O), vinyl chloride (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl), ethene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and ethyne (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) between 600 and 900 K from at least two different pathways. The product temperature profiles indicated that CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl were formed initially and that approximately 10% of the product is C{sub 2}H{sub 4} at 900 K. The reaction kinetics followed the Ginstling-Brounshtein diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 100 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of approximately 10{sup 4} min{sup {minus}1}. Benzene was produced from the reaction between chlorobenzene and sodium carbonate at temperatures above 800 K. This reaction followed the three-dimensional diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 80 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of approximately 500 min{sup {minus}1}. Because the thermodynamics of these reactions are favorable, the kinetics will determine the effectiveness of these processes for destroying chlorocarbon vapors.

Parrett, J.W. Jr.; Sumner, J.P.; Devore, T.C. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-05-15

343

Modification of nerve membrane sodium channels by the insecticide pyrethroids.  

PubMed

1. The synthetic pyrethroids exert potent and selective actions on nerve membrane sodium channels. (+)-trans tetramethrin and (+)-trans allethrin cause repetitive discharges to be produced in the isolated crayfish and squid giant axons in response to a single stimulus as a result of an increase in depolarizing after-potential. 2. The latter effect is due to slowing of the sodium channel kinetics which causes a prolonged sodium current following the normal peak sodium current. 3. A kinetic model is proposed to account for the action of the pyrethroids in which the pyrethroid molecule binds to the sodium channels at both closed and open states to produce a modified open state. 4. (-)-trans and (-)-cis isomers of tetramethrin are ineffective in causing the effects, but prevent the active (+)-trans and (+)-cis isomers from exerting the effects. This stereospecificity provides us with an excellent opportunity for the study of binding sites of pyrethroids and other sodium channel modulators. PMID:6128164

Narahashi, T

1982-01-01

344

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

SciTech Connect

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

345

Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

1985-01-01

346

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

2010-08-01

347

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio-LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970-Campinas, SP, Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

348

Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them. PMID:22254122

Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

2011-01-01

349

Inhibition of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Activity by Brequinar Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel anticancer drug candidate brequinar sodium (DuP 785, NSC 368390, 6-nuoro-2-(2'-fluoro-l,l'-biphenyl-4-yl)-3-methyl-4-quinoline- carboxylic acid sodium salt) was shown previously to be an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, the fourth enzyme of the de novo pyrim- idine biosynthetic pathway. Brequinar sodium inhibits the activity of this enzyme isolated from mammalian sources only but not those forms isolated from yeast or bacteria, which

Shih-Fong Chen; Frank W. Perrella; Davette L. Behrens; Lisa M. Papp

350

Sodium--sulfur battery. [design of internal seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new seal for a sodium--sulfur battery is disclosed. The sodium--sulfur battery uses two cylindrical containers for containing sulfur and sodium in molten states and a beta--alumina electrolyte tube located primarily within the sulfur container. The battery disclosed includes a novel header, preferably a metal header, between the containers and through which the beta--alumina tube extends. In order to prevent

Dubin

1978-01-01

351

Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of internal perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the epoxidation of the mixture of cis and trans isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite. Epoxidation was realized with an alkaline aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile. The epoxidation of the geometric isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes by sodium hypochlorite is stereospecific. The /sup 19/F NMR spectra of the cis and trans isomers of internal perfluoroolefin oxides were obtained, and the relationships are discussed.

Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Kolenko, I.P.

1988-07-20

352

Sodium oxybate and sleep apnea: a clinical case.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (GHB, Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) is used to treat cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. We report the case of a middle aged, normo-ponderal narcoleptic woman without risk factors who developed reversible sleep apnea and objective sleepiness when treated by sodium oxybate, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 19.7 on sodium oxybate and AHI 4.8 without treatment. Despite a subjective improvement in vigilance, mean sleep latency on MWT decreased from 21 minutes to 8 minutes on sodium oxybate. PMID:22171208

Hartley, Sarah; Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Machou, Mourad

2011-12-15

353

Theoretical and experimental studies of the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric atomic sodium was studied with a laser radar system. Photocount data were processed using a digital filter to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium concentration versus altitude. Wave-like structures in the sodium layer were observed, and there was evidence for the presence of a standing wave in the layer. The bottomside of the layer was observed to undulate with a period of about 2 1/2 hours, and the layer was observed to broaden through the night. A meteor ablation-cluster ion theory of sodium was developed. The theory shows good agreement with existing atmospheric observations as well as laboratory measurements of rate constants.

Richter, E. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

1978-01-01

354

DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC), which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web . PMID:19099596

Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Dawe, Adam; Seshadri, Sundararajan Vijayaraghava; Christoffels, Alan; Schaefer, Ulf; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

2008-01-01

355

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.  

SciTech Connect

Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

2012-05-01

356

Anaphylaxis to Topically Applied Sodium Fusidate  

PubMed Central

Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions. PMID:23450038

Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Jihyun

2013-01-01

357

Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

Not Available

1993-09-01

358

Complexity in seemingly simple sodium magnesiate systems.  

PubMed

A systematic study both in the solid- and solution-state, was carried out for a series of sodium magnesiates containing the utility amide ligand 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (HMDS). The first complex considered is the donor-free bisamido monoalkyl polymeric complex [Na(?-HMDS)2Mg((n)Bu)]? 1. The reactivity of 1 with common tertiary bidentate donors including N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) or its chiral relative (1R,2R)-tetramethylcyclohexyldiamine [(R,R)-TMCDA] is detailed. Surprisingly, the products of these reactions are not simple diamine adducts but are solvent separated sodium magnesiate systems [(TMEDA)2·Na](+)[Mg(HMDS)3](-) 2 and [{(R,R)-TMCDA}2·Na](+)[Mg(HMDS)3](-) 3. By concentrating on the likely equilibria which may give rise to formation of 2, a potential intermediate complexed ion pair [{(TMEDA)2·Na}(?-(n)Bu)Mg(HMDS)2] 4 was isolated. Additionally, the novel "inverse magnesiates" [{Na(?-HMDS)}2Mg(?-(n)Bu)2·(TMEDA)]? 5 and [{Na(?-HMDS)}2Mg(?-(n)Bu)2·{(R,R)-TMCDA}]? 6, were obtained by reacting solutions of composition "NaMg(HMDS)((n)Bu)2" (a likely by-product in the formation of 2 from 1), with TMEDA or (R,R)-TMCDA. The structure and nature of these bimetallic complexes have been determined using a combination of X-ray crystallographic studies and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24985749

Francos, J; Fleming, B J; García-Álvarez, P; Kennedy, A R; Reilly, K; Robertson, G M; Robertson, S D; O'Hara, C T

2014-10-14

359

Elastic constants of sodium from molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed molecular-dynamics calculations of the adiabatic elastic constants of sodium at three different temperatures, T=198, 299, and 349 K. Our method uses fluctuation formulas appropriate for the microcanonical ensemble which contain the elastic constants. In the simulation we have used a first-principles potential to model the interaction between the sodium atoms. The results, including the shear modulus C44, show good agreement with experiment at all three temperatures. We have analyzed the contributions to the elastic constants from different types of terms appearing in the fluctuation formula and compared these contributions to other model-potential calculations. The volume dependence in the potential has considerable effect on the values of elastic constants. In comparison to some earlier calculations which employed pair potentials with no volume dependence, the fluctuation contributions to elastic constants C11 and C44 are noticeably large (20% of the value of the elastic constants in some cases). We find that the elastic constants do not change by much for the different potential-cutoff ranges employed: 17.85, 23.27, and 27.70 bohrs.

Çagin, Tahir; Ray, John R.

1988-01-01

360

Sodium borohydride based hybrid power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium borohydride's properties make it a good source of hydrogen for use with a fuel cell for an on-demand system that is easily controllable and has no idle costs. Previous work, as described in the literature, indicated that ruthenium (Ru) is an efficient catalyst for generating hydrogen from sodium borohydride. Tests were conducted to evaluate catalyst loading with the results of these tests indicating that the hydrolysis rate is affected by the loading of the catalyst. It was also apparent that the substrate surface is not completely occupied by Ru at the lower loadings, and that increased loadings are needed to optimize the reaction rate. A differential rate test with a fixed bed reactor was also conducted. It was observed that temperature has a significant effect on the rate of reaction. Feed rate also affected the rate of reaction with lower feed rates (longer residence time in the reactor) having higher reaction rates. A bench-top hybrid system was also developed and tested. This test bed demonstrated how a system based on a chemically generated hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cell could be integrated with batteries to provide a hybrid power system that can meet the demands of a highly varying electrical load up to four times the rated output of the fuel cell.

Richardson, Bradley S.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Pin, François G.; Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

361

Sodium lactate and hypertonic sodium chloride induce equivalent panic incidence, panic symptoms, and hypernatremia in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although experimental induction of panic by infusion of 0.5 mol\\/L sodium lactate in persons with panic disorder was described three decades ago, the mechanism underlying this observation remains unclear. Here we asked if the rapid administration of the large sodium load contained in the 0.5-mol\\/L sodium lactate infusion might be involved in panic induction.Methods: We compared in panic disorder

Elaine R Peskind; Carl F Jensen; Marcella Pascualy; Debby Tsuang; Deborah Cowley; Donald C Martin; Charles W Wilkinson; Murray A Raskind

1998-01-01

362

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

Schiozer, A.L.

