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Sample records for sodium pentosan polysulfate

  1. Pentosan Polysulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stools red blood in stools bloody vomit vomiting material that looks like coffee grounds Pentosan polysulfate may ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. 77 FR 58399 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 11, 2010 (75 FR 33311; FDA-2007-D- 0433... Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Capsule; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium.''...

  3. The preventive effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate against renal stone formation in hyperoxaluric rats.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keiichi; Yoneda, Yukio; Kamikawa, Sadanori; Kanazawa, Toshinao; Sugimoto, Toshikado; Osswald, Hartmut

    2002-10-01

    Sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan, was administered to rats with hyperoxaluria, induced by a vitamin B6 deficient diet, as a model of calcium oxalate stone formation. We studied the preventive effects of SPP on stone formation as well as its inhibitory effects on stone growth by autoradiography and radioluminography after intravenous injection of (14)C-oxalate. The rats were divided into non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The non-treated rats were divided into three groups: one group was fed a regular diet, while the other two groups were fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The SPP-treated rats were divided into two groups: one group was intravenously injected with SPP from the start of the vitamin B6 deficient diet for a total of 4 weeks and the other group was injected with the same amount of SPP after 2 weeks of the diet for 2 weeks. (14)C-oxalate renal macroautoradiograms were prepared, and calcium oxalate deposits in the renal tissues were compared between the non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation were clearly observed in the group injected with SPP for 4 weeks. Even in the other SPP-treated group, in which the administration of SPP was started at 2 weeks after the start of the diet when calcium oxalate stone formation was already observed, the size of the calcium oxalate deposits observed after 4 weeks was smaller than that in the non-treated group fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks. In conclusion, our results show that SPP has not only preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation but also growth inhibitory effects on stones in hyperoxaluric rats. PMID:12389123

  4. Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:23365668

  5. [The quantitative study of inhibitory effect of pentosan polysulfate and chlorophyllin on the experimental calcium oxalate stone].

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) on the formation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in vivo, and to measure the number and the volume of crystals formed in the rat kidney, quantitatively, with a Coulter counter TA-II. The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the rat kidney was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 g per Kg of body weight of hydroxy-L-proline and administration of 0.4% ethylene glycol as the drinking fluid ad libitum for 7 days. Daily excretions of urinary oxalate, calcium (ratio to urinary creatinine) and urinary volume were measured. Both kidneys were removed after protocol. The kidneys were homogenized with 0.2 M Tris-buffer (pH 8.0) and subsequently digested in soluene-100. After calcium oxalate crystals were collected, they were suspended in saline saturated with calcium oxalate. The crystal size distribution was measured with a Coulter counter TA-II. In addition, the renal calcium content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the kidneys were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The crystals formed in the rats' kidneys were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: 1. There was no deposition of crystals in the kidney of the rats which were not treated. There was intratubular deposition of crystals in the kidneys of the rats injected with hydroxy-L-proline and administered 0.4% ethylene glycol. They consisted of calcium oxalate monohydrate. 2. Renal calcium content was significantly higher in the groups with induced crystals than the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2477580

  6. Postmortem findings in a case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease treated with intraventricular pentosan polysulfate

    PubMed Central

    Newman, P K; Todd, N V; Scoones, D; Mead, S; Knight, R S G; Will, R G; Ironside, J W

    2014-01-01

    Background A small number of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) have been treated with intraventicular pentosan polysulfate (iPPS) and extended survival has been reported in some cases. To date, there have been no reports on the findings of postmortem examination of the brain in treated patients and the reasons for the extended survival are uncertain. We report on the neuropathological findings in a case of vCJD treated with PPS. Methods Data on survival in vCJD is available from information held at the National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit and includes the duration of illness in 176 cases of vCJD, five of which were treated with iPPS. One of these individuals, who received iPPS for 8?years and lived for 105?months, underwent postmortem examination, including neuropathological examination of the brain. Results The mean survival in vCJD is 17?months, with 40?months the maximum survival in patients not treated with PPS. In the 5 patients treated with PPS survival was 16 months, 45 months, 84 months, 105 months and 114?months. The patient who survived 105?months underwent postmortem examination which confirmed the diagnosis of vCJD and showed severe, but typical, changes, including neuronal loss, astrocytic gliosis and extensive prion protein (PrP) deposition in the brain. The patient was also given PPS for a short period by peripheral infusion and there was limited PrP immunostaining in lymphoreticular tissues such as spleen and appendix. Conclusions Treatment with iPPS did not reduce the overall neuropathological changes in the brain. The reduced peripheral immunostaining for PrP may reflect atrophy of these tissues in relation to chronic illness rather than a treatment effect. The reason for the long survival in patients treated with iPPS is unclear, but a treatment effect on the disease process cannot be excluded. PMID:24554103

  7. Pentosan Polysulfate: a Novel Glycosaminoglycan-Like Molecule for Effective Treatment of Alphavirus-Induced Cartilage Destruction and Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Weiqiang; Forwood, Mark R.; Bucala, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease and have been progressively expanding their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV and CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection and investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV and CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage and loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. IMPORTANCE The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has expanded into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, and the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, and is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- and CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation and joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising candidate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis. PMID:26018160

  8. Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Frohbergh, Michael; Ge, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Karabul, Nesrin; Solyom, Alexander; Lai, Alon; Iatridis, James; Schuchman, Edward H.; Simonaro, Calogera M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS) treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (sc) injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. Methodology/Principal Findings One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly sc injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED)), or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED) for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly sc PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of sc treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, sc. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of sc PPS administration. Conclusions Once weekly sc administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from sc PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period. PMID:24964042

  9. Pentosan reduces osteonecrosis of femoral head in SHRSP.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Noriaki; Kumagai, Kenji; Osaki, Makoto; Murata, Masakazu; Tomita, Masato; Hozumi, Akira; Nozaki, Yoshihiro; Niwa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress is considered one of the main causes of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a steroid hormone and pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan), a heparin analog, in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) as a model of ONFH. One hundred twenty-three 13-week-old male SHRSP/Izm rats were divided into four groups: a control group (group C), pentosan-administered group (group P), steroid-administered group (group S), and group administered pentosan plus steroid (group PS). Methylprednisolone acetate, as the steroid hormone, at a dose of 4 mg (15 mg/kg) was administered at 15 weeks of age. Pentosan at a dose of 3 mg/day/kg was continuously administered intraperitoneally from 13 weeks of age for 4 weeks. Rats were sacrificed at 17 weeks of age, and heart blood and both femora were collected. Triglyceride levels were significantly lower in group PS than in group S, indicating that pentosan improves lipid metabolism. The incidence of histologic ONFH was significantly lower in group P, at 14.8% (10/71 femoral heads), than in group C, at 30.4% (17/56 femoral heads), and significantly lower in group PS, at 40.8% (29/71 femoral heads), than in group S, at 91.3% (42/46 femoral heads), indicating that pentosan markedly inhibits ONFH. Immunohistochemical staining for oxidative stress showed that the stainability was significantly lower in group PS than in group S. Pentosan seems to reduce the incidence of ONFH in SHRSP by improving lipid metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:21091356

  10. Biochemical changes in kidneys of normal and stone forming rats with sodium pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Subha, K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1992-02-01

    The influence of sodium pentosan polysulphate was studied on the deposition of stone forming constituents along with certain enzymes in the renal tissue of experimentally induced urolithiatic rats. Calcium, oxalate and phosphorus levels were elevated in kidneys of lithogenic rats, while SPP administration reduced these levels to near control values. The elevation in kidney LDH was significant in the stone forming groups and SPP had minimal effect. Increases in the activities of Na+, K(+)-and Ca(2+)-ATPases in the calculogenic groups was lowered considerably with SPP treatment. Inorganic pyrophosphatase activity was reduced significantly in the calculogenic as well as in the drug treated groups. Leucine aminopeptidase was decreased in the calculogenic group. SPP treatment elevated the enzyme activity in the treated groups. Reduction in kidney oxalate with SPP may prove useful in the medical management of urolithiasis. PMID:1373054

