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1

77 FR 58399 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Capsule; Availability AGENCY: Food and...Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium.'' The recommendations provide specific...applications (ANDAs) for pentosan polysulfate sodium capsule. DATES: Although you can...

2012-09-20

2

Pentosan Polysulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... a class of medications called low molecular weight heparins. It works by preventing irritation of the bladder ... you are allergic to pentosan polysulfate, danaparoid (Orgaran), heparin, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ...

3

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies, pentosan has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction in patients with mild radiographic knee osteoarthritis

Kenji Kumagai; Susumu Shirabe; Noriaki Miyata; Masakazu Murata; Atsushi Yamauchi; Yasuhumi Kataoka; Masami Niwa

2010-01-01

4

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies, pentosan has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction in patients with mild radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) findings and OA-associated symptoms and signs. Methods Twenty patients were assessed clinically at Nagasaki University Hospital. The radiographic indications of OA were grade 1 to 3 using the Kellgren-Lawrence Grading System (K/L grade). Pentosan used in this study was manufactured and supplied in sterile injectable vials (100 mg/ml) by bene GmbH, Munich, Germany. The study was a single-center, open-label trial. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly subcutaneous injections (sc) of pentosan (2 mg/kg). Patients were clinically assessed at entry and 1 to 8, 11, 15, 24 & 52 weeks post treatment. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Dunnett's method. Results Hydrarthroses were reduced quickly in all cases. The clinical assessments, i.e., knee flexion, pain while walking, pain after climbing up and down stairs, etc, were improved significantly and these clinical improvements continued for almost one year. The dose used in this study affected the blood coagulation test, but was within safe levels. Slightly abnormal findings were noted in serum triglycerides. Conclusions Pentosan treatment in twenty patients with mild knee OA seemed to provide improvements in clinical assessments and C2C level of cartilage metabolism. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000002790

2010-01-01

5

Psychometric validation of the O’leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom index in a clinical trial of pentosan polysulfate sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The O’Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) has been proposed as a treatment outcome measure in interstitial cystitis (IC). The psychometric properties of the ICSI were assessed for reliability and validity in a randomized, double-blind clinical study of 300, 600, and 900 mg daily dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) in patients with IC. The ICSI contains 4 items that

Deborah P Lubeck; Kristene Whitmore; Grannum R Sant; Sarah Alvarez-Horine; Chinglin Lai

2001-01-01

6

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... f. Subject with known aneurysm, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic disease, hemophilia, or gastrointestinal ulceration (eg, active bleeding peptic ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

7

Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies.

Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2013-01-01

8

Decreasing symptoms in interstitial cystitis patients: pentosan polysulfate vs. sacral neuromodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Oral pentosan polysulfate is the only FDA-approved drug for interstitial cystitis. Several studies have been conducted that show PPS will reduce IC symptoms. Sacral neuromodulation is a newer therapy for IC that has been FDA- approved in incontinent patients. Both therapies have studies documenting a reduction in IC symptoms, but no studies have compared these therapies to see which

Katy D. Price; Audrey Griffin

9

75 FR 53704 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Pentosan Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions of the Prostate AGENCY: National Institutes of Health...POLYSULFATE TO TREAT CERTAIN CONDITIONS OF THE PROSTATE,'' developed by Dr. Gary Striker...deposition, and so reduces the size of the prostate gland and decreases associated...

2010-09-01

10

Pentosan polysulfate treatment preserves renal autoregulation in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats via normalization of P2X1 receptor activation  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory factors are elevated in animal and human subjects with hypertension and renal injury. We hypothesized that inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced renal injury by impairing autoregulation and microvascular reactivity to P2X1 receptor activation. Studies were conducted in vitro using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Rats receiving ANG II (60 ng/min) infusion were treated with the anti-inflammatory agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) for 14 days. The magnitude and progression of hypertension were similar in ANG II and ANG II+PPS-treated rats (169 ± 5 vs. 172 ± 2 mmHg). Afferent arterioles from control rats exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior with diameter decreasing from 18.4 ± 1.6 to 11.4 ± 1.7 ?m when perfusion pressure was increased from 70 to 160 mmHg. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was markedly attenuated in ANG II-treated rats, and diameter remained essentially unchanged over the range of perfusion pressures. However, ANG II-treated rats receiving PPS exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior compared with ANG II alone rats. Arteriolar reactivity to ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP was significantly reduced in ANG II hypertensive rats compared with controls. Interestingly, PPS treatment preserved normal reactivity to P2 and P2X1 receptor agonists despite the persistent hypertension. The maximal vasoconstriction was 79 ± 3 and 81 ± 2% of the control diameter for ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP, respectively, similar to responses in control rats. PPS treatment significantly reduced ?-smooth muscle actin staining in afferent arterioles and plasma transforming growth factor-?1 concentration in ANG II-treated rats. In conclusion, PPS normalizes autoregulation without altering ANG II-induced hypertension, suggesting that inflammatory processes reduce P2X1 receptor reactivity and thereby impair autoregulatory behavior in ANG II hypertensive rats.

Guan, Zhengrong; Fuller, Barry S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Cook, Anthony K.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

2010-01-01

11

Enzymatic changes in liver in Calcium oxalate stone forming rats treated with sodium pentosan polysulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP) in calcium oxalate stone forming rats was studied in relation to enzymatic\\u000a changes in liver. A significant increase in liver glycollate oxidase (GAO) activity was observed in stone forming rats fed\\u000a sodium glycollate. SPP treatment lowered the enzyme acitivity in both stone formers and 30 days drug treated control rats.\\u000a Moderate elevation in

K. Subha; P. Varalakshmi

1992-01-01

12

[A study of inhibitory effect of chondroitin polysulfate on stone formation of calcium oxalate].  

PubMed

Chondroitin polysulfate (CPS) have inhibitory activity on stone formation of calcium oxalate. This study compared the inhibitory effect of three CPS (CPS S-I, CPS S-II, CPS S-III) with sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Crystal growth inhibition was measured in a seeded crystal growth system with 14C-oxalate, and CPS S-I and CPS S-II were the most active substances inhibiting crystal growth. Since CPS S-II and CPS S-III had remarkable hemorrhagic adverse effect, these two substances were excluded from the following study. The study of administration of the rest of the substances (CPS S-I, SPP, CS) to rats revealed that CPS S-I highly inhibited formation of stone in kidney. About 65 percent of CPS S-I administered subcutaneously was excreted in 24 hours urine. Therefore it may be of value to study clinical usefulness of CPS S-I for treatment of patient with urolithiasis. PMID:1434267

Fujisawa, M; Arima, S; Yachiku, S

1992-10-01

13

Texture and staling of wheat bread crumb: effects of water extractable proteins and `pentosans'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of crumb firmness prepared from doughs enriched with water-soluble proteins and\\/or water-extractable pentosans was investigated at various aging times with DSC, to assess starch retrogradation, and with an Instron dynamometer, to determine the elastic modulus. The crumb enriched in soluble proteins became firmer, and that with extra pentosans remained softer than the standard recipe crumb. It was soon

Dimitrios Fessas; Alberto Schiraldi

1998-01-01

14

Influence of pentosans on texture of starch gels during storage, and effects after enzyme treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of commercial soluble (SAX) and insoluble (IAX) arabinoxylans (AX), and water extractable pentosans (WEP) from wheat doughs on texture profile analysis (TPA) of starch gels have been determined. Gels were also subjected to enzyme treatment with a amylase\\/pentosanase preparation, a lipase and their combination. SAX delayed starch gel aging and gave more cohesive and less elastic gels than

Amparo Devesa; María Antonia Martínez-Anaya

2003-01-01

15

The antiheparin effect of a heparinoid, pentosan polysulphate. Investigation of a mechanism.  

PubMed Central

A pentosan polysulphate [a fully sulphated (1-4)-beta-D-xylopyranose with a single laterally positioned 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid] has been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant activity of high-affinity heparin as observed in plasma and when using purified enzyme and inhibitor. The activity was shown to be concentration-dependent with an apparent Ki of approx. 2 microM. The antiheparin property was not shown by a number of other anionic carbohydrates when tested. The rate of thrombin inhibition at 0.33 microM-heparin was reduced from 7.1 X 10(8) M-1 X min-1 in the absence of pentosan polysulphate to 2.3 X 10(8) M-1 X min-1 at 2 microM-pentosan polysulphate and to 0.3 X 10(8)M-1 X min-1 at 20 microM. Using the random bireactant model of heparin action [Griffiths (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13899-13902] it was observed that the pentosan polysulphate had no effect on the Km for antithrombin III (150 nM) but increased the Km for thrombin from 25 nM to 450 nM. A reduction in the inhibition rate by 17.3-fold predicted by substitution of these values into the general two-substrate reaction-rate equation was confirmed experimentally.

Scully, M F; Kakkar, V V

1984-01-01

16

Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium What is sodium? It is a mineral found naturally in food. Why do we need it? Our bodies need sodium to maintain ... salt) per day How can you control your sodium intake? • Read the Nutrition Facts Label to look ...

17

Synthesis and biological evaluation of polysulfated oligosaccharide glycosides as inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth.  

PubMed

A series of polysulfated penta- and tetrasaccharide glycosides containing alpha(1-->3)/alpha(1-->2)-linked mannose residues were synthesized as heparan sulfate (HS) mimetics and evaluated for their ability to inhibit angiogenesis. The compounds bound tightly to angiogenic growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2, and VEGF) and strongly inhibited heparanase activity. In addition, the compounds exhibited potent activity in cell-based and ex vivo assays indicative of angiogenesis, with tetrasaccharides exhibiting activity comparable to that of pentasaccharides. Selected compounds also showed good antitumor activity in vivo in a mouse melanoma (solid tumor) model resistant to the phase III HS mimetic 1 (muparfostat, formerly known as PI-88). The lipophilic modifications also resulted in reduced anticoagulant activity, a common side effect of HS mimetics, and conferred a reasonable pharmacokinetic profile in the rat, as exemplified by the sulfated octyl tetrasaccharide 5. The data support the further investigation of this class of compounds as potential antiangiogenic, anticancer therapeutics. PMID:20128596

Johnstone, Ken D; Karoli, Tomislav; Liu, Ligong; Dredge, Keith; Copeman, Elizabeth; Li, Cai Ping; Davis, Kat; Hammond, Edward; Bytheway, Ian; Kostewicz, Edmund; Chiu, Francis C K; Shackleford, David M; Charman, Susan A; Charman, William N; Harenberg, Job; Gonda, Thomas J; Ferro, Vito

2010-02-25

18

Uptake of glycosaminoglycan polysulfate by articular and meniscus cartilage: a biochemical and autoradiographic investigation.  

PubMed

Incorporation of labeled glycosaminoglycan polysulfate (35S-GPS) into the knee joint was studied biochemically and autoradiographically. After an injection into a knee joint of a rabbit, 35S-GPS was taken up into articular and meniscus cartilage. A 35S-GPS macromolecule and a complex of 4 M GuHCl extracted soluble substance (mainly considered proteoglycan) exists in the articular and meniscus cartilages. A free sulfate, that is, desulfated 35S-GPS, is not incorporated during proteoglycan synthesis. The 35S-GPS remains longer in meniscus cartilage than in articular cartilage. Immediately after intra-articular administration of 35S-GPS, a high grain count was observed in autoradiographs of the perichondrium and the superficial layer of articular cartilage of rats. One day after injection of 35S-GPS, numerous grains were observed in the deep layer. Autoradiography also demonstrated that 35S-GPS turnover is greater in articular cartilage than in meniscus. Uptake of 35S-GPS in an unmodified form in extracellular matrix of articular cartilage should be further investigated in experimental animals with degenerative osteoarthritis. PMID:7449226

Iwata, H; Kaneko, M; Kawai, K; Kajino, G; Nakagawa, M

19

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Dextran Sulfate as Microbicides against Herpes Simplex and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a sulfated anionic chaotropic surfactant, and dextran sulfate (DS), a polysulfated carbohydrate, against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was evaluated in cultured cells and in different murine models of HSV infection. Results showed that both SLS and DS were potent inhibitors of the infectivities of various HSV-1 and

JOCELYNE PIRET; JULIE LAMONTAGNE; JULIE BESTMAN-SMITH; SYLVIE ROY; PIERRETTE GOURDE; RABEEA F. OMAR; JULIANNA JUHASZ; MICHEL G. BERGERON

20

Prediction of hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species using FT-NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The potential of near infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares regression to predict chemical composition of various wood species including softwoods and hardwoods was examined. Hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species were predicted with high coefficient of determination between the predicted and measured values, the ratio of performance to deviation, range error ratio, and low root mean square error of cross validation for cross-validation and root mean square error of prediction for test set validation. Hot-water-soluble extractive and cellulose content models were only suitable for quality control analysis, but pentosan content model had an excellent fit with the data and could be used in any application. All the results indicate that Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy could be applied to predict the chemical composition of various wood species. PMID:23711938

He, Wenming; Hu, Huiren

2013-05-04

21

nutrient Requirements and Interactions Soluble Wheat Pentosans Exhibit Different Anti-Nutritive Activities in Intact and Cecectomized Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the ceca ¡n the anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans was studied in intact and cecectomized broiler chickens. Addition of wheat pen tosans (equivalent to 30 g pure arabinoxylans\\/kg diet) depressed the digestibilities of starch, protein and fatty acids in both types of birds. Cecectomized birds were less efficient (P < 0.01) in dry matter and energy utili

MIHGAN CHOCT; RODNEY P. TRIMBLE

22

An injectable hydrogel incorporating mesenchymal precursor cells and pentosan polysulphate for intervertebral disc regeneration.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the leading causes of lower back pain and a major health problem worldwide. Current surgical treatments include excision or immobilisation, with neither approach resulting in the repair of the degenerative disc. As such, a tissue engineering-based approach in which stem cells, coupled with an advanced delivery system, could overcome this deficiency and lead to a therapy that encourages functional fibrocartilage generation in the IVD. In this study, we have developed an injectable hydrogel system based on enzymatically-crosslinked polyethylene glycol and hyaluronic acid. We examined the effects of adding pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a synthetic glycosaminoglycan-like factor that has previously been shown (in vitro and in vivo) to this gel system in order to induce chondrogenesis in mesnchymal precursor cells (MPCs) when added as a soluble factor, even in the absence of additional growth factors such as TGF-?. We show that both the gelation rate and mechanical strength of the resulting hydrogels can be tuned in order to optimise the conditions required to produce gels with the desired combination of properties for an IVD scaffold. Human immunoselected STRO-1+ MPCs were then incorporated into the hydrogels. They were shown to retain good viability after both the initial formation of the gel and for longer-term culture periods in vitro. Furthermore, MPC/hydrogel composites formed cartilage-like tissue which was significantly enhanced by the incorporation of PPS into the hydrogels, particularly with respect to the deposition of type-II-collagen. Finally, using a wild-type rat subcutaneous implantation model, we examined the extent of any immune reaction and confirmed that this matrix is well tolerated by the host. Together these data provide evidence that such a system has significant potential as both a delivery vehicle for MPCs and as a matrix for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:24050877

Frith, Jessica E; Cameron, Andrew R; Menzies, Donna J; Ghosh, Peter; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, Stan; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

2013-09-16

23

Effects of AGM-1470 and pentosan polysulphate on tumorigenicity and metastasis of FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed Central

Previously, we described FGF-1- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells which are tumorigenic and metastatic in untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised nude mice. In this study, we have assessed the effects of AGM-1470, an antiangiogenic agent, and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), an agent that abrogates the effects of FGFs, on tumour growth and metastasis produced by these FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells. Untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised mice were injected with FGF-transfected cells, treated with AGM-1470 or PPS, and tumour growth and metastasis analysed. The sensitivity of FGF-transfected and parental MCF-7 cells to AGM-1470 or PPS was also determined in vitro. Both AGM-1470 and PPS inhibited tumour growth in otherwise untreated or tamoxifen-treated mice injected with either FGF- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 cells. This effect was more reliably seen in tamoxifen-treated animals. AGM-1470 was about 10(5) times less potent in inhibiting the anchorage-dependent growth of parental MCF-7 or FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells than in inhibiting the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PPS did not affect the in vitro growth of the transfectants or parental cells. Thus, the growth-inhibitory effect on tumours was in excess of the effect of either drug on the same cells in tissue culture, implying that stromal elements are important determinants of the effects of these drugs. There was a positive correlation between tumour size and the extent of proximal lymph node metastasis. However, neither drug had a significant effect on the extent of metastasis to proximal or distal lymph nodes or lungs. AGM-1470 or PPS may be helpful in cases of breast carcinoma in which angiogenesis is due to expression of FGFs by the tumour cells and may be more effective when combined with tamoxifen.

McLeskey, S. W.; Zhang, L.; Trock, B. J.; Kharbanda, S.; Liu, Y.; Gottardis, M. M.; Lippman, M. E.; Kern, F. G.

1996-01-01

24

Sodium - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The sodium urine test measures the amount of salt (sodium) in a urine sample. Sodium can also ... L/day), depending on how much fluid and salt you consume. The examples above are common measurements ...

25

Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate, Gastroenterology, UCD (NAGS; CPS; ASS; OTC; ASL; ARG), Indications and Usage Description ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch/researchareas

26

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

27

Meloxicam and surgical denervation of the coxofemoral joint for the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).  

PubMed

An adult male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with pronounced atrophy of the pelvic musculature was diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. Initial management with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam and a semisynthetic sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in clinical improvement and radiographic stabilization of the arthritic condition over several months. However, because pain was still evident, bilateral denervation of the coxofemoral joints was performed, successfully ameliorating the signs of osteoarthritic pain in the tiger. Meloxicam has shown good clinical efficacy for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other painful conditions in large felids. Coxofemoral joint denervation offers many advantages for the treatment of osteoarthritis in exotic carnivore species, and should be considered a viable treatment modality. PMID:17319147

Whiteside, Douglas P; Remedios, Audrey M; Black, Sandra R; Finn-Bodner, Susan T

2006-09-01

28

Sodium - blood  

MedlinePLUS

... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in your diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and NSAIDs ... normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. This may be due ...

29

Sodium Phosphate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium phosphate is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy (examination of the ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called ...

30

Sodium Azide  

MedlinePLUS

... exposed to sodium azide, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and ... medical care as quickly as possible. Removing your clothing: Quickly take off clothing that may have sodium ...

31

Sodium Oxybate  

MedlinePLUS

... and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients who have narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that may cause extreme sleepiness, sudden uncontrollable urge ... The way that sodium oxybate works to treat narcolepsy is not known.

32

Test Your Sodium Smarts  

MedlinePLUS

... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

33

Nulytely (polyethylene glycol 3350, sodium chloride, sodium ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Medication Guide ® NuLYTELY (Noo-lite-ly) (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride oral solution) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

34

Guidance on Divalproex Sodium  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Guidance on Divalproex Sodium ... Active ingredient: Divalproex Sodium ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

35

Levothyroxine Sodium Product Information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Levothyroxine Sodium Product Information. ... Levothyroxine sodium products are used by over 13 million patients. -. Related Information. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

36

Sodium fill of FFTF  

Microsoft Academic Search

With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was

J. B. Waldo; R. K. Greenwell; T. A. Keasling; J. R. Collins; D. B. Klos

1980-01-01

37

Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of prion-infected neuronal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal diseases associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc). Since the molecular mechanisms in pathogenesis are widely unclear, we analyzed the global phospho-proteome and detected a differential pattern of tyrosine- and threonine phosphorylated proteins in PrPSc-replicating and pentosan polysulfate (PPS)-rescued N2a cells in

Wibke Wagner; Paul Ajuh; Johannes Löwer; Silja Wessler

2010-01-01

38

Surface interaction between glycosaminoglycans and calcium oxalate.  

PubMed

Molecules and macromolecules are known to alter the process of crystallization, either through inhibition or promotion of nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. One particular group of macromolecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), has been of interest in our laboratory. The GAGs chondroitin A, chondroitin C, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and keratan sulfate have all been shown to be inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization. Heparin, the only GAG which is not naturally present in urine, is the most potent inhibitor of all GAGs. Using the method of Langmuir isotherm adsorption, we studied the adsorption of certain GAGs onto calcium oxalate crystals. Under standardized conditions, heparin, chondroitin C, hyaluronic acid, and pentosan polysulfate (a synthetic polyanionic molecule similar to, but a weaker inhibitor than, heparin) were adsorbed onto calcium oxalate. The total amount of GAG required to maximally cover the crystal surface, as well as the equilibrium concentration at which surface was half-covered with GAG (inversely related to the desorption energy) were measured. Chondroitin C was adsorbed in the greatest amount, followed by heparin, pentosan polysulfate, and finally hyaluronic acid. Using the method of fiducial limits, the only insignificant difference was between heparin and chondroitin C, and between hyaluronic acid and pentosan polysulfate. Pentosan polysulfate required significantly higher equilibrium concentration than heparin and hyaluronic acid to cover half of the surface of the calcium oxalate crystals. The principle of Langmuir isotherm adsorption can be useful in predicting the effects of macromolecules on crystallization. Weaker inhibitors bind with less affinity than do stronger inhibitors. Further work is underway to characterize other inhibitors and promoters. PMID:2709520

Angell, A H; Resnick, M I

1989-05-01

39

Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Draft Guidance on Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex ... Active ingredient: Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex Form/Route: Injectable; Injection ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

40

Sodium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

41

Naproxen sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Naproxen sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve mild to moderate aches and pains. Naproxen sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

42

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium is included on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The CCL is a list of ... are priorities for consideration for rulemaking. Why was sodium included on the Contaminant Candidate List? Will EPA ...

43

Mercury's sodium exosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

2003-01-01

44

Sodium clusters in zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of loading sodium clusters in zeolites, consisting of the controlled thermal decomposition of physisorbed sodium azide, is discussed. The influence of the azide loading, the azide decomposition rate and the sintering process on the amount of ionic and metallic sodium clusters in zeolite Y was followed by ESR. The method is compared to other metal deposition techniques.

Grobet, P. J.; Martens, L. R. M.; Vermeiren, W. J. M.; Huybrechts, D. R. C.; Jacobs, P. A.

1989-03-01

45

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

46

METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

1957-12-01

47

Sodium oxybate for narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (Xyrem), also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, is the only therapeutic specifically approved in the USA for the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy. The US FDA has recently expanded its indication to include excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. In contrast to the antidepressants and stimulants commonly used to treat the disorder, sodium oxybate is the only compound that addresses both sets of symptoms and, when used properly, is less likely to lead to the development of tolerance and other undesirable side effects. In this review, the results of clinical trials and the place of sodium oxybate in narcolepsy treatment are discussed. PMID:16893342

Scharf, Martin B

2006-08-01

48

Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?  

PubMed

Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

2005-02-01

49

Dalteparin Sodium Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Your doctor has ordered dalteparin sodium, an anticoagulant ('blood thinner'), to prevent harmful blood clots from forming. The drug will be injected under the skin (subcutaneously) once a day. This medication ...