1994-03-01

363

Reactivity of thin metal films on sodium beta'' alumina ceramic in high temperature, low pressure sodium vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical techniques including impedance spectroscopy are routinely used to test the performance of AMTEC electrodes. These experiments may be carried out in an actual AMTEC cell. or in an sodium exposure test cell SETC where the sodium pressure and the temperature are identical at both the anode and cathode. These tests reveal details of electrode material grain growth, electrode decomposition and reaction of electrode materials with the sodium beta'' alumina solid electrolyte. Tests of the same sort may be used to examine the compatibility of metals and sodium beta'' alumina under simulated AMTEC operating conditions. Preliminary tests comparing rhodium/tungsten, molybdenum, titanium and vanadium electrodes are reported. .

Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A. K.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Shields, V. B.; Ryan, M. A.

2001-02-01

364

Improving Volume Status by Comprehensive Dietary and Dialytic Sodium Management in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic volume overload is highly prevalent in chronic hemodialysis patients and leads to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and increased hospitalization and mortality rates. Volume overload is caused primarily by a positive sodium balance and can be improved by sodium restriction. The main sources of sodium excess are a high-sodium diet in the interdialytic period and a positive sodium balance during

E. Lars Penne; Nathan W. Levin; Peter Kotanko

2010-01-01

365

Kainate receptor modulation by sodium and chloride.  

PubMed

The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property across ion channel families. However, evidence of a physiological role for ion-dependent effects on glutamate receptors is lacking, perhaps reflecting the adventitious use of ions as structural components of the kainate receptor. "ergo, Hercules, vita humanior sine sale non quit degree […]" "Heaven known, a civilized life is impossible without salt" -Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXI 88. PMID:21713670

Plested, Andrew J R

2011-01-01

366

On the sodium abundance in cometary meteoroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained the chemical abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni relative to Si for thirteen fireballs, most of them produced by cometary meteoroids. We used a model developed by Borovicka (1993) to determine realistic physical parameters in the meteor column and the relative chemical abundances along the fireball path (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2003). Although most of the relative elemental chemical abundances in meteoroids fit well with chondritic values, we have noted that sodium is overabundant in meteor columns (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004). This overabundance is accompanied by other interesting patterns: (i) The spectral lines associated with multiplet 1 of Na I usually appear before the lines of other elements. This could be related to some volatile phase that is easily removed from the meteoroid in the first steps of ablation. Different reservoirs of easily-removable Na may be present in cometary meteoroids, such as organics or phyllosilicates (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004); (ii) The intensity of the Na I lines increases in bright flares associated with the process of fragmentation of the incoming meteoroid. If the structure of cometary meteoroids is similar to the dustball model invoked by Hawkes & Jones (1975), Na could be present as a mineral phase "gluing" mineral grains and, in consequence, it would be released easily during fragmentation events. Although Na is practically omnipresent in cometary meteor spectra, Na-bearing phases are rare in aggregate and cluster Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and usually the Na/Si ratio is clearly below the chondritic value (Rietmeijer, 2002). Our analysis, however, shows that sodium is overabundant in cometary meteoroids (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004). One possibility, as proposed by Rietmeijer (1999), is that the accepted cosmic ratio of Na/Si is not accurate, being two times the currently accepted value. In any case, our idea is that an important part of the sodium present in meteoroids is unable to survive the heating induced during atmospheric deceleration and/or the solar irradiation suffered during the meteoroids residence in the interplanetary medium. From a theoretical point of view, degradation of such volatile elements as potassium (and sodium) is also predicted during long stays in the interplanetary medium (Young, 2000). Therefore, we propose to use Na as a tracer for the presence of volatile phases in cometary meteoroids. If this element is really associated with these phases, its detection could bring important insights about the role that degradation processes play in the delivery of organic matter and volatiles to the Earth from cometary material (Jenniskens, 2001). Meteor spectroscopy can be a valuable tool in understanding the mechanisms that regulate the entry of cometary matter into the Earth. REFERENCES Betlem H., Jenniskens P., Spurny P., Van Leeuwen G.D., Miskotte K, Ter Kuile C.R., Zarubin P. and Angelos C., 2000, EM&P 82-83, p.277-284. Borovicka J. (1993) Astronomy & Astrophysics 279, 627-645. Borovicka J., R.Stork and J. Bocek (1999) Met. & Planet. Sci. 34, p.987-994. Hawkes R.L. and J. Jones (1975) Mon.Not. Roy. Astron.Soc. 173, pp.339-356. Jenniskens P. (2001) Proc. Meteoroids 2001 Conf., 6-10, Kiruna, Sweden. Ed.: Barbara Warmbein. ESA SP-495, Noordwijk, 247-254. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (1999) ApJ 514, L125-L127. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (2002) in Planetary Materials, Reviews in Mineralogy 36, pp.2-1, 2-95. Trigo-Rodríguez J.M., J. Llorca, J. Borovi?ka and J. Fabregat (2003) Met. & Planet. Science 38, n. 8, pp. 1283-1294. Trigo-Rodríguez J.Ma, J. Llorca and J. Fabregat (2004) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Association, in press. Young E.D. (2000) Earth & Planetary Science Letters 183, pp. 321-333.

Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.

367

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOEpatents

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19

368

Structural and energetic properties of sodium clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present results from a theoretical study on the properties of sodium clusters. The structures of the global total-energy minima have been determined using two different methods. With the parameterized density-functional tight-binding method (DFTB) combined with a genetic-algorithm we investigated the properties of NaN clusters with cluster size up to 20 atoms, and with our own Aufbau/Abbau algorithm together with the embedded-atom method (EAM) up to 60 atoms. The two sets of results from the independent calculations are compared and a stability function is studied as function of the cluster size. Due to the electronic effects included in the DFTB method and the packing effects included in the EAM we have obtained different global-minima structures and different stability functions.

Tevekeliyska, V.; Dong, Y.; Springborg, M.; Grigoryan, V. G.

2007-07-01

369

Hydrogen bond coupling in sodium dihydrogen triacetate.  

PubMed

The coupling of hydrogen bonds is central to structures and functions of biological systems. Hydrogen bond coupling in sodium dihydrogen triacetate (SDHTA) is investigated as a model for the hydrogen bonded systems of the type O-H…O. The two-dimensional potential energy surface is derived from the full-dimensional one by selecting the relevant vibrational modes of the hydrogen bonds. The potential energy surfaces in terms of normal modes describing the anharmonic motion in the vicinity of the equilibrium geometry of SDHTA are calculated for the different species, namely, HH, HD, DH, and DD isotopomers. The ground state wave functions and their relation to the hydrogen bond structural parameters are discussed. It has been found that the hydrogen bonds in SDHTA are uncoupled, that is elongation of the deuterated hydrogen bond does not affect the non-deuterated one. PMID:25038632

Ahmed, Ashour A; Hilal, Rifaat H; Shibl, Mohamed F

2014-08-01

370

Sodium sulfate - Deposition and dissolution of silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot-corrosion process for SiO2-protected materials involves deposition of Na2SO4 and dissolution of the protective SiO2 scale. Dew points for Na2SO4 deposition are calculated as a function of pressure, sodium content, and sulfur content. Expected dissolution regimes for SiO2 are calculated as a function of Na2SO4 basicity. Controlled-condition burner-rig tests on quartz verify some of these predicted dissolution regimes. The basicity of Na2SO4 is not always a simple function of P(SO3). Electrochemical measurements of an (Na2O) show that carbon creates basic conditions in Na2SO4, which explains the extensive corrosion of SiO2-protected materials containing carbon, such as SiC.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

1989-01-01

371

Sodium oxybate-induced central sleep apneas.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (?-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969

Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

2013-09-01

372

Sodium transport system in plant cells.  

PubMed

Since sodium, Na, is a non-essential element for the plant growth, the molecular mechanism of Na(+) transport system in plants has remained elusive for the last two decades. The accumulation of Na(+) in soil through irrigation for sustainable agricultural crop production, particularly in arid land, and by changes in environmental and climate conditions leads to the buildup of toxic level of salts in the soil. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, extensive molecular research has identified several classes of Na(+) transporters that play major roles in the alleviation of ionic stress by excluding toxic Na(+) from the cytosol or preventing Na(+) transport to the photosynthetic organs, and also in osmotic stress by modulating intra/extracellular osmotic balance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of three major Na(+) transporters, namely NHX, SOS1, and HKT transporters, including recently revealed characteristics of these transporters. PMID:24146669

Yamaguchi, Toshio; Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

373

Sodium-MR-imaging of the brain: initial clinical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve patients with different diseases of the brain were examined with sodium and proton MRI at 1.5 Tesla and the results of both studies compared. Due to the 1500-fold lower concentration in the body, the decreased sensitivity and the shorter relaxation times of sodium compared with hydrogen a sequence with gradient reversal and a volume imaging method was applied to

W. Grodd; U. Klose

1988-01-01

374

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations

TOSHIO NARAHASHI; JOHN W. MOORE; WILLIAM R. SCOTT

1964-01-01

375

76 FR 17026 - New Animal Drugs; Arsanilate Sodium; Sulfaethoxypyridazine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...proposed to transfer the arsanilate sodium provisions of Sec. 558.20 to...558.20 (56 FR 19263, April 26, 1991) and codifying approved...pertained to certain uses of arsanilate sodium (56 FR 19332, April 26, 1991). FDA reproposed...