  11. Alterations in some risk factors and urinary enzymes in urolithiatic rats treated with sodium pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Subha, K; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-02-01

    The effect of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP) was investigated in calcium oxalate stone forming rats with respect to the urinary excretion of certain risk factors and enzymes. Calcium oxalate stones were induced by feeding 3% w/w sodium glycollate to the rats. Urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphorus and uric acid levels were increased in stone formers. In contrast magnesium excretion was low in this group. SPP treatment lowered oxalate and calcium levels in both controls and experimental animals. Magnesium levels were increased moderately. Increased excretion of urinary enzymes--LDH, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-GT and beta glucuronidase--in calculogenic rats indicates membranuria and damage to proximal tubules during stone formation. Decreased pyrophosphatase activity was observed in glycollate fed rats. SPP treatment decreased the excretion of the above enzymes in the treated groups. Stone formers exhibited decreased LAP and fibrinolytic (urokinase) activities. SPP being associated with fibrinolytic properties, increased the activities of the above two enzymes to that of control levels in calculogenic rats. PMID:7684293

  12. 75 FR 53704 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Pentosan Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...This is notice, in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i), that the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, is contemplating the grant of an exclusive patent license to practice the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No. 10/209,331, filed July 30, 2002, which was issued as U.S. Patent 6,828,309 on December 07, 2004,......

  13. SuFEx-based synthesis of polysulfates.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiajia; Sharpless, K Barry; Kwisnek, Luke; Oakdale, James S; Fokin, Valery V

    2014-09-01

    High-molecular-weight polysulfates are readily formed from aromatic bis(silyl ethers) and bis(fluorosulfates) in the presence of a base catalyst. The reaction is fast and proceeds well under neat conditions or in solvents, such as dimethyl formamide or N-methylpyrrolidone, to provide the desired polymers in nearly quantitative yield. These polymers are more resistant to chemical degradation than their polycarbonate analogues and exhibit excellent mechanical, optical, and oxygen-barrier properties. PMID:25100330

  14. Anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: roles of viscosity and gut microflora.

    PubMed

    Choct, M; Annison, G

    1992-09-01

    1. The mechanism of the anti-nutritive activity of isolated wheat pentosans was investigated by examining the roles of digesta viscosity and gut microflora in broiler chickens. 2. Wheat pentosans were isolated by alkaline extraction and purified by sequential treatment with pancreatin, alpha-amylase and lichenase, and high-speed centrifugation. Some of the pentosans were depolymerised using a beta-xylanase, which reduced the relative viscosity of the polysaccharides 4 fold. 3. Inclusion of 35 g alkali-extractable pentosans (containing 854 g arabinoxylans/kg DM) per kg diet significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed broiler performance and the viscosity of the digesta of these birds was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than that of controls. Addition of the same amount of depolymerised pentosans had no significant effect on bird performance and had less effect on digesta viscosity. 4. Supplementation of the diet containing wheat pentosans (30 g/kg) with procaine penicillin (150 mg/kg) did not improve bird performance. 4. It is concluded that the wheat pentosans elicit their anti-nutritive activity predominantly through increasing the viscosity of digesta. PMID:1393677

  15. Dermal absorption of mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (heparinoid) in human and minipig.

    PubMed

    Kumokawa, Tadao; Hirata, Kazumasa; Sato, Keiichi; Kano, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Dermal absorption of mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS, the active ingredient of Hirudoid") in human and minipig was investigated by using 14C-labeled MPS. Three types of human and minipig skin samples were used: intact, dried and tape-stripped. At 24 h after application of 14C-MPS to intact human skin on a Franz cell in vitro, the radioactivity was detected in 0.98, 1.34, and 0.08% of the applied dose in stratum corneum, epidermal-dermal skin, and receptor fluid, respectively. In dried human skin, the amount of radioactivity detected was similar to that in intact human skin. By contrast, in tape-stripped human skin, higher radioactivity was detected in epidermal-dermal skin and receptor fluid (2.85 and 0.33% of the applied dose, respectively) than in intact or dried skin. Minipig skin showed 1.5 to 4.5 times greater dermal absorption of 14C-MPS, as compared with human skin. In an in vivo study with minipig, radioactivity was detected at the dosing skin site after dermal administration of 14C-MPS. The stability of 14C-MPS in human skin after dermal application was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. It was suggested that 14C-MPS absorbed into human skin would be stable because the chromatogram behaviors of the radioactivity on the two types of method were not shifted. Microautoradiography of human and minipig skins after 14C-MPS dosing showed that radioactivity was widely distributed in the epidermis in the area near hair follicles. The present results clearly demonstrate that MPS is stable and that a small fraction of it is percutaneously absorbed by human and minipig skin. PMID:21428242

  16. The antiheparin effect of a heparinoid, pentosan polysulphate. Investigation of a mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Scully, M F; Kakkar, V V

    1984-01-01

    A pentosan polysulphate [a fully sulphated (1-4)-beta-D-xylopyranose with a single laterally positioned 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid] has been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant activity of high-affinity heparin as observed in plasma and when using purified enzyme and inhibitor. The activity was shown to be concentration-dependent with an apparent Ki of approx. 2 microM. The antiheparin property was not shown by a number of other anionic carbohydrates when tested. The rate of thrombin inhibition at 0.33 microM-heparin was reduced from 7.1 X 10(8) M-1 X min-1 in the absence of pentosan polysulphate to 2.3 X 10(8) M-1 X min-1 at 2 microM-pentosan polysulphate and to 0.3 X 10(8)M-1 X min-1 at 20 microM. Using the random bireactant model of heparin action [Griffiths (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13899-13902] it was observed that the pentosan polysulphate had no effect on the Km for antithrombin III (150 nM) but increased the Km for thrombin from 25 nM to 450 nM. A reduction in the inhibition rate by 17.3-fold predicted by substitution of these values into the general two-substrate reaction-rate equation was confirmed experimentally. PMID:6202294

  17. Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  18. [Comparison of the antiphlogistic effect of mucopolysaccharide-polysulfate ointments with heparin-containing ointments in the UV erythema test].

    PubMed

    Raake, W

    1984-01-01

    It could be demonstrated by means of the UV erythema model that four different ointment preparations containing mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) have a marked antiinflammatory effect and inhibit the formation of erythemas to a large extent. In this trial arrangement the different preparations containing MPS were significantly superior to altogether eight commercial heparin ointments, which were tested, too. With an inhibition of 69% of the erythema induced by UV rays, Hirudoid 40000 ointment is the most effective of all preparations tested. PMID:6234898

  19. Treatment of renal calcium stone disease with the synthetic glycosaminoglycan pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Fellstrm, B; Backman, U; Danielson, B; Wikstrm, B

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potent inhibitors of calcium oxalate growth and aggregation. The synthetic GAG pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was used in the treatment of patients with renal calcium stone disease. Altogether, 121 patients were included in an open trial over a 3-year-period. The average stone episode rate and the stone operation rate were no different during treatment and in the pretreatment period. Altogether 48% of the patients were entirely stone-free during follow-up, whereas 29/56 patients who continued to form stones reported smaller stones that were more easily passed. It is concluded that there may be a role for PPS in the treatment of recurrent renal calcium stone disease, but a controlled study may be needed. PMID:7516780

  20. Polysulfated Trehalose as a Novel Anticoagulant Agent with Dual Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Qudsia; Abid, Mohammad; Gupta, Neha; Tyagi, Tarun; Ashraf, Mohammad Z.; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2015-01-01

