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1

Pentosan Polysulfate  

MedlinePLUS

Pentosan polysulfate is used to relieve bladder pain and discomfort related to interstitial cystitis, a disease that causes swelling and scarring of the bladder wall. Pentosan polysulfate is similar to ...

2

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies, pentosan has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction in patients with mild radiographic knee osteoarthritis

Kenji Kumagai; Susumu Shirabe; Noriaki Miyata; Masakazu Murata; Atsushi Yamauchi; Yasuhumi Kataoka; Masami Niwa

2010-01-01

3

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies, pentosan has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction in patients with mild radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) findings and OA-associated symptoms and signs. Methods Twenty patients were assessed clinically at Nagasaki University Hospital. The radiographic indications of OA were grade 1 to 3 using the Kellgren-Lawrence Grading System (K/L grade). Pentosan used in this study was manufactured and supplied in sterile injectable vials (100 mg/ml) by bene GmbH, Munich, Germany. The study was a single-center, open-label trial. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly subcutaneous injections (sc) of pentosan (2 mg/kg). Patients were clinically assessed at entry and 1 to 8, 11, 15, 24 & 52 weeks post treatment. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Dunnett's method. Results Hydrarthroses were reduced quickly in all cases. The clinical assessments, i.e., knee flexion, pain while walking, pain after climbing up and down stairs, etc, were improved significantly and these clinical improvements continued for almost one year. The dose used in this study affected the blood coagulation test, but was within safe levels. Slightly abnormal findings were noted in serum triglycerides. Conclusions Pentosan treatment in twenty patients with mild knee OA seemed to provide improvements in clinical assessments and C2C level of cartilage metabolism. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000002790

2010-01-01

4

[Pentosan polysulfate sodium prevents kidney morphological changes and albuminuria in rats with type 1 diabetes].  

PubMed

Decreased levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been observed in the kidney and other organs, in human and animal models of diabetes. Long-term administration of heparins and other glycosaminoglycans has demonstrated a beneficial effect on morphological and functional kidney abnormalities in diabetic rats. We assessed the effect of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan with low anticoagulant activity, on kidney involvement in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by i.v. administration of streptozotocin (STZ). Animals were randomly allocated to three groups: C = control, STZ and STZ + PPS = pretreated with PPS (15 mg/kg, s.c.). After three months of follow-up, blood and 24 h-urine samples were obtained, the animals were sacrificed and the kidney microdissected for morphometric analysis. Urinary albumin excretion was markedly increased in untreated diabetic rats (C = 0.26 ± 0.03 vs STZ = 7.75 ± 1.8 mg/24 h) and PPS treatment partially prevented the albumin rise (3.7 ± 0.7 mg/24 h), without affecting the metabolic control HbA1c (C = 3.6 ± 1.7; STZ = 8.82 ± 0.47; STZ + PPS = 8.63 ± 0.54). Electron microscope observation revealed typical renal lesions described in experimental diabetes (STZ group). PPS administration prevents the tubular basement membrane thickening and the loss of cytoarchitecture induced by experimental diabetes. Our data demonstrate that long-term administration of PPS has a favourable effect on morphological and functional abnormalities in kidneys of diabetic rats and suggests a potential therapeutic use for this compound. PMID:21113213

Mathison Natera, Y; Finol, H J; Quero, Z; González, R; González, J

2010-01-01

5

Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies.

Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2013-01-01

6

75 FR 53704 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Pentosan Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions of the Prostate AGENCY: National Institutes of Health...POLYSULFATE TO TREAT CERTAIN CONDITIONS OF THE PROSTATE,'' developed by Dr. Gary Striker...deposition, and so reduces the size of the prostate gland and decreases associated...

2010-09-01

7

Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS) treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (sc) injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. Methodology/Principal Findings One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly sc injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED)), or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED) for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly sc PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of sc treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, sc. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of sc PPS administration. Conclusions Once weekly sc administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from sc PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period.

Frohbergh, Michael; Ge, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Karabul, Nesrin; Solyom, Alexander; Lai, Alon; Iatridis, James; Schuchman, Edward H.; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2014-01-01