50

Information Profile: Sodium Azide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium-azide (26628228) (NA) was described in terms of general properties and uses, toxicity, and occupational exposures. NA has been used in preparation of explosives, herbicides, photosensitive polymers, antibacterials, antidepressants, propellants, den...

A. R. Gregory

1978-01-01

51

Sodium Acetate Hand Warmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, sodium acetate hand warmers are used to introduce learners to supersaturated solutions, crystallization, and exothermic reactions. This activity guide includes background information, extension ideas, and resources.

Johnson, Jill

2006-01-01

52

Fondaparinux Sodium Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... sodium. 1 Fondaparinux website, http://csd.bodhtree.co.in/drreddys/ fonda/v2/hcp/ (last accessed, December 22, 2011). ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

53

Sodium Balance in Maintenance Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Sodium is the principal solute in the extracellular compartment and the major component of serum osmolality. In normal persons in the steady state, sodium homeostasis is achieved by a balance between the dietary intake and the urinary output of sodium, whereas in intermittent hemodialysis patients, sodium balance depends on dietary intake and sodium removal during hemodialysis. Thus, the main goal of hemodialysis is to remove precisely the amount of sodium that has accumulated during the interdialytic period. Sodium removal during hemodialysis occurs via convective (~78%) and diffusive losses (~22%) between dialysate and plasma sodium concentration. The latter (the sodium gradient) is an important factor in the 'fine tuning' of sodium balance during intermittent hemodialysis. Most use fixed dialysate sodium concentrations, but each patient has his/her own plasma sodium concentrations pre-hemodialysis, which are quite reproducible and stable in the long-term. Thus, in many patients, a fixed dialysate sodium concentration will cause a persistent positive sodium balance during dialysis, which could possibly cause increased thirst, interdialytic weight gain, and mortality. Several methods will be discussed to reduce positive sodium balance, including sodium alignment.

2012-01-01

54

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

55

Plasma sodium and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma sodium and hypertension. Dietary salt is the major cause of the rise in the blood pressure with age and the development of high blood pressure in populations. However, the mechanisms whereby salt intake raises the blood pressure are not clear. Existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECV), but an increased salt intake

Hugh E. de Wardener; Feng J. He; Graham A. MacGregor

2004-01-01

56

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

57

Sodium: Look at the Label  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Sodium: Look at the Label. También ... Over 75% of dietary sodium comes from eating packaged and restaurant foods. Most ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

58

Sodium Heat Transfer System Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sodium heat transfer system of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator has been ...

A. F. Baker M. E. Fewell

1983-01-01

59

Hanford site sodium management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

Guttenberg, S.

1995-09-25

60

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

61

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-01-01

62

Decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of components which influence NaTPB decomposition. Copper(II) ions, solution temperature, and solution pH (hydroxide ion concentration) have all been demonstrated to affect NaTPB stability. Their relationship with each other and the stability of NaTPB has been determined. Based upon this knowledge, a method for stabilizing NaTPB was determined. Decomposition of a NaTPB solution was delayed with the addition of sodium hydroxide. In additional work, the elimination of oxygen from the reaction environment did not prevent NaTPB decomposition in the presence of copper(II) ions but did, however, affect the course of decomposition.

Barnes, M.J.

1990-12-31

63

Decontamination of sodium cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small?scale DecontaminationAqueous sodium cyanide, buffered with ammonium chloride, was decontaminated by portionwise addition of calcium hypochlorite while the temperature of the mixture was held below 12°C.Large?scale DecontaminationThe cyanide waste pH is raised to 10.0 and hypochlorite from any source used to convert cyanide to cyanate or even carbon dioxide and nitrogen if desired.

D. E. Pearson; T. M. Laher; S. Campagna

1981-01-01

64

Equilibrium and dynamic surface tension behavior of aqueous soaps: sodium octanoate and sodium dodecanoate (sodium laurate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic surface tension behavior of sodium salts of fatty acids having eight (sodium octanoate) and twelve (sodium laurate) carbon atoms in pure water or in 0.1 N aqueous NaOH has been studied. The primary reason for this study was to obtain fundamental knowledge of the tension behavior of these molecules which are present in several consumer products. Tension data

Karen A. Coltharp; Elias I. Franses

1996-01-01

65

Intracellular sodium activity and sodium transport in Necturus gallbladder epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ion-sensitive glass microelectrodes, conventional microelectrodes and isotope flux measurements were employed inNecturus gallbladder epithelium to study intracellular sodium activity, [Na]i, electrical parameters of epithelial cells, and properties of active sodium transport. Mean control values were: [Na]i: 9.2 to 12.1mm; transepithelial potential difference,?ms: ?1.5 mV (lumen negative); basolateral cell membrane potential,?es: ?62 mV (cell interior negative); sodium conductance of the

J. Graf; G. Giebisch

1979-01-01

66

Novel rechargeable sodium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program was concerned with the development of a high energy density rechargeable sodium battery operating in the moderate temperature range of 175 to 200 C. The suitability of NaFeOâ and FeOCl as cathode materials in Na cells having the configuration--Molten Na\\/beta-AlâOâ\\/Molten NaAlC{sub l4}, NaFeOâ or FeOC{sub l}--has been studied. Cells containing either NaFeOâ or FeOCl were found to cycle

1988-01-01

67

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics.

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlohner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

68

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

1987-07-01

69

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol extraction. Sodium stearate contained in a stainless steel miniature reactor was heated at 450°C in a fluidized sand bath. Pyrolysis

Chong

1985-01-01

70

Sodium channelopathies and pain.  

PubMed

Chronic pain often represents a severe, debilitating condition. Up to 10% of the worldwide population are affected, and many patients are poorly responsive to current treatment strategies. Nociceptors detect noxious conditions to produce the sensation of pain, and this signal is conveyed to the CNS by means of action potentials. The fast upstroke of action potentials is mediated by voltage-gated sodium channels, of which nine pore-forming alpha-subunits (Nav1.1-1.9) have been identified. Heterogeneous functional properties and distinct expression patterns denote specialized functions of each subunit. The Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 subunits have emerged as key molecules involved in peripheral pain processing and in the development of an increased pain sensitivity associated with inflammation and tissue injury. Several mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding for Nav1.7 have been identified as important cellular substrates for different heritable pain syndromes. This review aims to cover recent progress on our understanding of how biophysical properties of mutant Nav1.7 translate into an aberrant electrogenesis of nociceptors. We also recapitulate the role of Nav1.8 for peripheral pain processing and of additional sodium channelopathies which have been linked to disorders with pain as a significant component. PMID:20101409

Lampert, Angelika; O'Reilly, Andrias O; Reeh, Peter; Leffler, Andreas

2010-01-26

71

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

72

Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w\\/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1°C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P<0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic

Khalid Ibrahim Sallam

2007-01-01

73

Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.  

PubMed

These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for example, low concentration in a leave-on product or dilution of a higher concentration as part of product usage. PMID:11766135

Lanigan, R S

2001-01-01

74

Sodium removal and sodium concentration during peritoneal dialysis: effects of three methods of sodium measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sodium removal (NaR) may have a major impact on the survival of peritoneal dialysis patients. The dialysate\\/plasma sodium concentration ratio (D\\/PNa) is an indirect index of transcellular water transport by aquaporin channels, and thus of ultra- filtration. Sodium concentration can be assessed by means of flame photometry (F), and direct (D-ISE) or indirect ion-selective electrodes (I-ISE), but these methods

Vincenzo La Milia; Salvatore Di Filippo; Monica Crepaldi; Simeone Andrulli; Lucia Del Vecchio; Pietro Scaravilli; Giovambattista Virga; Francesco Locatelli

75

Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage.

Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

2007-01-01

76

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

2010-01-01

77

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

2009-04-01

78

Residua desulfurization with sodium oxide and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy petroleum oils, preferably whole crude or residua, are desulfurized and upgraded by contacting the petroleum oil with sodium oxide in the presence of hydrogen at elevated temperatures. The resulting mixture comprising desulfurized petroleum oil and a dispersion of sodium salts, primarily sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide, is separated by conventional means and sodium oxide is regenerated from the salts.

Bearden; R. Jr

1977-01-01

79

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2009-07-01

80

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2012-07-01

81

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2010-07-01

82

21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. 522.2444b Section...INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for...

2013-04-01

83

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2012-10-01

84

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2011-10-01

85

Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

1995-01-01

86

Vacuum Pyrolysis of Sodium Stearate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol ext...

S. L. Chong

1985-01-01

87

Sodium heat transfer system modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

1983-11-01

88

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

89

21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 ...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the...

2013-04-01

90

21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2 CO3 ·NaHCO3...

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1145 Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each...solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor . See 000009...

2013-04-01

93

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

2013-04-01

94

21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

95

21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

96

21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

97

21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

98

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

99

Sodium in Io's extended atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation combines several new observations of the Io sodium cloud to create a consistent picture of the extended Io atmosphere and its interaction with the Jovian plasma torus. The LPL echelle spectrograph was used to obtain three types of high-resolution spectra of the extended sodium cloud at the sodium D lines (5890, 5896{angstrom}). The first class of observations made use of the mutual satellite eclipses of 1985 to probe the density profile of the atmosphere in the range 1.4 to 10 Io radii, a previously unstudied region. The second type of observation examined the sodium emission in Io's immediate vicinity, allowing an accurate measurement of the velocity structure around Io. The final method employed a high-sensitivity detector to study faint jets of high-speed sodium farther out in the extended cloud. The synthesis of these three data sets results in a better understanding of how sodium is distributed about Io as a function of position and velocity. The data indicate that the Io atmosphere is collisionally thick near the surface, but becomes thin by an altitude of {approximately}700 km. The high-speed sodium jets reveal a new type of close interaction between the corotating plasma and Io's atmosphere.

Schneider, N.M.

1988-01-01

100

Draft Guidance on Omeprazole Sodium Bicarbonate Active ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionContains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Omeprazole Sodium Bicarbonate ... Active ingredient: Omeprazole Sodium Bicarbonate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

101

BAM R70: Sodium Bicarbonate Solution, 10%  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R70: Sodium Bicarbonate Solution, 10%. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R70 Sodium Bicarbonate Solution, 10%. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

102

Novel rechargeable sodium batteries  

SciTech Connect

The program was concerned with the development of a high energy density rechargeable sodium battery operating in the moderate temperature range of 175 to 200 C. The suitability of NaFeO{sub 2} and FeOCl as cathode materials in Na cells having the configuration--Molten Na/beta-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Molten NaAlC{sub l4}, NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOC{sub l}--has been studied. Cells containing either NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOCl were found to cycle about 3 Na per Fe reversibly, in a two step discharge. The voltage profiles of cells containing either of these materials are strikingly similar. Chemical reactions between the NaAlC{sub l4} electrolyte and NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOCl have been proposed which suggest the formation of the identical intermediate in cells of either type. The quasi-theoretical specific energy is 1545 Wh/kg for the Na/NaFeO{sub 2} couple, and 1475 Wh/kg for the Na/FeOCl cell. When the possible involvement of one mole of NaAlCl4 in the discharge reaction is considered, these values become 628 Wh/kg for the former, and 603 Wh/kg for the latter.

Abraham, K.M.

1988-07-28

103

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: present and future treatment perspectives.  

PubMed

Bladder pain syndrome/Interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown etiology. Treatment is not well defined and is still under intense investigation. The aim of this paper was to review existing literature on treatment of BPS/IC and examine current evidence on present and future perspective. PubMed database was researched and publications in English language on the topic were analyzed, emphasis was given to publications that occurred on the last five years. Mainstays of oral therapies are still empirical due to lack of knowledge on etiology of this disease. The few oral drugs that showed efficacy in placebo controlled trials are amytriptiline, pentosan polysulfate sodium, hydroxyzine and cyclosporine A. As for intravesical treatments reasonable evidence is available only for dimethyl sulfoxide and resection of visible Hunner's lesions. Reconstructive surgery can also be recommended in selected cases. Further studies into the causes and mechanisms of the disease are paramount for the development of effective treatments. Foreseeable therapeutic objectives will comprehend oral blockade of sensory nerve receptors, immune system modulation, peripheral nerve fiber inactivation/desensitization, anti-proliferative factor blockade and pain gene therapy. Identification of BPS/IC phenotypical subgroups should help delineate proper individualized treatment which will be aimed at the disease and its multiple manifestations rather than at focalized complaints. Present treatment of BPS/IC comprises pain control in conjunction with control of supposed underlying bladder disease. Based on identified possible therapeutic targets several treatment possibilities warrant further investigation. Identification of BPS/IC phenotype is a important step for correct management. PMID:24091479

Diniz, S; Dinis, P; Cruz, F; Pinto, R

2013-12-01

104

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to develop new electrolyte mixtures. 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride (MEICI) mixed with aluminum chloride was the standard of reference. The new electrolytes should be utilized with sodium in room temperature batteries. Several triazoliu...

B. Vestergaard

1993-01-01

105

Dalteparin Sodium (PDF - 26KB)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... FDA-2003-P-0273, was written to address issues related to active ingredient sameness of enoxaparin sodium. However ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

106

Sodium carbonate salt transport system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sodium carbonate salt transport system is required to support the Molten Salt Oxidation system being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are embarking on a project to create a national test bed for evaluating mixed waste destructio...

W. Brummond

1995-01-01

107

Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed.

Freskakis, G.N.

1984-09-01

108

Sodium Azide Gas Generator Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a method whereby the burning rate of sodium azide containing gas generator pellets can be controlled by varying the amounts of binder materials used, by using certain hereinafter specified additives, or by varying the par...

F. G. Crescenzo

1974-01-01

109

Capillary viscometry of sodium soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rheological properties of a sodium tallow-coconut oil soap (15% water) have been determined using a high pressure capillary extrusion viscometer over shear rates of 14.7 to 2560 sec?1 and temperatures of 70–103°C. Capillary flow measurements were also made on sodium stearate (25% water) at 90°C. The data indicated shear thinning characteristics and were fitted to an equation of

John E. Bujake

1966-01-01

110

Sodium vapor heat pipe laser cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sodium heat pipe cell containing high-voltage discharge plates was constructed to study the band absorption of light by the sodium dimer and to determine the feasibility of creating a metal vapor laser. Spectrographic measurements indicated that the increase in sodium dimer population with temperature resulted in 90% light absorption at 970 K. High-voltage discharges in the sodium vapor dissociated

J. E. Deverall; G. W. York

1978-01-01

111

Chemical transformation of atrazine with sodium azide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the chemical transformation of atrazine with sodium azide. Sodium azide reduced the atrazine level in the control reactors at a rate much faster than the natural anaerobic biotransformation rate in wetland sediment. The chemical transformation of sodium azide with atrazine was observed in the D.I. water sample reactors. It was evident from the study that higher the sodium

K. S. Ro; K. H. Chung; J. W. Robinson

1995-01-01

112

Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program What Is Sodium? Sodium is a part of salt. Sodium is ... in many condiments, seasonings, and meats. Why Is Sodium Important for People with CKD? Eating less sodium ...

113

Self-diffusion of sodium ions in compacted sodium montmorillonite  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion of sodium ions through compacted sodium montmorillonite in a water-saturated state was studied to obtain fundamental information for performance assessments of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Basal spacings obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements indicated a decrease in the interlamellar spacing with increasing dry density of the montmorillonite; the three-water-layer hydrate was observed at low dry density, and the two-water-layer hydrate was observed at high dry density, whereas both were observed at dry densities between 1.4 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3}. Activation energies from 14.1 to 24.7 kJ/mol were obtained from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions. Activation energies lower than that for the diffusion of sodium ions in free water were found for montmorillonite specimens with dry densities of {le} 1.2 Mg/m{sup 3}, while higher activation energies were observed at dry densities {ge} 1.4 Mg/m{sup 3}. The pore water diffusion model, the general model used for migration of nuclides, is based on geometric parameters; however, findings cannot be explained by only the changes in the geometric parameters. Possible explanations for the dry density dependence of the activation energy are changes in the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficients of sodium ions on the montmorillonite, changes in the diffusion process with an increase in dry density, or both.

Kozaki, Tamotsu; Fujishima, Atsushi; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

1998-01-01

114

Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides.

2011-01-01

115

Autoregulation of the electrogenic sodium pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The dependence of electrogenic sodium pump activity on changes in the cell volume ofHelix pomatia neurons with different levels of intracellular sodium ion concentration was studied.2.Hypertonic solutions caused hyperpolarization of the membrane and increased membrane resistance in cells with a low sodium content (low-sodium cells; LSC).3.The activity of the electrogenic sodium pump in hypertonic solutions was increased compared to the

Sineric N. Ayrapetyan; Mirik A. Suleymanyan; Alexandr A. Saghyan; Senorik S. Dadalyan

1984-01-01

116

Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

117

Sodium/proton antiporter in Streptococcus faecalis.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus faecalis, like other bacteria, accumulates potassium ions and expels sodium ions. This paper is concerned with the pathway of sodium extrusion. Earlier studies (D.L. Heefner and F.M. Harold, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:2798-2802, 1982) showed that sodium extrusion is effected by a primary, ATP-linked sodium pump. I report here that cells grown under conditions in which sodium ATPase is not induced can still expel sodium ions. This finding suggested the existence of an alternate pathway. Sodium extrusion by the alternate pathway requires the cells to generate a proton motive force. This conclusion rests on the following observations. (i) Sodium extrusion required glucose. (ii) Sodium extrusion was observed at neutral pH, which allows the cells to generate a proton motive force, but not at alkaline pH, which reduces the proton motive force to zero. (iii) Sodium extrusion was inhibited by the addition of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and of proton-conducting ionophores. (iv) In response to an artificial pH gradient (with the exterior acid), energy-depleted cells exhibited a transient sodium extrusion which was unaffected by treatments that dissipated the membrane potential and which was blocked by proton conductors. I propose that streptococci have two independent systems for sodium extrusion: an inducible sodium ATPase and a constitutive sodium/proton antiporter.

Kakinuma, Y

1987-01-01

118

Sodium heat transfer system modeling  

SciTech Connect

The sodium heat transfer system of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator has been modeled. The computer code SOLTES (Simulator of Large Thermal Energy Systems), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was used to model this system. Based on data provided to Sandia by the IEA-SSPS/CRS project, the results from SOLTES are compared to measured data. The comparison between measured data and predictions from SOLTES is very good for the day evaluated.

Baker, A.F.; Fewell, M.E.

1983-01-01

119

Lipopolysaccharide reduces sodium intake and sodium excretion in dehydrated rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered intraperitoneally affects sodium and water intake and renal excretion in dehydrated rats. LPS (0.3-5 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited 0.3M NaCl intake induced by subcutaneous injection of the diuretic furosemide (FURO, 10 mg/kg b.w.) combined with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (CAP, 5 mg/kg b.w.). Only the highest doses of LPS (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) inhibited water intake induced by FURO/CAP. LPS (0.6 mg/kg) reduced urinary volume and sodium excretion, but had no effect on mean arterial pressure or heart rate of rats treated with FURO/CAP. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) abolished intracellular thirst and reduced by 50% the urine sodium concentration of rats that received 2 ml of 2M NaCl by gavage. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) also reduced thirst in rats treated with FURO alone (10 mg/rat sc). The results suggest that LPS has a preferential, but not exclusive, inhibitory effect on sodium intake and on intracellular thirst. The inhibition of hydro-mineral intake and the antinatriuresis caused by LPS in dehydrated rats may contribute to the multiple effects of the endotoxin on fluid and electrolyte balance and be part of the strategy to cope with infections. PMID:20977913

de Almeida, Roberto L; Constancio, Juliana; Vendramini, Regina C; Fracasso, José F; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

2010-10-25

120

Sodium technology: 1-sodium removal and decontamination of components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation of sodium from crevices, tensile specimens, and an IHX tube bundle mockup was studied. Glycolic acid-citric acid solutions were selected for decontaminating 304SS hot leg components. The use of 316 SS as well as 304SS to fabricate components will introduce complications to the decontamination process. The feasibility of glow discharge sputtering for decontamination is being evaluated. 14 figures, 5

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele; E. Hill

1977-01-01

121

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium ? ? dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2 = 30 cm,; L=30 cm,; f1 = 120 Hz,; f2 = 30 Hz ). It is designed to simulate the generation of large scale magnetic fields in massive black hole accretion disks, galaxies, and stars. The omega gain is due to the shear flow of differential rotation of Couette flow between two differentially rotating co-axial cylinders. Differential rotation in a conducting fluid twists a radial or quadrupole magnetic flux into a greatly enhanced toroidal flux. A large coherent helicity is produced by driven plumes and astrophisically by star-disk collisions, supernova explosions, or large scale plume convection respectively. We have rotated the apparatus with water and hot oil and demonstrated stable Couette flow with only Ekman-flow-induced torque. We will report on the ? gain with liquid sodium. This Work has been supported by NMIMT, EMRTC, NSF, & LDRD of LANL.

Colgate, Stirling; Beckley, Howard; Li, Hui; Sonnenfield, Richard; Westpfahl, Dave; Bentley, Ian; Ginanni, Rocky; McKinnly, Travis; Pariev, Valadimir

2004-11-01

122

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

123

The Vapour Density of Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is plenty of evidence in the literature to the effect that the vapour of sodium is monatomic. Robitsch (Ann. Physik, 38, 1027; 1912) determined the velocity of sound in the vapour at the boiling point and calculated the ratio of specific heats to be 1.68, and Taylor (Phys. Rev., 28, 576; 1926) found no evidence of molecules at pressures

W. H. Rodebush

1930-01-01

124

SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

Dickinson, R.W.

1963-03-01

125

Endocrine Disorders of Sodium Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt and water homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a variety of control mechanisms with the adrenal steroid hormone aldosterone playing a central role. Defects or disturbances in these systems lead to either salt loss, which is life threatening in the neonatal period, or sodium retention causing hypertension. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is required to avoid severe complications. During the last

Ursula Kuhnle; Sabina Lewicka; Peter J. Fuller

2004-01-01

126

SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor ; vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said ; reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of ; sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means ; including a plurality of process tubes traversing said

1963-01-01

127

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01

128

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01

129

Sodium carbonate salt transport system  

SciTech Connect

A sodium carbonate salt transport system is required to support the Molten Salt Oxidation system being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are embarking on a project to create a national test bed for evaluating mixed waste destruction technologies. This project is called the Mixed Waste Management Facility. It is currently in the second phase of design and will be operational in 1998. One of the first technologies demonstrated in this facility is Molten Salt Oxidation. Molten Salt Oxidation is a thermal process that destroys the organic constituents of mixed and hazardous wastes. Sodium carbonate salt is heated in a reactor vessel to approximately 950{degrees}C. Organic wastes, along with oxidant air, are injected under the pool of molten salt. A catalytic reaction occurs converting the organics into CO{sub 2} and water. Inorganic constituents in the salt such as metals, silica, alumina, and radionuclides remain captured in the salt. Chlorides in the waste feed are converted in the salt to sodium chloride. As these impurities build up in the salt, the salt must be recycled to remove them or else the reaction rate is reduced. Spent salt is periodically taken from the reactor and transported to a salt recycle system. In this system the molten salt is freeze-dried, dissolved in water, and filtered to remove the insoluble inorganics. The unconverted sodium carbonate is removed by fractional crystallization. This sodium carbonate is then dried and stored for future use in the reactors, eliminating a secondary waste stream. The remaining brine is disposed of as waste.