    Physiological hemostatic balance is a coordinated outcome of counteracting coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. An imbalance of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors may result in life threatening thromboembolism. Presently, anticoagulant administration is the first line of therapy for the treatment of these conditions and several anticoagulants have been approved, including various forms of heparin. However, the polyanionic nature and multispecificity of heparin pose several complications. Generally, the polysulfated compounds with antithrombotic potential are thought to have feasible synthetic procedures with much less bleeding, thus having favourable safety profiles. Here we report the synthesis of a novel compound, trehalose octasulfate and the assessment of its anticoagulation potential. Molecular docking of trehalose and trehalose octasulfate with antithrombin showed a specificity switch in binding affinity on sulfation, where trehalose octasulfate interacts with critical residues of AT that are either directly involved in heparin binding or in the conformational rearrangement of AT on heparin binding. An in vitro analysis of trehalose octasulfate demonstrated prolonged clotting time. Lead compound when intravenously injected in occlusion induced thrombotic rats showed remarkable reduction in the size and weight of the clot at a low dose. Delay in coagulation time was observed by analysing blood plasma isolated from rats preinjected with trehalose octasulfate. A decrease in Adenosine 5?-Diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation indicated a probable dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet mechanism of action. To summarize, this study presents trehalose octasulfate as a novel, effective, dual acting antithrombotic agent. PMID:25866798

  1. Polysulfated xanthones: multipathway development of a new generation of dual anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emlia; Duarte, Brbara; Marques, Franklim; Carvalho, Flix; Cunha-Ribeiro, Lus M; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2011-08-11

    A multipathway strategy was used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antithrombotic effects of a new synthetic family of sulfated small molecules. Polysulfated xanthonosides showed highly effective anticoagulation effects in vitro, both in plasma (clotting times) and in whole human blood (thromboelastography), as well as in vivo (ip administration, mice). Physicochemical properties were assessed for mangiferin heptasulfate (7), which showed high solubility and stability in water and in human plasma and no putative hepatotoxicity in vivo. Mangiferin heptasulfate (7) was found to be a direct inhibitor of FXa, while persulfated 3,6-(O-?-glucopyranosyl)xanthone (13) acted as a dual inhibitor of FXa (directly and by antithrombin III activation). By impedance aggregometry, compounds 7 and 13 exhibited the antiplatelet effect by inhibition of both arachidonic acid and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Dual anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents, such as sulfated xanthonosides 7 and 13, are expected to lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of both venous and arterial thrombosis. PMID:21732671

  2. A novel, biodegradable and reversible polyelectrolyte platform for topical-colonic delivery of pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hardik K; Conkie, Jim A; Tait, Robert C; Johnson, James R; Wilson, Clive G

    2011-02-14

    The goal of the present work was to develop a swellable hydrogel colonic delivery system, which would maximise the availability of the therapeutic agent at a site of inflammation, especially where the water is scarce. A novel method was developed to manufacture a biodegradable and reversible polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) containing chitosan and poly acrylic-acid (PAA). The PEC was analysed using FTIR and DSC, which confirmed the formation of non-permanent swollen gel-network at an alkaline pH. Pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was incorporated in a PEC and an activated partial thromboplastin time assay was developed to measure the release of PPS from PEC. In vitro studies suggested that the release of PPS was dependent on the initial drug loading and the composition of the PEC. The gel strength of the swollen network, determined using a texture analyser, was dependent on polymer composition and the amount of PPS incorporated. Bacterial enzymes were collected from the rat caecum and colon for the digestion studies and characterised for glucosidase activity, glucuronidase activity and protein content. The digestion of the reversible polyelectrolyte complexes was measured using a dinitro salicylic acid assay and an increased release of drug was also confirmed in the presence of bacterial enzymes. PMID:21093555

  3. The interaction of boar sperm proacrosin with its natural substrate, the zona pellucida, and with polysulfated polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Urch, U A; Patel, H

    1991-04-01

    Boar sperm acrosin is an acrosomal protease with trypsin-like specificity, and it functions in fertilization by assisting sperm passage through the zona pellucida by limited hydrolysis of this extracellular matrix. In addition to a proteolytic active site domain, acrosin binds the zona pellucida at a separate binding domain that is lost during proacrosin autolysis. In this study, we quantitate the binding of proacrosin to the physiological substrate for acrosin, the zona pellucida, and to a non-substrate, the polysulfated polysaccharide fucoidan. Binding was analogous to sea urchin sperm bindin that binds egg jelly fucan and the vitelline envelope of sea urchin eggs. Proacrosin was found to bind to fucoidan and to the zona pellucida with binding affinities similar to bindin interaction with egg jelly fucan. These interactions were competitively inhibited by similar relative molecular mass polysulfated polymers. Since bindin and proacrosin have distinctly different amino acid sequences, their interaction with acidic sulfate esters demonstrates an example of convergent evolution wherein different macromolecules localized in analogous sperm compartments have the same biological function. From cDNA sequence analysis of proacrosin, this binding may be mediated through a consensus sequence for binding sulfated glycoconjugates. Proacrosin binding to the zona pellucida may serve as both a recognition or primary sperm receptor, as well as maintaining the sperm on the zona pellucida once the acrosome reaction has occurred. PMID:1908770

  4. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Pellny, T; Amerah, A M; Wickramasinghe, M; Ulker, M; Rakszegi, M; Bedo, Z; Shewry, P R; Lovegrove, A

    2015-02-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (P<0.05) dietary AMEn, dry matter, and fat digestibility coefficients. There was a positive (P<0.05) relationship between in vitro kinematic viscosity of the wheat samples and the total pentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (P<0.001) daily feed intake and weight gain by 2.9?g and 3.5?g, respectively. The study shows that the feeding quality of wheat samples can be predicted by their total pentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content. PMID:25595480

  5. Less protease-resistant PrP in a patient with sporadic CJD treated with intraventricular pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Tsuboi, Y; Obi, T; Doh-ura, K; Murayama, S; Kitamoto, T; Yamada, T; Mizoguchi, K

    2010-02-01

    Treatment with intraventricular pentosan polysulphate (PPS) might be beneficial in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We report a 68-year-old woman with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who received continuous intraventricular PPS infusion (1-120 microg/kg/day) for 17 months starting 10 months after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment with PPS was well tolerated but was associated with a minor, transient intraventricular hemorrhage and a non-progressive collection of subdural fluid. The patient's overall survival time was well above the mean time expected for the illness but still within the normal range. Post-mortem examination revealed that the level of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein in the brain was markedly decreased compared with levels in brains without PPS treatment. These findings suggest that intraventricular PPS infusion might modify the accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brains of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PMID:19804470

  6. Differential effects of polysulfated polysaccharide on experimental encephalomyelitis, proliferation of autoimmune T cells, and inhibition of heparanase activity.

    PubMed

    Hershkoviz, R; Mor, F; Miao, H Q; Vlodavsky, I; Lider, O

    1995-10-01

    The extravasation of activated T lymphocytes through blood vessel walls and their migration to inflammatory loci are associated with secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which degrades heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of the ECM. The HS-degrading activity of heparanase was found to be inhibited by HS and heparin. Since induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires extravasation and migration of autoimmune T cells, degradation of ECM by heparanase is expected to be involved in induction of the disease. Herein, we examined whether laminarin sulfate, a polysulfated polysaccharide (PSS) isolated from the cell walls of seaweeds and subjected to chemical sulfation, could inhibit ECM degradation by mammalian heparanase, and could prevent EAE. PSS was a more potent inhibitor of heparanase-mediated degradation of ECM than heparin. In-vivo, PSS, injected once a week, inhibited the severity of actively-induced EAE in rats. However, inhibition of EAE was not due to an overall suppression of autoimmune T cells, since PSS enhanced the proliferation of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific, encephalitogenic T cells. PSS-activated autoimmune T cells, but not MBP-activated cells, failed to induce EAE in recipient rats. Moreover, rats injected with PSS-activated T cells were resistant to induction of EAE by anti-MBP CD4+ T cells. Thus, PSS may have potential clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8579728