8

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

9

Pentosan polysulfate treatment preserves renal autoregulation in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats via normalization of P2X1 receptor activation  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory factors are elevated in animal and human subjects with hypertension and renal injury. We hypothesized that inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced renal injury by impairing autoregulation and microvascular reactivity to P2X1 receptor activation. Studies were conducted in vitro using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Rats receiving ANG II (60 ng/min) infusion were treated with the anti-inflammatory agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) for 14 days. The magnitude and progression of hypertension were similar in ANG II and ANG II+PPS-treated rats (169 ± 5 vs. 172 ± 2 mmHg). Afferent arterioles from control rats exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior with diameter decreasing from 18.4 ± 1.6 to 11.4 ± 1.7 ?m when perfusion pressure was increased from 70 to 160 mmHg. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was markedly attenuated in ANG II-treated rats, and diameter remained essentially unchanged over the range of perfusion pressures. However, ANG II-treated rats receiving PPS exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior compared with ANG II alone rats. Arteriolar reactivity to ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP was significantly reduced in ANG II hypertensive rats compared with controls. Interestingly, PPS treatment preserved normal reactivity to P2 and P2X1 receptor agonists despite the persistent hypertension. The maximal vasoconstriction was 79 ± 3 and 81 ± 2% of the control diameter for ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP, respectively, similar to responses in control rats. PPS treatment significantly reduced ?-smooth muscle actin staining in afferent arterioles and plasma transforming growth factor-?1 concentration in ANG II-treated rats. In conclusion, PPS normalizes autoregulation without altering ANG II-induced hypertension, suggesting that inflammatory processes reduce P2X1 receptor reactivity and thereby impair autoregulatory behavior in ANG II hypertensive rats.

Guan, Zhengrong; Fuller, Barry S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Cook, Anthony K.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

2010-01-01

10

Mesenchymal progenitor cells combined with pentosan polysulfate mediating disc regeneration at the time of microdiscectomy: a preliminary study in an ovine model.  

PubMed

Object Following microdiscectomy, discs generally fail to undergo spontaneous regeneration and patients may experience chronic low-back pain and recurrent disc prolapse. In published studies, formulations of mesenchymal progenitor cells combined with pentosan polysulfate (MPCs+PPS) have been shown to regenerate disc tissue in animal models, suggesting that this approach may provide a useful adjunct to microdiscectomy. The goal of this preclinical laboratory study was to determine if the transplantation of MPCs+PPS, embedded in a gelatin/fibrin scaffold (SCAF), and transplanted into a defect created by microdiscectomy, could promote disc regeneration. Methods A standardized microdiscectomy procedure was performed in 18 ovine lumbar discs. The subsequent disc defects were randomized to receive either no treatment (NIL), SCAF only, or the MPC+PPS formulation added to SCAF (MPCs+PPS+SCAF). Necropsies were undertaken 6 months postoperatively and the spines analyzed radiologically (radiography and MRI), biochemically, and histologically. Results No adverse events occurred throughout the duration of the study. The MPC+PPS+SCAF group had significantly less reduction in disc height compared with SCAF-only and NIL groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging Pfirrmann scores in the MPC+PPS+SCAF group were significantly lower than those in the SCAF group (p = 0.0213). The chaotropic solvent extractability of proteoglycans from the nucleus pulposus of MPC+PPS+SCAF-treated discs was significantly higher than that from the SCAF-only discs (p = 0.0312), and using gel exclusion chromatography, extracts from MPC+PPS+SCAF-treated discs also contained a higher percentage of proteoglycan aggregates than the extracts from both other groups. Analysis of the histological sections showed that 66% (p > 0.05) of the MPC+PPS+SCAF-treated discs exhibited less degeneration than the NIL or SCAF discs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the capacity of MPCs in combination with PPS, when embedded in a gelatin sponge and sealed with fibrin glue in a microdiscectomy defect, to restore disc height, disc morphology, and nucleus pulposus proteoglycan content. PMID:24702507

Oehme, David; Ghosh, Peter; Shimmon, Susan; Wu, Jiehua; McDonald, Courtney; Troupis, John M; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Jenkin, Graham

2014-06-01

11

How gluten properties are affected by pentosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the wet separation of starch and gluten, both water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable solids (WUS) have a negative effect on gluten yield. Gluten properties are also affected: the gluten becomes less extensible. In comparison to the control, addition of WUS or WEP resulted in less gluten with a higher maximum resistance to extension (Rmax) and a smaller

Mingwei Wang; Ton van Vliet; Robert J Hamer

2004-01-01

12

NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Elmiron(Trademark) (CAS No. 37319-17-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elmiron, a white powder, is the sodium salt of pentosan polysulfate, a semisynthetic sulfated polyanion composed of beta-D-xylopyranose residues with biological properties similar to heparin. Elmiron is used in the United States for the relief of urinary ...