Brummond, W.

1995-09-12

130

Injection of beef strip loins with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride to enhance palatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef strip loins (46 U.S. Choice loins and 49 U.S. Select loins) were used to evaluate the potential for enhancing beef tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by injecting fresh cuts with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride. One half of each loin served as an untreated control, and the other half was injected with either distilled water (110%

D. J. Vote; W. J. Platter; J. D. Tatum; G. R. Schmidt; K. E. Belk; G. C. Smith; N. C. Speer

2010-01-01

131

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used...

2009-04-01

132

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used...

2010-01-01

133

Coumadin (warfarin sodium) tablets medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... (warfarin sodium) Read this Medication Guide before you start taking COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) and each time you get a refill. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

134

Questions and Answers on Levothyroxine Sodium Products  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Levothyroxine sodium is the sodium salt of the levo isomer of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Thyroid hormones affect protein ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

135

21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

2013-04-01

136

21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b)...

2013-04-01

137

Sodium Removal from Hallam Reactor Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy...

L. K. Huntsman R. H. Meservey

1979-01-01

138

Sodium Removal, Storage, and Requalification of Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures ...

F. H. Welch R. M. Oliva

1974-01-01

139

The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo

2009-01-01

140

Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system  

DOEpatents

A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01

141

Synthesis and thermal property of sodium triimidocyclotriphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium triimidocyclotriphosphate tetrahydrate was made by reacting phosphorus pentachloride with ammonium chloride and then hydrolysing the resulting product in an aqueous sodium acetate solution. When the cyclotriphosphate was heated in air, it was directly converted to sodium cyclotriphosphate according to the reaction

M. Watanabe; M. Sakurai; M. Hinatase; S. Sato

1992-01-01

142

A Sodium Storage and Injection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A storage and injection system for liquefied sodium having a capability of functioning in a start-up, shut-down, normal operating and emergency mode is described. The system is embodied in a sodium storage and injection system. Atomized liquid sodium was ...

A. R. Keeton

1978-01-01

143

Evidence for suprathermal sodium on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presently discussed observations of the tenuous sodium atmosphere of Mercury indicate the presence of suprathermal sodium at a temperature of several thousand C. A connection is made between these data for Mercury and those already established for the lunar tenuous atmosphere, which is also composed of sodium.

Potter, Andrew E.; Morgan, Thomas H.

1997-05-01

144

21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food...

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 184.1807 - Sodium thiosulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 184.1807 Section 184.1807...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1807 Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2 O3 ·5H2 O, CAS...

2013-04-01

146

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7...

2013-04-01

147

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on...

2013-04-01

148

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is...

2013-04-01

149

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on...

2013-04-01

150

Sodium wash station operational testing report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the test report for the Operability Test Procedure (OTP) performed on the Westinghouse Hanford Company developed Sodium Wash Station. The purpose of the Sodium Wash Station is to provide the capability to control and monitor the water vapor nitrogen reaction of sodium remaining in drained tanks and other components.

Knotek, H.M.

1996-10-01

151

Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF)

Hillard

1978-01-01

152

HPTLC determination of diclofenac sodium from serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diclofenac sodium is one of the potent Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present work deals with the estimation of diclofenac sodium from serum by a novel High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method developed in our laboratory. Standard diclofenac sodium was spotted on Silica Gel 60 F254 precoated plates, which were developed

L. G Lala; P. M D'Mello; S. R Naik

2002-01-01

153

A Liquid Sodium alpha omega Dynamo Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Liquid Sodium alpha omega Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium alpha omega dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2

Stirling Colgate; Howard Beckley; Hui Li; Richard Sonnenfield; Dave Westpfahl; Ian Bentley; Rocky Ginanni; Travis McKinnly; Valadimir Pariev

2004-01-01

154

Sodium nightglow measurements and implications on the sodium photochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tilting filter photometry recorded over a two year period at (23.2 S) shot that, on the average, the sodium nightglow intensities reach a maximum close to local midnight. Between midnight and dawn the intensity remains fairly constant or increases slightly. The most consistent feature is the pre-midnight decrease in intensity. Seasonal variations show peak intensities at the equinoxes, with the stronger one occurring in autumn. In a few cases, the nocturnal variation does not follow the average trend, showing rather strong peaks in intensity which have been related to dynamic effects. Based on the photochemistry described the sodium oxide is estimated to vary with season in a similar fashion to mesospheric ozone. The generally accepted rate coefficients for the sodium photochemistry cannot explain the measured intensities. In order to produce results that are consistent with the measurements, model calculations require a coefficient larger by a factor of about 10 for the reaction Na + O3 yields NaO + O2, and for NaO + yields Na* O2 a rate smaller by a factor of 1,000.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.

1978-04-01

155

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark)

2011-07-15

156

Seawater Teleosts: Evidence for a Sodium-Potassium Exchange in the Branchial Sodium-Excreting Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net sodium extrusion rate by the gill of the seawater-adapted euryhaline flounder is identical to the potassium influx. The excretion of sodium is blocked in K+-free seawater solutions. The instantaneous sodium outflux readjustment pattern of flounders transferred from seawater to solutions of various sodium chloride or potassium chloride concentrations is consistent with the hypothesis of a linkage between Na+

J. Maetz

1969-01-01

157

40 CFR 180.487 - Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. 180.487...Tolerances § 180.487 Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General...residues of the herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium, (sodium...

2013-07-01

158

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

160

Water and Sodium Retention in the Fasted and Refed Human.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During starvation there is increased sodium excretion and a negative sodium balance even when a sodium supplement is given. Upon appropriate refeeding the urinary losses of sodium cease, the volume of urine is diminished, and temporary weight gain occurs,...

D. M. Gozansky R. H. Herman

1971-01-01

161

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer

B. Vestergaard

1992-01-01

162

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

163

Role of sodium in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride is the most abundant salt in extracellular fluid. In normal individuals, the tonicity exerted by dissolved sodium chloride determines plasma osmolality and indirectly determines intracellular tonicity and cell volume. Uremic patients retain nitrogenous wastes and have an elevated plasma osmolality. While urea exhibits osmotic activity in serum, no sustained gradient can be established across cell boundaries because it readily diffuses through cell membranes. Thus, sodium remains the major indicator of body tonicity and determines the distribution of water across the intracellular-extracellular boundary, subsequent cell volume, thirst, and, among patients with renal insufficiency, systemic blood pressure. As a result of highly conserved plasma tonicity control systems, uremic subjects demonstrate remarkable stability of their serum sodium. Dialysate is a synthetic interstitial fluid capable of reconstituting extracellular fluid composition through urea extraction and extremely efficient solute and solvent (salt and water) transfer to the patient. Subtle transdialyzer gradients deliver and remove large quantities of trace elements, solvent, and solute to patients, creating a variety of dialysis "disequilibrium" syndromes manifest as cellular and systemic distress. Every dialysis patient uses dialysate, and the most abundant chemicals in dialysate are salt and water. Despite its universal use, no consensus on dialysate composition or tonicity exists. This can only be explained if we believe that dialysate composition is best determined by matching unique dialysis delivery system characteristics to specific patient requirements. Such a paradigm treats dialysate as a drug and the dialysis system as a delivery device. Understanding the therapeutic and toxic profiles of this drug (dialysate) and its delivery device (the dialyzer) is important to safe, effective, goal-directed modifications of therapy. This article explores some of the historical rationale behind choosing specific dialysate tonicities. PMID:10936802

Flanigan, M J

2000-08-01

164

The dissipation of a sodium cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occasional observations of strong increases in the atmospheric sodium densities and/or Na nightglow intensities suggest that the cause is the deposition of a sodium cloud in addition to the local equilibrium sodium layer. This situation is simulated to investigate the response of the atmospheric sodium layer to variations of the source influx rate. The settlement of the sodium to the equilibrium layer after the deposition of a sodium cloud is shown to be a long lived event in which the excess sodium is transported downwards, to the sink, by eddy diffusion. The possibility of a modulated source influx rate is also investigated showing a tendency for a strong attenuation of this modulation below the source.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.

1982-07-01

165

The dissipation of a sodium cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occasional observations of strong increases in the atmospheric sodium densities and/or Na nightglow intensities suggest that the cause is the deposition of a sodium cloud in addition to the local equilibrium sodium layer. This situation is simulated to investigate the response of the atmospheric sodium layer to variations of the source influx rate. The settlement of the sodium to the equilibrium layer after the deposition of a sodium cloud is shown to be a long lived event in which the excess sodium is transported downwards, to the sink, by eddy diffusion. The possibility of a modulated source influx rate is also investigated showing a tendency for a strong attenuation of this modulation below the source.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.

1983-04-01

166

Inactivation of the sodium channel. I. Sodium current experiments  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of sodium conductance has been studied in squid axons with voltage clamp techniques and with the enzyme pronase which selectively destroys inactivation. Comparison of the sodium current before and after pronase treatment shows a lag of several hundred microseconds in the onset of inactivation after depolarization. This lag can of several hundred microseconds in the onset of inactivation after polarization. This lag can also be demonstrated with double-pulse experiments. When the membrane potential is hyperpolarized to -140 mV before depolarization, both activation and inactivation are delayed. These findings suggest that inactivation occurs only after activation are delayed. These findings suggest that inactivation occurs only after activation; i.e. that the channels must open before they can inactivate. The time constant of inactivation measured with two pulses (?(c)) is the same as the one measured from the decay of the sodium current during a single pulse (?(h)). For large depolarizations, steady-state inactivation becomes more incomplete as voltage increases; but it is relatively complete and appears independent of voltage when determined with a two- pulse method. This result confirms the existence of a second open state for Na channels, as proposed by Chandler and Meves (1970. J. Physiol. [Lond.]. 211:653-678). The time constant of recovery from inactivation is voltage dependent and decreases as the membrane potential is made more negative. A model for Na channels is presented which has voltage-dependent transitions between the closed and open states, and a voltage-independent transition between the open and the inactivated state. In this model the voltage dependence of inactivation is a consequence of coupling to the activation process.

Bezanilla, F; Armstrong, CM

1977-01-01

167

Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10/?m2 . The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results show that internodal sodium ion channels play an important role in action potential propagation. In this paper, based on the compartment model, we investigate the function of internodal sodium ion channels. We find that internodal sodium ion channels can promote action potential propagation, enlarge the maximal internodal distance guaranteeing stable action potential propagation, and increase the propagation speed of action potentials. In this paper, we find an optimal conductance of internodal sodium ion channels (4-5mS/cm2) , which accords with the active internodal sodium ion conductance in a real myelinated axon. With the optimal conductance, the average sodium ion channel conductance of the axon is minimal, and the metabolic energy consumption due to ion channels is also minimal.

Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

2008-12-01

168

Effect of sodium phytate, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate on physico-chemical characteristics of restructured beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 0.5% sodium phytate (SPT), sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), along with 1% NaCl, on physico-chemical properties of restructured raw and cooked beef were evaluated. In raw beef stored for 1 day at 4 ° C, the SPT, SPP, and STPP increased pH and salt-soluble protein level and decreased %MetMb and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),

Beom Jun Lee; Deloy G. Hendricks; Daren P. Cornforth

1998-01-01

169

Late sodium current in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease: consequences of sodium-calcium overload  

PubMed Central

Late sodium current in cardiac cells is very small compared with the fast component, but as it flows throughout the action potential it may make a substantial contribution to sodium loading during each cardiac cycle. Late sodium current may contribute to triggering arrhythmia in two ways: by causing repolarisation failure (early afterdepolarisations); and by triggering late afterdepolarisations attributable to calcium oscillations in sodium–calcium overload conditions. Reduction of late sodium current would therefore be expected to have therapeutic benefits, particularly in disease states such as ischaemia in which sodium–calcium overload is a major feature.

Noble, D; Noble, P J

2006-01-01

170

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

171

Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.  

PubMed

In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms. PMID:22955490

Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

2012-09-07

172

Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

Himeno, Yoshiaki (Mito, JP)

1978-01-01

173

Synthesis and thermal property of sodium triimidocyclotriphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium triimidocyclotriphosphate tetrahydrate was made by reacting phosphorus pentachloride with ammonium chloride and then\\u000a hydrolysing the resulting product in an aqueous sodium acetate solution. When the cyclotriphosphate was heated in air, it\\u000a was directly converted to sodium cyclotriphosphate according to the reaction\\u000a \\u000a (NaPO2NH)3 + 3H2O ? (NaPO3)3 + 3NH3

M. Watanabe; M. Sakurai; M. Hinatase; S. Sato

1992-01-01

174

Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60 % reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20 % reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions

ANN M. WOODHULL

1973-01-01

175

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH4)1-xClx is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH4, forming Na(BH4)0.9Cl0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH4)0.43Cl0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

176

Polarization switching with sodium vapour  

SciTech Connect

Results are given of an experiment which demonstrates switching of the polarization state of the output of a near-concentric Fabry-Perot containing sodium vapour, excited via the homogeneously broadened Dl transition. An example of the output, for linearly polarized laser input, at 1.5 GHz below line center shows switching with hysteresis at high input power (approximately 400 mW) due to saturation, as well as the switching at lower power (approximately mW) due to optical pumping effects. Purely absorptive polarization switching at approximately 50 mW input power was observed. Polarization switching has been predicted in the context of three state atoms in an optical cavity, and the lower power switchin has been previously observed using the inhomogeneously broadened Dl transition of sodium in a Fabry-Perot with the laser detuned above line center. By using argon buffer gas at up to 100 torr, importance of hyperfine structure and inhomogeneous broadening was reduced so as to make the transition approximate a J + 1/2 to J - 1/2 transition.

Hamilton, M.W.; Sandle, W.J.

1984-01-01

177

Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide  

SciTech Connect

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n=1.839 0.002) and 633 nm (n=1.786 0.002). These 6 measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a 2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Ramey, Lucas A [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2012-01-01

178

Double sodium layers observation over Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The altitude of the sodium layer in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is usually from 80 km to 105 km. In this paper, we report a set of double sodium layer (DSL) events observed by sodium lidar over Beijing, China. In these DSL events, the normal sodium layer and secondary sodium layer (SeSL) present separately. There were about 17 DSL events occurred in 319 observation nights during 2009˜2011. All DSL events were observed in spring and summer. The SeSL appeared independently within the altitude range from 105 km to 130 km. The density of the SeSL is very high. The maximum ratio of peak density and the ratio of column density for the SeSL to the normal sodium layer are up to ˜60% and ˜47%, respectively. The SeSL lasted several hours, and then merged into the normal sodium layer. After the SeSL, a sporadic sodium layer occurred in the normal sodium layer.

Wang, Jihong; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Guotao; Song, Shalei; Gong, Shunsheng

2012-08-01

179

Effects of potassium lactate, sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the effects of potassium lactate (KL), sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks. Enhancement solutions (8.5% pump) contained combinations of KL (0% or 1.5%), sodium chloride (0.3% or 0.6%), sodium tripolyphosphate (0% or 0.3%), and sodium acetate (0% or 0.1%). Steaks were packaged in a

R. C. Knock; M. Seyfert; M. C. Hunt; M. E. Dikeman; R. A. Mancini; J. A. Unruh; J. J. Higgins; R. A. Monderen

2006-01-01

180

The design and operation of some pumps for sodium and sodium-potassium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives a description of some designs, testing results, and operational experience of centrifugal and electromagnetic pumps for sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. During the past two years these pumps have been used in experimental and semiindustrial plant.

P. L. Kirillov; V. A. Kuznetsov; N. M. Turchin; Yu. M. Fedoseev

1960-01-01

181

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

182

Sodium nightglow measurements and implications on the sodium photochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nightglow measurements made at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2 deg S) with a tilting filter photometer over a period of two years show that on the average the intensities reach a minimum close to local midnight. Between midnight and dawn the intensity remains fairly constant or increases slightly. The most consistent feature is the premidnight decrease in intensity. Seasonal variations show peak intensities at the equinoxes, the stronger one occurring in autumn. In a few cases the nocturnal variation does not follow the average trend, showing rather strong peaks in intensity which have been related to dynamic effects. Calculations based on the photochemistry described require the reaction rate for Na plus O3 yielding NaO(asterisk) plus O2 to be much larger than the rate for the analogous hydrogen reaction, in agreement with a recent suggestion in the literature that the above reaction proceeds through the so-called electron jump mechanisms.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.

1979-04-01

183

Lack of effect of specific sodium hunger on learned aversions to sodium and sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frumkin (1975) reported that sodium-deficient rats fail to learn taste aversions to NaCl. However, those rats were sodium-deficient\\u000a at the time of testing as well as at the time of training; any learned aversion could have been masked by a strong sodium\\u000a hunger. Rats were made temporarily sodium-hungry by injections of Formalin or aldosterone. They were then poisoned after drinking

Ava M. Trent; James W. Kalat

1977-01-01

184

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

185

Sodium supplementation is not required to maintain serum sodium concentrations during an Ironman triathlon  

PubMed Central

Context Critical assessment of recommendations that athletes consume additional sodium during athletic events. Objective To evaluate if sodium supplementation is necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations during prolonged endurance activity and prevent the development of hyponatraemia. Design Prospective randomised trial of athletes receiving sodium (620?mg table salt), placebo (596?mg starch), or no supplementation during a triathlon. The sodium and placebo tablets were taken ad libitum, with the suggested range of 1–4 per hour. Setting The 2001 Cape Town Ironman triathlon (3.8?km swim, 180?km cycle, 42.2?km run). Subjects A total of 413 triathletes completing the Ironman race. Main outcome measures Sodium supplementation was not necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations in athletes completing an Ironman triathlon nor required to prevent hyponatraemia from occurring in athletes who did not ingest supplemental sodium during the race. Results Subjects in the sodium supplementation group ingested an additional 3.6 (2.0)?g (156 (88)?mmol) sodium during the race (all values are mean (SD)). There were no significant differences between the sodium, placebo, and no supplementation groups with regard to age, finishing time, serum sodium concentration before and after the race, weight before the race, weight change during the race, and rectal temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after the race. The sodium supplementation group consumed 14.7 (8.3) tablets, and the placebo group took 15.8 (10.1) tablets (p ?=? 0.55; NS). Conclusions Ad libitum sodium supplementation was not necessary to preserve serum sodium concentrations in athletes competing for about 12?hours in an Ironman triathlon. The Institute of Medicine's recommended daily adequate intake of sodium (1.5?g/65?mmol) seems sufficient for a healthy person without further need to supplement during athletic activity.

Hew-Butler, T D; Sharwood, K; Collins, M; Speedy, D; Noakes, T

2006-01-01

186

Sodium recycling at Europa: what do we learn from the sodium cloud variability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the ejection of sodium atoms from Europa's surface by both magnetospheric ion and electron sputtering and desorption stimulated by UV solar photons. The depletion of the surface by ejection and its enrichment by redeposition of sodium atoms are described. The redistribution of sodium atoms at the surface induced by photo-stimulated desorption from the dayside and by sputtering ejection

F. Cipriani; F. Leblanc; O. Witasse; R. E. Johnson

2008-01-01

187

Optimization of Sodium Removal in Paired Filtration Dialysis by Single Pool Sodium and Conductivity Kinetic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium removal is one of the main factors affecting intradialytic cardiovascular stability and interdialytic hypertension, and its removal should therefore be individualized. The aims of this study were: (1) to test the ability of a single-pool variable volume (SPVV) sodium kinetic model (NaKM) to optimize sodium removal in paired filtration dialysis (PFD), and (2) to test a SPVV conductivity kinetic

Salvatore Di Filippo; Mauro Corti; Simeone Andrulli; Giuseppe Pontoriero; Celestina Manzoni; Francesco Locatelli

1997-01-01

188

Sodium technology. Sodium removal and decontamination of components. Progress report, January-March 1976. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project has several tasks, each with its own specific objectives. One of these tasks is the Sodium Removal Process Development; the first objective of which is to devise, develop, test and evaluate techniques for sodium removal from test specimens and components by the reaction of sodium with alcohol. As a part of the alcohol process development, the following activities

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele; E. Hill

1976-01-01

189

The use of sodium ?-alumina for controlling the rate of sodium addition to aluminium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium, when added at concentrations of 30–200 ppm, can be used to modify the microstructure and properties of a number of aluminium alloys. This has traditionally been achieved by physically adding a sodium rich alloy or flux to the melt. However, this method suffers from considerable inefficiency since much of the sodium burns or evaporates on the surface of the

G. Doughty; D. J. Fray; C. Van Der Poorten; J. DeKeyser

1996-01-01

190

Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

1990-03-01

191

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted dietâ. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2013-04-01

192

Experience on Sodium Removal from Various Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptions are presented for studies on the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO''; alcohol cl...

M. Kamei M. Kanbe H. Yagisawa S. Saasaki H. Kataoka

1978-01-01

193

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of...

2013-04-01

194

Stability and phase transition of sodium nanoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, structural transformation and some thermodynamic processes of sodium nanoclusters were studied using classic molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation. These sodium nanoclusters cover cuboctahedra, amorphous, and multi-twinned particles ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers in size. The simulation results indicate different stability regions for different structures and small differences of both melting

H. B Liu; R Perez; G Canizal; J. A Ascencio

2002-01-01

195

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

196

Simulations of mesospheric sodium guidestar radiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report will describe the progress towards modeling the radiance of a mesospheric atomic sodium guidestar pumped with a continuous-wave, narrow-linewidth source. We will model the cases of pumping only the D2a line and pumping both the D2a and D2b lines simultaneously. The simulation is named the sodium guidestar simulation or SGS.

Telle, John; Drummond, Jack; Hillman, Paul; Denman, Craig

2008-02-01

197

Some Reactions of Monosilane with Metallic Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In contrast to monogermane, which reacts with sodium dissolved in liquid ammonia to yield a compound NaGeH sub 2 , monosilane is ammonolyzed with formation of silicidiimide. Under dry conditions, SiH sub 4 reacts with finely divided sodium to yield the si...

P. Hagenmuller M. Pouchard

1964-01-01

198

No Sodium in Enceladus' Vapor Plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of water vapor and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fueled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. The presence or absence of sodium chloride salt, expected in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core, offers clues. While sodium has been

N. M. Schneider; M. H. Burger; R. E. Johnson; J. S. Kargel; E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown; M. Dougherty; N. Achilleos

2009-01-01

199

Salt waste volume reduction by sodium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature searcha nd preliminary experiments were carried out to ; determine the feasibility of reducing salt waste volumes by the removal of sodium ; and purifying the sodium as metal for reuse or less restricted storage for use in ; the long-term storage of Hanford's radioactive salt waste. Included in the ; experimental part of the study were oxalate

L. L. Burger; J. L. Ryan; J. L. Swanson; L. A. Bray

1973-01-01

200

Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering

L. K. Huntsman; R. H. Meservey

1979-01-01

201

Liquid sodium model of Earth's outer core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth's outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of Earth's outer core. Heat transfer, zonal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates O and temperature drops DeltaT across the convecting sodium.