2011-03-28

376

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis  

PubMed Central

Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

2014-01-01

377

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-print Network

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

378

Mechanisms of fast neutron penetration in thick layers of sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of computer experiments was carried out to elucidate the penetration mechanisms of fast neutrons through thick layers of sodium such as occur in LMFBR designs. As a one-dimensional approximation of the actual situation, the calculations concentrated mainly on the flux 5 meters from a plane isotropic fission source in an infinite sodium medium. Most of the transport calculations

1975-01-01

379

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

THE REACTIONS OF SODIUM FLUORIDE WITH HEX AND HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that uranium hexafiuoride reacts with sodium fluoride at ; temperatures between 80 and 130 deg C to give NaâUFâ. This compound ; decomposes thermally, at temperatures above 130 deg C, in two ways, which occur ; simultaneously: to yield sodium fluoride and uranium hexafluoride and to yield ; trisodium heptafluoruranate, NaâUFâ, and fluorine. The reaction ; kinetics

Worthington

1957-01-01

381

Treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis with topical cromolyn sodium.  

PubMed

Eight patients with superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLKC) were treated with topical cromolyn sodium. All standard modes of therapy had failed. Six patients manifested marked improvement or complete resolution of their condition. The administration of cromolyn sodium appears to be a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of SLKC. PMID:3113315

Confino, J; Brown, S I

1987-04-01

382

Sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed

Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

Adeva-Andany, María M; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

2014-01-01

383

Sodium aluminate from alumina-bearing intermediates and wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been ascertained from theoretical premises and commercial practice that sodium aluminate may be produced using alumina-bearing industrial intermediates and wastes, including spent potliner and salt cake resulting from aluminum-dross recycling. The utilization of these unused waste materials can provide a supply for the world’s demand for sodium aluminate and improve environmental conditions.

Rayzman, Victor; Filipovich, Igor; Nisse, Leonid; Vlasenko, Yuri

1998-11-01

384

Improved process for making thin-film sodium niobate capacitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium niobate, formed by high vacuum, flash, and reactive evaporations, has a high dielectric constant and is used as a thin film dielectric in microelectronic capacitors. High purity films are formed from relatively inexpensive, pure starting materials. Crystalline sodium niobate films can be formed on amorphous or crystalline materials.

Micka, E. Z.

1968-01-01

385

CORROSION AND ACTIVITY TRANSFER IN THE SRE PRIMARY SODIUM SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation extending over a two-year period was made of primary ; system sodium and of stainless steel, zirconium, and beryllium specimens exposed ; in the hot and cold legs of a bypass loop in the primary system of the Sodium ; Reactor Experiment (SRE). The metal specimens were checked for physical property ; changes and for radioactivity transfer to

Johnson

1961-01-01

386

The biopsychology of salt hunger and sodium deficiency.  

PubMed

Sodium is a necessary dietary macromineral that tended to be sparsely distributed in mankind's environment in the past. Evolutionary selection pressure shaped physiological mechanisms including hormonal systems and neural circuits that serve to promote sodium ingestion. Sodium deficiency triggers the activation of these hormonal systems and neural circuits to engage motivational processes that elicit a craving for salty substances and a state of reward when salty foods are consumed. Sodium deficiency also appears to be associated with aversive psychological states including anhedonia, impaired cognition, and fatigue. Under certain circumstances the psychological processes that promote salt intake can become powerful enough to cause "salt gluttony," or salt intake far in excess of physiological need. The present review discusses three aspects of the biopsychology of salt hunger and sodium deficiency: (1) the psychological processes that promote salt intake during sodium deficiency, (2) the effects of sodium deficiency on mood and cognition, and (3) the sensitization of sodium appetite as a possible cause of salt gluttony. PMID:25572931

Hurley, Seth W; Johnson, Alan Kim

2015-03-01

387

Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.  

PubMed

The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2 300 mg/day. A further reduction to 1 500 mg/day is advised for people 51 years or older; African Americans; and people with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. In the United States of America, the problem of excess sodium intake is related to the food supply. Most sodium consumed comes from packaged, processed, and restaurant foods and therefore is in the product at the time of purchase. This paper describes sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress. PMID:23299292

Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

2012-10-01

388

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident

Tanju Sofu; Jeffrey L. LaChance; R. Bari; Roald Wigeland; Matthew R. Denman; George F. Flanagan

2012-01-01

389

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

390

Escape from the sodium-retaining effects of mineralocorticoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolonged administration of pharmacologic doses of mineralocorticoids to normal subjects results in hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, polydipsia, polyuria, and transient sodium retention. Although this review will focus on sodium metabolism, increased water turnover was, in retrospect, the first part of this constellation to be recognized. Ragan et al [1], in 1940, demonstrated that the chronic injection of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)

Franklyn G Knox; John C Burnett; Donald E Kohan; William S Spielman; James C Strand

1980-01-01

391

Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements  

SciTech Connect

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

392

Self-association of sodium deoxycholate with EHEC cellulose cooperatively induced by sodium dodecanoate.  

PubMed

Some aspects of ethyl (hydroxyethyl) cellulose (EHEC) aqueous behavior in the presence of ionic surfactants are described in the literature; however, most of the studies reported address moderately concentrated solutions. Few studies have been carried out in the dilute regime using mixtures of biosurfactants. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the interaction of EHEC in the dilute regime and to verify the mixture of two surfactants: sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium dodecanoate (SDoD). The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac) and saturation of the polymer by surfactants (psp) were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration in basic conditions. The cmc of NaDC-SDoD mixtures showed non-ideal behavior. However, EHEC added to mixtures of SDoD and NaDC acts as a stabilizer for the mixed aggregate during the association process. PMID:25037371

Modolon, Samuel de M; Felippe, Arlindo C; Fizon, Tiago E; da Silva, Luciano; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G

2014-10-13

393

Interrelationships of sodium transport and carbon dioxide production by the toad bladder: Response to changes in mucosal sodium concentration, to vasopressin and to availability of metabolic substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Active sodium transport and CO2 production were measured simultaneously in toad bladders mounted in membrane chambers. The rate of sodium transport was varied by changing the concentration of sodium in the mucosal bath (substitution with choline), by adding vasopressin, by adding metabolic substrates and by adding malonate, and the ratio of the change of sodium transport and CO2 production

Norman S. Coplon; Roderic E. Steele; Roy H. Maffly

1977-01-01

394

Effects of dynamic electrodes on sodium sulfur cell performance  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the construction and performance of a sodium sulfur cell with dynamic sodium and sulfur electrodes are described. The cell was constructed with a sodium feed into a {beta}{double prime}-alumina tube and a sulfur feed into an annular sulfur electrode. Low-resistance graphite felt was tightly packed around the {beta}{double prime}-alumina tube. Sodium pentasulfide was removed from the sulfur electrode. The cell was stably charged in the two-phase region and a high charge acceptance of 95% was obtained. The cell capacity and the discharge voltage increased with the sulfur and sodium feeds. The internal resistance was decreased by thinning the sulfur electrode and using a single zone of low-resistance graphite felt.

Tokoi, H.; Watahiki, N.; Sumida, I. (Hitachi, Ltd., Energy Research Lab., 1168 Moriyama-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316 (JP))

1991-05-01

395

Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

396

Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

Ma, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1996-08-01

397

Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium–sodium alginate microparticles  

PubMed Central

Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20–96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres’ surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae. PMID:23960820

Ahmed, Mahmoud M.; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.

2011-01-01

398

A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. Parotid secretion has been studied by micropuncture in sodium-replete and sodium-deficient sheep. 2. The osmolality of unstimulated primary saliva was slightly higher than in plasma and fell following cholinergic nerve stimulation. In sodium-depleted animals the osmolality of final saliva was hypotonic and exhibited flow dependency, where as in sodium-replete animals it was always isotonic. 3. In sodium-replete sheep, the primary fluid sodium concentration was about 120-130 mmol l-1 but in final saliva it was about 167 mmol l-1 and showed little or no flow-dependency. In sodium-depleted sheep, the primary sodium concentration averaged only 82.2 mmol l-1 and it was concluded that sodium-depleted primary fluid contained some other unidentified solute that allowed it to remain approximately isotonic; in final saliva the unstimulated sodium concentration was about 40 mmol l-1 and it rose with increasing flow rate to a maximum of 114.9 mmol l-1. 4. The primary fluid potassium concentration in sodium-replete animals did not differ significantly from that seen in sodium-depleted animals and the values were uninfluenced by stimulation; the over-all mean value was 11.2 mmol l-1. In final saliva, in sodium-replete sheep, the potassium concentrations averaged 7.8 mmol l-1 but in sodium-depleted sheep the concentrations were between 5 and 10 times greater than in primary fluid. 5. It was calculated from the equilibrium pH that the primary bicarbonate concentration would have been about 35 mmol l-1. In final saliva, where bicarbonate was measured directly, the concentrations were much greater and increased with stimulation to about 115 mmol l-1. 6. The primary fluid phosphate and chloride concentrations were the same in both sodium-replete and sodium-depleted animals and were unchanged by stimulation; the mean concentration of phosphate was 1.30 mmol l-1 and of chloride, 53.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva the phosphate concentrations were little changed but the chloride concentrations fell to an average value of 20.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva it was found that the summed sodium and potassium concentrations exceeded the summed chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate (in mequiv l-1) concentrations, on average by 13.9 mequiv l-1, regardless of sodium status or flow rate. 7. The results indicate that secretion by the sheep parotid can be accounted for in terms of the standard two-state model. Phosphate seems to enter the saliva only in the primary fluid and potassium and bicarbonate appear to enter at both primary and secondary sites; sodium and chloride enter at the primary level and can be reabsorbed in the ducts. Salt depletion causes the primary fluid concentrations of sodium and chloride to fall and the content of an unidentified solute to rise markedly while, at the ductal level, it causes normally quiescent sodium and potassium transport processes to become activated. PMID:7252874

Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

1980-01-01

399

Effect of Dialysate Sodium Concentration on Sodium Gradient and Hemodialysis Parameters  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was performed to determine the ranges of the sodium gradient (SG) between the dialysate sodium concentration (DNa) and serum sodium concentration (SNa) in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to examine the relationships between HD parameters over a 1 year period. Fifty-five clinically stable HD patients, who had been on HD >2 years were enrolled. Monthly HD [ultrafiltration (UF) amount, systolic blood pressure (SBP), frequency of intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] and laboratory data were collected and 12-month means were subjected to analysis. The SG was calculated by subtracting SNa from prescribed DNa. Mean SG values were 1.5±3.3 (range -5.6~9.1). SG was positively related to DNa and the frequency of IDH. A higher SG was associated with larger UF amounts and SBP reduction during HD. The percentages of patients with a SG ?3mEq/L increased as DNa increased. On the other hand, SG was not found to be associated with SNa or pre-HD SBP. DNa appears to cause a significant increase in SG, and this seems to be related to HD parameters, such as, UF amount and IDH. PMID:25606045

Jin, Haifeng; Lee, Seung Yun; Lee, Si Nae; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Moon-Jae

2014-01-01

400

Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining  

SciTech Connect

The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

2005-09-01

401

PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1°C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

402

SODIUM BENTONITE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS FOR LAMBS AND STEERS 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sodium bentonite, sodium bicarbonate and a combination of these, initially at levels of 2% each, were incorporated into diets of lambs and steers rapidly converted from a roughage diet to a high- concentrate diet. Acidosis-related lamb death losses were reduced from 19% in controls to 0 to 3% in all treatment groups. No deaths occurred in steers where conditions

B. H. Dunn; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

2010-01-01

403

77 FR 59375 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...International Trade Administration [A-570-908] Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex'') from the People's Republic of...

2012-09-27

404

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of...From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

406

21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

2010-04-01

407

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2013-04-01

408

21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

2011-04-01

409

21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

2013-04-01

410

21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

2014-04-01

411

21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether...carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

2012-04-01

412

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2011-04-01

413

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2010-04-01

414

40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 ...azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN P-96-1263) is subject to...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic). 721.10437 Section 721...linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (PMNs P-99-1280,...

2014-07-01

416

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2012-07-01

417

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2011-07-01

418

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2013-07-01

419

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2014-07-01

420

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2010-04-01

421

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2011-04-01

422

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2012-04-01

423

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2014-04-01

424

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2013-04-01

425

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2012-04-01

426

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2014-04-01

427

A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements. PMID:24919424

Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

2014-08-01

428

Integrin-mediated Membrane Blebbing Is Dependent on Sodium-Proton Exchanger 1 and Sodium-Calcium Exchanger 1 Activity*  

PubMed Central

Integrin signaling and membrane blebbing modulate cell adhesion, spreading, and migration. However, the relationship between integrin signaling and membrane blebbing is unclear. Here, we show that an integrin-ligand interaction induces both membrane blebbing and changes in membrane permeability. Sodium-proton exchanger 1 (NHE1) and sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) are membrane proteins located on the bleb membrane. Inhibition of NHE1 disrupts membrane blebbing and decreases changes in membrane permeability. However, inhibition of NCX1 enhances cell blebbing; cells become swollen because of NHE1 induced intracellular sodium accumulation. Our study found that NHE1 induced sodium influx is a driving force for membrane bleb growth, while sodium efflux (and calcium influx) induced by NCX1 in a reverse mode results in membrane bleb retraction. Together, these findings reveal a novel function for NHE1 and NCX1 in membrane blebbing and permeability, and establish a link between membrane blebbing and integrin signaling. PMID:22270364

Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Yu-Sun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lew, Tien-Shen; Tang, Chih-Yung; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lo, Szecheng J.

2012-01-01

429

Oxygen-sensing persistent sodium channels in rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Persistent sodium channel activity was recorded before and during hypoxia from cell-attached and inside-out patches obtained from cultured hippocampal neurons at a pipette potential (Vp) of +30 mV. Average mean current (I?) of these channels was very low under normoxic conditions and was similar in cell-attached and excised inside-out patches (-0.018 ± 0.010 and -0.025 ± 0.008 pA, respectively, n = 24). Hypoxia increased the activity of persistent sodium channels in 10 cell-attached patches (I’ increased from -0.026 ± 0.016 pA in control to -0.156 ± 0.034 pA during hypoxia, n = 4, P = 0.013). The increased persistent sodium channel activity was most prominent at a VP between +70 and +30 mV (membrane potential, Vm = -70 to -30 mV) and could be blocked by lidocaine, TTX or R56865 (n = 5). Sodium cyanide (NaCN, 5 mM; 0.5-5 min) increased persistent sodium channel activity in cell-attached patches (n = 3) in a similar manner. Hypoxia also increased sodium channel activity in inside-out patches from hippocampal neurons. Within 2-4 min of exposure to hypoxia, I? had increased 9-fold to -0.18 ± 0.04 pA (n = 21, P = 0.001). Sodium channel activity increased further with longer exposures to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced sodium channel activity in inside-out patches could be inhibited by exposure to 10-100 ?M lidocaine applied via the bath solution (I? = -0.03 ± 0.01 pA, n = 8) or by perfusion of the pipette tip with 1 ?M TTX (I? = -0.01 ± 0.01 pA, n = 3). The reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 2-5 mM) rapidly abolished the increase in sodium channel activity caused by hypoxia in excised patches (I’ = -0.01 ± 0.01 pA, n = 4). Similarly, reduced glutathione (GSH, 5-20 mM) also reversed the hypoxia-induced increase in sodium channel activity (I’ = -0.02 ± 0.02 pA, n = 5). These results suggest that persistent sodium channels in neurons can sense O2 levels in excised patches of plasma membrane. Hypoxia triggers an increase in sodium channel activity. The redox reaction involved in increasing the sodium channel activity probably occurs in an auxiliary regulatory protein, co-localized in the plasma membrane. PMID:11080255

Hammarström, Anna K M; Gage, Peter W

2000-01-01

430

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2011-04-01

432

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2012-04-01

433

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2013-04-01

434

Digestibility of the Sugars, Starches, Pentosans, and Protein of Some Feeding Stuffs.  

E-print Network

which is dissolved by N/60 acid and alkali. The proteids were determined by copper hydroxide. The total tein less the proteids is termed the amides. This is not strictly cor for the nitrogen factor for the amides is different from that for I... conclusions in Bulletin 196. TVe would be safe in considering the sugars as practically com- pletely digmted. Table 5. Average digestibility of starch and total nitrogen-free extract. 1 Nitrogen- Number of Starrh. free extract samples I Starch below 80...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

435

Modulation of nerve membrane sodium channels by chemicals.  

PubMed

1. Modulations of sodium channel kinetics by grayanotoxins and pyrethroids have been studied using voltage clamped, internally perfused giant axons from crayfish and squid. 2. Grayanotoxin I and alpha-dihydrograyanotoxin II greatly depolarize the nerve membrane through an increase in resting sodium channel permeability to sodium ions. 3. Grayanotoxins modify a fraction of sodium channel population to give rise to a slow conductance increase with little or no inactivation, and the slow conductance-membrane potential curve is shifted toward hyperpolarization. This accounts for the depolarization. 4. The tail current associated with step repolarization during the slow current in grayanotoxins decays with a dual exponential time course. 5. (+)-trans tetramethrin and (+)-trans allethrin also modify a fraction of sodium channel population in generating a slow current, which attains a maximum slowly and decays very slowly during a maintained depolarizing step. The membrane is depolarized only slightly. 6. The tail current associated with step repolarization during the slow current in the pyrethroids is very large in initial amplitude and decays very slowly. 7. The rate at which the sodium channel arrives at the modified open state in the presence of pyrethroids is expressed by a dual exponential function, and the slow phase disappears following removal of the sodium inactivation mechanism by internal perfusion of pronase. 8. A kinetic model is proposed to account for the actions of both grayanotoxins and pyrethroids on sodium channels. Both chemicals interact with the channel at both open and closed states to yield a modified open state which results in a slow sodium current. PMID:6286960

Narahashi, T

1981-05-01

436

Sodium Ferulate Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Rat Balloon Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. Methods Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II) for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline) for 7 days before sacrificed. Results In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle ?-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total ?-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2? and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. Conclusion Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs. PMID:24489938

Chen, Jing; Xu, Changwu; Ding, Jiawang; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing; Hu, Qi; Jiang, Hong

2014-01-01

437

Resonantly enhanced parametric four-wave mixing in sodium vapour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conical and axially propagating UV emissions have been registered in sodium vapour excited with picosecond light pulses. The near-resonant two-photon excitation of 4D sodium level and efficient generation of coherent radiation in 330 nm spectral region (near the frequencies of 3S-4P 1/2,3/2 sodium transitions) have been obtained for the pump wavelength tuned between 578.5 and 586 nm. The spectral and angular properties of the emitted radiation are discussed in terms of the phase matched parametric four-wave mixing.