  7. Effects of bound versus soluble pentosan polysulphate in PEG/HA-based hydrogels tailored for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Frith, Jessica E; Menzies, Donna J; Cameron, Andrew R; Ghosh, P; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, S; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports in the literature investigating chondrogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) cultures have confirmed the chondro-inductive potential of pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a highly sulphated semi-synthetic polysaccharide, when added as a soluble component to culture media under standard aggregate-assay conditions or to poly(ethylene glycol)/hyaluronic acid (PEG/HA)-based hydrogels, even in the absence of inductive factors (e.g. TGF?). In this present study, we aimed to assess whether a 'bound' PPS would have greater activity and availability over a soluble PPS, as a media additive or when incorporated into PEG/HA-based hydrogels. We achieved this by covalently pre-binding the PPS to the HA component of the gel (forming a new molecule, HA-PPS). We firstly investigated the activity of HA-PPS compared to free PPS, when added as a soluble factor to culture media. Cell proliferation, as determined by CCK8 and EdU assay, was decreased in the presence of either bound or free PPS whilst chondrogenic differentiation, as determined by DMMB assay and histology, was enhanced. In all cases, the effect of the bound PPS (HA-PPS) was more potent than that of the unbound form. These results alone suggest wider applications for this new molecule, either as a culture supplement or as a coating for scaffolds targeted at chondrogenic differentiation or maturation. We then investigated the incorporation of HA-PPS into a PEG/HA-based hydrogel system, by simply substituting some of the HA for HA-PPS. Rheological testing confirmed that incorporation of either HA-PPS or PPS did not significantly affect gelation kinetics, final hydrogel modulus or degradation rate but had a small, but significant, effect on swelling. When encapsulated in the hydrogels, MPCs retained good viability and rapidly adopted a rounded morphology. Histological analysis of both GAG and collagen deposition after 21 days showed that the incorporation of the bound-PPS into the hydrogel resulted in increased matrix formation when compared to the addition of soluble PPS to the hydrogel, or the hydrogel alone. We believe that this new generation injectable, degradable hydrogel, incorporating now a covalently bound-PPS, when combined with MPCs, has the potential to assist cartilage regeneration in a multitude of therapeutic targets, including for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. PMID:24215733

  8. Augmented anti-angiogenesis activity of polysulfated heparin-endostatin and polyethylene glycol-endostatin in alkali burn-induced corneal ulcers in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHAO-NA; YUAN, ZHONG-FANG; MU, GUO-YING; HU, MING; CAO, LI-JUN; ZHANG, YA-LI; GE, MING-XU

    2015-01-01

    Endostatin (ES) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, its clinical application is limited by a number of disadvantages, such as poor stability, short half-life and the requirement of high doses to maintain its efficacy. The chemical modification on ES may offer a solution to these disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ES, polysulfated heparin-endostatin (PSH-ES) and polyethylene glycol-endostatin (PEG-ES) on the endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis associated with corneal neovascularization (CNV) and to determine their mechanisms of action. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to study the effects of ES and its derivatives on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, and rabbits were used to evaluate the effects of ES and its derivatives on CNV in vivo. In the evaluation of CNV, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the cornea was measured via immunohistochemistry and microvessels were counted. ES and its derivatives significantly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.05) and suppressed CNV in vivo. Among the compounds examined, ES most effectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.05); however, PSH-ES and PEG-ES most effectively inhibited CNV in vivo (P<0.05). These results indicate that PSH-ES and PEG-ES are candidate anti-angiogenesis drugs. PMID:26622410

  9. Sodium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  10. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  12. Assessment of Prospective Preventive Therapies for Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Kocisko, David A.; Caughey, Byron; Miller, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    We compared prion infection rates among mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) receiving pentosan polysulfate, tannic acid, tetracycline HCl, or no treatment 14 days before to 14 days after (dpi) oral inoculation with tonsil tissue homogenate. All deer were infected, but the rapid disease course (230–603 dpi) suggested our challenge was overwhelming. PMID:22493139

  13. Enzymatic solubilization of arabinoxylans from isolated rye pentosans and rye flour by different endo-xylanases and other hydrolyzing enzymes. Effect of a fungal caccase on the flour extracts oxidative gelation.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, M C; Poulsen, C; Borch Se, J; Zargahi, M R; Rouau, X

    2002-10-23

    Water-extractable (WEP) and water-unextractable (WUP) pentosans were isolated from a rye flour. The effect of a commercial enzyme preparation, Grindamyl S 100 (GS100), containing pentosanase activities, was investigated on WEP, WUP, a mix of WEP and WUP, and the rye flour, with the aim to monitor the solubilization and depolymerization of high molecular weight arabinoxylans and the effect on the viscosity of the reaction medium. The effects of other hydrolyzing enzymes were also tested. Three xylanases were used: xylanase 1 (Xyl-1) from Aspergillus niger, the main activity present in GS100; xylanase 2 (Xyl-2) from Talaromyces emersonii; and xylanase 3 (Xyl-3) from Bacillus subtilis. Xyl-3 was used in combination with Xyl-1, (1,4)-beta-D-arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, endo-beta-D-glucanase, or ferulate esterase from A. niger, but no synergism was observed. GS100 and xylanases increased the arabinoxylan solubilization, Xyl-3 and Xyl-1 being those that presented the best yields of extraction without extensive depolymerization of water-extractable arabinoxylans. Both xylanases were affected by an inhibitor in rye flour. Flour treated with hot ethanol was used to study the oxidative gelation of flour extracts treated with xylanases, in the presence of laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Two doses of xylanases were tested (0.5 and 2.5 units). Only the flour extracts treated with 0.5 unit of Xyl-1 thickened. PMID:12381136

  14. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  15. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  18. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  19. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2014-01-01

    Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

  2. Low sodium level

    MedlinePLUS

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  3. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1850 - Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... associated lameness of the carpal and hock joints in horses. (ii) Amount(A) Intra-articular use (carpal): 250 mg once a week for 5 weeks. (B) Intramuscular use (carpal and hock): 500 mg every 4 days for...

  5. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

  8. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

  9. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy Tuesday, 20 August 2013 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your doctor. If needed, ...

  11. Spooky sodium balance.

    PubMed

    Titze, Jens; Dahlmann, Anke; Lerchl, Kathrin; Kopp, Christoph; Rakova, Natalia; Schrder, Agnes; Luft, Friedrich C

    2014-04-01

    Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (? monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage. PMID:24107854

  12. Sodium clusters in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobet, P. J.; Martens, L. R. M.; Vermeiren, W. J. M.; Huybrechts, D. R. C.; Jacobs, P. A.

    1989-03-01

    The method of loading sodium clusters in zeolites, consisting of the controlled thermal decomposition of physisorbed sodium azide, is discussed. The influence of the azide loading, the azide decomposition rate and the sintering process on the amount of ionic and metallic sodium clusters in zeolite Y was followed by ESR. The method is compared to other metal deposition techniques.

  13. Sodium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

  14. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  15. High-sodium comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In mid-April, astronomers in the Canary Islands discovered that Comet Hale-Bopp has a tail composed of sodium atoms, in addition to the commonly known ion and dust tails. Although sodium atoms have been seen at the centers of other comets, this is the first observation of a comet tail consisting of sodium.The discovery by Gabriele Cremonese of the Padova Astronomical Observatory in Italy and Don Pollaco of the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes at the Canary Islands, came from images of Hale-Bopp taken with a special wide-field camera fitted with a filter that isolates emission from sodium atoms. The sodium atoms are distributed over an enormous region in and around Hale-Bopp. It is not clear exactly how the sodium tail, which is 600,000 km wide and 50 million km long, was formed.