Woodrow Shew

2004-01-01

202

Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800

McCown

1983-01-01

203

Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*  

PubMed Central

Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl.

Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

1973-01-01

204

Process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct by the electrochemical formation of sodium ferrate  

SciTech Connect

Described is a process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct with sodium ferrate in a divided-type electrolysis cell. The anolyte chamber of the cell is charged with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and a sodium ferrate-stabilizing proportion of at least one sodium halide salt. The anolyte chamber additionally contains ferric ions (Fe(III)). The catholyte chamber contains an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution during operation. The source of ferric ion in the anolyte may be either an iron-containing anode or at least one iron-containing compound present in the anolyte solution or both. The preferred material separating the anolyte chamber from the catholyte chamber is comprised of a gas- and hydraulic-impermeable, ionically-conductive, chemically-stable ionomeric film (e.g., a cation-exchange membrane with carboxylic, sulfonic or other inorganic exchange sites). Sodium ferrate is prepared in the anolyte chamber by passing an electric current and impressing a voltage between the anode and cathode of the cell. During electrolysis, sodium ferrate forms in the aqueous sodium hydroxide anolyte. This anolyte is reacted with a calcium compound to produce a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct. Alternatively the sodium ferrate may be first recovered in a solid form and then reacted with a calcium compound to produce said adduct.

Deininger, J.P.; Dotson, R.L.

1984-05-29

205

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2010-01-01

206

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2009-04-01

207

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions...preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and...

2010-01-01

208

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions...preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and...

2009-04-01

209

Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes.

McDermott, M.D.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1997-09-01

210

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. 173.325 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives § 173.325 Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. Acidified sodium chlorite solutions may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

211

21 CFR 172.826 - Sodium stearyl fumarate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium stearyl fumarate. 172.826 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.826 Sodium stearyl fumarate. Sodium stearyl fumarate may be safely used in food...

2013-04-01

212

21 CFR 522.144 - Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection. 522.144 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.144 Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection. (a) Chemical name...Carbamoylphenyl) arsylene]dithio diacetic acid, sodium salt. (b) Specifications....

2013-04-01

213

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the...

2013-04-01

214

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are...

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 522.2404 - Thialbarbitone sodium for injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Thialbarbitone sodium for injection. 522.2404 Section...DRUGS § 522.2404 Thialbarbitone sodium for injection. (a) Specifications. Thialbarbitone sodium for injection when reconstituted...

2013-04-01

216

21 CFR 522.2444a - Sodium thiopental for injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental for injection. 522...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444a Sodium thiopental for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains sodium thiopental sterile powder for...

2013-04-01

217

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

218

21 CFR 172.846 - Sodium stearoyl lactylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium stearoyl lactylate. 172.846 Section...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.846 Sodium stearoyl lactylate. The food additive sodium stearoyl lactylate (CAS Reg. No....

2013-04-01

219

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pentobarbital injection. 522.1704...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1704 Sodium pentobarbital injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Sodium pentobarbital injection is sterile...

2013-04-01

221

21 CFR 522.468 - Colistimethate sodium powder for injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Colistimethate sodium powder for injection. 522.468 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.468 Colistimethate sodium powder for injection. (a) Specifications . Each vial contains colistimethate sodium equivalent to 10 grams colistin...

2013-04-01

222

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

2013-04-01

223

21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

224

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

225

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

226

21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

227

Electrochemical Concentration and Purification of Spent Sodium Bicarbonate Blasting Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electr...

R. D. Levy R. E. Hicks H. Gold

1995-01-01

228

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

2013-04-01

229

46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065 ...Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system that...

2012-10-01

230

46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065 ...Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system that...

2011-10-01

231

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74 Section 101.74 Food...101.74 Health claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood pressure)....

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74 Section 101.74 Food...101.74 Health claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood pressure)....

2009-04-01

233

Sodium Bicarbonate in Chemical Flooding: Part 1: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil re...

D. A. Peru P. B. Lorenz

1987-01-01

234

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

235

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

236

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

237

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

2009-04-01

238

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19

239

Factors Contributing to the Breakdown of Sodium beta-Alumina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350 exp 0 C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline ...

A. C. Buechele

1982-01-01

240

78 FR 40505 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1110 (Review)] Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate from China would be...Publication 4410 (June 2013), entitled Sodium Hexametaphosphate from China:...

2013-07-05

241

76 FR 17026 - New Animal Drugs; Arsanilate Sodium; Sulfaethoxypyridazine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs; Arsanilate Sodium; Sulfaethoxypyridazine AGENCY: Food...sections pertaining to use of arsanilate sodium and sulfaethoxypyridazine in medicated...describe conditions of use for arsanilate sodium and sulfaethoxypyridazine in...

2011-03-28

242

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

243

Mechanisms for sodium insertion in carbon materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis details the mechanisms for sodium insertion into different carbons using both electrochemical and vapour techniques. Room temperature electrochemical measurements were completed to examine the insertion and removal of sodium from soft (graphitizable) and nanoporous hard (non-graphitizable) carbons prepared by the heat treatment of organic precursors to a range of temperatures. The mechanisms identified from these studies were further investigated through a series of in situ x-ray scattering studies on operating electrochemical cells. The results obtained were then compared with x-ray scattering measurements on carbons after exposure to sodium vapour at 890C. This work is primarily driven by the aluminium industry's need to understand how sodium insertion causes carbon cathode blocks in aluminium reduction cells to swell. The results obtained are also of relevance to the lithium-ion battery field as they help to verify mechanisms proposed in the literature for lithium insertion into carbon hosts. Some carbons were also identified that could accommodate large amounts of sodium, making them attractive candidates for anodes in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. For soft carbons, the results showed that both sodium and lithium insert between approximately parallel carbon layers along the sloping voltage region of the electrochemical curves, increasing the average interlayer spacing. The sodium and lithium capacities decreased with increasing carbon heat treatment temperature. For the soft carbons studied, the sodium capacity was found to be consistently lower than the lithium capacity, implying that some lithium-accessible sites were unavailable for sodium insertion. The electrochemical profiles for the hard carbons also contained capacity along a sloping voltage region and, as with the soft carbons, this was shown to result from the insertion of sodium and lithium between approximately parallel carbon layers. In contrast to the soft carbons, however, the electrochemical profiles for the hard carbons also exhibited significant capacity along low voltage plateaus at chemical potentials close to the chemical potential of the metal. An in situ small angle x-ray scattering experimental method was therefore developed to examine changes in scattering from the nanopores during sodium and lithium insertion/removal. The results from this technique clearly showed that the low voltage plateau capacity resulted from the insertion of sodium and lithium into nanopores in the carbon.

Stevens, David Andrew

244

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

245

Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake  

PubMed Central

Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs.

Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

2013-01-01

246

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallizat...

A. L. Schiozer

1994-01-01

247

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive...and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive...and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture...

2013-04-01

248

Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.  

PubMed

Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

2013-04-01

249

Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

S. E. Bays

2007-09-01

250

Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion  

SciTech Connect

Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until {approximately}64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s).

Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1988-09-01

251

Engineering developments for sodium heat engine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report preliminary results of testing and analysis of the stresses induced in tubular beta-double prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) membranes as used in sodium heat engine (SHE) cells due to thermal gradients, neutral sodium absorption in the surfaces and bulk material and residual stresses remaining from tube manufacture. The authors report results from experiments conducted on a recirculating single tube vapor-fed cell module operated continuously under load for 850. The electromagnetic pump system used to recirculate the sodium working fluid for this test cell was redesigned and its performance is also discussed.

Hunt, T. K.; Pantolin, J.; Sievers, R. K.; Kummer, J. T.; Novak, Robert F.

252

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01

253

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01

254

Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium.

Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

1981-01-01

255

Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry. PMID:16460187

Nemec, Tomás; Marsík, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald A

2006-01-28

256

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

257

Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

1982-03-01

258

Consumer Acceptance of Foods Lower in Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the magnitude of sodium reduction that can be made without significantly hanging the perception of saltiness and acceptability of a broad range of common food tems. The investigation was carried out in two phases. Military and civilian volunteer...

S. O. Adams O. Maller A. V. Cardello

1995-01-01

259

Neuronal Sodium Channels in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH PROJECT IS TO STUDY THE ROLE OF NEURONAL SODIUM CHANNELS IN MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL INJURY, NEURODEGENERATION AND NEUROPROTECTION. The primary objective of this research project is to characterize the expression, and study the f...

F. Tortella

2001-01-01

260

The Absorption Spectrum of Sodium Vapor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures and discussion of an experiment to be used in an undergraduate course in spectroscopy are presented. The experiment involves the measurement of the absorption spectrum of sodium vapor. (DT)

Ashby, R. A.; Gotthard, H. W.

1974-01-01

261

Neuronal Sodium Channels in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project is to study the role of neuronal sodium channels in mechanisms of neuronal injury neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection. The primary objective of this research project is to characterize the expression, and study the ...

F. C. Tortella

2002-01-01

262

The sodium exosphere and magnetosphere of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the recent optical discovery of intense sodium D-line emission from Mercury, the scenario of an extended exosphere of sodium and other metallic atoms is explored. It is shown that the strong effect of solar radiation pressure acceleration would permit the escape of Na atoms from Mercury's surface even if they are ejected at a velocity lower than the surface escape velocity. Fast photoionization of the Na atoms is effective in limiting the tailward extension of the sodium exosphere, however. The subsequent loss of the photoions to the magnetosphere could be a significant source of the magnetospheric plasma. The recirculation of the magnetospheric charged particles to the planetary surface could also play an important role in maintaining an extended sodium exosphere as well as a magnetosphere of sputtered metallic ions.

Ip, W.-H.

1986-05-01

263

Sodium and sulfur chemistry in combustion gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present work the chemistry of sodium and sulfur in flue gas are examined with respect to deposit formation and corrosion effects. Measurements, industrial as well as laboratory, constitute the basis of the treatment. In the theoretical consideratio...

R. Backman

1989-01-01

264

Dynamic Nuclear Enhancement in Metallic Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A double-resonance spectrometer was constructed capable of making accurate measurements of all the dynamical variables expressed in the master equation governing the time evolution of the dynamic nuclear enhancement of a single sodium sample. TThis system...

J. F. Reichert J. Townsend

1964-01-01

265

21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3739 Sodium...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3766 Sodium...

2013-04-01

269

21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium...

2013-04-01

270

21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite...that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of...

2013-04-01

271

21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3733 Sodium...

2013-04-01

272

21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite...it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of...

2013-04-01

273

21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite...that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of...

2013-04-01

274

21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium...

2013-04-01

276

Summary of HEDL Sodium Fire Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged i...

R. K. Hillard

1978-01-01

277

Table of Approved Levothyroxine Sodium Oral Formulations ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Levothroid, levothyroxine sodium, Lloyd (distributed by Forest). ... Transparency; Website Policies. FDA. US Food and ... 463-6332) Email FDA. USA.gov; E ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

278

The Reaction of Hexafluorobenzene with Sodium Azide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium azide was found to react with hexafluorobenzene in dimethylsulfoxide solution to yield two major products and one minor product. On the basis of infrared, ultraviolet and nmr spectra, elemental analysis, molecular weight, and catalytic hydrogenatio...

J. G. Morse L. P. Kuhn

1970-01-01

279

Prediction of Sodium Concentration in Lignite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prediction models were constructed for seam elevation, overburden, and sodium concentration for a lignite deposit in Ward County, N. Dak. These models were developed by mathematical-statistical techniques using surface coordinates as independent variables...

M. Gomez K. Hazen E. A. Sondreal

1970-01-01

280

The vibrational spectra and structures of sodium nitromethane and sodium 2-nitropropane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrared spectra of sodium nitromethane and sodium 2-nitropropane have been studied between 4000 and 450 cm-1. The Raman spectrum of an aqueous solution of sodium 2-nitropropane has also been studied and polarization measurements obtained. The results show that both compounds can be interpreted in terms of the molecular structures [CH2--NO2]- Na+ and [(CH3)2C--NO2]- Na+, respectively, with a small amount

Neville Jonathan

1961-01-01

281

Determination of the sodium activity in aluminum and aluminum silicon alloys using sodium beta alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a sodium beta alumina probe for the determination of the sodium activity in molten aluminum alloys is\\u000a described. It was found that the emf at a given sodium concentration was a strong function of the silicon content. Henry’s\\u000a law was obeyed in super purity aluminum and the activity coefficient of 350 at 998 K agrees with other

R. J. Brisley; D. J. Fray

1983-01-01

282

Subthreshold Sodium Current from Rapidly Inactivating Sodium Channels Drives Spontaneous Firing of Tuberomammillary Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role for “persistent,” subthreshold, TTX-sensitive sodium current in driving the pacemaking of many central neurons has been proposed, but this has been impossible to test pharmacologically. Using isolated tuberomammillary neurons, we assessed the role of subthreshold sodium current in pacemaking by performing voltage-clamp experiments using a cell's own pacemaking cycle as voltage command. TTX-sensitive sodium current flows throughout the

Abraha Taddese; Bruce P. Bean

2002-01-01

283

The sodium\\/metal chloride battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium\\/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature

R. M. dell; R. J. Bones

1987-01-01

284

Temporal variation of Mercury's sodium density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury has a thin atmosphere. In the past, Mercury has been observed by Mariner 10 and MESSENGER, and ground-based observations have also been carried out. H, He, O, Na, Mg, K, and Ca were detected in its atmosphere. Solar-photon-stimulated desorption, sputtering by impacting solar particles, and meteoroid vaporization are considered to be the source processes of Mercury's exosphere. However, the primary process among these three processes is unknown as yet. The resonance scattering constitutes exospheric emission. The NaD emission is well suited for study by ground-based observations because of its high intensity. Past observations have shown that the temporal variation and north-south asymmetry of intensity of sodium emission. We have observed Mercury's sodium exosphere at the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii since April 2011. The observations were performed using a 40 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, a high-dispersion spectrograph, and a CCD camera. We determined the temporal variation of the sodium density using the observational data. It is possible that the temporal variation of the sodium density is caused by variation of solar wind magnetic field if solar wind ion sputtering is the primary source process of Mercury's exosphere. To verify this assumption, we checked the temporal variation of solar wind magnetic field observed by MESSENGER, and then we compared these variations with our observational result. CMEs toward Mercury probably cause the increase of the sodium density. Potter et al. (1999) suggested that the total amount of sodium on Mercury increased monotonically during several days of observation after CMEs occurred on the same side of the Sun as Mercury. We observed Mercury's sodium exosphere on November 23, 2011 when MESSENGER observed variation of solar wind magnetic field, which indicated CMEs arrived at Mercury. However, our results have not shown large variation of the sodium density like that of Potter et al. (1999). From these results, we discuss the source processes of Mercury's exosphere.

Fusegawa, Ayaka; Dairoku, Hayato; Kameda, Shingo; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

2013-04-01

285

Experimental determination of sodium evaporation rates. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium evaporation rates from Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center-NALA experiments (experiments on aerosol release from a contaminated sodium pool into an argon or a nitrogen atmosphere) are presented. Pool temperatures were varied between 700 and 1000 K at different geometrical and convective conditions. Technical scale experiments with a 531-cm² pool surface area were performed at natural convection in a 2.2-m³ heated

W. Schuetz; H. Sauter

1982-01-01

286

Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

287

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate inactivation of aminoglycosides.  

PubMed

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate and another polyanion (dextran sulfate) both inhibited aminoglycoside activity in vitro. This effect was not produced by an otherwise similar neutral carbohydrate (dextran) or by neutral detergents (Brij-35, Triton X-100) but was antagonized by an anion-exchange resin (Dowex 1X8-50). We conclude that the inactivation of aminoglycosides by sodium polyanethol sulfonate results from its polyanionic nature and is unrelated to its detergent properties. PMID:6169306

Krogstad, D J; Murray, P R; Granich, G G; Niles, A C; Ladenson, J H; Davis, J E

1981-08-01

288

Polarization measurements in sodium-sulfur cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on measurements of discharge polarization in 40 Ah sodium-sulfur cells that have been performed. The voltage relaxation rate as a function of state of charge was monitored over a period of several hours. Relaxations of the order of seconds were determined using an ac impedance technique. The data were combined to construct an impedance model of a sodium-sulfur cell which includes a Warburg term which varies as a function of state of charge.

Johnson, P.J. (Chloride Silent Power, Ltd., Runcorn, Cheshire WA7 1PZ (GB)); Koening, A.A. (Beta Power, Inc., Wayne, PA (US))

1990-04-01

289

Sodium intercalation into WO2Cl2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium has been intercalated into the layered host WO2Cl2. This has been achieved using a new chemical intercalating agent, the di-t-butylphenoxide, Na-O-2,6-But2C6H3, which is easily prepared and may be stored until required. Up to one sodium per formula unit has been inserted and two new phases identified. Possible structural models for the new phases are discussed.

Bruce, P. G.; Nowinski, J.; Gibson, V. C.; Hauptman, Z. V.; Shaw, A.

1990-11-01

290

NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than +/-0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

2013-09-01

291

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

Reynolds, J. G.; Bernards, J. K. [Washington Group International, 1779 Terminal Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01

292

Ion transport in proximal colon of the rat. Sodium depletion stimulates neutral sodium chloride absorption.  

PubMed Central

The model of sodium and chloride transport proposed for the colon is based on studies performed in the distal segment and tacitly assumes that ion transport is similar throughout the colon. In rat distal colon, neutral sodium-chloride absorption accounts for the major fraction of overall sodium absorption and aldosterone stimulates electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Since we have demonstrated qualitative differences in potassium transport in proximal and distal segments of rat colon, unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated proximal colon of control and sodium-depleted rats with secondary hyperaldosteronism. In the control group, net sodium absorption (JNanet) (7.4 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2) was greater than Isc (1.4 +/- 0.1 mu eq/h . cm2), and JClnet was 0 in Ringer solution. Residual flux (JR) was -5.2 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2 consistent with hydrogen ion secretion suggesting that neutral sodium absorption may represent sodium-hydrogen exchange. 1 mM mucosal amiloride, which inhibits sodium-hydrogen exchange in other epithelia, produced comparable decreases in JNanet and JR (4.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively) without a parallel fall in Isc. Sodium depletion stimulated JNanet, JClnet, and Isc by 7.0 +/- 1.4, 6.3 +/- 1.9, and 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, and 1 mM amiloride markedly inhibited JNanet and JClnet by 6.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.0 +/- 1.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, with only a minimal reduction in Isc. Conclusions: the predominant neutral sodium-absorptive mechanism in proximal colon is sodium-hydrogen exchange. Sodium depletion stimulates electroneutral chloride-dependent sodium absorption (most likely as a result of increasing sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchanges), not electrogenic chloride-independent sodium transport. The model of ion transport in the proximal colon is distinct from that of the distal colon.

Foster, E S; Budinger, M E; Hayslett, J P; Binder, H J

1986-01-01

293

Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A. [UNAM (Mexico)] [and others

1995-11-01

294

Inhibition of active sodium transport by radiographic contrast media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of active sodium transport by radiographic contrast media. We demonstrate that salts of diatrizoate and iothalamate, radiographic contrast agents, depress the active transport of sodium in the urinary bladder of the Columbian toad, Bufo marinus. Isolated toad bladders were incubated in isotonic Ringer's solutions with isosmolar displacement of sodium chloride by contrast media in experimental solutions. Sodium transport as

Thomas W Ziegler; James H Ludens; Darrell D Fanestil; Lee B Talner

1975-01-01

295

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

296

U. S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing  

SciTech Connect

Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered. (DLC)

Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

1982-05-01

297

Chemical sputtering could produce sodium vapor and ice on Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that chemical sputtering of surface rocks by protons from the Mercury magnetosphere can yield sodium vapor more efficiently than physical sputtering, thus lowering the required sodium concentration in surface rocks. Chemical sputtering can also yield sodium vapor having a relatively low kinetic temperature, in agreement with observation. Water vapor is produced in addition to sodium vapor. It

A. E. Potter

1995-01-01

298

Sodium pool combustion test Run-F7 (Interim report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supposing sodium leak accident from a IHTS pipe in FBR, sodium pool combustion test Run-F7 series is under way to know liner peak temperature and to study sodium pool growth and combustion behavior in the case of small-scale sodium leaks (0.01 ton/hr) in ...

S. Futagami M. Nishimura K. Kawata H. Ishikawa S. Miyahara

1998-01-01

299

How to Follow a Low-Sodium Diet  

MedlinePLUS

Introduction - Following a Low-Sodium Diet with Heart Failure It is important to decrease the amount of sodium you eat when you have heart failure, because ... causes the body to hold on to extra sodium. The sodium causes extra fluid to build up ...

300

21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...crystallization of sodium carbonate in an amount not to...Act: (1) Sodium carbonate produced in accordance...of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene...

2009-04-01

301

21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...crystallization of sodium carbonate in an amount not to...Act: (1) Sodium carbonate produced in accordance...of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene...

2010-01-01

302

Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor  

PubMed Central

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability.

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

2011-01-01

303

Lunar Sodium Exosphere Measured By Selene (kaguya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is known to have a surface-bounded exosphere, that is, a collision-free tenuous atmosphere. Although many ground-based observations have been conducted under different conditions of source candidates, continuous observations from the ground covering the whole lunar phase have been difficult because of strong reflected sunlight and geometrical constraints. Observations from a lunar orbiter, however, would be free of the constraints of ground-based observations. The present study presents the results of continuous observations of the sodium exosphere from the same lunar polar orbiter over a period of six months. Observations of the lunar sodium exosphere were conducted from December 2008 through June 2009 using the UPI-TVIS (UPI: upper atmosphere and plasma imager; TVIS: telescope for visible light) instrument onboard the Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya). Variations in line-of-sight integrated intensity measured on the night-side hemisphere of the Moon could be described as a spherical symmetric distribution of the sodium exosphere with a temperature of 2400 to 6000 K. The average surface density in February is well above that in the other months, namely, by 30%. As for variation depending on lunar-phase angle, the sodium density gradually decreased by about 20% from the first to the last quarters during each lunar cycle, although any clear indication of changes in sodium density caused by the Moon's passages through the Earth's magnetotail could not be seen. One of the possible explanations for such a density decay in a half lunar cycle is an inhomogeneous source distribution of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) on the lunar surface. If a sodium-rich region exists on the surface around ? = 90 ± 90 degrees, increased release of sodium atoms by PSD will explain the observed result.

Kagitani, Masato; Taguchi, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kameda, S.; Okano, S.