Vai?aitis, V.; Paulikas, Š.

2005-03-01

438

Acute kidney injury associated with metamizole sodium ingestion.  

PubMed

Metamizole sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely used in the last 100 years. Its efficacy as an analgesic and antipyretic is unquestionable. Only few cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by metamizole sodium were reported in the medical literature. We report 11 adult patients with AKI that resulted from metamizole sodium ingestion. The data suggest a good prognosis in these cases of AKI. Renal biopsies, corticosteroids treatment, or renal replacement therapy seem to be not necessary. Hydration was sufficient to ensure spontaneous recovery. PMID:21446784

Hassan, Kamal; Khazim, Khalid; Hassan, Fadi; Hassan, Shadi

2011-01-01

439

Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A light source is projected across the gap between the containment vessel and the reactor vessel. The reflected light is then analyzed with an absorption spectrometer. The presence of any sodium vapor along the optical path results in a change of the optical transmissivity of the media. Since the absorption spectrum of sodium is well known, the light source is chosen such that the sensor is responsive only to the presence of sodium molecules. The optical sensor is designed to be small and require a minimum of amount of change to the reactor containment vessel.

Modarres, Dariush (12 La Vista Verde, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274)

1991-01-01

440

On the structure of luminol sodium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures of Tamerit® ( A) and Galavit® ( B) pharmaceutical preparations have been solved by X-Ray single crystal and powder diffraction. These are luminol sodium salts possessing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is shown that Tamerit® ( A) is a hydrated salt, while Galavit® ( B) is a mixture of two polymorphic modifications ( B1 and B2) of anhydrous salt. Compound A is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 8.3429(4) Å, b = 22.0562(11) Å, c = 5.2825(2) Å, ? = 99.893(3)°, V = 957.59(8) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B1 is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 14.7157(18), b = 3.7029(19), c = 16.0233(15) Å, ? = 116.682(13)°, V = 780.1(4) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B2 is crystallized in an orthorhombic system: a = 27.7765(15) Å, b = 3.3980(19) Å, c = 8.1692(19) Å, V = 771.0(5) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. Pna21. The absence of phase transitions between the B1 and B2 polymorphs has been established by differential scanning calorimetry.

Rybakov, V. B.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Paseshnichenko, K. A.; Sheludyakov, V. D.; Belyakov, N. G.; Boziev, R. S.; Mochalov, V. N.; Storozhenko, P. A.

2014-05-01

441

Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ??m. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

2013-02-01

442

A new look at sodium channel ? subunits  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are intrinsic plasma membrane proteins that initiate the action potential in electrically excitable cells. They are a major focus of research in neurobiology, structural biology, membrane biology and pharmacology. Mutations in Nav channels are implicated in a wide variety of inherited pathologies, including cardiac conduction diseases, myotonic conditions, epilepsy and chronic pain syndromes. Drugs active against Nav channels are used as local anaesthetics, anti-arrhythmics, analgesics and anti-convulsants. The Nav channels are composed of a pore-forming ? subunit and associated ? subunits. The ? subunits are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain family of cell-adhesion molecules. They modulate multiple aspects of Nav channel behaviour and play critical roles in controlling neuronal excitability. The recently published atomic resolution structures of the human ?3 and ?4 subunit Ig domains open a new chapter in the study of these molecules. In particular, the discovery that ?3 subunits form trimers suggests that Nav channel oligomerization may contribute to the functional properties of some ? subunits. PMID:25567098

Namadurai, Sivakumar; Yereddi, Nikitha R.; Cusdin, Fiona S.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Jackson, Antony P.

2015-01-01

443

Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.  

SciTech Connect

Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

2015-01-01

444

Vacancy-mediated dehydrogenation of sodium alanate.  

PubMed

Clarification of the mechanisms of hydrogen release and uptake in transition-metal-doped sodium alanate, NaAlH(4), a prototypical high-density complex hydride, has fundamental importance for the development of improved hydrogen-storage materials. In this and most other modern hydrogen-storage materials, H(2) release and uptake are accompanied by long-range diffusion of metal species. Using first-principles density-functional theory calculations, we have determined that the activation energy for Al mass transport via AlH(3) vacancies is Q = 85 kJ/mol.H(2), which is in excellent agreement with experimentally measured activation energies in Ti-catalyzed NaAlH(4). The activation energy for an alternate decomposition mechanism via NaH vacancies is found to be significantly higher: Q = 112 kJ/mol.H(2). Our results suggest that bulk diffusion of Al species is the rate-limiting step in the dehydrogenation of Ti-doped samples of NaAlH(4) and that the much higher activation energies measured for uncatalyzed samples are controlled by other processes, such as breaking up of AlH(4)(-) complexes, formation/dissociation of H(2) molecules, and/or nucleation of the product phases. PMID:18299582

Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, Kendall N; Ozolins, Vidvuds

2008-03-11

445

Comparison of Solubilization Capacity of Resveratrol in Sodium 3?,12?-Dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated resveratrol (trans-3,5,4?-trihydroxystilbene) solubilization with sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate (S7-OD) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The investigation was aimed at determining whether large spherical micelles (SDS) or small longitudinal micelles (S7-OD) are more convenient for incorporation of resveratrol. Also, we studied resveratrol behavior in mixed micelles with mentioned surfactants using spectroflourimetric method as well as the effects of sodium chloride and urea on resveratrol solubilization capacity in the applied surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve was different in the investigated surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve for sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate at concentration 0.9 CMC reached saturation level of 60% dissolved resveratrol. The curve for sodium dodecyl sulfate was linear within the whole range of the investigated concentration; resveratrol solubilization rate reached 13% at 2 CMC. In S7-OD, NaCl increased capacity of resveratrol solubilization up to 1.4 CMC surfactant concentration, whilst maximum level of dissolved resveratrol (90%) was observed at 0.9 CMC. In SDS, NaCl decreased resveratrol solubilization capacity. Urea reduced resveratrol solubilization rate in sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate, whereas it had inverse effect in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The obtained results strongly suggest that structure, that is, shape, of the surfactant micelles significantly affects their capacity of resveratrol solubilization. Also, presence of NaCl and urea influences solubilization capacities of investigated surfactants. PMID:24688374

Cveji?, Jelena; Poša, Mihalj

2014-01-01

446

NMR monitoring of intracellular sodium in dog and rabbit kidney tubules  

SciTech Connect

{sup 23}Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to monitor intra- and extracellular sodium in suspensions of dog cortical tubules, rabbit cortical tubules, and dog thick ascending limbs. The NMR visibility of the intracellular sodium was determined by comparing the NMR and flame photometry results and by redistributing the sodium ions between the intra- and extracellular compartments using the ionophore nystatin (influx) or sodium substitution for choline in the extracellular fluid (efflux). The intracellular sodium visibility was {approximately}30% for the total sodium and 58% for the transportable sodium. Addition of sodium to sodium-depleted homogenates of dog renal cortex also showed a loss of visibility. The values of the relaxation times T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} were determined but could not be correlated with the visibility measurements. The intracellular sodium concentration in dog cortical tubules incubated in optimal biochemical conditions was estimated at 51 mM was dependent on the extracellular sodium concentration.

Boulanger, Y.; Vinay, P.; Boulanger, M. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1987-11-01

447

Membrane current and intracellular sodium changes in a snail neurone during extrusion of injected sodium  

PubMed Central

1. Sodium was injected into an identified snail neurone by passing current between two intracellular micro-electrodes, the membrane potential being recorded with a third micro-electrode. 2. The injection of about 25 p-equiv Na, but not the injection of similar quantities of K or Li, caused a hyperpolarization of up to 20 mV. This response to Na injection was blocked by application of ouabain or removal of external K, indicating that it was due to the stimulation of an electrogenic pump. 3. To measure the current produced by the sodium pump the output of a feed-back amplifier was fed into the cell via a fourth intracellular micro-electrode so as to keep the average membrane potential constant. The pump current, measured in this way, rose at a constant rate during, and declined exponentially after, an injection of Na, the decline having an average time constant of 4·4 min. The total charge transferred by the pump was between a third and a quarter of the charge passed to inject sodium. 4. An intracellular Na-sensitive glass micro-electrode was used to follow changes in the concentration of intracellular Na ions. The results showed that both the pump current and the rate of Na extrusion were proportional to the concentration of intracellular Na ions above the normal level. 5. It was concluded that about two thirds of the Na extruded was coupled to the active transport of other ions, probably to the uptake of K, the uncoupled third producing the electrogenic effect. PMID:5780556

Thomas, R. C.