  16. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  17. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail around high activity comets. We present a brief overview of neutral sodium tail observations to date and discuss the importance of theoretical modelling in understanding these data. We have developed a new, 3D Monte-Carlo model of cometary sodium that incorporates several advancements over previous models. It includes weightings due to solar flux variation with heliocentric distance, and comprehensive handling of the Swings and Greenstein effects on the neutral sodium tail, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets. Some preliminary results from this model are presented, including predictions of the structure of the eagerly anticipated neutral sodium tail at Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  18. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  19. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et al. (2002, Meteor. Planet. Sci. 8, 3357-3374) successfully explaining their velocity and column density profiles vs. heliocentric distance. Comparison with this data allows us to constrain the supply rate of new sodium atoms to the surface. We also discuss the possible origins of the strong high latitude emissions (Potter and Morgan, 1990, Science 248, 835-838; 1997a, Adv. Space Res. 19, 1571-1576; 1997b, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 95-100; Sprague et al., 1998, Icarus 135, 60-68) and the strong variations of the total content of the sodium exosphere on short (Potter et al., 1999, Planet. Space Sci. 47, 1441-1449) and long time scales (Sprague et al., 1997, Icarus 129, 506-527).

  20. Is it safe to use aluminum in the treatment of pediatric hemorrhagic cystitis? A case discussion of aluminum intoxication and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bogris, Sotirios L; Johal, Navroop Singh; Hussein, Ijaz; Duffy, P G; Mushtaq, Imran

    2009-04-01

    In pediatric oncology patients, hemorrhagic cystitis can be a life-threatening complication of bone marrow transplantation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The treatment of this condition is often challenging and includes intravesical irrigation with aluminum, embolization, endoscopic laser coagulation, hydrostatic pressure, use of hyperbaric oxygen, instillation of formalin, prostaglandins, and oral sodium pentosan polysulfate. Although the efficacy of aluminum irrigation is well documented for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis in adults, there are limited reports describing its use in children. The potential multisystem toxic effects of aluminum are well described and the range and progression of aluminum toxicity can be devastating. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia with hemorrhagic cystitis. Although the symptoms resolved after intravesical aluminum treatment, she developed significant aluminum toxicity. We have reviewed the literature relating to aluminum toxicity in the pediatric age group and present our recommendations for the effective and safe use of aluminum in this cohort of patients. PMID:19346883

  1. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  2. Optimization of dialysate sodium in sodium profiling haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-jae; Song, Joon ho; Kim, Gyeong a; Lim, Hee jung; Lee, Seoung woo

    2003-10-01

    Sodium profiling haemodialysis is a modified method of sodium gradient dialysis during which dialysate sodium follows a time-dependent profile. Sodium profiling haemodialysis has claimed to reduce intradialytic discomforts such as hypotension, muscle cramps, and disequilibrium syndrome. Having the low sodium period is an essential part of the sodium profiling haemodialysis to compensate for the sodium gain during the high sodium period. In spite of this, however, the incidence of interdialytic complications that results from the excessive sodium gain has been reported in previous literature. Making the prediction of optimal dialysate sodium concentration for isonatric dialysis is practically very difficult since too many variables influence the sodium gradient, including the initial plasma sodium and tonicity and/or dialysis dynamics that differ from patient to patient and from treatment to treatment. As for sodium profiling haemodialysis, complexities are added further since details of profile, such as type and form of profile, or initial, terminal, or time-distribution of dialysate sodium are varied considerably. We have recently reported that the intradialytic sodium balance and interdialytic weight gain are directly related to the time-averaged concentration of dialysate sodium (TACNa). The dialysate sodium can be optimized using this concept of TACNa for sodium profiling dialysis. TACNa should be approximately 0.5-0.8 mmol/L lower than patient's predialysis serum sodium concentrations to achieve a sodium balance neutral dialysis. In that study the optimal TACNa, seems to be between 137.8 and 143.5 mmol/L. Such an optimal value should be defined for the individual centres based on their profile protocols for clinical use. In the future, dialysate sodium should be optimized based on the exact prediction of the postdialysis plasma sodium levels. PMID:15012686

  3. Factors affecting the relative magnitudes of the sodium: potassium and sodium: sodium exchanges catalysed by the sodium pump

    PubMed Central

    Garrahan, P. J.; Glynn, I. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The effects of external potassium on sodium: potassium exchange and sodium: sodium exchange in human red cells have been estimated from measurements of ouabain-sensitive potassium influx and ouabain-sensitive sodium influx in media containing different concentrations of potassium. 2. As the external potassium concentration is increased from zero to 5 mM, sodium:sodium exchangeas judged by ouabain-sensitive sodium influxis progressively suppressed, and sodium:potassium exchangeas judged by ouabain-sensitive potassium influxis progressively increased. Both exchanges are half-maximal between 1 and 2 mM-K, and at 5 mM-K sodium: sodium exchange becomes very small as sodium: potassium exchange approaches a maximum. 3. Experiments have been carried out, mainly on resealed ghosts, to determine what factors affect the magnitude of the sodium:sodium exchange in potassium-free solutions. 4. Sodium:sodium exchange does not occur in the absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 5. Ghosts containing high concentrations of sodium, no potassium and high concentrations of ATP show no ouabain-sensitive loss of sodium into potassium-free solutions. The ability to carry out sodium:sodium exchange can be restored by replacing most of the internal sodium with potassium or by preparing the cells so that they contain much more orthophosphate (Pi) than ATP. 6. Ghosts containing sodium in low concentration, potassium in high concentration and with a low [ATP]/([ADP].[Pi]) ratio show a greater ouabain-sensitive loss of sodium into potassium-free media than into media containing potassium; i.e. external potassium reduces ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux. 7. The effect of Pi is not the result of competitive inhibition of the transport ATPase since Pi at the concentrations used does not inhibit ATPase activity in fragmented ghosts. PMID:6051803

  4. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  5. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  6. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  7. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amounts of sodium for infants, children, and teens. Eating habits and attitudes about food that are formed during childhood are likely to influence eating habits for life. For this reason, it is a ...

  8. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  10. Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined. Methods. We studied a cohort of 2272 individuals receiving thrice-weekly hemodialysis treatment. Available data included demographics, laboratory and clinical measures, details of the dialysis prescription and 30-month follow-up. We examined the distribution of serum and dialysate sodium among subjects and compared mortality according to dialysate and serum sodium concentrations using Cox regression models. Results. Dialysate sodium concentration varied within and among dialysis centers. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration (mean 136.1 mmol/L) did not differ across dialysate sodium concentrations. There was evidence for effect modification for mortality according to differing serum sodium and dialysate sodium concentrations (P = 0.05). For each 4 mmol/L increment in serum sodium, the hazard ratio for death was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.81] with lower dialysate sodium compared to 0.86 (95% CI 0.75–0.99) for higher dialysate sodium. Higher dialysate sodium concentration was associated with mortality at higher, but not lower, pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations. Conclusions. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration appears to be unaffected by the dialysate sodium concentration. The relationship between serum and dialysate sodium and mortality appears to be variable. Further research is warranted to determine the biological mechanisms of these associations and to re-examine total body sodium handling in hemodialysis. PMID:21891777

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of sodium lauryl sulfate and dextran sulfate as microbicides against herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Piret, J; Lamontagne, J; Bestman-Smith, J; Roy, S; Gourde, P; Dsormeaux, A; Omar, R F; Juhsz, J; Bergeron, M G