2010-10-01

304

Modeling the Sodium Atmosphere of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are preliminary results obtained using a 3D gas kinetic simulation of the Moon’s sodium atmosphere. We model the evolution of the atmosphere by considering the dynamics of the Moon-Earth-Sun system. To this end, the NASA SPICE toolkit is incorporated into the model to accurately calculate body orientations, velocities and rotation states. This information is used for calculation of source rates, solar radiation pressure and gravitational acceleration, and to account for collisions of sodium atoms with the Earth. In the model, micrometeoroids deliver sodium to the lunar surface, and the atmosphere is produced by thermal desorption (TD), solar wind sputtering (SWS), impact vaporization (IV) and photon simulated desorption (PSD). The recycling and loss of atmospheric sodium due to PSD and SWS redistribute the sodium content of the surface and atmosphere supplied by IV. Because PSD is the dominant source process, the maximum of the injection flux and surface density occurs at the sub-solar point. The model is used to simulate ground-based observations of the exosphere and tail, for comparison. We model the dynamics of the system to examine time variation of sodium production rates, surface density and exospheric morphology in relation to the Moon’s changing heliocentric distance. In addition, we study the effect of PSD from a regolith versus a smooth surface on exospheric morphology. Finally, the model is used to analyze the effect of Earth’s gravity on the extended sodium tail during new moon phase. This work was supported by grant NNX11AB24G from the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Program.

Tucker, Orenthal; Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Sarantos, M.

2012-10-01

305

Direct Determination of Sodium Fluoride and Sodium Monofluorophosphate in Toothpaste by Quantitative 19F-NMR: A Green Analytical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate are often used as fluoridizers in oral care products to prevent dental caries. By quantitative F-NMR, their contents in toothpaste were simultaneously determined. This is a simple, fast, interference-free, and green analytical method for the determination of sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate in toothpaste.

Dongli Deng; Pengchi Deng; Xiaoyan Wang; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

306

Sodium Stimulates Growth of Panicum coloratum through Enhanced Photosynthesis.  

PubMed

A sodium-requiring C(4) plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate ((14)CO(2) fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application. PMID:16667386

Matoh, T; Murata, S

1990-04-01

307

Sodium Stimulates Growth of Panicum coloratum through Enhanced Photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

A sodium-requiring C4 plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate (14CO2 fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application.

Matoh, Toru; Murata, Shinji

1990-01-01

308

Sodium titanate nanotubes as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion capacitors.  

PubMed

The lithium-based energy storage technology is currently being considered for electric automotive industry and even electric grid storage. However, the hungry demand for vast energy sources in the modern society will conflict with the shortage of lithium resources on the earth. The first alternative choice may be sodium-related materials. Herein, we propose an electric energy storage system (sodium-ion capacitor) based on porous carbon and sodium titanate nanotubes (Na-TNT, Na(+)-insertion compounds) as positive and negative electrode materials, respectively, in conjunction with Na(+)-containing non-aqueous electrolytes. As a low-voltage (0.1-2 V) sodium insertion nanomaterial, Na-TNT was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction. Compared with bulk sodium titanate, the predominance of Na-TNT is the excellent rate performance, which exactly caters to the need for electrochemical capacitors. The sodium-ion capacitors exhibited desirable energy density and power density (34 Wh kg(-1), 889 W kg(-1)). Furthermore, the sodium-ion capacitors had long cycling life (1000 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (? 98 % after the second cycle). More importantly, the conception of sodium-ion capacitor has been put forward. PMID:22500466

Yin, Jiao; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

2012-04-18

309

UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L.

Keizo Arihara; Makoto Itoh

2000-01-01

310

Sodium acetate as a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in medical toxicology: a review.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate is central to the treatment of many poisonings. When it was placed on the FDA drug shortage list in 2012, alternative treatment strategies to specific poisonings were considered. Many hospital pharmacies, poison centers, and medical toxicologists proposed sodium acetate as an adequate alternative, despite a paucity of data to support its use in medical toxicology. The intention of this review is to educate the clinician on the use of sodium acetate and to advise them on the potential adverse events when given in excess. We conducted a literature search focused on the pharmacology of sodium acetate, its use as a buffer in pathologic acidemia and dialysis baths, and potential adverse events associated with excess sodium acetate infusion. It appears safe to replace sodium bicarbonate infusion with sodium acetate on an equimolar basis. The metabolism of acetate, however, is more complex than bicarbonate. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm the efficacy of sodium acetate in the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:23636658

Neavyn, Mark J; Boyer, Edward W; Bird, Steven B; Babu, Kavita M

2013-09-01

311

Early Responses of Sodium-Deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. Plants to Sodium Application.  

PubMed

Effects of sodium application on sodium-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor seedlings were studied. Thirty-day-old A. tricolor seedlings grown without sodium received either 0.5 millimolar of NaCl or KCl, and the changes in the growth rate, chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and dark-oxygen consumption, and some enzyme activities were compared. Following the sodium treatment, the sodium concentration in the leaves increased from the initial value of 0.4 millimolar to 2 to 3 millimolar within 24 hours, and also the relative growth rate and O(2) evolution were enhanced within 24 hours. The stimulation of O(2) evolution was greater in the upper leaves than in the lower leaves. Although total chlorophyll concentration did not increase significantly, the increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio was apparent within 24 hours. There were not significant increases in the C(4) photosynthetic enzyme activities; however, nitrate reductase activity increased by 350% by the sodium treatment within 24 hours, and this increase is considered not to be one of the consequences of the improved photosynthesis. Results suggest that the sodium treatment promoted CO(2) and nitrate assimilation resulting in the growth enhancement, and that sodium can be involved in some other functions than C(4) photosynthesis in A. tricolor plants. PMID:16665382

Ohta, D; Matoh, T; Takahashi, E

1987-05-01

312

Sodium technology. Sodium removal and decontamination of components. Progress report, July-September 1975. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium (Na) removal from test specimens and components by the reaction of sodium with alcohol. As a prat of the alcohol process development, the following activities will be investigated (1) reaction rate studies, (2) process control and repeatability, control and inspection technique development, and (5) alcohol-Na

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele; E. Hill

1975-01-01

313

Early Responses of Sodium-Deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. Plants to Sodium Application  

PubMed Central

Effects of sodium application on sodium-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor seedlings were studied. Thirty-day-old A. tricolor seedlings grown without sodium received either 0.5 millimolar of NaCl or KCl, and the changes in the growth rate, chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and dark-oxygen consumption, and some enzyme activities were compared. Following the sodium treatment, the sodium concentration in the leaves increased from the initial value of 0.4 millimolar to 2 to 3 millimolar within 24 hours, and also the relative growth rate and O2 evolution were enhanced within 24 hours. The stimulation of O2 evolution was greater in the upper leaves than in the lower leaves. Although total chlorophyll concentration did not increase significantly, the increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio was apparent within 24 hours. There were not significant increases in the C4 photosynthetic enzyme activities; however, nitrate reductase activity increased by 350% by the sodium treatment within 24 hours, and this increase is considered not to be one of the consequences of the improved photosynthesis. Results suggest that the sodium treatment promoted CO2 and nitrate assimilation resulting in the growth enhancement, and that sodium can be involved in some other functions than C4 photosynthesis in A. tricolor plants.

Ohta, Daisaku; Matoh, Toru; Takahashi, Eiichi

1987-01-01

314

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

315

Reducing sodium intake from meat products.  

PubMed

Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt content at the 2% level do not have marked effects on shelf life of the products. By using salt mixtures, usually NaCl/KCl, the intake of sodium (NaCl) can be further reduced. PMID:22063751

Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

2005-03-03

316

Depression of fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog without sodium diuresis  

PubMed Central

The effect of infusions of hyperoncotic solutions on fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog was studied by the recollection micropuncture method. Tubule fluid to plasma inulin concentration ratios were measured for identified proximal tubule segments before and after infusion of 25% albumin or dextran solutions. Results were compared with changes in fractional reabsorption during saline diuresis. Plasma volume increased 66% ± SE 5.8 after infusion of albumin solution and 94% ± SE 8.2 after infusion of dextran solution. Fractional sodium reabosorption by the proximal tubule was depressed after infusion of both of these hyperoncotic solutions. Nevertheless, changes in sodium excretion after infusion of albumin and dextran were small. In contrast, after infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution, which increased plasma volume 61% ± SE 5.8, a decrease in fractional reabsorption of 50.7% ± SE 7.2 was associated with large changes in sodium excretion.

Howards, Stuart S.; Davis, Bernard B.; Knox, Franklyn G.; Wright, Fred S.; Berliner, Robert W.

1968-01-01

317

Abetimus: Abetimus sodium, LJP 394.  

PubMed

Abetimus [Abetimus sodium, LJP 394, Rentol, Riquent] is a synthetic Toleragen molecule consisting of four double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides attached to nonimmunogenic polyethylene glycol, a proprietary carrier platform. It was originated by La Jolla Pharmaceuticals. Abetimus is an immunomodulating agent that induces tolerance in B cells directed against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). It does this by cross-linking surface antibodies. These antibodies are thought to be responsible for lupus nephritis, a chronic kidney disease that develops in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A phase III trial of abetimus was completed in December 2002. La Jolla Pharmaceuticals previously established two licensing agreements for abetimus, which have since been terminated. One of the agreements was with Leo Pharmaceutical Products of Denmark. The company was licensed rights to abetimus covering Europe and the Middle East. The other agreement was with Abbott Laboratories. Abbott returned all rights to abetimus to La Jolla Pharmaceuticals in September 1999 based on the results of an analysis of the phase II/III trial of abetimus in lupus patients with a history of renal disease. A phase III trial, named "PEARL" (Program Enabling Antibody Reduction in Lupus), has been conducted in the US in patients with lupus nephritis. It enrolled 317 patients with a history of lupus who were treated with a weekly dose of abetimus 100mg or placebo. The trial was completed in December 2002 and preliminary results were reported in February 2003. PEARL was designed to determine whether abetimus can significantly delay renal flares and delay the need for treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and/or cyclophosphamide in patients with high affinity IgG antibodies to the double-stranded oligonucleotide epitope in abetimus. Patients with high-affinity antibodies, were selected using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based pharmacoproteonomics assay provided by Biacor International. Following the completion of PEARL in December 2002, La Jolla Pharmaceuticals initiated an on-going, open-label, follow-on trial. All patients who had completed PEARL were eligible to enroll and receive weekly treatment with abetimus. However, in April 2003, La Jolla Pharmaceuticals announced that it was closing this trial, which was designed to collect additional long-term safety data, to conserve resources for the continued development of the drug. Previously, La Jolla Pharmaceuticals and Abbott initiated a phase II/III trial of abetimus in more than 200 patients with lupus nephritis. However, this trial was discontinued in May 1999 because the primary end-point (time to renal flare) was much shorter than expected. After the trial was halted, further analysis of trial data using a new blood test to measure the strength of the binding between abetimus and a patient's antibodies to dsDNA was conducted. The additional analysis showed that the number of renal flares in the high-affinity patients (responders) treated with abetimus was less than half of the number of renal flares in high-affinity patients treated with placebo. Responders also showed a significant reduction in the use of high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. Being able to screen patients to identify those likely to respond to therapy lead La Jolla Pharmaceuticals to initiate PEARL after Abbott's withdrawal from the drug. It is believed that screening patients will help increase the cost-effectiveness of clinical development. In September 2000, the US FDA granted orphan drug status for abetimus in the treatment of lupus nephritis. The European Commission followed suit in November 2001, granting orphan drug status for abetimus in the EU. PMID:12749759

2003-01-01

318

Source dependency of exospheric sodium on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a large solar radiation effect, the sodium exosphere exhibits many interesting effects, including the formation of an extended corona and a tail-like structure. The current suite of observations allows us to study some physical properties of the sodium exosphere, such as the source rates and the interaction with the surface, both experimentally and theoretically. In order to quantify the complex variations in the sodium exosphere in more detail, we use an exospheric model with the Monte-Carlo method to examine the surface interactions of a sodium atom, including the surface thermal accommodation rate and the sticking coefficient. The source rates from different components, such as the photon stimulated desorption (PSD), the meteoroid impact vaporization (MIV), and the solar wind ion sputtering (IS), can be constrained by comparing our exospheric model calculations with the published observational data. The detected terminator to limb (TL) ratio on the disk and the tail production rate can be explained with no sticking effect and small thermal accommodation rates. We also examine the best fit of the MIV source evolution, through comparison with the disk-averaged emission. The resultant discrepancy between the observations and the model fit may reflect the surface variation in the sodium abundance. A comprehensive mapping of the surface geochemical composition of the surface by the MESSENGER and Bepi-Colombo missions should give us more information about the nature of this surface-bound exosphere.

Wang, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H.

2011-12-01

319

Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  

PubMed

Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2013-03-14

320

Buccal drug delivery of pravastatin sodium.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic(R) F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter, weight, pH, and drug content. A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. levels of carrageenan gum, Pluronic F 127 and PVP K30, which significantly influenced characteristics like in vitro mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, swelling index, and in vitro residence time. The tablet was coated with an impermeable backing layer of ethyl cellulose to ensure unidirectional drug release. Different penetration enhancers were tried to improve the permeation of pravastatin sodium through buccal mucosa. Formulation containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate showed good permeation of pravastatin sodium through mucosa. Histopathological studies revealed no buccal mucosal damage. It can be concluded that buccal route can be one of the alternatives available for the administration of pravastatin sodium. PMID:20300898

Shidhaye, Supriya S; Thakkar, Pritesh V; Dand, Neha M; Kadam, Vilasrao J

2010-03-19

321

Idraparinux sodium: SANORG 34006, SR 34006.  

PubMed

Idraparinux sodium [SANORG 34006, SR 34006], a synthetic, anti Xa pentasaccharide and analogue of SR 32701 and fondaparinux sodium, was in development with Sanofi (now Sanofi-Synthélabo) and Organon (Akzo Nobel) in Europe and the USA (now Sanofi-Synthélabo alone). It may have potential in the treatment and secondary prevention of thrombosis, especially deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Because of the long duration of action of idraparinux sodium, it may be suitable for once-weekly administration. In January 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo announced it was to acquire, before the end of the first quarter 2004, all the rights of Organon relating to idraparinux sodium, subject to approval of the regulatory authorities. Sanofi-Synthélabo is to make payments to Organon based on future sales. Idraparinux sodium has completed phase IIb development with the PERSIST study and it is in phase III clinical trials. In June 2003, Organon announced the initiation of pivotal phase III studies as a once-weekly treatment of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The AMADEUS study will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation while the Van Gogh PE, Van Gogh DVT and the Van Gogh extension (EXT) will focus on patients with DVT or PE. PMID:15139779

2004-01-01

322

Sodium restriction and blood pressure in hypertensive type II diabetics: randomised blind controlled and crossover studies of moderate sodium restriction and sodium supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of moderate dietary sodium restriction on the hypertension of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes. DESIGN--Randomised parallel controlled study of moderate sodium restriction for three months compared with usual diabetic diet, followed by randomised double blind crossover trial of sustained release preparation of sodium for one month versus placebo for one month in patients continuing with sodium restriction.

P. M. Dodson; M. Beevers; R. Hallworth; M. J. Webberley; R. F. Fletcher; K. G. Taylor

1989-01-01

323

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

324

Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal border of toad bladder by intracellular sodium and calcium: role of sodium-calcium exchange in the basolateral membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepitheliaI transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal

HERBERT S. CHASE; QAIS AL-AWQATI

1981-01-01

325

Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

1987-08-01

326

Structural diversity in sodium doped water trimers.  

PubMed

The structures of sodium doped water trimers are characterized on the basis of their infrared action spectra in the OH-stretching region and a global optimization approach to identify the lowest energy minima. The most stable structure is an open ring with two contacts of terminal water molecules to the Na atom. This structure explains the dominating feature in the IR depletion spectrum around 3410 cm(-1). Three additional isomer classes were found in an energy window of 12 kJ mol(-1) with vertical ionization energies ranging from ?3.83 eV to ?4.36 eV. These structures show different hydrogen bonding and sodium coordination patterns and are identified by specific spectral features in the IR spectra. The significant abundance of closed rings with an external Na atom, resembling the undoped water trimer, suggests that for larger clusters the picture of the sodium atom being situated on the cluster surface seems adequate. PMID:22641269

Forck, Richard M; Dieterich, Johannes M; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Huchting, Anna L; Mata, Ricardo A; Zeuch, Thomas

2012-05-29

327

Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve  

PubMed Central

Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60% reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20% reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions is explained by assuming that hydrogen ions enter the open sodium channel and bind there, preventing sodium ion passage. The voltage dependence arises because the binding site is assumed to lie far enough across the membrane for bound ions to be affected by part of the potential difference across the membrane. Equations are derived for the general case where the blocking ion enters the channel from either side of the membrane. For H+ ion blockage, a simpler model, in which H+ enters the channel only from the bathing medium, is found to be sufficient. The dissociation constant of H+ ions from the channel site, 3.9 x 10-6 M (pKa 5.4), is like that of a carboxylic acid. From the voltage dependence of the block, this acid site is about one-quarter of the way across the membrane potential from the outside. In addition to blocking as described by the model, hydrogen ions also shift the responses of sodium channel "gates" to voltage, probably by altering the surface potential of the nerve. Evidence for voltage-dependent blockage by calcium ions is also presented.

Woodhull, Ann M.

1973-01-01

328

Determination of erythrocyte sodium sensitivity in man.  

PubMed

Sodium buffer capacity of vascular endothelium depends on an endothelial glycocalyx rich in negatively charged heparan sulfate. It has been shown recently that after the mechanical interaction of blood with heparan sulfate-depleted endothelium, erythrocytes also lose this glycocalyx constituent. This observation led to the conclusion that the vascular sodium buffer capacity of an individual could be derived from a blood sample. A test system (salt blood test (SBT)) was developed based upon the sodium-dependent erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte sedimentation velocity was measured in isosmotic, biopolymer-supplemented electrolyte solutions of different sodium concentrations. Erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS), inversely related to erythrocyte sodium buffer capacity, was expressed as the ratio of the erythrocyte sedimentation velocities of 150 mM over 125 mM Na(+) solutions (ESS = Na(+) 150/Na(+) 125). In 61 healthy individuals (mean age, 23?±?0.5 years), ESS ranged between 2 and 8. The mean value was 4.3?±?0.19. The frequency distribution shows two peaks, one at about 3 and another one at about 5. To test whether ESS reflects changes of the endothelial glycocalyx, a cultured endothelial monolayer was exposed for 3 hours to a rhythmically moving blood layer (drag force experiment). When applying this procedure, we found that ESS was reduced by about 21 % when the endothelium was pretreated for 4 days with the glycocalyx protective agent WS 1442. In conclusion, the SBT could possibly serve as an in vitro test system for the evaluation of erythrocyte/vascular salt sensitivity allowing follow-up measurements in the prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunctions. PMID:23686295

Oberleithner, Hans; Wilhelmi, Marianne

2013-05-19

329

Treatment of nocturnal asthma with nedocromil sodium.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--The association of nocturnal asthma symptoms with a diurnal increase in inflammatory activity suggests a role for anti-inflammatory therapy in nocturnal asthma. METHODS--Fifty patients with asthma with nocturnal symptoms entered a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. After a two week baseline period patients received nedocromil sodium (4 mg) or placebo four times daily. After eight weeks of treatment patients crossed to the alternative treatment for a further eight weeks. Symptom severity was recorded on a scale of 0-4 and inhaled bronchodilator use and peak flow (PEFR) were also recorded daily by the patients. Asthma severity, pulmonary function (FEV1, PEFR, FVC), and adverse events were recorded at clinic visits (baseline and after four and eight weeks of treatment). Global effectiveness was rated by clinician and patient, and treatment preference was recorded. RESULTS--Efficacy was assessed from data from 28 patients. Night-time asthma (mean (SE) difference between nedocromil sodium and placebo: -0.52 (0.13)), total nocturnal symptom severity defined as night-time asthma plus morning tightness (-0.72 (0.20)), and night-time bronchodilator use (-0.62 (0.23)) were reduced with nedocromil sodium compared with placebo treatment during the primary efficacy period (weeks 5-8) and during weeks 1-4 (-0.36 (0.12), -0.63 (0.20), and -0.55 (0.28), respectively). Morning and evening PEFR values improved slightly--but not significantly--compared with placebo. Patient and clinician opinions favoured nedocromil sodium treatment. Daytime asthma, daytime cough, and clinic assessment of asthma severity (secondary efficacy variables) were improved with nedocromil sodium treatment; day-time bronchodilator use and clinic pulmonary function were not. CONCLUSIONS--Nedocromil sodium was more effective than placebo in reducing nocturnal symptoms of asthma and bronchodilator use in this group of patients.

Clancy, L; Keogan, S

1994-01-01

330

Reducing sodium in foods: the effect on flavor.  

PubMed

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium's specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S J

2011-06-20

331

Sodium inhibition of fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous-stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was fed with low-sodium influent containing 0.27g of Na+\\/L for 70 days (Phase I), and then subjected to higher concentrations of Na+\\/L, i.e. 2.41 (Phase II), 5.36 (Phase III), and 10.14g (Phase IV-1). At the quasi-steady state of each phase, biomass was sampled for an acute sodium toxicity assay. Unlike the control biomass, which exhibited a

Dong-Hoon Kim; Sang-Hyoun Kim; Hang-Sik Shin

2009-01-01

332

Delayed monensin sodium toxicity in horses.  

PubMed

Thirty-two horses were examined with a history of poor performance and unthriftiness several months after the ingestion of feed containing monensin sodium. Cardiac abnormality was diagnosed in 8 cases and suspected in 4 others. Necropsy examinations were performed on 6 cases with marked clinical symptoms and evidence of circulatory failure was found. Marked cardiac myopathy and fibrosis was a consistent feature. It is concluded that ingestion of monensin sodium by horses may cause either acute death or delayed cardiac circulatory failure as a result of specific cardiac myodegeneration. PMID:7250099

Muylle, E; Vandenhende, C; Oyaert, W; Thoonen, H; Vlaeminck, K

1981-04-01

333

Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell  

DOEpatents

A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

1985-04-02

334

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

Elkins, P.E.

1981-09-22

335

Some antisolvents for crystallisation of sodium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behaviour of ten aqueous mixtures of an alkanediol saturated with sodium carbonate was studied: between 40 and 90°C the solubility of sodium carbonate was measured in mixtures with different alkane-diol to water ratios. Six systems featured phase separation: polyethylene-glycol 200, polyethylene-glycol 400, tri-ethylene-glycol, 1,2-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol and 1,4-butanediol. Four antisolvents were fully miscible: ethylene glycol, di-ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and 1,2-propanediol.

H. Oosterhof; G. J. Witkamp; G. M. van Rosmalen

1999-01-01

336

Stability of colistimethate sodium in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, -20, and -70°C. PMID:23070159

Healan, A M; Gray, W; Fuchs, E J; Griffiss, J M; Salata, R A; Blumer, J

2012-10-15

337

Stability of Colistimethate Sodium in Aqueous Solution  

PubMed Central

Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, ?20, and ?70°C.

Gray, W.; Fuchs, E. J.; Griffiss, J. M.; Salata, R. A.; Blumer, J.