2004-01-01

13

Anti?nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: Roles of viscosity and gut microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The mechanism of the anti?nutritive activity of isolated wheat pentosans was investigated by examining the roles of digesta viscosity and gut microflora in broiler chickens.2. Wheat pentosans were isolated by alkaline extraction and purified by sequential treatment with pancreatin, a?amylase and lichenase, and high?speed centrifugation. Some of the pentosans were depolymerised using a ß?xylanase, which reduced the relative viscosity

M. Choct; G. Annison

1992-01-01

14

Polysulfated sialic acid derivatives as anti-human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of a novel alkyl polysulfated sialic acid derivative denoted as NMSO3. NMSO3 exhibited potent inhibition against both laboratory and clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The anti-viral activity of this compound (1 uM) was compared to dextran sulfate (3 uM), and was found to be more potent against HIV-1IIIb than AZT (10 uM). The anti-coagulation time was more than 15-fold shorter than that of dextran sulfate. An in vivo anti-viral study of NMSO3 in NOD-SCID-PBL mice HIV model showed complete protection of the animals from virus challenge at the concentration of 10 mg/kg. This suggests that NMSO3 can be effective in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. PMID:16143490

Terada, Masaki; Fujita, Shuji; Suda, Isao; Mastico, Robert

2005-09-01

15

Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Elmiron in F344\\/N rats and B6C3F 1 mice following 2 years of gavage administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elmiron (sodium pentosan polysulfate) is used for the relief of urinary bladder pain associated with interstitial cystitis. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) tested this compound because of its orphan drug status and lack of information about its chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344\\/N rats were given Elmiron in de-ionized water by gavage at doses

Kamal M. Abdo; Jerry D. Johnson; Abraham Nyska

2003-01-01

16

Hemorrhagic diathesis in avian species following intramuscular administration of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.  

PubMed

Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans (PSGAGs) have been used for decades in a variety of species for the management of osteoarthritic pain. However, reports on the use of PSGAGs in avian species are scarce. In domestic cats and dogs, PSGAG injections have caused prolongation of clotting times but are considered to be an efficacious drug with a wide margin of safety. This publication documents four cases of fatal coagulopathies in different avian species (one coraciiforme, two raptors, and one psittacine) following the intramuscular administration of PSGAG. All affected birds received varying dosages and dosing intervals of PSGAG. Three of the four birds experienced fatal hemorrhage into the pectoral muscle, while the fourth bled continuously from the injection site. Only one bird had chronic, severe pre-existing disease; the remainder were being managed for osteoarthritis. This report highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of PSGAG and warrants further investigation into the etiopathogenesis of this process. PMID:23505708

Anderson, Kadie; Garner, Michael M; Reed, Holly H; Cook, Kimberly; Aguilar, Roberto; Horton, Susan; Case, Allison L; Wolf, Karen N

2013-03-01

17

Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet.

Sheng, Q. K.; Yang, L. Q.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, K.

2013-01-01

18

Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.  

PubMed

Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages. PMID:23810948

Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

2013-09-01

19

Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P?

Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

2014-06-01

20

Inhibition of the classical and alternative pathways of the human complement system by glycosaminoglycan polysulfate.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycan polysulfate (GAGPS) concentration-dependently inhibited the activation of the classical and alternative pathways of the human complement system in vitro. Concentrations of > or = 0.2 mg/ml GAGPS prevented the cleavage of C4 by human aggregated gammaglobulin as evidence of inhibition of the classical pathway. At concentrations of > or = 0.15 mg/ml a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cleavage of factor B, the major step in the activation of the alternative pathway, was seen in the presence of inulin. Concentrations < 0.05 mg/ml did not have a measurable effect on either pathway. The lysis of sheep red blood cells, which is mediated largely by the classical pathway, was significantly inhibited at 3.84 mg/ml GAGPS, with a mean inhibition of 45.7%. On the other hand, the same concentration of GAGPS almost completely inhibited the lysis of rabbit red blood cells, which is mediated by the alternative pathway of complement. Our results suggest that the inhibition by GAGPS is an early event in the activation of complement, occurring before the assembly of the C3 convertases of either pathway. The possible use of this drug in acute life-threatening situations where complement is thought to have a pathogenic role is discussed. PMID:7850029

de Messias, I T; Mohren, D; Kajdacsy-Balla, A

1994-01-01

21

Effects of AGM-1470 and pentosan polysulphate on tumorigenicity and metastasis of FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed Central

Previously, we described FGF-1- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells which are tumorigenic and metastatic in untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised nude mice. In this study, we have assessed the effects of AGM-1470, an antiangiogenic agent, and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), an agent that abrogates the effects of FGFs, on tumour growth and metastasis produced by these FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells. Untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised mice were injected with FGF-transfected cells, treated with AGM-1470 or PPS, and tumour growth and metastasis analysed. The sensitivity of FGF-transfected and parental MCF-7 cells to AGM-1470 or PPS was also determined in vitro. Both AGM-1470 and PPS inhibited tumour growth in otherwise untreated or tamoxifen-treated mice injected with either FGF- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 cells. This effect was more reliably seen in tamoxifen-treated animals. AGM-1470 was about 10(5) times less potent in inhibiting the anchorage-dependent growth of parental MCF-7 or FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells than in inhibiting the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PPS did not affect the in vitro growth of the transfectants or parental cells. Thus, the growth-inhibitory effect on tumours was in excess of the effect of either drug on the same cells in tissue culture, implying that stromal elements are important determinants of the effects of these drugs. There was a positive correlation between tumour size and the extent of proximal lymph node metastasis. However, neither drug had a significant effect on the extent of metastasis to proximal or distal lymph nodes or lungs. AGM-1470 or PPS may be helpful in cases of breast carcinoma in which angiogenesis is due to expression of FGFs by the tumour cells and may be more effective when combined with tamoxifen.