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a sulfated anionic chaotropic surfactant, and dextran sulfate (DS), a polysulfated carbohydrate, against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was evaluated in cultured cells and in different murine models of HSV infection. Results showed that both SLS and DS were potent inhibitors of the infectivities of various HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains. Pretreatment of HIV-1 (strain NL4-3) with SLS also reduced its infectivity to 1G5 cells. DS prevented the binding of HSV to cell surface receptors and therefore its entry into cells. Pretreatment of HSV-1 (strain F) with 50 microM SLS resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity to Vero cells. However, viruses were able to enter into cells and to produce in the nuclei capsid shells devoid of a DNA core. The amount of the glycoprotein D gene produced in these cells remained unchanged compared to controls, suggesting that SLS could interfere with the maturation of the virus. At a higher SLS concentration (100 microM), HSV was highly damaged by SLS pretreatment and only a few viral particles could enter into cells to produce abnormal capsids. Although DS was a more potent inhibitor of HSV infectivity in vitro, it was unable to provide any protection in murine models of HSV infection. However, SLS conferred a complete protection of animals infected cutaneously with pretreated viruses. In addition, skin pretreatment of mice with a polymer formulation containing SLS completely prevented the development of cutaneous lesions. More interestingly, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with SLS in a buffered solution also completely protected against lethal HSV-2 infection. Taken together, our results suggest that SLS could thus represent a candidate of choice as a microbicide to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, HSV, and possibly other pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:10618073

  12. Inherited sodium avid states.

    PubMed

    Achard, Jean-Michel; Hadchouel, Juliette; Faure, Sbastien; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Several familial forms of hypertension have been identified, in which the mendelian pattern of inheritance indicated that hypertension results from the alteration of a single gene. This short review focuses on those rare monogenic disorders characterized by a low-renin profile. This common feature reflects that the causative mutations responsible for these disorders all result in an excessive sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-dependent nephron. Low-renin familial hypertensions with hypokalemia encompass familial hyperaldosteronisms, in which aldosterone levels are elevated, and familial pseudohyperaldosteronisms, mimicking aldosteronism despite appropriately suppressed aldosterone levels. In these disorders, the avidity of the kidney for sodium is because of dysregulated sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and results in potassium wasting and metabolic alcalosis. Familial hypertension with hyperkalemia is a specific syndrome resulting from mutations in at least 3 different genes, among which 2 have been recently identified. These genes encode members of a new family of kinase, the WNK kinases, involved in the regulation of sodium and potassium excretion by the kidney. PMID:16580612

  13. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  14. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  16. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  17. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  19. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  20. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous sodium penicillin, sodium cefazolin, and sodium citrate in awake and anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, J A; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T; Sams, R A

    1987-01-01

    Sodium penicillin, sodium cefazolin, and sodium citrate were administered to six adult horses on separate occasions, when awake and during anesthesia. The order of administration was randomized and studies were separated by a minimum of 7 days. Arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (less than 0.05) from control 5 minutes after intravenous (IV) sodium penicillin in awake and anesthetized horses. Systolic arterial blood pressure remained significantly (less than 0.05) decreased 10 minutes after IV sodium penicillin in anesthetized horses. Sodium cefazolin and sodium citrate did not significantly affect any of the measured cardiovascular variables. Although the changes in arterial blood pressure were small (8-15 mm Hg), monitoring of arterial blood pressure is advised when sodium penicillin is administered IV to anesthetized horses. PMID:3507151

  1. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    SciTech Connect

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  7. Sodium channel Nax is a regulator in epithelial sodium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zhong, Aimei; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Zhong; Zeitchek, Michael; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Zhao, Jingling; Porterfield, D Marshall; Surmeier, D James; Leung, Kai P; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms by which the epidermis responds to disturbances in barrier function and restores homeostasis are unknown. With a perturbation of the epidermal barrier, water is lost, resulting in an increase in extracellular sodium concentration. We demonstrate that the sodium channel Nax functions as a sodium sensor. With increased extracellular sodium, Nax up-regulates prostasin, which results in activation of the sodium channel ENaC, resulting in increased sodium flux and increased downstream mRNA synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Nax is present in multiple epithelial tissues, and up-regulation of its downstream genes is found in hypertrophic scars. In animal models, blocking Nax expression results in improvement in scarring and atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, both of which are pathological conditions characterized by perturbations in barrier function. These findings support an important role for Nax in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26537257

  8. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1084 clinically stable patients on HD. A descriptive analysis of the sodium prescription was performed and clinical associations with sodium gradient were analyzed. Results. The dialysate sodium prescription varied widely across dialysis facilities, ranging from 136 to 149 mEq/L, with a median of 140 mEq/L. The mean pre-HD plasma sodium was 136.7 ± 2.9 mEq/L, resulting in the majority of subjects (n = 904, 83%) being dialyzed against a positive sodium gradient, while the mean sodium gradient was 4.6 ± 4.4 mEq/L. After HD, the plasma sodium increased in nearly all patients (91%), reaching a mean post-HD plasma sodium of 141.3 ± 2.5 mEq/L. We found a direct correlation between IDWG and sodium gradient (r = 0.21, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounders and clustering by facilities, the sodium gradient was independently associated with IDWG (70 g/mEq/L, P < 0.0001). There were no significant associations among sodium gradient and BP, whether measured as pre-HD systolic (r = −0.02), diastolic (r = −0.06) or mean arterial pressure (r = −0.04). Post-HD thirst was directly correlated with sodium gradient (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Sodium gradient is associated with statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in IDWG in stable patients on HD. PMID:21303968

  9. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  10. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  12. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  13. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  14. Thermal energy storage composition comprising sodium sulfate decahydrate; sodium carbonate decahydrate; and sodium tetraborate decahydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.

    1981-09-29

    A thermal energy storage composition is disclosed that stores heat upon melting and releases heat upon solidification. It is composed of a mixture of sodium sulfate decahydrate, sodium carbonate decahydrate, sodium borate decahydrate and a thickening agent. Its good heat transfer characteristics, relatively high latent heat of fusion, low cost, and favorable melting point allow this material to be particularly useful for space heating applications.

  15. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Proudfoot AT; Bradberry SM; Vale JA

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride liberated from fluoroacetate, citrate and fluorocitrate are calcium chelators and there are both animal and clinical data to support hypocalcaemia as a mechanism of fluoroacetate toxicity. However, the available evidence suggests the fluoride component does not contribute. Acute poisoning with sodium fluoroacetate is uncommon. Ingestion is the major route by which poisoning occurs. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are common within 1 hour of ingestion. Sweating, apprehension, confusion and agitation follow. Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported and nonspecific ST- and T-wave changes are common, the QTc may be prolonged and hypotension may develop. Seizures are the main neurological feature. Coma may persist for several days. Although several possible antidotes have been investigated, they are of unproven value in humans. The immediate, and probably only, management of fluoroacetate poisoning is therefore supportive, including the correction of hypocalcaemia.

  16. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride liberated from fluoroacetate, citrate and fluorocitrate are calcium chelators and there are both animal and clinical data to support hypocalcaemia as a mechanism of fluoroacetate toxicity. However, the available evidence suggests the fluoride component does not contribute. Acute poisoning with sodium fluoroacetate is uncommon. Ingestion is the major route by which poisoning occurs. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are common within 1 hour of ingestion. Sweating, apprehension, confusion and agitation follow. Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported and nonspecific ST- and T-wave changes are common, the QTc may be prolonged and hypotension may develop. Seizures are the main neurological feature. Coma may persist for several days. Although several possible antidotes have been investigated, they are of unproven value in humans. The immediate, and probably only, management of fluoroacetate poisoning is therefore supportive, including the correction of hypocalcaemia. PMID:17288493

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  3. Sodium loop framework structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-06-06

    This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

  4. Sodium MRI of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petracca, Maria; Fleysher, Lazar; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression are poorly understood, in part as a result of the lack of non-invasive methods to measure and monitor neurodegeneration in vivo. Sodium MRI is a topic of increasing interest in MS research as it allows the metabolic characterization of brain tissue in vivo, and integration with the structural information provided by (1) H MRI, helping in the exploration of pathogenetic mechanisms and possibly offering insights into disease progression and monitoring of treatment outcomes. We present an up-to-date review of the sodium MRI application in MS organized into four main sections: (i) biological and pathogenetic role of sodium; (ii) brief overview of sodium imaging techniques; (iii) results of sodium MRI application in clinical studies; and (iv) future perspectives. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25851455

  5. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  6. Effect of ultrasound on structure and functional properties of antithrombin III and proteins of PPSB complex.