2012-01-01

338

Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels and Pulmonary Edema  

PubMed Central

The development of pulmonary edema can be considered as a combination of alveolar flooding via increased fluid filtration, impaired alveolar-capillary barrier integrity, and disturbed resolution due to decreased alveolar fluid clearance. An important mechanism regulating alveolar fluid clearance is sodium transport across the alveolar epithelium. Transepithelial sodium transport is largely dependent on the activity of sodium channels in alveolar epithelial cells. This paper describes how sodium channels contribute to alveolar fluid clearance under physiological conditions and how deregulation of sodium channel activity might contribute to the pathogenesis of lung diseases associated with pulmonary edema. Furthermore, sodium channels as putative molecular targets for the treatment of pulmonary edema are discussed.

Althaus, Mike; Clauss, Wolfgang G.; Fronius, Martin

2011-01-01

339

Thermoanalytical properties of analytical grade reagents V. Sodium halates.  

PubMed

The thermoanalytical properties of sodium halates have been investigated by means of a derivatograph and a visual DTA instrument. The thermal decomposition of the compounds studied was found to proceed only in the melt phase to a measurable extent, while the corresponding sodium halides were being formed. For sodium chlorate the formation and decomposition of sodium perchlorate could also be observed. The comparison of the results of thermal investigations with results of X-ray measurements has shown that the ionic character of the chemical bonds is highest for sodium iodate and lowest for sodium chlorate. PMID:18960347

Erdey, L; Simon, J; Gál, S

1968-07-01

340

Renal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase and sodium reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat.  

PubMed

The relationship between net tubular reabsorption of sodium and renal microsomal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) was evaluated in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Tubular sodium reabsorption per gram of kidney was lower in thyroidectomized rats than in controls (186+/-14 vs. 246+/-12 mueq/min; P < 0.005) and was accompanied by a quantitatively similar reduction in Na-K-ATPase specific activity (49.4+/-2.4 vs. 65.8+/-2.3 mumol inorganic phosphate (P(t))/mg protein per h; P < 0.001). This decrement was present in both cortex and outer medulla, and was limited to Na-K-ATPase since other representative enzymes not involved in sodium transport (magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase [Mg-ATPase], glucose-6-phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase) remained unchanged or increased in the hypothyroid animals. Conversely, Na-K-ATPase rose when sodium reabsorption increased in euthyroid rats treated with triiodothyronine. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine to what extent the decrease in Na-K-ATPase is due to lack of thyroid hormone per se or to an adaptive response to decreased reabsorptive sodium load. Triiodothyronine in concentrations of 10(-12) to 10(-5) M had no effect in vitro on microsomal Na-K-ATPase of either thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats. When hypothyroid rats were uninephrectomized or treated with methylprednisolone, sodium reabsorption per gram kidney increased markedly and was similar to that of intact controls. Despite persistence of the hypothyroid state, Na-K-ATPase specific activity also increased to levels not significantly different from euthyroid animals. These data suggest that decreased tubular sodium transport is a major determinant of the reduction in renal Na-K-ATPase in thyroid deficiency since the latter can be reversed by increasing sodium reabsorption during continuing hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the modest sodium leak of hypothyroid animals does not appear to be due to decreased Na-K-ATPase since it was not corrected by uninephrectomy despite restoration of both cortical and medullary Na-K-ATPase activity to normal by this maneuver. The close correlation between net sodium reabsorption and Na-K-ATPase in all the experimental situations described here demonstrates that renal Na-K-ATPase changes adaptively in hyper- or hypothyroidism as it does in numerous situations in the normal animal, in accord with its postulated role in the active transport of sodium across the renal tubule. PMID:4348343

Katz, A I; Lindheimer, M D

1973-04-01

341

Mechanism of action of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) on insect sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) are a relatively new class of insecticides, with a mechanism of action different from those of other classes of insecticides that target voltage-gated sodium channels. These compounds have no effect at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, but cause a voltage-dependent, nearly irreversible block as the membrane potential is depolarized. The mechanism of action of SCBIs is similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs), class I anticonvulsants and class I antiarrhythmics. In this article, we review the physiological actions of these compounds on the whole animal, the nervous system and sodium channels, and also present the results from recent studies that elucidate the receptor site of SCBIs.

Silver, Kristopher S.; Song, Weizhong; Nomura, Yoshiko; Salgado, Vincent L.; Dong, Ke

2013-01-01

342

Increased brain tissue sodium concentration in Huntington's Disease - a sodium imaging study at 4 T.  

PubMed

The neuropathological hallmark of the autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease is progressive striatal loss starting several years prior to symptom manifestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used to detect altered structure in premanifest and early Huntington's disease. Given that neurodegeneration is likely preceded by substantial neuronal dysfunction, we used in vivo sodium MR imaging, which has been shown to be sensitive to cell death and viability, to investigate cellular and metabolic integrity of Huntington's disease brain tissue. We studied a total of thirteen healthy controls and thirteen Huntington's disease gene carriers (11 manifest and 2 premanifest). The manifest Huntington's disease group was subdivided into stages 1 and 2 according to their Total Functional Capacity scores. Clinical total motor and cognitive scores, as well as calibrated sodium and T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 4 T Siemens MR scanner. Sodium images were acquired by means of a constant time imaging technique with an ultra-short "echo time". T1-weighted MR images were further analysed with voxel-based morphometry. The absolute total sodium concentration and grey matter values were measured in several Huntington's disease-specific and also non-specific areas. Statistical analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were applied. In Huntington's disease subjects, we found an increase of total sodium concentration of the entire brain compared to controls. Increased total sodium concentration values were found in structurally affected, but also in some non-affected, regions. The highest total sodium concentration values were found in the bilateral caudate, which was associated with caudate grey matter atrophy and CAG repeat length. In all Huntington's disease subjects we further found a profound increase of total sodium concentration in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, insula, precuneus and occipital cortex compared to controls. No change of total sodium concentration was observed in the amygdala, pre- and postcentral gyrus, frontal and temporal cortices or in the cerebellum. This is the first in vivo sodium MR imaging study carried out on a 4 T MR scanner in Huntington's disease gene carriers demonstrating a significant enhancement in sodium concentration in the bilateral striatum, a key region in Huntington's disease, and also in other disease-related atrophic areas. Sodium MR imaging may provide a deeper insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of tissue degeneration in Huntington's disease, presenting potential to detect changes preceding neurodegeneration. PMID:22796981

Reetz, Kathrin; Romanzetti, Sandro; Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Werner, Cornelius J; Schiefer, Johannes; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon

2012-07-14

343

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric...

2009-04-01

344

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric...

2010-01-01

345

Sodium Phosphate Crystals on Salt Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL times in the past few years, samples of undried or partly dried salt cod with an accumulation of crystals appearing over the surface have been submitted to this laboratory for examination. These deposits did not resemble either the sodium chloride or the calcium sulphate crystals often found on salt fish. One sample had many water-clear rhombic crystals with edges

W. J. Dyer; Doris I. Fraser; J. R. Dingle

1958-01-01

346

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-12-01

347

Lithium and Sodium Transport Studies in Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of lithium and sodium transport in erythrocytes (RBCs) from 23 drug-free depressed patients and 23 matched control subjects was conducted. Lithium efflux was calculated from the fraction of the total intracellular lithium released from cells per h...

A. G. Mallinger

1982-01-01

348

Power plant VI - Sodium-air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sodium-air cycle central receiver solar electric generating plant is described. The system is designed for liquid sodium to be heated to 750 C in the central receiver heat exchangers, pumped down to the tower base to transfer heat to an air loop, then be returned to the receiver aperture. The air loop would heat to 730 C, insufficient for efficient operation of turbines, and would require a further heating by a supplementary burner to temperatures of 950 C. An efficiency of 35.4 percent is projected for a total output of 10,620 kW. The flux is furnished by a field of 743 heliostats with a total surface area of 36,425 sq m, and received by a tower 120 m tall outfitted with a receiver inclined 45 deg from the horizontal. The sodium-air heat exchange is envisioned to take place in a tank of air interpenetrated by continuous, closed, boustrophedonic loops filled with superheated sodium.

Genier, R.

349

Sodium Valproate in Treatment of Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium valproate has a simple chemical structure unlike other anticonvulsants. It has been given to 63 patients with various types of epilepsy whose attacks were frequent and of whom 40 had failed to respond to other anticonvulsants. Fits stopped completely in 27 patients (43%) and 14 (22%) showed a reduction of attacks by more than 50%. The best results were

Peter M. Jeavons; Jean E. Clark

1974-01-01

350

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2013-04-01

351

Sorption of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate by montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by soils and sediments is an important process that may affect their fate, transport, toxicity and their application in remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption of a widely used anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), by montmorillonite. It was observed that: (i) SDBS was

Kun Yang; Lizhong Zhu; Baoshan Xing

2007-01-01

352

Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEG) has been observed in a dilute gas of sodium atoms. A Bose-Einstein condensate consists of a macroscopic population of the ground state of the system and is a coherent state of matter. In an ideal gas, this phase transition is purely quantum statistical. The study of BEC in weakly interacting systems that can

N. I. Van Druten; D. S. Durfee; K. B. Davis; M.-O. Mewes; M. R. Andrews; D. M. Kurn; W. Ketterle

1996-01-01

353

SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

354

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium...

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...C3 H5 NaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or a granular crystalline powder. It is odorless, or has a faint acetic-butyric acid odor, and is deliquescent. It...

2013-04-01

356

Design challenges for sodium cooled fast reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of vital importance for commercialized fast reactor to achieve component design with excellent integrity and economics. In the phase II of feasibility study till 2005, a system design for commercialized fast reactor for sodium cooling was achieved. For economical improvement, the system design was undertaken along the guideline including innovative technology for system simplification and new material development.

Mamoru Konomura; Masakazu Ichimiya

2007-01-01

357

Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlHâ, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the

Vidvuds Ozolins; J. L. Herberg; Kevin F. McCarty; Robert S. Maxwell; Roland Rudolph Stumpf; Eric H. Majzoub

2005-01-01

358

Clinical experience with sodium cellulose phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no treatment program which is capable of correcting the basic abnormality of absorptive hypercalciuria, although several drugs are available which have been shown to restore normal calcium excretion. Sodium cellulose phosphate best meets the criteria for optimum therapy. When given orally, this non-absorbable ion exchange resin binds calcium and inhibits calcium absorption. However, this inhibition is caused

Charles Y. C. Pak; Michael J. Nicar; Faye Britton

1983-01-01

359

Obtainment of Sodium Vanadate in Sulfuric Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the result of a some of the operational variables, in the precipitation of sodium vanadates in sulfuric medium at temperature of 60/sup 0/C, such as: initial pH of precipitation, solution aging, intensity of agitation, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4...

A. H. Martins J. C. S. Cassa

1988-01-01

360

Potassium Substitution by Sodium in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is an ever-increasing constraint to crop productivity worldwide especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. In contrast to all the soil reclamation strategies to decrease salt concentrations in root zone, the use of sodium (Na) in plant nutrition may be an interesting tactic. The roles of potassium (K) and Na in plant nutrition suggest that K is the only

Abdul Wakeel; Muhammad Farooq; Manzoor Qadir; Sven Schubert

2011-01-01

361

21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate....

2013-04-01

362

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate sensitivity of anaerobic cocci.  

PubMed

Growth of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was shown to be totally inhibited by sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS). Other anaerobic cocci grew in the presence of SPS although some strains of Peptococcus prevotii and Peptococcus magnus showed delayed growth. A SPS disk assay for the presumptive identification of P. anaerobius is described. PMID:4598436

Graves, M H; Morello, J A; Kocka, F E

1974-06-01

363

Cloning of the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iodide concentrating activity of the thyroid gland is essential to the production of thyroid hormone and also provides a mechanism for the treatment of thyroid cancer by radioiodine ablation. We report here the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), which mediates the iodide uptake activity in the thyroid gland. An open reading frame

P. A. Smanik; Q. Liu; T. L. Furminger; K. Ryu; S. Xing; E. L. Mazzaferri; S. M. Jhiang

1996-01-01

364

Sodium transport and salt tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of plant cells to maintain low cytosolic sodium concentrations is an essential process associated with the ability of plants to grow in high salt concentrations. Recent results have identified pathways for Na+ entry, and the cloning of vacuolar Na+\\/H+ antiporters has demonstrated the role of intracellular Na+ compartmentation in plant salt tolerance.

Eduardo Blumwald

2000-01-01

365

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01

366

21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the...practice. This regulation does not authorize its use in infant foods and infant formulas. The affirmation of this ingredient...

2013-04-01

367

Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant.

Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; Garcia-Anoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O

2009-01-01

368

1-sodium removal and decontamination of components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium (Na) removal from test specimens and components by evaporative and local heat gun techniques, and by the reaction of Na with alcohol. As a part of the alcohol process development, the following activities will be investigated: (1) reaction rate and thermal modeling studies; (2) process

Oliva R; F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele

1974-01-01

369

Liquid sodium model of geophysical core convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth's outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of planetary cores such as the Earth's. Heat transfer, azimuthal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates and temperature drops across the convecting

Woodrow L. Shew; Daniel P. Lathrop

2005-01-01

370

Liquid sodium model of geophysical core convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth’s outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of planetary cores such as the Earth’s. Heat transfer, azimuthal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates and temperature drops across the convecting

Woodrow L. Shew; Daniel P. Lathrop

2005-01-01

371

Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1...

M. J. Barnes R. A. Peterson R. F. Swingle C. T. Reeves

1995-01-01

372

Kinetics of coal desulfurization with sodium benzoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mae Moh coal of Lampang province, northern Thailand, was desulfurized by leaching with organometallic compounds. Most of the inorganic sulfur and some organic sulfur were removed. The effect of process conditions (temperature, time and particle size) on the degree of desulfurization was studied and optimum conditions were established. It is shown that sodium benzoxide can leach ? 68% of pyritic

Pattarapan Prasassarakich; Thitima Thaweesri

1996-01-01

373

Dialysate sodium delivery can alter chronic blood pressure management.  

PubMed

Low dialysate sodium concentrations can reduce postdialysis thirst and serum sodium activity, but patients typically experience dialysis hypotension, fatigue, disequilibrium, and cramps. "High-sodium" hemodialysis minimizes dialysis disequilibrium but increases the serum sodium activity of most patients. Programmed "variable-sodium" dialysis can minimize dialysis discomfort but may also alter the sodium kinetics from those of "high-sodium" dialysis. We designed a cross-over study with random order assignment to determine whether a "variable-sodium" dialysis program could reduce the blood pressure of dialysis patients without increasing dialysis morbidity. Dialysis with a dialysate sodium of 140 mEq/L was compared with dialysis with a programmed exponential decrease of dialysate sodium from 155 mEq/L to 135 mEq/L. Dialysate sodium was then held constant at 135 mEq/L for the final half hour of dialysis. Eighteen patients completed the 7-month study, each receiving 3.5 months of experimental and 3.5 months of standard therapy. Programmed "variable-sodium" dialysis resulted in a reduction in antihypertensive drug use without alterations in predialysis blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, ultrafiltration tolerance, or the frequency of symptomatic dialysis cramps or hypotension. Patients did, however, have lower postdialysis standing blood pressures and higher postdialysis target weights during programmed "variable-sodium" dialysis. PMID:9041214

Flanigan, M J; Khairullah, Q T; Lim, V S

1997-03-01

374

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2012-07-01

375

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2010-07-01

376

21 CFR 522.163 - Betamethasone dipropionate and betamethasone sodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Betamethasone dipropionate and betamethasone sodium phosphate aqueous suspension. 522...Betamethasone dipropionate and betamethasone sodium phosphate aqueous suspension. (a...Betamethasone dipropionate and betamethasone sodium phosphate aqueous suspension is...

2013-04-01

377

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2013-04-01

378

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2009-07-01

379

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory....

2009-07-01

380

The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

Meihui Wang.

1992-06-01

381

Source Process of Exospheric Sodium on Mercury and Temporal Variability of Sodium Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The source process of exospheric sodium atoms is still unclear though many observations have been done since its discovery. In this paper, we show the past results of ground-based observations and discuss its source process.

Kameda, S.; Kagitani, M.; Okano, S.

2011-03-01

382

Sodium-sensitivity of Blood Pressure in Chinese Populations  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials have demonstrated that a reduced intake of dietary sodium lowers blood pressure. However, blood pressure reduction in response to a decrease in dietary sodium intake varies considerably among different individuals–a phenomenon described as sodium-sensitivity. The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study was a large family-based dietary-feeding study conducted in rural north China. This study indicated that approximately 39% of Chinese adults were sodium-sensitive. Sodium-sensitivity was more common in women and in persons who were older and had higher usual blood pressure. Sodium-sensitivity was also more common in individuals with higher responses to cold pressor test and in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors might play an important role in determining sodium-sensitivity in the Chinese population. A better understanding of the genetic and environmental determinants of sodium-sensitivity has important public health and clinical implications.

Chen, Jing

2010-01-01

383

BAM R73: 1 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R73: 1 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R73 1 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

384

Sodium Intake by Infants in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics reviews in the document several issues surrounding sodium intake by infants, as they were understood in 1979. Topics include estimation of intake, endocrine mechanisms for sodium conservatio...

1979-01-01

385

21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5306 Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric sodium...

2013-04-01

386

21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing acetazolamide sodium, USP equivalent to 25 percent acetazolamide activity. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this...

2013-04-01

387

21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions for reconstituting the product with sterile distilled water to...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 520.2261 - Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms. 520.2261...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2261 Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage...

2013-04-01

389

Oral Sodium Phosphate (OSP) Products for Bowel Cleansing ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Oral Sodium Phosphate (OSP) Products for Bowel Cleansing (marketed as Visicol and OsmoPrep, and oral sodium phosphate products available ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

390

National Occupational Health Survey of Mining Sodium Compounds Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents statistics concerning safety in the facilities mining sodium compounds. Four sampling sites were selected from the sodium compounds commodity active mining sites. All four were surveyed in July and August of 1985. Information on produc...

1990-01-01

391

Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Sodium Cyanide. List C, Case 3086.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the Agency's decision regarding the reregistration eligibility of the registered uses of sodium cyanide. The document consists of six sections. Section I is the introduction. Section II describes sodium cyanide, its uses, data requir...

1994-01-01

392

21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Fluprostenol sodium injection. 522.995 Section 522...995 Fluprostenol sodium injection. (a) Specifications...Administer by intramuscular injection only. Warning...and/or bronchiospasms. Direct contact with the skin...

2009-04-01

393

1-Sodium Removal, Storage, and Requalification of Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures ...

R. M. Oliva F. H. Welch

1974-01-01

394

Sodium Sulfate Induced Hot Corrosion in Gas Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled turbine blades. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically fr...

K. H. Im R. K. Ahluwalia

1989-01-01

395

Corrosion Performance of Advanced Structural Materials in Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion...

D. L. Rink K. Natesan M. Li Y. Momozaki

2012-01-01

396

Changes During Recovery from Sodium Deficiency in Atriplex  

PubMed Central

Although the concentration of sodium in leaves of Atriplex plants increased rapidly after receiving sodium, no growth response was detectable for about 6 days. It was found that respiration rate increased to its maximum within 3 days. Chlorophyll content also increased from an early stage, whereas the concentrations of sugars and starch did not increase, and ratios of soluble to total nitrogen did not decrease until later. The respiratory response appears to be specific to sodium as different salts of sodium caused similar responses, and no other univalent cation substituted for sodium. In addition, both growth response and respiration rate tended towards their maxima with the same concentration of applied sodium. The rate of anaerobic CO2 production increased when sodium was fed to leaves, suggesting that the effect of sodium is in the glycolytic sequence.

Brownell, P. F.; Jackman, Margaret E.

1966-01-01

397

BAM R72: 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R72: 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R72 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

398

Fluoride in Dog Parotid Saliva After Intravenous Administration of Sodium Fluoride, Sodium Monofluorophosphate, and Calcium Fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, or calcium fluoride, in amounts equivalent to 0.5 mg\\/kg, were given intravenously to dogs and the effect on parotid saliva F was determined. Significant (P < 0.01) differences in saliva F levels were related to the ionization of NaF, the hydrolysis of the PO3F ion, and the insolubility of CaF2.

Ralph P. Feller; Ira L. Shannon

1975-01-01

399

Bacteria and acid drainage from coal refuse: inhibition by sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate  

SciTech Connect

Studies have shown that the application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulphur coal refuse inhibits the activity of iron- and sulphur-oxidising chemo-autotrophic bacteria and reduces the amount of acid drainage from the refuse. Further studies are recommended to assess the usefulness of this method for controlling formation of acid mine drainage in the field.

Dugan, P.R.; Apel, W.A.

1983-01-01

400

Complexation of 6-Deoxy-6-(aminoethyl)amino-?-cyclodextrin with Sodium Cholate and Sodium Deoxycholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study its guest binding and the inclusion phenomena, 6-deoxy-6-(aminoethyl)amino-ß-cyclodextrin (ßCDN) was synthesised and its binding properties examined. The complexation phenomena of sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with ßCDN has been monitored by the NMR method using 13C chemical shift data. The method of continuous variation ’“Job's method” has been used to determine the stoichiometry of

Anand Pal Singh; P. Ramos Cabrer; E. Alvarez-Parrilla; F. Meijide; J. Vázquez Tato

1999-01-01

401

Formation of titanium nitride whiskers by reaction of sodium titanium bronze with molten sodium cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The production of titanium nitride, TiN, whiskers by reaction of sodium titanium bronze, Na{sub x}TiO{sub 2}(STB), with excess sodium cyanide, NaCN, at 1000{degrees}C is reported. The solubility of Ti from a STB in molten NaCN has been estimated experimentally. The TiN whiskers obtained under different experimental conditions have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by analytical electron microscopy.