McLeskey, S. W.; Zhang, L.; Trock, B. J.; Kharbanda, S.; Liu, Y.; Gottardis, M. M.; Lippman, M. E.; Kern, F. G.

1996-01-01

22

Current strategies for managing interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Interstitial cystitis is a relatively common disorder that can be treated successfully in the majority of cases. Symptoms can be effectively controlled, and disease pathophysiology addressed, using a multimodal medical regimen based on heparinoid therapy. As appropriate to the individual patient, heparinoid therapy is supplemented by oral medications aimed at reversing neural upregulation and controlling any allergies. A new and promising adjunct to the multimodal regimen is an intravesical therapeutic solution that combines pentosan polysulfate or heparin with lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate. Preliminary results indicate this therapeutic solution provides immediate temporary relief of symptoms. PMID:14996625

Parsons, C Lowell

2004-02-01

23

Effects of bound versus soluble pentosan polysulphate in PEG/HA-based hydrogels tailored for intervertebral disc regeneration.  

PubMed

Previous reports in the literature investigating chondrogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) cultures have confirmed the chondro-inductive potential of pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a highly sulphated semi-synthetic polysaccharide, when added as a soluble component to culture media under standard aggregate-assay conditions or to poly(ethylene glycol)/hyaluronic acid (PEG/HA)-based hydrogels, even in the absence of inductive factors (e.g. TGF?). In this present study, we aimed to assess whether a 'bound' PPS would have greater activity and availability over a soluble PPS, as a media additive or when incorporated into PEG/HA-based hydrogels. We achieved this by covalently pre-binding the PPS to the HA component of the gel (forming a new molecule, HA-PPS). We firstly investigated the activity of HA-PPS compared to free PPS, when added as a soluble factor to culture media. Cell proliferation, as determined by CCK8 and EdU assay, was decreased in the presence of either bound or free PPS whilst chondrogenic differentiation, as determined by DMMB assay and histology, was enhanced. In all cases, the effect of the bound PPS (HA-PPS) was more potent than that of the unbound form. These results alone suggest wider applications for this new molecule, either as a culture supplement or as a coating for scaffolds targeted at chondrogenic differentiation or maturation. We then investigated the incorporation of HA-PPS into a PEG/HA-based hydrogel system, by simply substituting some of the HA for HA-PPS. Rheological testing confirmed that incorporation of either HA-PPS or PPS did not significantly affect gelation kinetics, final hydrogel modulus or degradation rate but had a small, but significant, effect on swelling. When encapsulated in the hydrogels, MPCs retained good viability and rapidly adopted a rounded morphology. Histological analysis of both GAG and collagen deposition after 21 days showed that the incorporation of the bound-PPS into the hydrogel resulted in increased matrix formation when compared to the addition of soluble PPS to the hydrogel, or the hydrogel alone. We believe that this new generation injectable, degradable hydrogel, incorporating now a covalently bound-PPS, when combined with MPCs, has the potential to assist cartilage regeneration in a multitude of therapeutic targets, including for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. PMID:24215733

Frith, Jessica E; Menzies, Donna J; Cameron, Andrew R; Ghosh, P; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, S; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

2014-01-01

24

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sodium and Salt Updated:Jun 23,2014 About Sodium Frequently Asked ... Dining Out • Cookbooks and Health Guides Reduce Your Sodium Intake Receive Healthy Living news every month! First ...

25

Meloxicam and surgical denervation of the coxofemoral joint for the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).  

PubMed

An adult male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with pronounced atrophy of the pelvic musculature was diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. Initial management with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam and a semisynthetic sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in clinical improvement and radiographic stabilization of the arthritic condition over several months. However, because pain was still evident, bilateral denervation of the coxofemoral joints was performed, successfully ameliorating the signs of osteoarthritic pain in the tiger. Meloxicam has shown good clinical efficacy for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other painful conditions in large felids. Coxofemoral joint denervation offers many advantages for the treatment of osteoarthritis in exotic carnivore species, and should be considered a viable treatment modality. PMID:17319147

Whiteside, Douglas P; Remedios, Audrey M; Black, Sandra R; Finn-Bodner, Susan T

2006-09-01

26

Sodium Oxybate  

MedlinePLUS

... attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a short time) and ... go to sleep for the night. Sodium oxybate begins to work very quickly. Place your second dose ...