    PubMed

    Shkumatov, V M; Adzerikho, I E; Lesnikovich, J A; Cherniavsky, E A

    2004-02-01

    A combination of gel-permeation HPLC, affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, gel electrophoresis, and estimation of inhibitory activity showed that effect of low-frequency ultrasound (26 W/cm(2), 37 degrees C, pH 7.4) on homogeneous antithrombin III was accompanied by formation of aggregates and a latent form of serpin. Heparin and pentosan polysulfate stabilized antithrombin III; this resulted in decrease in ultrasonic-induced formation of the aggregate and latent forms. The influence of ultrasound was not accompanied by significant changes in the contents of non-activated blood coagulation factors in the PPSB complex. PMID:15000687

  7. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  12. Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... meats, cheese, condiments, sauces, dressings, breads, cereals, and soda (including diet soda) just to name a few. Sodium found in ... carbonate or sodium bicarbonate . Sodium bicarbonate is baking soda. ● Fresh fruits and vegetables are naturally low in ...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  14. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  15. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C.difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C.difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C.difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the invitro susceptibility of 11 C.difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C.difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250?g/ml, >4000?g/ml and 1000?g/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C.difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C.difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  16. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  17. Transparent dense sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.; Eremets, M.; Oganov, A.R.; Xie, Y.; Trojan, I.; Medvedev, S.; Lyakhov, A.O.; Valle, M.; Prakapenka, V.

    2009-04-27

    Under pressure, metals exhibit increasingly shorter interatomic distances. Intuitively, this response is expected to be accompanied by an increase in the widths of the valence and conduction bands and hence a more pronounced free-electron-like behaviour. But at the densities that can now be achieved experimentally, compression can be so substantial that core electrons overlap. This effect dramatically alters electronic properties from those typically associated with simple free-electron metals such as lithium and sodium, leading in turn to structurally complex phases and superconductivity with a high critical temperature. But the most intriguing prediction- that the seemingly simple metals Li and Na will transform under pressure into insulating states, owing to pairing of alkali atoms - has yet to be experimentally confirmed. Here we report experimental observations of a pressure-induced transformation of Na into an optically transparent phase at {approx}200 GPa (corresponding to {approx}5.0-fold compression). Experimental and computational data identify the new phase as a wide bandgap dielectric with a six-coordinated, highly distorted double-hexagonal close-packed structure. We attribute the emergence of this dense insulating state not to atom pairing, but to p-d hybridizations of valence electrons and their repulsion by core electrons into the lattice interstices. We expect that such insulating states may also form in other elements and compounds when compression is sufficiently strong that atomic cores start to overlap strongly.

  18. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  19. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  20. Sodium sulfur battery: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, R. K.; Landgrebe, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    High theoretical specific energy values are expected from batteries with low equivalent weight reactants and large electronegativity differences. Alkali metals, acting as the negative electrode, and the chalcogenides as the positive electrode, potentially could produce a battery with high specific energy density. Weber and Kummer demonstrated such a battery using sodium and sulfur as the two electrode materials. The key to the development of this battery was the discovery that solid electrolytes such as beta-alumina conducts sodium ions efficiently. Since then other glassy materials have been shown to be adequate conductors of sodium ions as well. Based on these two types of electrolytes, three approaches to the design of the sodium/sulfur battery have evolved. This paper provides a brief overview of these design approaches.

  1. Viscosity of Molten Sodium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, V. M. B.; Loureno, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; de Castro, C. A. Nieto

    2006-11-01

    New experimental data for the viscosity of molten sodium nitrate from its melting point up to 752 K, at atmospheric pressure, with an estimated uncertainty of 2.1%, were measured with an oscillating cup viscometer. A preliminary reference correlation and reference data are proposed, based on the best available data for the viscosity of molten sodium nitrate, for temperatures between 590 and 750 K, with an estimated absolute uncertainty of 0.066 mPa s ( k = 2).

  2. Sodium-aluminum chloride cells

    SciTech Connect

    Granstaff, S.M. Jr.; Auborn, J.J.; Hooper, A.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary cells using solid electrolytes, with molten sodium anodes and having cathodes composed of sulfur compounds and aluminum chloride have been cycled for over 800 deep cycles on a 2.7 volt plateau at moderate temperatures (150-200/degree/C). At these temperatures and operating in a basic solution, the cells avoid the corrosion problems of other higher temperature or acidic solution sodium-sulfur cells. 14 refs.

  3. Europa's sodium atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.

    2007-08-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is exposed to intense ion and electron flux that erodes the surface, launching atoms and molecules into ballistic trajectories to form a tenuous atmosphere (e.g., Johnson et al., "Jupiter," book, 2004). One component of that atmosphere is neutral atomic sodium, which has been observed many times by Earth-based telescopes (e.g., Leblanc et al., Icarus, 2005). When the Cassini spacecraft viewed Europa during an eclipse by Jupiter its visible camera revealed spatially nonuniform emission (Porco et al., Science, 2003, Supporting Online Material). The Cassini eclipse observations were performed with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and clear filters (Porco et al., 2003). Clear filters provide sensitivity to the wavelength range 200-1050 nm, with maximum sensitivity at 611 nm (Porco et al., 2004). Within that wavelength range there are a number of lines that might contribute to the observed glow. These include the electron impact-induced excitation of Na (Kim, Phys. Rev. A, 2001), O (Fig. 4 Smyth and Marconi, Icarus, 2006), K, and SO2 (Ajello et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1992). Ions may also make a small contribution to these same processes (e.g., Allen et al., Phys. Rev. A, 1988). Of these, electron excitation of Na D line emission is likely the dominant emission in eclipse. Using an atmospheric model described by Cassidy et al. (2007), we successfully model those emissions by assuming that the Na atoms are ejected preferentially from Europa's trailing hemisphere dark terrain, which may be rich in Na-containing salt hydrates. We will discuss those results and, if available, discuss similar observations by the recent New Horizons Jupiter flyby.

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  5. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O, CAS Reg. No..., centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  10. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  13. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS Reg. No. 9003-04-7) may be... aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination of Weight Average...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  16. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  18. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  7. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate,...

  17. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate,...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  4. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  7. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  10. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate,...

  12. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  16. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for... temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  19. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled...

  20. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  1. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  2. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  3. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode.

    PubMed

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called "dead sodium" broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  4. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  5. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March 2001, the company was planning a phase III pivotal study in late-stage PVD by the end of 2001 [424180]. In April 2000, UTC was issued US-06054486 for the method of treating PVD with treprostinil [364130]. In February 2000, UTC entered into an agreement with Paladin Labs for the exclusive Canadian distribution of treprostinil for the remainder of clinical trials and after regulatory approvals [357302]. In November 2000, UTC and Antigen Pharmaceuticals entered into a strategic alliance for the distribution of treprostinil in the UK and Ireland [390157]. In November 2000, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a sales potential of US $250 million to US $350 million [418736]. In August 2001, Merril Lynch predicted sales of US $10 million to $20 million in 2002 [420652]. PMID:12090728

  6. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: present and future treatment perspectives.