1969-01-01

448

Hydration Status Regulates Sodium Flux and Inflammatory Pathways through Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) in the Skin.  

PubMed

Although it is known that the inflammatory response that results from disruption of epithelial barrier function after injury results in excessive scarring, the upstream signals remain unknown. It has also been observed that epithelial disruption results in reduced hydration status and that the use of occlusive dressings that prevent water loss from wounds decreases scar formation. We hypothesized that hydration status changes sodium homeostasis and induces sodium flux in keratinocytes, which result in activation of pathways responsible for keratinocyte-fibroblast signaling and ultimately lead to activation of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations in epithelial barrier function lead to increased sodium flux in keratinocytes. We identified that sodium flux in keratinocytes is mediated by epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and causes increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate fibroblast via the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Similar changes in signal transduction and sodium flux occur by increased sodium concentration, which simulates reduced hydration, in the media in epithelial cultures or human ex vivo skin cultures. Blockade of ENaC, prostaglandin synthesis, or PGE2 receptors all reduce markers of fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. In addition, employing a validated in vivo excessive scar model in the rabbit ear, we demonstrate that utilization of either an ENaC blocker or a COX-2 inhibitor results in a marked reduction in scarring. Other experiments demonstrate that the activation of COX-2 in response to increased sodium flux is mediated through the PIK3/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that ENaC responds to small changes in sodium concentration with inflammatory mediators and suggest that the ENaC pathway is a potential target for a strategy to prevent fibrosis. PMID:25371970

Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zeitchek, Michael; Cooper, Garry; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Qureshi, Hannan A; Zhong, Aimei; Porterfield, Marshall D; Galiano, Robert D; Surmeier, D James; Mustoe, Thomas A

2015-03-01

449

Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

Denman, Matthew R

2011-01-01

450

Separation of traces of metal ions from sodium matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for isolating metal ion traces from sodium matrices consists of two extractions and an ion exchange step. Extraction is accomplished by using 2-thenoyltrifluoracetone and dithizone followed by cation exchange.

Korkisch, J.; Orlandini, K. A.

1969-01-01

451

Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

1994-01-01

452

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

453

SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN SODIUM-{beta} ALUMINAS  

SciTech Connect

Slow degradation was observed in sodium-beta alumina electrolyte subjected to long term in cycling Na/S cells. The degradation propagated as a layer from the sodium side. It involved the internal deposition of sodium metal during current passage. This Mode II degradation was distinct from chemical coloration and from the Mode I failure (Poiseuille pressure due to cathodic deposition driving isolated cracks). Degradation was also observed on the sulfur side of the electrolyte, and was associated with the graphite felt "imprinting effect." Plausible mechanisms are proposed for the observed effects. It is thought that the Mode II degradation resulted from electron injection into the solid electrolyte from the beta alumina/sodium metal interface during the charging cycle.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Feldman, Leslie; Buechele, Andrew

1980-05-01

454

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2012-04-01

455

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2014-04-01

456

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2013-04-01

457

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2010-04-01

458

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2011-04-01

459

Ab initio quality neural-network potential for sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interatomic potential for high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) crystalline and liquid phases of sodium is created using a neural-network (NN) representation of the ab initio potential-energy surface. It is demonstrated that the NN potential provides an ab initio quality description of multiple properties of liquid sodium and bcc, fcc, and cI16 crystal phases in the P-T region up to 120 GPa and 1200 K. The unique combination of computational efficiency of the NN potential and its ability to reproduce quantitatively experimental properties of sodium in the wide P-T range enables molecular-dynamics simulations of physicochemical processes in HPHT sodium of unprecedented quality.

Eshet, Hagai; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele

2010-05-01

460

21 CFR 172.810 - Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ibr-locations.html ). The food additive, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...following fumaric acid-acidulated foods: Dry gelatin dessert, dry beverage base, and...

2014-04-01

461

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2014-04-01

462

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2013-04-01

463

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2012-04-01

464

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2011-04-01

465

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2010-04-01

466

A novel method for effective sodium ion implantation into silicon.  

PubMed

Although sodium ion implantation is useful to the surface modification of biomaterials and nano-electronic materials, it is a challenging to conduct effective sodium implantation by traditional implantation methods due to its high chemical reactivity. In this paper, we present a novel method by coupling a Na dispenser with plasma immersion ion implantation and radio frequency discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling reveals that sodium is effectively implanted into a silicon wafer using this apparatus. The Na 1s XPS spectra disclose Na(2)O-SiO(2) bonds and the implantation effects are confirmed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. Our setup provides a feasible way to conduct sodium ion implantation effectively. PMID:22852733

Lu, Qiu Yuan; Chu, Paul K

2012-07-01

467

Volumetric Investigations on Interactions of Acidic\\/Basic Amino Acids with Sodium Acetate, Sodium Propionate and Sodium Butyrate in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent molar volumes, V\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a , of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-lysine monohydrate and L-arginine in water and in aqueous (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0)\\u000a mol?kg?1 sodium acetate and sodium propionate, and (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5) mol?kg?1 sodium butyrate solutions have been determined at 288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K from density measurements. The partial\\u000a molar volumes at infinite dilution, V\\u000a 2o, obtained

Tarlok S. Banipal; Kultar Singh; Parampaul K. Banipal

2007-01-01

468

Myo-Inositol-Dependent Sodium Uptake in Ice Plant1  

PubMed Central

In salt-stressed ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), sodium accumulates to high concentrations in vacuoles, and polyols (myo-inositol, d-ononitol, and d-pinitol) accumulate in the cytosol. Polyol synthesis is regulated by NaCl and involves induction and repression of gene expression (D.E. Nelson, B. Shen, and H.J. Bohnert [1998] Plant Cell 10: 753–764). In the study reported here we found increased phloem transport of myo-inositol and reciprocal increased transport of sodium and inositol to leaves under stress. To determine the relationship between increased translocation and sodium uptake, we analyzed the effects of exogenous application of myo-inositol: The NaCl-inducible ice plant myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase is repressed in roots, and sodium uptake from root to shoot increases without stimulating growth. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was coupled to a 10-fold increase of myo-inositol and ononitol in the xylem. Seedlings of the ice plant are not salt-tolerant, and yet the addition of exogenous myo-inositol conferred upon them patterns of gene expression and polyol accumulation observed in mature, salt-tolerant plants. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was enhanced in the presence of myo-inositol. The results indicate an interdependence of sodium uptake and alterations in the distribution of myo-inositol. We hypothesize that myo-inositol could serve not only as a substrate for the production of compatible solutes but also as a leaf-to-root signal that promotes sodium uptake. PMID:9880357

Nelson, Donald E.; Koukoumanos, Michelle; Bohnert, Hans J.

1999-01-01

469

Influence of ammonia on sodium absorption in rat proximal colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ammonia on sodium and chloride fluxes in rat proximal colon was studied in Ussing chamber experiments. Under short-circuit conditions, the proximal colon absorbed sodium and secreted chloride. The presence of ammonia (30 mmol l-1 mucosal) diminished Na+ absorption, but had hardly any influence on Cl- fluxes. Blocking the apical Na+\\/H+ exchanger isoform NHE2 by amiloride or HOE642

Rainer Cermak; Claudia Lawnitzak; Erwin Scharrer

2000-01-01

470

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter in human kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter in human kidney.BackgroundThe human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) is a transmembrane protein that mediates the active transport of iodide in the thyroid gland. Following cloning of NIS, NIS expression has been detected in a broad range of nonthyroidal tissues, suggesting that iodide transport in these tissues is conferred by the expression of functional NIS

Christine Spitzweg; Charyl M Dutton; Maria R Castro; Elizabeth R Bergert; John R Goellner; Armin E Heufelder; John C Morris

2001-01-01

471

Solution behaviour of sodium maleate\\/1-alkene copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the rheological behaviour, air—liquid surface and liquid—liquid interfacial activities of solutions of water-soluble associative copolymers of sodium maleate\\/1-dodecene and sodium maleate\\/1-hexadecene are investigated with respect to the polymer concentration, temperature, salinity, shear rate and time. The copolymers have been found to exhibit good air—liquid surface and liquid—liquid interfacial activities. The viscosity of the copolymer solutions is characteristically

Garba O. Yahya; Esam Z. Hamad

1995-01-01

472

Interactions of refractories and reactor materials with sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the compatibility of high-temperature sodium with materials being considered for core retention systems in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, various commercial refractories and samples of reactor control materials were exposed to static sodium at 850°C for 5 h. The refractories tested were samples of magnesia, alumina, zirconia, mixed ceramic

J. K. Fink; J. J. Heiberger; R. Kumar; R. A. Blomquist

1977-01-01

473

Existence of distinct sodium channel messenger RNAs in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium channel is a voltage-gated ionic channel essential for the generation of action potentials1-3. It has been reported that the sodium channels purified from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (electric eel)4,5 and from chick cardiac muscle6 consist of a single polypeptide of relative molecular mass (Mr) ~260,000 (260K), whereas those purified from rat brain7 and skeletal muscle8 contain,

Masaharu Noda; Takayuki Ikeda; Toshiaki Kayano; Harukazu Suzuki; Hiroshi Takeshima; Mika Kurasaki; Hideo Takahashi; Shosaku Numa

1986-01-01

474

Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.  