Bamberger, C.E.; Angelini, P.; Nolan, T.A. (Chemistry Div., Metal and Ceramic Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1990-04-01

402

Mixed solvent reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new conversion process for the production of soda (Na2CO3(s)) from trona (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O(s)) and other sodium bicarbonate containing sodium carbonate sources is presented. By using a mixed solvent consisting of ethylene glycol and water, the boiling point of the solution was increased and the stability of trona could be decreased to such a degree, that it spontaneously recrystallized to anhydrous

Robert S. Gärtner; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2007-01-01

403

Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01–2.0M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the

Karthik Subramanian; John Mickalonis

2005-01-01

404

Thermoreversible swelling behaviour of hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide with sodium acrylate and sodium methacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels were prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and of NIPA with sodium acrylate (SA) and sodium methacrylate (SMA) as comonomers. For each copolymerization three different compositions were used and for all systems three concentrations of a tetrafunctional crosslinker were employed.Swelling ratios, r = (mass hydrogel\\/mass dry polymer), were measured on heating from 20°C and

Yan Liu; José L. Velada; Malcolm B. Huglin

1999-01-01

405

Protective effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on gastroduodenal ulcers: a comparative study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Stabilization of mast cells plays a key mechanism to protect gastrointestinal tract from injury. This study presents a comparative\\u000a evaluation of mast cell stabilizers nedocromil sodium (NDS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in experimental gastric and duodenal\\u000a ulcers in rats. Wistar rats of either sex were used in this study. Both NDS and SCG, in the doses of 10, 30 and

Mohammad Tariq; Meshal Al Moutaery; Ibrahim Elfaki; Mohammad Arshaduddin; Haseeb Ahmad Khan

2006-01-01

406

Amended Safety Assessment of Sodium Picramate and Picramic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium picramate is the sodium salt of picramic acid, a substituted phenolic compound. Sodium picramate and picramic acid function as hair colorants; they are reportedly used in 31 and 3 hair-dye products, respectively. No concentration-of-use data were available for sodium picramate, but picramic acid was reported to be used at 0.6%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel recognized that adding

Lillian C. Becker; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Curtis D. Klaassen; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder; F. Alan Andersen

2009-01-01

407

A sodium\\/beta-alumina\\/nickel chloride secondary cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium\\/beta alumina\\/sodium tetrachloroaluminate\\/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel\\/sodium choride

R. C. Galloway

1987-01-01

408

Mechanical behavior of structural materials in flowing sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep-rupture data in flowing sodium for Type 316 stainless steel at 593°C, show that the creep resistance of the material decreases with sodium pre-exposure time at 593°C. Ductility is increased by more than a factor of two. Low cycle fatigue of Type 316 stainless steel in flowing sodium at 593°C, in the as-fabricated and sodium pre-exposed conditions, has the same

P. N. Flagella; J. A. Denne; S. L. Schrock

1978-01-01

409

Sodium citrate and anaerobic performance: implications of dosage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of sodium bicarbonate to improve anaerobic performance is well known but other buffering agents have been used with some success. Sodium citrate is one such substance which has been used but without the normal gastro-intestinal discomfort usually associated with sodium bicarbonate ingestion. The effects of five doses of sodium citrate (0.1 g·kg–1 body mass, 0.2 g·kg–1 body mass,

Lars R. McNaughton

1990-01-01

410

21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications...distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a desired...

2013-04-01

411

21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely...

2013-04-01

412

21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121...Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food prepared from the...

2013-04-01

413

21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116...Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food prepared from...

2013-04-01

414

40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41 Section 141.41 Protection... § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for community...distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels;...

2013-07-01

415

Sodium Movement across Single Perfused Proximal Tubules of Rat Kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using perfusion techniques in single proximal tubule segments of rat kidney, the relationship between net sodium movement and active transport of ions, as measured by the short-circuit method, has been studied. In addition, the role of the colloid-osmotic pressure gradient in proximal transtubular fluid and sodium movement has been considered. Furthermore, the limiting concen- tration gradient against which sodium movement

GERHARD GIEBISCH; RUTH M. KLOSE; GERHARD MALNIC; W. JAMES SULLIVAN; ERICH E. WINDHAGER

1964-01-01

416

Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data have been reviewed to obtain thermodynamically consistent equations for thermodynamic and transport properties of saturated sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed include: enthalpy, heat capacity at constant

J. K. Fink; L. Leibowitz

1995-01-01

417

Thermal degradation behaviour of sodium fire extinguishant powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although liquid sodium has proved to be a technologically superior and economically viable coolant in the heat-exchange circuits of fast reactors, it is fraught with the serious problems of fire hazards in the event of accidental leakages into the ambient air. For the rapid and effective suppression of sodium fires, sodium bicarbonate has emerged as a potential extinguishant. This paper

R. K. Singh Raman; F. C. Parida; A. S. Khanna

1988-01-01

418

Electrorefining of Sodium Using Solid State Rapid Ion Conductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the presently available technology and selling costs for low-cost sodium metal was conducted. The study included a new approach to the recovery of sodium containing salts as well as the refining of technical grade sodium. An experiment...

R. S. Gordon

1981-01-01

419

Strategies to Reduce Sodium Consumption: A Food Industry Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products.

Mariska Dötsch; Johanneke Busch; Max Batenburg; Gie Liem; Erwin Tareilus; Rudi Mueller; Gert Meijer

2009-01-01

420

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

421

Thermal stability of dry detergent formulation containing sodium percarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry laundry detergent formulations, powders and unit doses, contain sodium percarbonate at high weight concentrations. Sodium percarbonate is a key cleaning and stain removal technology delivering unbeaten removal of bleachable stains, at affordable cost; however incorporation of this ingredient into detergent formulations poses severe stability problems to be solved. Sodium percarbonate is an unstable chemical ingredient, which, naturally, over ageing

Fabio Zonfrilli; Sarah Germanà; Vincenzo Guida

422

Effect of antagonists on the physiologic disposition of sodium cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to evaluate the effects of pretreatment with air and oxygen either alone or in various combinations with sodium nitrite and\\/or sodium thiosulfate on the physiological disposition of C?labeled sodium cyanide in mice. The radioactive respiratory excretion was studied by radiorespirometry, and the effects of various combinations of cyanide antagonists were compared. Oxygen either alone or in combination

George E. Burrows; David H. W. Liu; Gary E. Isom

1982-01-01

423

CONDUCTOMETRIC STUDIES ON THE PRECIPITATION OF SODIUM AND AMMONIUM DIURANATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction between uranyl nitrate, on the one hand, and sodium or ; ammonium hydroxide, on the other, was investigated conductometrically by applying ; the monovariation method. Job's method of continued variation was also found ; suitable for the study of insoluble sodium diuranate. Complete precipitation ; occurs at the stoichiometric point and the reverse reaction (sodium hydroxide ; constant,

Saxena

1962-01-01

424

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development

K. Natesan; Y. Momozaki; M. Li; D. L. Rink

2012-01-01

425

The Measurement of Sodium Concentration in Human Red Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described which indicate that iodinated human serum albumin underestimates the amount of extracellular sodium trapped in the packed layer of red blood cells, when cells and plasma are separated by centrifugation. Sucrose-14C also underestimates the amount of trapped extra- cellular sodium, but the difference between the percentages of sucrose-' 4C and extracellular sodium trapped is constant and independent

L. J. Beilin; G. J. KNIGHT; A. D. MUNRO-FAURE; J. ANDERSON

1966-01-01

426

Sodium deprivation alters neural responses to gustatory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The effects of sodium deprivation for 10 d, a period sufficient to induce sodium appetite, on gustatory nerve discharges in rats were determined. Chorda tympani responses to concentration series of sodium chloride, sucrose, hydrochloric acid, and quinine hydrochloride were recorded and analyzed without the experimenter knowing the animal's deprivation condition. After deprivation,

R. J. Contreras

1979-01-01

427

Compact intermediate heat transport system for sodium cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combination with a sodium cooled reactor having an intermediate heat exchanger for extracting heat in a nonradioactive secondary sodium loop from the sodium rector. It comprises: first and second upstanding closed cylindrical vessels, one of the cylindrical vessels being exterior of the other of the cylindrical vessels; the other of the cylindrical vessels being interior, smaller,

C. E. Boardman; J. P. Maurer

1990-01-01

428

Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.  

PubMed

The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. PMID:22698996

Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

2012-05-24

429

Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Potassium Acid Tartrate, Sodium Potassium Tartrate, Sodium Tartrate and Tartaric Acid as Food Ingredients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, by a group of qualified scientists designated the Select Committee of GRAS Substances (SCOGS), provides an independent evaluation of the safety of potassium acid tartrate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium tartrate, and tartaric acid when used...

1979-01-01

430

Removal of Sodium Sulfate from a Sulfate-Containing Sodium Chloride Solution in a Process for Separating Zirconium and Hafnium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to the removal of sodium sulfate in a process for separating zirconium and hafnium, and relates in one embodiment to the recovery of sodium sulfate having a purity greater than 99.9%.

R. A. Guidotti

1979-01-01

431

Dynamic features of Io's extended sodium distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on two-dimensional imaging observations of D-line emissions from the extended distribution of iogenic sodium atoms with two fields of view (±20 R (narrow FOV) and ±400 R (wide FOV)) simultaneously by using a portable small telescope or camera lens. We derived dynamic feature of the band-shaped and spray-shaped distributions near Io's orbit by means of continuous observation. The observations confirm the phenomenological behavior of the sodium cloud on two spatial scales, as previously observed by Pilcher et al. [Pilcher, C.B., Smyth, W.H., Combi, M.R., Fertel, J.H., 1984. Astrophys. J. 287, 427-444], Schneider et al. [Schneider, N.M., Trauger, J.T., Wilson, J.K., Brown, D.I., Evans, R.W., Shemansky, D.E., 1991. Science 253, 1394-1397], and Mendillo et al. [Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., Flynn, B., Hughes, W.S., 1990. Nature 348, 312-314]. We also confirm an elongated oval emission distribution of the sodium nebula and derivation of its detailed east-west asymmetry depending on Io's phase angle, which was first noted by Flynn et al. [Flynn, B., Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., 1994. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8403-8409]. We then did model analyses to investigate the source process for sodium atoms and the dynamics behind their distribution. We conclude that the essential of molecular ion mechanisms to the band-shaped distribution is in agreement with Wilson and Schneider [Wilson, J.K., Schneider, N.M., 1999. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16567-16583]. We differ from Wilson et al. [Wilson, J.K., Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., Schneider, N.M., Trauger, J.T., Flynn, B., 2002. Icarus 157, 476-489] in finding that charge exchange process contributes more to the spray-shaped distribution and sodium nebula than sputtering does. These results derived the double-peaked velocity distribution of released sodium atoms, and re-confirmed the source rates in agreement with past studies.

Takahashi, S.; Misawa, H.; Nozawa, H.; Morioka, A.; Okano, S.; Sood, R.

2005-11-01

432

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-16

433

Action of ouabain on sodium transport in toad urinary bladder, Evidence for two pathways for sodium entry  

PubMed Central

The cardiac glycoside ouabain inhibits transepithelial sodium transport in the toad urinary bladder. It is shown that this drug reduces the rate coefficient for sodium exit at the serosal pump site. In addition, ouabain inhibits entry across the mucosal border whenever the electrochemical potential gradient for sodium is made less favorable. The data are interpreted as indicating the existence of two separate pathways for sodium entry, one of which is ouabain inhibitable.

1975-01-01

434

Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels.  

PubMed

A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNa(v)1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNa(v)1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNa(v)1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNa(v)1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels. PMID:20888415

Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

2010-10-01

435

Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels  

PubMed Central

A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNav1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNav1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNav1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNav1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels.

Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

2010-01-01

436

Sodium MRI in a rat migraine model and a NEURON simulation study support a role for sodium in migraine  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increased lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sodium has been reported during migraine. We used ultra-high field MRI to investigate cranial sodium in a rat migraine model, and simulated the effects of extracellular sodium on neuronal excitability. Methods Behavioral changes in the nitroglycerin (NTG) rat migraine model were determined from von Frey hair withdrawal response and photography. Central sensitization was measured by counting cFos-immunoreactive cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Sodium was quantified in vivo by ultra-high field sodium MRI at 21 Tesla. Effects of extracellular sodium on neuronal excitability were modeled using NEURON software. Results NTG decreased von Frey withdrawal threshold (p=0.0003), decreased eyelid vertical height:width ratio (p<0.0001), increased TNC cFos stain (p<0.0001), and increased sodium between 7.5 and 17% in brain, intracranial CSF, and vitreous humor (p<0.05). Simulated neurons exposed to higher sodium have more frequent and earlier spontaneous action potentials, and corresponding earlier sodium and potassium currents. Conclusions In the rat migraine model, sodium rises to levels that increase neuronal excitability. We propose that rising sodium in CSF surrounding trigeminal nociceptors increases their excitability and causes pain and that rising sodium in vitreous humor increases retinal neuronal excitability and causes photosensitivity.

Harrington, Michael G; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Schepkin, Victor; Fonteh, Alfred N; Arakaki, Xianghong

2012-01-01

437

The effect of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the Ascaris-sensitive monkey.  

PubMed Central

Nedocromil sodium inhibited the bronchoconstriction caused by antigen challenge in Ascaris-sensitive monkeys and in addition it prevented the release of histamine from mast cells lavaged from sensitive monkeys. Sodium cromoglycate was relatively inactive in both these systems. It is suggested that nedocromil sodium can stabilize both mucosal and connective tissue mast cells and may represent a new type of drug.

Eady, R. P.; Greenwood, B.; Jackson, D. M.; Orr, T. S.; Wells, E.

1985-01-01

438

Phase Separation in Aqueous Solutions of Binary Copolymers of Acrylamide with Sodium 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropanesulfonate and Sodium Acrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase separation in aqueous solutions of binary copolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acryl-amido-2-methylpropanesulfonate and sodium acrylate is studied over the temperature range from 20 to 100°C, as influenced by addition of calcium, magnesium, and sodium chlorides, inorganic salt concentration, and molecular characteristics of the copolymers.

V. F. Kurenkov; I. N. Nadezhdin; O. A. Antonovich; F. I. Lobanov

2004-01-01

439

Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of

Louis R. Corrales; Jincheng Du

2006-01-01

440

Magnetoelectric behavior of sodium doped lanthanum manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline samples of sodium doped manganites with compositional formula La1-xNaxMnO3 (0.025<=x<=0.25) were prepared by polyvinyl alcohol assisted precursor method. After characterizing the samples by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy a systematic investigation of electrical, magnetic, and thermopower properties has been undertaken. The resistivity data were analyzed using effective medium approximation. From the analysis it has been found that the metallic fraction is increasing up to x=0.10 and remains constant with further doping. A close examination of the resistivity data clearly indicates that the sodium doped samples are slowly transformed from colossal magnetoresistance behavior to charge ordering behavior. Thermoelectric power data at low temperatures were analyzed by considering the magnon drag concept, while the high temperature data were explained by small polaron conduction mechanism.

Kalyana Lakshmi, Y.; Venkataiah, G.; Reddy, P. Venugopal

2009-07-01

441

The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

2009-04-01

442

Sodium-sulfur battery program in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 11-year program was started in Japan in 1980 to develop new electric-energy storage systems. The advanced batteries chosen for this project are sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, and Redox batteries. Here, the development of a Na/S battery is discussed. The battery consists of a series of cells containing beta-alumina tubes as electrolyte and molten sodium and sulfur as active materials. A 1kW/8kWh battery is to be built by the end of 1983. The system, if successful, will be scaled up to 10kW/80kWh by the end of 1986 and to 1MW/8MWh in 1987. The basic design features of the 1kW/8kWh battery and its expected performance characteristics are presented.

Fuchida, K.; Okada, K.; Iwabuchi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Nakahara, K.

443

Reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes with sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

Vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes react readily with nucleophilic reagents to form the products of the replacement of one halogen by a nucleophilic residue. These reactions have been studied with F/sup -/ anion and C-, O-, and S-nucleophiles as examples. The present work studies the analogous reaction with the azide anion. When vicinal dibromopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds react with NaN/sub 3/ in DMF, N-methylpyrrolidone, or hexametapol, halogen is replaced by an azide group, and ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides form. The reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds with sodium azide causes replacement of halogen by an azide group probably by an ionic cleavage-addition chain mechanism. Nucleophilic azidobromination of fluoroolefins has been carried out by the action of sodium azide and bromine. These reactions were used to synthesize new ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides.

Postovoi, S.A.; Zeifman, Yu.V.; Knunyants, I.L.

1986-12-10

444

AC-polarographic quantitation of tolmetin sodium.  

PubMed

Fundamental harmonic alternating current polarography has been described for the determination of tolmetin sodium and its capsules, (Tolectin-200 mg). The AC procedure was applied by superimposing 10 mV, rms, AC voltage on a DC ramp in the range -1200 to -1450 mV at a frequency of 50 Hz in acetate buffer of pH 5.0 containing 0.001% gelatin as a maxima suppressor. A three electrode assembly consisting of dropping mercury electrode (dme) and two Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat.) electrodes was employed. Mercury flow rate was 3 mg sec(-1) under a corrected head pressure of 80 cm. The electrode reaction was investigated by Kalousek K1 and K2 techniques which indicated the non-reversibility of the electrode process on the AC time scale. The percent result obtained by standard addition procedure was 101.4 +/- 2.0 for tolmetin sodium capsules. PMID:16414675

Hagga, M E; Abounassif, M A; Dawoud, A H

1991-01-01

445

Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage- clamped rabbit Purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20\\/~M). Dose-response curves indi- cated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage- dependent Kd. The half-blocking concentration varied from >300 #M, at

BRUCE P. BEAN; CHARLES J. COHEN; RICHARD W. TSIEN

1983-01-01

446

Sodium and Chlorine Coadsorption on Si(100)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the adsorption of molecular chlorine on the Si(100)(2 × 1) surface and its interaction with sodium at room and elevated temperature in an ultrahigh vacuum. Cl is deposited dissociatively on the surface and forms SiCl2 and SiCl4. During Na deposition on the Cl-covered Si(100) surface, the substrate participates to a NaSiCl2 compound formation, whereas Cl

M. Kamaratos; C. A. Papageorgopoulos

2001-01-01

447

Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin\\u000a sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone\\u000a (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose\\u000a were used to aid

Supriya S. Shidhaye; Pritesh V. Thakkar; Neha M. Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

2010-01-01

448

Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) - Design status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant concept employs a 350-MWe pool-type LMR Power Pak as its basic module. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can

J. E. Brunings; E. Guenther; R. Hren

1986-01-01

449

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16

450

Feshbach resonances in positron scattering from sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of Feshbach resonances in positron-sodium scattering system. The momentum space coupled channels optical method including the positronium formation channels has been used. The first three partial-wave resonances below the Na(3p,4s,3d,4p) excitation and the Ps(n=2) formation thresholds are calculated. The Wigner cusp structures are also obtained just at these thresholds.

Jiao, L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, R.; Zhou, Y.

2012-11-01

451

Sodium Oxybate in the Treatment of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Narcolepsy is a lifelong neurodegenerative disorder which causes considerable impairment of quality of life. So far the treatment\\u000a for one of the main symptoms excessive daytime sleepiness was restricted to stimulants, whereas the other main symptom cataplexy\\u000a was treated with antidepressants, and fragmented night-time sleep with hypnotics. Sodium oxybate is an efficacious drug for\\u000a all three symptoms which improves the

Geert Mayer

452

Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride (F) is known to affect mineralizing tissues, but effects upon the developing brain have not been previously considered. This study in Sprague-Dawley rats compares behavior, body weight, plasma and brain F levels after sodium fluoride (NaF) exposures during late gestation, at weaning or in adults. For prenatal exposures, dams received injections (SC) of 0.13 mg\\/kg NaF or saline on

Phyllis J. Mullenix; Pamela K. Denbesten; Ann Schunior; William J. Kernan

1995-01-01

453

Effects of sodium arsenite on fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single intraperitoneal injections of sodium arsenite were given to albino Swiss-Webster mice on one of days 7–12 of gestation. Two dose levels were used: 10 or 12 mg\\/kg. Arsenite treatment resulted in high rates of fetal deaths and tended to decrease fetal weights-compared with H2O injected controls. Arsenite induced a variety of fetal malformations on gestation days 7–10; the

Ronald D. Hood

1972-01-01

454

Stability and degradation of sodium nitroprusside  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of the investigation was to formulate a stable sodium nitroprusside (Np) injection. However, during the investigation a number of inexplicable phenomena were observed, which led us to examine some\\u000a degradation processes. Reproducible determination of the concentration OfNp, aquopentacyanoferrate (Apcf) (II) and (III), iron-cyanide or cyanide in degraded solutions appeared to be impossible. For this reason we used

A. C. Van Loenen; W. Hofs-Kemper

1979-01-01

455

Electrical breakdown in ferroelectric sodium nitrite crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric strength of sodium nitrite crystals is measured in the temperature range 125–205°C embracing the Curie ferroelectric transition temperature. Single constant-amplitude voltage pulses are used to initiate breakdown. Experimental values of breakdown strength are obtained for time delays to breakdown of 10 and 100 msec. Measurements of high-field electric conductivity are used to determine theoretical impulse thermal breakdown strengths

J. Fok; J. R. Hanscomb

1972-01-01

456

New allotropic forms of anhydrous sodium palmitate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new phases in anhydrous sodium palmitate have been demonstrated. On heating, the crystalline curd phase transforms not\\u000a directly to liquid crystalline neat soap, as previously believed, but (near 125 C.) to “waxy soap.” At 195, a softer “sub-neat”\\u000a phase appears. The familiar phases, neat soap and isotropic liquid nigre do not appear until 255 and 297 respectively. All\\u000a of

R. D. Vold; F. B. Rosevear; R. H. Ferguson

1939-01-01

457

Startup of the FFTF sodium cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is a 3 Loop 400 MWt sodium cooled fast reactor with a primary mission to test fuels and materials for development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Highlights of the ATP involving the system inerting, liquid metal and inerted cell testing and initial ascent to full power are discussed. 3 refs.

Umek, A.M.; Redekopp, R.D.

1981-08-01

458

Precipitation of indium using sodium tripolyphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study was to precipitate indium and extract indium from pressure oxidative leaching liquor using sodium tripolyphosphate. Various influential factors were evaluated in the paper, such as pH value, temperature, reaction time, molar ratio of Na5P3O10\\/indium and metal ions including Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, etc. Over 95% of the indium was precipitated under the conditions

Jibo Jiang; Duoqiang Liang; Qingdong Zhong

2011-01-01

459

Plasma 11-Hydroxycorticoid Levels after Carbenoxolone Sodium  

PubMed Central

A definite rise in plasma 11-hydroxycorticoid levels has been shown in eight patients with duodenal ulcer following the oral administration of carbenoxolone sodium. A similar rise was seen in one patient with sarcoidosis whose pituitary A.C.T.H. secretion had been acutely suppressed with dexamethasone. No such rise, however, was seen in three patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency. It is suggested that carbenoxolone acts directly on the adrenal cortex, causing an increased production of corticosteroids.

Mattingly, D.; Tyler, Christine; Bilton, Elaine

1970-01-01

460

Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

1985-08-01

461

Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3°C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV6O16?4H2O and Na1.1V3O7.9. The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials.

Reddy Channu, V. S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-Il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

2011-08-01

462

Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

1985-01-01

463

Microbiological, Chemical, Sensory, Color, and Textural Changes of Rainbow Trout Fillets Treated with Sodium Acetate, Sodium Lactate, Sodium Citrate, and Stored at 4°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dipping rainbow trout fillets for 10 min in 2.5% solutions containing sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), and sodium citrate (NaC) on microbiological, chemical, color, textural, and sensory analyses of fish fillets were assessed. According to the results of microbiological analyses, total mesophilic counts for rainbow trout fillets exceeded 7 log cfu\\/g, which is considered the maximum

Berna Kilinc; Sukran Cakli; Tolga Dincer; Sebnem Tolasa

2009-01-01

464

Injection of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium lactate improves Warner–Bratzler shear and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked inside round roasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired inside rounds (n=30 pairs) were removed from randomly selected USDA Select quality grade carcasses to examine the effects of injecting a solution of sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium chloride on Warner–Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked beef. Injected treatments were more tender (P<0.05) than control products, as measured by Warner–Bratzler shear force

M. R. McGee; K. L. Henry; J. C. Brooks; F. K. Ray; J. B. Morgan

2003-01-01

465

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

466

Tidal oscillations in the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium has been measured at São José dos Campos (23°S, 46°W) over a total of about 20 complete diurnal cycles between April and August 1981. Average time variations of the sodium density show strong oscillations with 12- and 24-hour periods. Both the diurnal and semidiurnal components of the oscillation display large amplitudes and a 180° phase inversion near the layer peak. These features are interpreted in terms of the propagation of tides in the layer, taking into account the interaction between the tide and the minor constituent layer. It is shown that the vertical wind is the most important factor that determines the amplitude of the oscillation in sodium density at a fixed height, thus making it possible to estimate the phase and amplitude of the wind oscillations over a limited height range. Diurnal and semidiurnal vertical wind amplitudes of 2-6 cm s-1 and 5-20 cm s-1, respectively, have been inferred. The 12-hour component shows vertical phase propagation with a wavelength of ˜50 km, in agreement with recent theories. The 24-hour component, however, shows characteristics of an evanescent mode instead of the expected S1.1 mode. Maximum upward vertical velocity occurs at about 2100 LT at all heights for the diurnal component and at 0600 and 1800 LT at 85 km for the semidiurnal component. These results appear to be the first reported measurements of tidally induced vertical displacements in the mesopause region.

Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

1985-04-01

467

Tidal oscillations in the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium produced by diurnal and semidiurnal tides was measured. Average time variations of the sodium density show strong oscillations with 12 and 24 hour periods. Both the diurnal and semidiurnal components of the oscillation display large amplitudes and a 180 deg phase inversion near the layer peak. The propagation of tides in the layer, taking into account the interaction between the tide and the minor constituent layer is outlined. It is shown that the vertical wind is the most important factor which determines the amplitude of the oscillation in sodium density at a fixed height, thus making it possible to estimate the phase and amplitude of the wind oscillations over a limited height range. The 12 hour component shows vertical phase propagation with a wavelength of -50 km. The 24 hour component, however, shows characteristics of an evanescent mode instead of the expected S2,2 mode. Maximum upward vertical velocity occurs at about 2100 LT at all heights for the diurnal component, and at 0600 and 1800 LT at 85km for the semidiurnal component.

Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

1984-02-01

468

The diurnal variation of atmospheric sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of the vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium, made over a number of complete diurnal cycles, show the existence of strong semidiurnal oscillations in total abundance and height. The amplitude of the abundance variation, about 15 percent of the mean, is about twice that predicted for the 2,2 mode of the semidiurnal tide, and its phase, with maxima at 0400 and 1400 LT, is in good agreement with tidal theory. The vertical oscillation, with an amplitude of 2 km at a height of 100 km, is about 3 times the expected amplitude, and the measured vertical wavelength of 38 km is in good agreement with theory, although the phase is not. A strong diurnal oscillation, observed only at heights below 82 km, is interpreted as being the result of photochemical reactions between sodium and other atmospheric constituents. The lack of any appreciable 24-hour component in the total abundance variation implies either a residence time for total sodium of more than 3 days, or source and sink functions whose diurnal variations, unless identical, are very small.

Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.; Batista, P. P.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

1982-01-01

469

Electrogenic sodium extrusion in cardiac Purkinje fibers  

PubMed Central

Thin canine cardiac Purkinje fibers in a fast flow chamber were exposed to K-free fluid for 15 s to 6 min to initiate "sodium loading," then returned to K-containing fluid to stimulate the sodium pump. The electrophysiological effects of enhanced pump activity may result from extracellular K depletion caused by enhanced cellular uptake of K or from an increase in the current generated as a result of unequal pumped movements of Na and K, or from both. The effects of pump stimulation were therefore studied under three conditions in which lowering the external K concentration ([K]0) causes changes opposite to those expected from an increase in pump current. First, the resting potential of Purkinje fibers may have either a "high" value of a "low" (less negative) value: at the low level of potential, experimental reduction of [K]0 causes depolarization, whereas an increase in pump current should cause hyperpolarization. Second, in regularly stimulated Purkinje fibers, lowering [K]0 prolongs the action potential, whereas an increase in outward pump current should shorten it. Finally, lowering [K]0 enhances spontaneous "pacemaker" activity in Purkinje fibers, whereas an increase in outward pump current should reduce or abolish spontaneous activity. Under all three conditions, we find that the effects of temporary stimulation of the sodium pump are those expected from a transient increase in outward pump current, not those expected from K depletion.

1979-01-01

470

Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Hypertension, and Renal Sodium Transport  

PubMed Central

Sodium transport through various nephron segments is quite important in regulating sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. Among several regulators of this process, insulin acts on almost all the nephron segments and is a strong enhancer of sodium reabsorption. Sodium-proton exchanger type 3 (NHE3) is a main regulator of sodium reabsorption in the luminal side of proximal tubule. In the basolateral side of the proximal tubule, sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) mediates sodium and bicarbonate exit from tubular cells. In the distal nephron and the connecting tubule, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of great importance to sodium reabsorption. NHE3, NBCe1, and ENaC are all regulated by insulin. Recently with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, responsible for familial hypertension, stimulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, have been found to be also regulated by insulin. We will discuss the regulation of renal sodium transport by insulin and its roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in insulin resistance.

Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Yamada, Hideomi; Suzuki, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

2011-01-01

471

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

472

Transient sodium current at subthreshold voltages: activation by EPSP waveforms  

PubMed Central

Summary Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels carry large transient currents during action potentials and also “persistent” sodium current, a non-inactivating TTX-sensitive current present at subthreshold voltages. We examined gating of subthreshold sodium current in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons, studied at 37 °C with near-physiological ionic conditions. Unexpectedly, in both cell types small voltage steps at subthreshold voltages activated a substantial component of transient sodium current as well as persistent current. Subthreshold EPSP-like waveforms also activated a large component of transient sodium current, but IPSP-like waveforms engaged primarily persistent sodium current with only a small additional transient component. Activation of transient as well as persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages produces amplification of EPSPs that is sensitive to the rate of depolarization and can help account for the dependence of spike threshold on depolarization rate, as previously observed in vivo.

Carter, Brett C.; Giessel, Andrew J.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Bean, Bruce P.

2012-01-01

473

Dietary sodium restriction: take it with a grain of salt.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association recently strongly recommended a dietary sodium intake of <1500 mg/d for all Americans to achieve "Ideal Cardiovascular Health" by 2020. However, low sodium diets have not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in normotensive individuals or in individuals with pre-hypertension or hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that a low sodium diet may lead to a worse cardiovascular prognosis in patients with cardiometabolic risk and established cardiovascular disease. Low sodium diets may adversely affect insulin resistance, serum lipids, and neurohormonal pathways, leading to increases in the incidence of new cardiometabolic disease, the severity of existing cardiometabolic disease, and greater cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Although a high sodium intake also may be deleterious, there is good reason to believe that sodium intake is regulated within such a tight physiologic range that there is little risk to leaving sodium intake to inherent biology as opposed to likely futile attempts at conscious control. PMID:24054177

Dinicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; Sadaf, Rizwana; O' Keefe, James H; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

2013-09-18

474

Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a sporadic sodium layer (SSL), in particular its fine structure, observed at 92-98 km between 20:00 and 23:30 UT (21:00-24:30 LT) on 11 January 2011 using a sodium lidar, which was installed in the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) radar site at Tromsø, Norway (69.6°N, 19.2°E) in early 2010. The sodium lidar measurement with 5-sec time-resolution reveals the details of dramatic sodium-density increase as well as short-period wavelike structure in the SSL. The rate of increase of height-integrated sodium density at the beginning of the SSL event was 6.4-9.6 × 1010 m-2 s-1. Dominant oscillation periods in the wavelike structures were 7-11 min at 95-98 km and 3 min at 92-95 km. The calculated power spectral densities are well represented by power laws, implying the presence of the short-period waves and turbulence in the frequency range of 10-4-10-1 Hz.

Tsuda, T. T.; Nozawa, S.; Kawahara, T. D.; Kawabata, T.; Saito, N.; Wada, S.; Hall, C. M.; Oyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Ogawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Fujii, R.; Matuura, N.; Brekke, A.

2011-09-01

475

Spot urinary sodium for assessing dietary sodium restriction in cirrhotic ascites  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of spot urinary Na/K and Na/creatinine (Cr) ratios as an alternative to 24-h urinary sodium in monitoring dietary compliance in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretics. METHODS: The study was carried on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretic therapy. Patients were divided into two groups according to 24-h urinary sodium. We measured spot urine Na/K ratio, Na/Cr ratio and 24-h urinary sodium. Student’s t test was used to compare the interval variables and ?2 test to compare the nominal variables between the two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for Na/K and Na/Cr ratio. RESULTS: The best cutoff point for Na/K ratio was 2.5 (P < 0.001) and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9, and for Na/Cr ratio, the best cutoff point was 35 (P < 0.001) and AUC was 0.885. Na/K ratio showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared to Na/Cr ratio (87.5% and 87% for Na/K ratio; 81% and 85% for Na/Cr ratio, respectively). CONCLUSION: Spot urine Na/K ratio has adequate accuracy for assessment of dietary sodium restriction compared with 24-h urinary sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

El-Bokl, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; El-Karmouty, Khaled Zakaria; Mohammed, Inas El-Khedr; Mohammed, Sherif Monier; Shabana, Sherif Sadek; Shalaby, Hassan

2009-01-01

476

Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of the redistribution of ions near the vacuum-melt interface to the presence of sodium ions. It is found that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition near a surface favors the enrichment of non-bridging oxygen ions that is closely associated with enrichment of the sodium ions.

Corrales, Louis R.; Du, Jincheng

2006-01-01

477

Effect of Sodium Ascorbate on Resin Bonding to Sodium Perborate-bleached Dentin.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This was an in vitro study to evaluate the effect of sodium ascorbate on the microshear bond strength (MSBS) of resin composite to sodium perborate-bleached dentin. Molar dentin sections were divided into six groups: 1) control, 2) sodium perborate (SP) bleach and immediate bonding, 3) SP and 30 second sodium ascorbate (SA); 4) SP and 1 minute SA; 5) SP and 2 minute SA; and 6) SP and 7 day delay before bonding. They were further divided into two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond) or all-in-one self-etching (Xeno IV) adhesive systems. Resin composite microtubes were bonded according to dentin location-center, pulp horn, and peripheral positions-and an MSBS test was carried out. Failure mode was determined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. There were no significant differences between the treatment types/groups. MSBSs were significantly higher for two-step self-etching adhesive compared with all-in-one self-etching adhesive (p=0.028). For the all-in-one adhesive, MSBSs at the center and pulp horn positions were significantly lower than the peripheral positions (p<0.001). All-in-one groups had significantly more adhesive failures than two-step adhesive groups (p=0.015). The odds of adhesive failure were higher at the pulp horn position than the peripheral position (p=0.004). Sodium perborate bleaching of dentin had no effect on MSBS or mode of failure for either two-step or all-in-one self-etching adhesives; therefore, the effect of sodium ascorbate was negligible. The two-step adhesive groups demonstrated the highest MSBS, and the all-in-one groups, when bonded to center and pulp horn dentin, exhibited the lowest MSBS. PMID:23713808

Yoon, M; Burrow, Mf; Wong, R; Parashos, P

2013-05-28

478

The Transport Properties of Sodium Atoms and the Heat Capacity of Sodium Dimers at High Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Including the contribution of excited state atoms can improve calculations of dilute gaseous transport properties at high temperatures. For sodium, experimental and/or theoretical information is available about the potential energy curves associated with each of ten low-lying states of the sodium dimer. These include the {X1?_g{}+} and {3?_u{}{}+} states that dissociate to two ground state 2S sodium atoms and the four {3?_g,u{}+, 1? _g,u{}+, 1Pi _g,u, 3Pi _g,u} gerade/ungerade pairs of states that dissociate to a ground state 2S atom and an excited state 2P atom. Nine of these are bound states and have been fitted with the Hulburt-Hirschfelder potential, a very good general purpose atom-atom potential. The 3?g state is not bound and has been fitted with the exponential repulsive potential. We have used these potentials to calculate viscosity collision integrals as a function of temperature, and employed degeneracy-weighted averaging to determine the viscosity and translational contribution to the thermal conductivity of the sodium atoms. These same potentials have been used to calculate the heat capacity, {Cp^o}, of the sodium dimer using an approach that depends on the second virial coefficient and its first two temperature derivatives. Again, the inclusion of molecular states that dissociate to an excited state atom allows {Cp^o} to be determined with improved accuracy at higher temperatures. Thus, thermophysical property calculations for sodium have been extended to 25,000 K. These results are compared with previous results, including heat capacities given in the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

Biolsi, L.; Holland, P. M.

2010-05-01

479

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09

480

Effect of sodium iodide additive on the electrochemical performance of sodium\\/nickel chloride cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium iodide and sulfur additives on the performance of Na\\/ß''-alumina\\/NaAlCl4\\/NiCl2\\/Ni cells was investigated in quasi-sealed laboratory research cells (0.5–1.0 Ah capacity) and in sealed full-size cells (4 Ah capacity). It was found that sodium iodide additive especially in combination with sulfur in Na\\/NiCl2 cells significantly increases the usable capacity and reduces the impedance of the Na\\/NiCl2 cells.

Jai Prakash; Laszlo Redey; Donald R. Vissers; James DeGruson

2000-01-01

481

Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps  

SciTech Connect

Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

Karabourniotis, D. [Department of Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Drakakis, E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-08-09

482

Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

Cao Guangxiang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Song Xinyu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Haiyun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan Chunhua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yin Zhilei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun Sixiu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

2006-02-02

483

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01

484

Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

2010-04-01

485

Reaction of sodium hydroxide with silicate minerals  

SciTech Connect

The reactions of individual silicate minerals with caustic solution were measured over a 1-week period. These silicate minerals included: two feldspars (microcline and albite), two micas (biotite and muscovite), and three clays (chlorite, Kaolinite and montmorillonite). Bottle tests were conducted at 24/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/C using three different sodium hydroxide concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, and 1 equiv/dm/sup 3/. Changes in the concentrations of the following aqueous species were monitored with time: sodium, silicate, aluminate, and hydroxide. Experimental results show that all of the silicate minerals cited above dissolve in caustic solution, but the extent of dissolution varies from one mineral to another. The extent of dissolution increases with increasing pH and temperature. Caustic consumption by kaolinite was observed: 1.0 N NaOH solution was found to precipitate at 0.03 equiv/(kg kaolinite)/h when mixed with kaolinite at 70/sup 0/C. Caustic solution was injected through a Berea core, and silicate and aluminate were observed in the effluent, indicating silicate-mineral dissolution in a flowing mode. A model was developed to predict the kinetics of caustic consumption by a mixture of three minerals: quartz, kaolinite, and phillipsite. The model illustrates mineral dissolution and precipitation in a simplified system without including all of the known reservoir minerals. With knowledge of the reaction kinetics between sodium hydroxide and individual silicate minerals, one can extrapolate caustic consumption data beyond the laboratory time scale to the time scale of oilfield operations. Implications of the kinetic model to alkaline flooding are discussed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

Thornton, S.D.

1986-04-01

486

First Sodium Laser Beacon at La Palma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ING Newsletter No. 1, an ongoing project to implement an adaptive optics system on the WHT was described. Called NAOMI (Nasmyth Adaptive Optics for Multiple Instrumentation), this system will be capable of eliminating, to a large degree, the image degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence. As with any adaptive optics system, NAOMI will rely on measuring light from a relatively bright reference object, or "guide star", close to the desired target in order to make the necessary correction. One would like to be able to simply dial-up a guide star exactly where it is needed, and this is possible with the use of a "sodium laser beacon".

Michaille, L.; Quartel, J. C.; Dainty, J. C.; Wooder, N. J.; Wilson, R. W.; Gregory, T.

2000-03-01

487

Divalproex sodium-induced eosinophilic pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic pleural effusion is defined as an effusion in which eosinophils constitute more than 10% of white blood cells. These effusions can be due to multiple causes with drugs being implicated as one of the etiological agents. We report a case of 48-year-old woman with seizure disorder on divalproex sodium (Depakote) who presented with dyspnea. A chest radiograph demonstrated right pleural effusion. Investigations showed peripheral blood eosinophilia with thoracocentesis revealing eosinophilic exudative pleural effusion. An extensive workup for other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion was unrevealing. Withdrawal of Depakote resulted in resolution of the effusion. PMID:19512997

Joshi, Prachi; Kasmani, Rahil; Hollingsworth, Jocelyn; Fernandes, Karl; Mahajan, Kewal

488

Experimental operation of a sodium heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the operation of a 28 in. long sodium heat pipe in the Heat Pipe Test Facility (HPTF) installed at Argonne National Laboratory. Experimental data were collected to simulate conditions prototypic of both a fluidized bed coal combustor application and a space environment application. Both sets of experiment data show good agreement with the heat pipe analytical model. The heat transfer performance of the heat pipe proved reliable over a substantial period of operation and over much thermal cycling. Additional testing of longer heat pipes under controlled laboratory conditions will be necessary to determine performance limitations and to complete the design code validation. 2 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

1985-05-01

489

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-03-01

490

Sodium hypochlorite chemical burn. Case report.  

PubMed

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a well documented and widely accepted intracanal irrigant used to disinfect the pulp space in endodontic therapy. NaOCl can be an extremely cytotoxic material; therefore, care must be taken with its use. The authors present a case of periradicular extravasation of NaOCl with sequelae of pain, swelling, ecchymosis and parasthesia consistent with a chemical burn. The patient was treated with a nonsurgical medical management approach. She experienced a complete resolution of signs and symptoms, aside from a persistent residual focal parasthesia. PMID:18402381

Farren, Seth T; Sadoff, Rory S; Penna, Kevin J

2008-01-01

491

Continuous, dense, highly collimated sodium beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a slow, highly collimated, and bright sodium atom beam suitable for orientation and alignment studies in cold collisions. A combination of transverse-optical collimation, longitudinal cooling, rapid decoupling from the longitudinal cooling cycle, and a final ``optical-force extrusion'' stage produces an atom density of 1×1010 cm-3 within a beam-divergence solid angle of 2×10-6 sr. Rapid Zeeman-cooler decoupling results in a narrow laboratory velocity distribution of 5 m/s full width at half maximum and a cold binary intrabeam collision temperature of 4 mK.

Degraffenreid, W.; Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Liu, Y.-M.; Weiner, J.

2000-10-01

492

Solar tide in the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesospheric sodium layer observations obtained during day and night with INPE's laser radar at Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (23 deg 12 min S, 45 deg 51 min W) are presented. The average variation of the layer during 24 hours displays oscillations with 12 hour and 24 hour periods. The results are interpreted with the aid of a theory of atmospheric wave propagation for minor constituent layers. Oscillations are separated into 24 hour and 12 hour components. The 24 hour component shows the characteristics of an evanescent mode with maximum density occurring at 3 hours. The 12 hour component shows propagation of phase with height and a vertical wavelength of approximately 54 km.

Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Simonich, D. M.

1982-06-01

493

Amended safety assessment of sodium picramate and picramic acid.  

PubMed

Sodium picramate is the sodium salt of picramic acid, a substituted phenolic compound. Sodium picramate and picramic acid function as hair colorants; they are reportedly used in 31 and 3 hair-dye products, respectively. No concentration-of-use data were available for sodium picramate, but picramic acid was reported to be used at 0.6%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel recognized that adding picramic acid to a hair-dye formulation likely results in formation of a salt such as sodium picramate, which suggested that safety test data for one ingredient would be applicable to the other. Hair dyes containing these ingredients bear a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. The panel finds that the available data support the safety of these colorants in hair dyes and expects that sodium picramate would be used at concentrations comparable to those reported for picramic acid. PMID:20086193

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

494

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

SciTech Connect

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

495

Physics of Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium is used as a functional ionic species in a variety of electrochemical energy storage devices. This talk will examine several manifestations of sodium ion use, and will focus deeply on a novel class of aqueous electrolyte sodium ion batteries that have been developed over the past 5 years. While these new systems are typically lower in energy density, they are very robust and low in cost, making them appealing for a number of stationary energy storage applications. Specific topics to be covered include: sodium ion intercalation compounds, sodium/carbon interaction at potentials below 0V vs NHE, the behavior of porous thick electrodes in different electrolyte solutions, and the future outlook for sodium ion battery research.

Whitacre, Jay

2012-02-01

496

The role of sodium in intestinal glucose absorption in man  

PubMed Central

The effect of luminal sodium on intestinal glucose absorption at a variety of glucose concentrations was studied with a segmental perfusion technique in normal subjects. Uphill glucose transport was inhibited with sodium-free perfusions with either mannitol or Tris-HCl as the osmotic replacement of sodium (P < 0.01-P < 0.001). This effect did not appear to be the result of solvent drag, as increasing net water absorption without supplying sodium to the lumen did not increase glucose absorption. Downhill glucose transport (infusion concentrations of 6.0-27.8 mmoles/liter), on the other hand, was not affected by the absence of sodium in the infusion solution. Glucose concentrations of upper intestinal fluid after normal carbohydrate meals were usually found to exceed serum concentrations; thus, downhill glucose absorption, with, at most, a very limited dependence upon intraluminal sodium concentration, may account for a significant part of normal carbohydrate absorption.

Olsen, Ward A.; Ingelfinger, Franz J.

1968-01-01

497

Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors.

Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, Francois

2012-01-01

498

Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels are Functionally Coupled to Persistent Sodium Currents  

PubMed Central

We report a novel coupled system of sodium-activated potassium currents (IKNa) and persistent sodium currents (INaP), the components of which are widely distributed throughout the brain. Its existence and importance has not been previously recognized. Although IKNa was known to exist in many cell types, the source of Na+ which activates IKNa remained a mystery. We now show in single membrane patches generated from the somas of rat neurons that sodium influx through INaP is sufficient for activation of KNa channels, without substantial contribution from the transient sodium current or bulk [Na+]i. INaP was found to be active at cell membrane resting potentials, a finding that may explain why IKNa can be evoked from negative holding potentials. These results show an unanticipated role for INaP in activating a negative feedback system countering the excitable effects INaP; the interrelatedness of INaP and IKNa suggests new ways neurons can tune their excitability.

Hage, Travis A.; Salkoff, Lawrence

2012-01-01

499

Sodium-activated potassium channels are functionally coupled to persistent sodium currents.  

PubMed

We report a novel coupled system of sodium-activated potassium currents (I(KNa)) and persistent sodium currents (I(NaP)), the components of which are widely distributed throughout the brain. Its existence and importance has not been previously recognized. Although I(KNa) was known to exist in many cell types, the source of Na(+) which activates I(KNa) remained a mystery. We now show in single membrane patches generated from the somas of rat neurons that sodium influx through I(NaP) is sufficient for activation of K(Na) channels, without substantial contribution from the transient sodium current or bulk [Na(+)](i). I(NaP) was found to be active at cell membrane resting potentials, a finding that may explain why I(KNa) can be evoked from negative holding potentials. These results show an unanticipated role for I(NaP) in activating a negative feedback system countering the excitable effects I(NaP); the interrelatedness of I(NaP) and I(KNa) suggests new ways neurons can tune their excitability. PMID:22357855

Hage, Travis A; Salkoff, Lawrence

2012-02-22

500

Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them.

Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

2011-01-01