    PubMed

    Diniz, S; Dinis, P; Cruz, F; Pinto, R

    2013-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/Interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown etiology. Treatment is not well defined and is still under intense investigation. The aim of this paper was to review existing literature on treatment of BPS/IC and examine current evidence on present and future perspective. PubMed database was researched and publications in English language on the topic were analyzed, emphasis was given to publications that occurred on the last five years. Mainstays of oral therapies are still empirical due to lack of knowledge on etiology of this disease. The few oral drugs that showed efficacy in placebo controlled trials are amytriptiline, pentosan polysulfate sodium, hydroxyzine and cyclosporine A. As for intravesical treatments reasonable evidence is available only for dimethyl sulfoxide and resection of visible Hunner's lesions. Reconstructive surgery can also be recommended in selected cases. Further studies into the causes and mechanisms of the disease are paramount for the development of effective treatments. Foreseeable therapeutic objectives will comprehend oral blockade of sensory nerve receptors, immune system modulation, peripheral nerve fiber inactivation/desensitization, anti-proliferative factor blockade and pain gene therapy. Identification of BPS/IC phenotypical subgroups should help delineate proper individualized treatment which will be aimed at the disease and its multiple manifestations rather than at focalized complaints. Present treatment of BPS/IC comprises pain control in conjunction with control of supposed underlying bladder disease. Based on identified possible therapeutic targets several treatment possibilities warrant further investigation. Identification of BPS/IC phenotype is a important step for correct management. PMID:24091479

  7. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  12. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  13. Direct synthesis of sodium polysulfides from sodium and sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for synthesizing sodium polysulfides of stoichiometries Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/ by the direct reaction of sodium and sulfur. The reaction is carried out in the furnace well of an inert-atmosphere glove box and features the slow addition of sulfur to molten sodium at temperatures ranging from 100-150/sup 0/C at the start of the reaction to about 300/sup 0/C at the end. Batches of 150-200 g of polysulfide product can be prepared with yields approaching 100% and a high purity. 16 references, 1 table.

  14. The sodium-sulphur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. W.

    1981-09-01

    The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the relatively low temperatures of 300-400 C. The cells have a solid electrolyte, made by sintering alumina containing 10% sodium oxide, while the electrodes are liquid at operating temperatures. Ceramic element lives in excess of 1000 cycles have been achieved. Attention is given such design details as the thermal and physical properties of glass/ceramic seals and current collector materials and structure.

  15. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  16. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  17. Galactic Sodium from AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models which include sodium from type II supernovae (SNe) alone underestimate the abundance of sodium in the interstellar medium by a factor of 2 to 3 over about 3 ridex in metallicity and predict a flat behavior in the evolution of riNafe at super-solar metallicities. Conversely, recent observations of stars with rifeh +0.4 suggest that riNafe increases at high metallicity. We have combined stellar evolution models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with the latest SN yields in an attempt to resolve these problems dots and have created many more.

  18. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode.

  19. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  20. Sodium appetite decreased by central angiotensin blockade.

    PubMed

    Buggy, J; Jonklaas, J

    1984-05-01

    Disturbances in body water and electrolytes that trigger sodium appetite, such as sodium depletion or hypovolemia, are potent activators of the renin-angiotensin system. In the absence of an actual deficit in body fluids, angiotensin injections are adequate to stimulate increased sodium ingestion. To assess whether angiotensin is a significant mediator of sodium appetite induced by acute alterations in body fluids, sodium intake was examined in rats during central or peripheral angiotensin blockade. Central blockade of angiotensin receptors by intracerebroventricular (ICVT) injection of the analogue antagonist saralasin decreased (but did not eliminate) sodium intake after polethylene glycol-induced hypovolemia or sodium depletion resulting from dialysis against glucose. Conversely, peripheral blockade of angiotensin converting enzyme with orally active captopril potentiated rather than decreased sodium appetite and stimulated water intake after sodium depletion. This increased water and salt intake after peripheral inhibition of converting enzyme was reversed, however, by concurrent central blockade of angiotensin receptors. These data support the hypothesis that angiotensin participates in sodium appetite associated with acute alteration in body fluids. Furthermore, the brain is the site at which angiotensin exerts its influence on sodium appetite. While the involvement of angiotensin of brain origin is not ruled out, the change in sodium appetite after peripheral blockade of converting enzyme suggests that circulating angiotensin derived from renal renin may interact with central angiotensin receptors regulating sodium appetite. PMID:6093165

  1. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  3. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  4. A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, Stirling; Beckley, Howard; Li, Hui; Sonnenfield, Richard; Westpfahl, Dave; Bentley, Ian; Ginanni, Rocky; McKinnly, Travis; Pariev, Valadimir

    2004-11-01

    A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium ? ? dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2 = 30 cm,; L=30 cm,; f1 = 120 Hz,; f2 = 30 Hz ). It is designed to simulate the generation of large scale magnetic fields in massive black hole accretion disks, galaxies, and stars. The omega gain is due to the shear flow of differential rotation of Couette flow between two differentially rotating co-axial cylinders. Differential rotation in a conducting fluid twists a radial or quadrupole magnetic flux into a greatly enhanced toroidal flux. A large coherent helicity is produced by driven plumes and astrophisically by star-disk collisions, supernova explosions, or large scale plume convection respectively. We have rotated the apparatus with water and hot oil and demonstrated stable Couette flow with only Ekman-flow-induced torque. We will report on the ? gain with liquid sodium. This Work has been supported by NMIMT, EMRTC, NSF, & LDRD of LANL.

  5. Quantitative sodium MRI of kidney.

    PubMed

    Zllner, Frank G; Konstandin, Simon; Lommen, Jonathan; Budjan, Johannes; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Schad, Lothar R; Haneder, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    One of the main tasks of the human kidneys is to maintain the homeostasis of the body's fluid and electrolyte balance by filtration of the plasma and excretion of the end products. Herein, the regulation of extracellular sodium in the kidney is of particular importance. Sodium MRI ((23) Na MRI) allows for the absolute quantification of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) and thereby provides a direct link between TSC and tissue viability. Renal (23) Na MRI can provide new insights into physiological tissue function and viability thought to differ from the information obtained by standard (1) H MRI. Sodium imaging has the potential to become an independent surrogate biomarker not only for renal imaging, but also for oncology indications. However, this technique is now on the threshold of clinical implementation. Numerous, initial pre-clinical and clinical studies have already outlined the potential of this technique; however, future studies need to be extended to larger patient groups to show the diagnostic outcome. In conclusion, (23) Na MRI is seen as a powerful technique with the option to establish a non-invasive renal biomarker for tissue viability, but is still a long way from real clinical implementation. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25728879

  6. PILOT TESTING OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of pilot plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO2 was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of...

  7. In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Where's the sodium? There's too much in many common foods. Recommend ... Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing Types of foods ...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared synthetically by...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  17. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder....

  20. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared synthetically by...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807 Food... GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared synthetically by the reaction of sulfides...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared synthetically by...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The technical grade is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  12. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or a granular...

  18. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 010102-0917-097) is also known as sodium hyposulfite. It is prepared synthetically by...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  5. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  16. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  2. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128....128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut. (b) Identification... it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 182.3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128....128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut. (b) Identification... it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity...

  3. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128....128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut. (b) Identification... it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1764 - Sodium hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hypophosphite. 184.1764 Section 184.1764 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1764 Sodium hypophosphite. (a) Sodium...

  15. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  16. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity...

  17. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  20. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphos- phate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128....128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut. (b) Identification... it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity in a peanut-oil...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1764 - Sodium hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hypophosphite. 184.1764 Section 184.1764 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1764 Sodium hypophosphite. (a) Sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate....

  15. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  3. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 497-19-8) is produced...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg....

  12. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bisulfite. 182.3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1764 - Sodium hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hypophosphite. 184.1764 Section 184.1764 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1764 Sodium hypophosphite. (a) Sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2, CAS Reg. No. 7681-53-0) is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 173.405 - Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. 173.405 Section 173.405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 173.405 Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) may...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 182.3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleate sodium. 522.1610 Section 522.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 milligrams (mg) of sodium oleate....

  16. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg....

  18. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1764 - Sodium hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hypophosphite. 184.1764 Section 184.1764 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1764 Sodium hypophosphite. (a) Sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg....

  13. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium...

  20. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128....128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut. (b) Identification... it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a...