SciTech Connect

Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

2005-11-01

475

Leaching of chalcopyrite with sodium hypochlorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chalcopyrite is the most important copper mineral source and also a refractory mineral for leaching. Several processing routes have been proposed to overcome the environmental problems related to copper extraction from chalcopyrite. In this study, the leaching of chalcopyrite has been investigated with a new reagent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Experiments were carried out in two stages: conversion of chalcopyrite to cupric oxide with NaOCl solution in the first stage, followed by dissolution of the cupric oxide to cupric ion with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature in the second stage. In the first stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7; the temperature, from 35 to 75°C; NaOCl concentration, from 0.2 to 0.85 molar; and the chalcopyrite dosage, from 1 to 10 grams/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3%) around pH 13.2 at 0.5 molar of hypochlorite concentration and 65°C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio, defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach one mole of chalcopyrite is found to be much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 gram/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 grams/500 ml. It was found that the leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98% chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than three hours.

Garlapalli, Ravinder Kumar

476

Complexation of the sodium cation with sodium ionophore III: Experimental and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using extraction experiments and ?-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Na+(aq) + A-(aq) + 1(nb) ? 1·Na+(nb) + A-(nb) occurring in the two-phase water - nitrobenzene system (A- = picrate, 1 = sodium ionophore III; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex (1·Na+, A-) = 1.5 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·Na+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log ?nb (1·Na+) = 6.7 ± 0.1. Finally, applying quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the nonhydrated 1·Na+ and hydrated 1·Na+·2H2O cationic complex species were derived. In both of these complexes, the “central” cation Na+ is bound by four bonding interactions to the corresponding four oxygen atoms of the parent ligand 1. Besides, in the case of 1·Na+·2H2O complex, the considered hydrated structure is stabilized by two water molecules bound to the “central” sodium cation.

Makrlík, Emanuel; Kví?ala, Jaroslav; Va?ura, Petr

2014-06-01

477

Neutralization of human serum lysozyme by sodium polyanethol sulfonate but not by sodium amylosulfate.  

PubMed Central

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS) at 500 microgram/ml, but not sodium amylosulfate (SAS) at 500 microgram/ml, precipitated egg white lysozyme (1 mg and 50 microgram of lysozyme per ml) as determined with the assay strain Micrococcus lysodeikticus ATCC 4698. Fresh and heat-inactivated (56 degrees C, 30 min) human serum (80%, vol/vol) killed M. lysodeikticus (10(4) bacteria per ml at zero time) within 1 to 2 h after exposure. Addition of 250 to 500 microgram of SPS per ml to fresh human serum protected M. lysodeikticus for 22 h as effectively as absorption of either fresh or heat-inactivated human serum with bentonite (10 mg/ml of serum, 10 min, 37 degrees C); the latter procedure is known to remove serum lysozyme. In contrast, SAS at 250 and 500 microgram/ml of serum retarded killing of the assay bacteria for periods of 4 h; after overnight (22 h) incubation, however, the number of M. lysodeikticus survivors had decreased significantly. The finding that SPS, but not SAS, at 250 to 500 microgram/ml effectively neutralized serum lysozyme-mediated killing of a lysozyme-sensitive assay strain may be of relevance with respect to laboratory processing of human blood culture specimens. PMID:212454

Traub, W H; Fukushima, P I

1978-01-01

478

Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.  

SciTech Connect

An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

2010-09-01

479

Monte Carlo Model Insights into the Lunar Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium in the lunar exosphere is released from the lunar regolith by several mechanisms. These mechanisms include photon stimulated desorption (PSD), impact vaporization, electron stimulated desorption, and ion sputtering. Usually, PSD dominates; however, transient events can temporarily enhance other release mechanisms so that they are dominant. Examples of transient events include meteor showers and coronal mass ejections. The interaction between sodium and the regolith is important in determining the density and spatial distribution of sodium in the lunar exosphere. The temperature at which sodium sticks to the surface is one factor. In addition, the amount of thermal accommodation during the encounter between the sodium atom and the surface affects the exospheric distribution. Finally, the fraction of particles that are stuck when the surface is cold that are rereleased when the surface warms up also affects the exospheric density. In [1], we showed the "ambient" sodium exosphere from Monte Carlo modeling with a fixed source rate and fixed surface interaction parameters. We compared the enhancement when a CME passes the Moon to the ambient conditions. Here, we compare model results to data in order to determine the source rates and surface interaction parameters that provide the best fit of the model to the data.

Hurley, Dana M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

480

Designing & Optimizing a Moving Magnet Pump for Liquid Sodium Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced materials such as NF-616, NF-709, HT-UPS, and silicon carbide (SiC) have greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. Thus, using these high-strength materials to build sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) could potentially reduce construction costs by lessening the required amount of material, and increase the efficiency of electromagnetic pumps by limiting ohmic heating within the pump duct walls. However, information pertaining to the sodium-compatibility of these alloys and ceramics is very sparse. Therefore, two separate test facilities were built to study the impact of both static and dynamic sodium corrosion The dynamic test facility enabled sodium corrosion to be studied under prototypic SFR operating conditions (T = 500 [C], V = 9.35 [m/s], CO = 2-3 [wppm]). The oxygen concentration, CO, within the dynamic test facility was maintained using a cold trap and measured with a plugging meter. The flow rate of the sodium was measured using a calibrated electromagnetic flowmeter. A moving magnet pump (MMP) was used to move the liquid sodium past the corrosion samples at a high velocity. Using newly developed theory, it was found that MMP performance could be accurately modeled and predicted for a wide variety of pump configurations.

Hvasta, Michael G.

481

Sodium channels in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells  

SciTech Connect

Immunoblotting, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, and tritiated saxitoxin (({sup 3}H)STX) binding experiments were used to study sodium channel localization in Schwann cells. Polyclonal antibody 7493, which is directed against purifed sodium channels from rat brain, specifically recognized a 260-kDa protein corresponding to the {alpha} subunit of the sodium channel in immunoblots of crude glycoproteins from rat sciatic nerve. Electron microscopic localization of sodium channel immunoreactivity within adult rat sciatic nerves reveals heavy staining of the axon membrane at the node of Ranvier, in contrast to the internodal axon membrane, which does not stain. Schwann cells including perinodal processes also exhibit antibody 7493 immunoreactivity, localized within both the cytoplasm and the plasmalemma of the Schwann cell. To examine further the possibility that sodium channels are localized within Schwann cell cytoplasm, ({sup 3}H)STX binding was studied in cultured rabbit Schwann cells, both intact and after homogenization. Saturable binding of STX was singificantly higher in homogenized Schwann cells than in intact Schwann cells. Moreover, the equilibrium dissociation constant was higher for homogenized preparations (1.77 {plus minus} 0.37 nM) than for intact Schwann cells (1.06 {plus minus} 0.29 nM). These data suggest the presence of an intracellular pool of sodium channels or channel presursors in Schwann cells.

Ritchie, J.M. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Black, J.A.; Waxman, S.G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States) Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Haven, CT (United States)); Angelides, K.J. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

1990-12-01

482

Bilateral malacia associated with sodium poisoning in turkey poults.  

PubMed

Improper cleaning of the water storage tank resulted in a toxic concentration of sodium in drinking water in a commercial turkey flock. Within the first week after placement 40% of the birds in the flock died. Clinically, poults were depressed and weak, huddled together, and reluctant to walk. At necropsy the birds had crops and gizzards filled with rice hulls, moderately swollen livers, distended gall bladders, and congested lungs. Neither ascites nor round heart was observed. The major microscopic lesion was multifocal symmetrical malacia of brain and spinal cord. Laboratory results revealed a high concentration of sodium in water (2340 mg/liter). The concentration of sodium in brain and liver ranged from 1870 to 2680 (mean = 2185; SD = 321.5) mg/liter wet weight and from 1810 to 2360 (mean = 2191.67; SD = 193.2) mg/liter wet weight, respectively, whereas the normal expected sodium concentration in the brain and liver tissues from young turkeys (< 7 days old) that were submitted for other causes averaged 1233 and 983 mg/liter wet weight, respectively. Based on the histological and toxicological results, a diagnosis of salt poisoning was made. This case investigation demonstrated that sodium analysis of brain and liver are diagnostically useful when confirming sodium poisoning in young turkeys. PMID:18459320

Crespo, Rocio; Subbiah, Murugan; Corsiglia, Charles; Bickford, Arthur; Puschner, Birgit

2008-03-01

483

Isolation and identification of dexamethasone sodium phosphate degrading Pseudomonas alcaligenes.  

PubMed

Glucocorticosteroids such as dexamethasone have polluted hospital wastewater, urban sewage, and river water in varying degrees. However, dexamethasone degradation by bioremediation technology is less understood. This study aims to isolate bacteria that could degrade dexamethasone and to identify their degradation characteristics. Hospital wastewater contaminated by dexamethasone was collected. After culturing in inorganic salt medium and in carbon deficient medium containing dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a bacterial strain with dexamethasone sodium phosphate as the sole carbon and energy source was enriched and isolated from the contaminated wastewater. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes by morphology, Gram staining, biochemical test, and 16S rDNA sequencing. Isolated bacteria were domesticated. Then its degradation characteristic was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography method. The degradation rate of P. alcaligenes on dexamethasone sodium phosphate was 50.86%. Of the degraded dexamethasone sodium phosphate, 75.23% of dexamethasone sodium phosphate was degraded to dexamethasone and 23.63% was degraded to other metabolites. In conclusion, the isolated P. alcaligenes in this study would provide experimental evidence for further research on the bioremediation technology to treat dexamethasone sodium phosphate and dexamethasone polluted water and further for the elimination of side effects of dexamethasone. PMID:25284640

Yi, Wang; Zhibang, Yang; Lili, Zhu; Zhongquan, Shi; Lianju, Ma; Ziwei, Tang; Renju, Jiang

2014-10-01

484

Loss rates and time scales for sodium at Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scales and loss rates for sodium in the exosphere of Mercury are studied here. Sodium comes from release processes occurring at the planetary surface; the amount of surface sodium that is available for release (mostly through thermal- or photon-stimulated desorption) is limited. Loss processes deplete the surface concentration of sodium, which is continuously refilled by diffusion from the interior of regolith grains or by chemical sputtering. Ejected sodium particles may either escape the gravity, also aided by the radiation pressure acceleration, or be photoionized, or fall back onto the surface. Falling particles may either stick to the surface or bounce. A Monte Carlo model, simulating all these processes, is used to obtain the exosphere densities, the global loss rates at different true anomaly angles, and typical time scales for small-term variations, taking into account planet's orbit and rotation speed. Assuming an impulsive event, which causes the enhancement of sodium in the exosphere, the model gives the time scales for the exosphere to recover to a steady-state condition. It is found that time scales go from one or two hour (close to perihelion) to half day (close to aphelion). The escape probability ranges from 20% at perihelion and aphelion up to 40% at true anomaly angles of about 60° and 300°.

Mura, Alessandro

2012-04-01

485

Sodium/metal chloride batteries: Summary of status  

SciTech Connect

In 1972, there was an effort underway at ESB to try to develop a sodium/antimony trichloride battery that would operate at 200/degree/C or less. These cells, like their sodium/sulfur counterpart, used beta alumina electrolyte tubes, but with a second component in the electrolyte, namely molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate. The latter was used on the acid side, i.e., with an excess of aluminum chloride. Starting a little later, about 1975 it is rumored, workers at the Anglo American Company in South Africa began experimenting with positive electrodes consisting of iron or nickel chloride, using an electrolyte system that was similar to that of ESB except that the sodium tetrachloroaluminate was used on the basic side, i.e., with an excess of sodium chloride. The Anglo American work was focused on the high-temperature chlorination of the metal carbides as the means to form the porous iron or nickel chloride positive electrodes. Ultimately, the work at ESB was abandoned, while that at Anglo American blossomed, eventually leading to the formation of Zebra Power Systems S.A. in South Africa. The latter has been involved, since about 1980, in a number of collaborative programs with UKAEA Harwell and Beta RandD Ltd. in the UK to develop the sodium/metal chloride battery technology. The embodiment with iron chloride has become known as the Zebra battery, while the nickel chloride variant is known as the Cheetah battery. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sen, R.K.

1988-09-01

486

Epithelial Sodium Channel Activity Is Not Increased in Hypertension in Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal renal sodium transport causing excess reabsorption of sodium may be one mechanism that causes high blood pressure. For example, increased activity of epithelial sodium channels in the distal tubule is the cause of high blood pressure in Liddle's syndrome, a rare familial form of hypertension. We have shown that the increase in sodium channel activity can be detected in

Emma H. Baker; A. James Portal; Teresa A. McElvaney; Alison M. Blackwood; Michelle A. Miller; Nirmala D. Markandu; Graham A. MacGregor

487

Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

488

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

489

Engineering and design properties of thallium-doped sodium iodide and selected properties of sodium-doped cesium iodide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and thermal properties, not available in the literature but necessary to structural design, using thallium doped sodium iodide and sodium doped cesium iodide were determined to be coefficient of linear thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, heat capacity, elastic constants, ultimate strengths, creep, hardness, susceptibility to subcritical crack growth, and ingot variation of strength. These properties were measured for single and polycrystalline materials at room temperature.

Forrest, K.; Haehner, C.; Heslin, T.; Magida, M.; Uber, J.; Freiman, S.; Hicho, G.; Polvani, R.

1984-09-01

490

Impact of reducing sodium void worth on the severe accident response of metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Analyses have performed on the severe accident response of four 90 MWth reactor cores, all designed using the metallic fuel of the Integrated Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs have different sodium void worth, in the range of {minus}3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the improvement in safety, as measured by the severe accident consequences, that can be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores designed using the IFR concept.

Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

1994-03-01

491

Variable ratio of permeability to gating charge of rBIIA sodium channels and sodium influx in Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed Central

Whole-cell gating current recording from rat brain IIA sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes was achieved using a high-expression system and a newly developed high-speed two-electrode voltage-clamp. The resulting ionic currents were increased by an order of magnitude. Surprisingly, the measured corresponding gating currents were approximately 5-10 times larger than expected from ionic permeability. This prompted us to minimize uncertainties about clamp asymmetries and to quantify the ratio of sodium permeability to gating charge, which initially would be expected to be constant for a homogeneous channel population. The systematic study, however, showed a 10- to 20-fold variation of this ratio in different experiments, and even in the same cell during an experiment. The ratio of P(Na)/Q was found to correlate with substantial changes observed for the sodium reversal potential. The data suggest that a cytoplasmic sodium load in Xenopus oocytes or the energy consumption required to regulate the increase in cytoplasmic sodium represents a condition where most of the expressed sodium channels keep their pore closed due to yet unknown mechanisms. In contrast, the movements of the voltage sensors remain undisturbed, producing gating current with normal properties. PMID:11053121

Greeff, N G; Kühn, F J

2000-01-01

492

Final Report On the Safety Assessment of Sodium Alpha-Olefin Sulfonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium C14-16 OlefinSulfonate, Sodium C12-14 Olefin Sulfonate, Sodium C 14-18 Olefin Sulfonate, and Sodium C16-18 Olefin Sulfonate are the Sodium ?-Olefin Sulfonates used in cosmetics as surfactant-cleansing agents. The highest concentration reportedly is 16% in shampoos and bath and shower products. These ingredients are a mixture of long-chain sulfonate salts prepared by sulfonation of ?-olefins of various carbon chain lengths

Bindu Nair

1998-01-01

493

Accuracy of Canadian Food Labels for Sodium Content of Food  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt) has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar) reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ?1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169) of products were “unsatisfactory” with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4%) and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%). The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05), while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development. PMID:25153971

Fitzpatrick, Laura; Arcand, JoAnne; L’Abbe, Mary; Deng, Mengying; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm

2014-01-01

494

Accuracy of Canadian food labels for sodium content of food.  

PubMed

The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt) has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar) reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ?1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169) of products were "unsatisfactory" with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4%) and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%). The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05), while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development. PMID:25153971

Fitzpatrick, Laura; Arcand, JoAnne; L'Abbe, Mary; Deng, Mengying; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm

2014-08-01

495

Effect of Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate on Botulinal Toxin Production and Nitrosamine Formation in Wieners  

PubMed Central

Wieners were formulated and processed approximating commercial conditions as closely as possible. Twenty-four batches of product were made with the addition of six levels of sodium nitrite (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ?g/g), four levels of sodium nitrate (0, 50, 150, and 450 ?g/g), and two levels of Clostridium botulinum (0 and 620 spores/g). After formulation, processing, and vacuum packaging, portions of each batch were incubated at 27 C or held for 21 days at 7 C followed by incubation at 27 C for 56 days. The latter storage condition approximated distribution of product through commercial channels and potential temperature abuse at the consumer level. Samples were analyzed for botulinal toxin, nitrite, and nitrate levels after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days of incubation. When nitrite was not added, toxic samples were detected after 14 days of incubation at 27 C. At the lowest level of nitrite added (50 ?g/g), no toxic samples were observed until 56 days of incubation. Higher levels of nitrite completely inhibited toxin production throughout the incubation period. Nine uninoculated samples, representing various levels and combinations of nitrite and nitrate, were evaluated organoleptically. The flavor quality of wieners made with nitrite was judged significantly higher (P = 0.05) than of wieners made without nitrite. The nine samples were negative for 14 volatile nitrosamines at a sensitivity level of 10 ng/g. The results indicated that nitrite effectively inhibited botulinal toxin formation at commercially employed levels in wieners and that detectable quantities of nitrosamines were not produced during preparation and processing of the product for consumption. PMID:4580194

Hustad, Gerald O.; Cerveny, John G.; Trenk, Hugh; Deibel, Robert H.; Kautter, Donald A.; Fazio, Thomas; Johnston, Ralph W.; Kolari, Olaf E.

1973-01-01

496

Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. Almost one-fourth of that  

E-print Network

Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day of salt in our diet. It is very important for those of us that have heart disease, kidney disease, high have in a day. How will a low sodium diet help me? Help lower your blood pressure. Help prevent your

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

497

Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat

L. C. Chow; O. J. Hahn; H. X. Nguyen

1992-01-01

498

Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.  

PubMed

The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations. PMID:23397646

Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

2013-01-01

499

Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.  

PubMed

The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

1995-01-01

500

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-12-01