27

Sodium technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to conduct friction screening tests in an environment of high-temperature, high-purity liquid sodium or sodium vapor to: (1) develop backup materials, processes, and vendors for core component wear pads, (2) investigate material treatments and coatings for improvement of wear behavior of common LMFBR structural materials, (3) evaluate weld-deposited hardfacings and\\/or prefabricated bearing materials for

W. J. Kurzeka; R. M. Oliva; P. Horton

2011-01-01

28

Low sodium diet (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or unsalted. Check all labels for how much ... labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or unsalted. Check all labels for how much ...

29

Pravastatin sodium.  

PubMed

Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

2014-01-01

30

Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

2014-06-01

31

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium in my drinking water? How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy ... health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? A Food and Drug Administration publication, " Scouting for ...

32

Solubilities of Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite, and Sodium Aluminate in Simulated Nuclear Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate...

D. A. Reynolds D. L. Herting

1984-01-01

33

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat increased amounts of potassium in the body. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be used as ...

34

Sodium blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and ... than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

35

Mercury's sodium exosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

2003-01-01

36

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-12-01

37

Intravesical treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: from the conventional regimens to the novel botulinum toxin injections.  

PubMed

Introduction: Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) includes interstitial cystitis (IC) and is often used as a synonym of it (i.e., BPS/IC). It is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms as well as with negative cognitive, behavioral, sexual and/or emotional consequences. Unfortunately, none of the numerous existing oral and intravesical treatments have been effective for all of the BPS subtypes and therefore relevant research is ongoing. Areas covered: In this review, the authors analyze the existing literature for the intravesical treatment of BPS/IC with focus on the novel administration of botulinum toxin (BTX). Several intravesical drugs have been studied in the past, including lidocaine, heparin, pentosan polysulfate sodium, dimethyl sulfoxide, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid as well as investigational drugs such as GM-0111. Recently, intravesical submucosal injections of BTX have been studied in patients with BPS/IC. Expert opinion: Most of the recent studies use BTX-A with no serious adverse effects and with satisfactory results in patients who do not respond to oral or standard intravesical therapy. Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the best dosage scheme of BTX, the injection sites and the treatment intervals. BTX intravesical administration in patients with BPS/IC is a safe and efficient treatment option; yet the level of evidence of the initial studies is not high. There is still the need for large randomized controlled studies so that a consensus can be reached for the ideal BTX dosage, injection sites and intervals between treatments. PMID:24749738

Dellis, Athanasios; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

2014-06-01

38

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The medical literature was reviewed from 1968-2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

Uthman, I; Raynauld, J-P; Haraoui, B

2003-08-01

39

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

40

Sodium fill of FFTF  

SciTech Connect

With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective.

Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

1980-02-01

41

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail around high activity comets. We present a brief overview of neutral sodium tail observations to date and discuss the importance of theoretical modelling in understanding these data. We have developed a new, 3D Monte-Carlo model of cometary sodium that incorporates several advancements over previous models. It includes weightings due to solar flux variation with heliocentric distance, and comprehensive handling of the Swings and Greenstein effects on the neutral sodium tail, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets. Some preliminary results from this model are presented, including predictions of the structure of the eagerly anticipated neutral sodium tail at Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-09-01

42

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21

43

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

44

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

45

Information Profile: Sodium Azide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium-azide (26628228) (NA) was described in terms of general properties and uses, toxicity, and occupational exposures. NA has been used in preparation of explosives, herbicides, photosensitive polymers, antibacterials, antidepressants, propellants, den...

A. R. Gregory

1978-01-01

46

Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document des...

M. J. Barnes

1998-01-01

47

Sodium Phosphate Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

Fleet Enema® ... Fleet Enema EXTRA® ... Fleet Pedia-Lax Enema® ... Rectal sodium phosphate comes as an enema to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted when a bowel movement is desired. The enema usually causes a bowel movement ...

48

Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.  

PubMed

Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

2014-02-01

49

Cardiac sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

2010-01-01

50

Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined. Methods. We studied a cohort of 2272 individuals receiving thrice-weekly hemodialysis treatment. Available data included demographics, laboratory and clinical measures, details of the dialysis prescription and 30-month follow-up. We examined the distribution of serum and dialysate sodium among subjects and compared mortality according to dialysate and serum sodium concentrations using Cox regression models. Results. Dialysate sodium concentration varied within and among dialysis centers. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration (mean 136.1 mmol/L) did not differ across dialysate sodium concentrations. There was evidence for effect modification for mortality according to differing serum sodium and dialysate sodium concentrations (P = 0.05). For each 4 mmol/L increment in serum sodium, the hazard ratio for death was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.81] with lower dialysate sodium compared to 0.86 (95% CI 0.75–0.99) for higher dialysate sodium. Higher dialysate sodium concentration was associated with mortality at higher, but not lower, pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations. Conclusions. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration appears to be unaffected by the dialysate sodium concentration. The relationship between serum and dialysate sodium and mortality appears to be variable. Further research is warranted to determine the biological mechanisms of these associations and to re-examine total body sodium handling in hemodialysis.

Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Brunelli, Steven M.

2012-01-01

51

Sodium Balance in Maintenance Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Sodium is the principal solute in the extracellular compartment and the major component of serum osmolality. In normal persons in the steady state, sodium homeostasis is achieved by a balance between the dietary intake and the urinary output of sodium, whereas in intermittent hemodialysis patients, sodium balance depends on dietary intake and sodium removal during hemodialysis. Thus, the main goal of hemodialysis is to remove precisely the amount of sodium that has accumulated during the interdialytic period. Sodium removal during hemodialysis occurs via convective (~78%) and diffusive losses (~22%) between dialysate and plasma sodium concentration. The latter (the sodium gradient) is an important factor in the 'fine tuning' of sodium balance during intermittent hemodialysis. Most use fixed dialysate sodium concentrations, but each patient has his/her own plasma sodium concentrations pre-hemodialysis, which are quite reproducible and stable in the long-term. Thus, in many patients, a fixed dialysate sodium concentration will cause a persistent positive sodium balance during dialysis, which could possibly cause increased thirst, interdialytic weight gain, and mortality. Several methods will be discussed to reduce positive sodium balance, including sodium alignment.

2012-01-01

52

Sodium-sulfur thermal battery  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

Ludwig, F.A.

1990-12-11

53

Cardiac sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies. PMID:20091048

Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

2010-07-01

54

The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P63) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space

Kali Zheng; Andrea R. Gerson; Jonas Addai-Mensah; Roger St. C. Smart

1997-01-01

55

Sodium Winds on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the Main Spectrograph at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at KPNO to measure the profile of sodium emission lines from Mercury with a spectral dispersion of 2.8 mA/pixel. An iodine vapor absorption cell and atmospheric absorption lines were used to define the wavelength scale. At the time of measurement (3 and 4 February 2000), Mercury was east of the Sun, with a phase of 20 degrees, so that most of the planetary surface seen from Earth was illuminated by sunlight. The spectrograph slit was oriented north-south on Mercury for one set of observations (3 February), and east-west for another (4 February). After subtraction of scattered sunlight and Mercury surface reflection backgrounds, the wavelength of the centroid for the emission line was measured as a function of position on the spectrograph slit. We found that the wavelength of the sodium centroid differed from the rest wavelength of sodium (taking into account the relative velocities of Earth and Mercury), and varied with position on the planet. Near the Mercury center, the radial velocity of sodium was in the range 0.3-0.4 km/sec towards the Earth. For the east-west transect, the radial velocity towards the Earth increased near the dawn terminator, and decreased towards the dusk terminator. This suggests that there was a flow of sodium vapor from the dawn to the dusk terminators. For the north-south transect, the radial velocity towards the Earth decreased above both poles, suggesting that radiation pressure was pushing sodium off the planet. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.

2000-10-01

56

Polymorphism of flucloxacillin sodium.  

PubMed

The polymorphism of flucloxacillin sodium has not been discussed sufficiently so far. Flucloxacillin sodium which was crystallized with different solvents, was found to exist in amorphism and three crystal forms (I, II, III). This results were confirmed by infra-red (IR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and equilibrium solubility. It is noticed that form III has very good solubility in phosphate buffer solution, with an average solubility of 0.86 g (20-40 degrees C). However, more efforts are needed to carry out and decide whether this form can be used for industrial production. PMID:22312697

Zhou, Xiao-Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Miao-Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Han, Guo-Cheng; Feng, Xiao-Zhen

2011-12-01

57

Sodium storage and injection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

Keeton, A. R. (inventor)

1979-01-01

58

The sodium zenocorona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent narrow-band-filtered CCD image by Mendillo et al. (1990) has shown that a sodium corona, produced near Io, extends at least 400 Jupiter radii in the planet's equatorial plane. Isophotes indicate that the polar to equatorial extents are in about 1 to 3 proportions. The image can be reproduced by a model which includes both a high- and an intermediate-speed distribution, with source rates of 2.2 and 1.1 x 10 exp 26 atoms/s, respectively. The high-speed distribution was ejected from Io with a velocity tangential to the satellite orbit of 57 km/s (about 74 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 25 km/s. This distribution likely corresponds to a charge exchange source of plasma torus sodium ions which are neutralized in the near-Io atmosphere and are ejected relative to Jupiter with a corotational velocity (74 km/s) plus a thermal ion (25 km/s) Maxwellian distribution. The intermediate speed distribution was ejected from Io with a tangential speed near 20 km/s (37 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 12 km/s. This distribution corresponds to the same nonthermal sodium atoms earlier identified near Io in the sodium directional features (Pilcher et al., 1984).

Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

1991-01-01

59

Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

Barnes, M.J.

1998-11-20

60

Sodium Perxenate Hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium perxenate hexahydrate (Na4XeO4\\\\cdot 6H2O) has been identified from study of its crystal structure by x-ray diffraction. The perxenate ion (XeO6{}-4) has the shape of a regular octahedron with the Xe-O bond distance 1.84 angstrom.

Allan Zalkin; J. D. Forrester; David H. Templeton; Stanley M. Williamson; Charles W. Koch

1963-01-01

61

Antisolvent Crystallisation of Sodium Carbonate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; The Growth of Sodium Nitrate from Mixtures of Water and Isopropoxyethanol; Molecular Dynamic Studies of Mixtures of Water and Isopropoxyethanol at the NANO (012) Interface; The High-Temperature Crystallization of Anhydrous Sodium C...

H. Oosterhof

1999-01-01

62

Complete sodium removal from equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proving that metallic sodium could be successfully removed from the complex internal and external geometries of equipment (such as breeder reactor components) was one goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sodium Waste Technology Program. A pilot-plant facility was designed and built for sodium removal at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. The pilot plant is called the Sodium

M. F. Huebner; C. S. Abrams

1986-01-01

63

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three companies produced natural sodium sulfate from a total of three plants in California, Texas, and Utah. The domestic natural sodium sulfate industry supplied about one-half of the total output of U.S. sodium sulfate. Because of the location of these ...

1993-01-01

64

CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?  

MedlinePLUS

... initiatives to reduce sodium such as the National Salt Reduction Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them ... sodium foods. Asking food manufacturers to provide lower sodium foods. Make phased reductions in the amount of sodium they add to ...

65

Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... medications. Avoid products that contain sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is baking soda. Fresh fruits and vegetables are generally low in sodium. In addition, a diet rich in fruits and ...

66

Complete sodium removal from equipment  

SciTech Connect

Proving that metallic sodium could be successfully removed from the complex internal and external geometries of equipment (such as breeder reactor components) was one goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sodium Waste Technology Program. A pilot-plant facility was designed and built for sodium removal at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. The pilot plant is called the Sodium Process Demonstration (SPD) Facility. It uses a combination of melt-drain-evaporate-calcine (MEDEC) processes to remove metallic sodium from large (up to 1.4-m-diam x 2.2-m-long) nonradioactive-sodium-bearing equipment. The sodium-free equipment can then be reused or disposed of using normal waste disposal methods. The sodium can be converted to storable sodium monoxide or disposed of by other means. Evaluating the effectiveness of this MEDEC process was the object of a methodical test program. After this test program proved successful, the MEDEC process was used on a production scale to remove metallic sodium from a variety of sodium-bearing items as described.

Huebner, M.F.; Abrams, C.S.

1986-01-01

67

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics.

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlohner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

68

Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits. PMID:17587873

Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

2007-01-01

69

Effect of sodium salicylate, sodium oxalate, and sodium chloride on the micellization and adsorption of sodium deoxycholate in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The salicylate ion increases the rate of bile flow (choleretic effect) and bile salts are known to affect the colonic absorption of oxalate. Owing to this physiological relevance of salicylate and oxalate ions, critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were determined in aqueous sodium oxalate, sodium salicylate, and sodium chloride solutions by using surface tension, fluorescence, and EMF methods. The results indicate, besides a counterion effect, the influence of coanions on the cmc. In the range from 25 to 40 °C, cmc increases almost linearly with temperature. In the temperature range from 30 to 40 °C, the counterion binding constant ? of NaDC micelles has the same value (0.17±0.01) in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate. On the other hand, in sodium oxalate solution ?=0.05±0.02 when oxalate concentration is less than or equal to c* and ?=0.48±0.04 above c*, where c*?0.038 mol kg(-1). EMF measurements also supported this type of counterion binding to NaDC micelles in sodium oxalate solutions. In sodium oxalate solution, at c* a change in the shape of deoxycholate micelles is expected to take place. Salicylate, oxalate, and chloride coanions have a similar effect on the adsorption of NaDC. This study reveals that the choleretic effect of salicylate is not due to the influence of salicylate ions on the micellization of NaDC. PMID:21402381

Das, Sujit; Dey, Jahar; Mukhim, Teiborlang; Ismail, Kochi

2011-05-15

70

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

71

Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage.

Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

2007-01-01

72

Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum

Gerald Earle Jellison Jr; Lynn A Boatner; Joanne Oxendine Ramey; James A Kolopus; Lucas A Ramey; David J Singh

2012-01-01

73

Evaporative Cooling of Sodium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experiments on evaporative cooling of sodium atoms are presented. Atoms are loaded into a spherical quadrupole magnetic trap and are cooled by a novel technique, rf induced evaporation. The elastic collision cross section for cold sodium atoms is measured to be 6 10^{-12} cm^2 . These initial experiments result in an increase of phase space density of 190.

Kendall Bruce Davis

1995-01-01

74

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. sodium sulfate production increased 6% in 1993 to 651,000 tons according to preliminary statistics from the Bureau of the Census. Production of natural sodium sulfate from three domestic locations declined 5% to 327,000 tons, which was the lowest lev...

D. S. Kostick

1994-01-01

75

Pure pseudoboehmite from sodium aluminate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the Na2O\\/Al2O3 mole ratio in sodium aluminate, the pH and the temperature of precipitation upon physicochemical properties of pseudoboehmite obtained from sodium aluminate has been studied. A mole ratio of 1?1 and low pH are favorable for the preparation of pure alumina.

B. Ozimek; J. Grzechowiak; B. Radomyski

1980-01-01

76

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06

77

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

78

Reducing Sodium in a Salty World  

MedlinePLUS

Reducing Sodium in a Salty World Updated:Oct 31,2013 There’s been a lot of talk lately about limiting ... Smart Shopping • Healthy Cooking • Recipes • Dining Out • Cookbooks Sodium Infographics What can too much sodium do to ...

79

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per dosage unit (e.g., tablet, teaspoonful) if the sodium content of a single maximum recommended...or mouth rinses. (b) The sodium content shall be expressed in...

2009-04-01

80

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per dosage unit (e.g., tablet, teaspoonful) if the sodium content of a single maximum recommended...or mouth rinses. (b) The sodium content shall be expressed in...

2010-04-01

81

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2010-01-01

82

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2009-04-01

83

21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

84

21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

85

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

86

Sodium in Io's extended atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation combines several new observations of the Io sodium cloud to create a consistent picture of the extended Io atmosphere and its interaction with the Jovian plasma torus. The LPL echelle spectrograph was used to obtain three types of high-resolution spectra of the extended sodium cloud at the sodium D lines (5890, 5896{angstrom}). The first class of observations made use of the mutual satellite eclipses of 1985 to probe the density profile of the atmosphere in the range 1.4 to 10 Io radii, a previously unstudied region. The second type of observation examined the sodium emission in Io's immediate vicinity, allowing an accurate measurement of the velocity structure around Io. The final method employed a high-sensitivity detector to study faint jets of high-speed sodium farther out in the extended cloud. The synthesis of these three data sets results in a better understanding of how sodium is distributed about Io as a function of position and velocity. The data indicate that the Io atmosphere is collisionally thick near the surface, but becomes thin by an altitude of {approximately}700 km. The high-speed sodium jets reveal a new type of close interaction between the corotating plasma and Io's atmosphere.

Schneider, N.M.

1988-01-01

87

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

88

Sodium sulfur battery: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High theoretical specific energy values are expected from batteries with low equivalent weight reactants and large electronegativity differences. Alkali metals, acting as the negative electrode, and the chalcogenides as the positive electrode, potentially could produce a battery with high specific energy density. Weber and Kummer demonstrated such a battery using sodium and sulfur as the two electrode materials. The key to the development of this battery was the discovery that solid electrolytes such as beta-alumina conducts sodium ions efficiently. Since then other glassy materials have been shown to be adequate conductors of sodium ions as well. Based on these two types of electrolytes, three approaches to the design of the sodium/sulfur battery have evolved. This paper provides a brief overview of these design approaches.

Sen, R. K.; Landgrebe, A. L.

1987-01-01

89

Sodium Sulfur Technology Program NASTEC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and ver...

B. Highley W. A. Somerville

1992-01-01

90

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium sulfate is produced from natural sources or recovered as a byproduct from various manufacturing processes and has several important and useful applications in various consumer products. In a survey of the top 50 basic organic and inorganic chemical...

D. S. Kostick

1990-01-01

91

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. natural and synthetic sodium sulfate production and consumption decreased 44% and 48%, respectively, from those of 1980 to 1991. The decreases were because of changes in the recovery operations of consuming industries mandated by environmental legisl...

D. S. Kostick

1992-01-01

92

Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

93

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

94

Serum stimulation of sodium transport in human fibroblasts containing low and high levels of intracellular sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationships between intracellular sodium content, sodium transport and serum effects were investigated in human fibroblasts. In the cells with low intracellular sodium (NaiL\\/+;0.04 µmol sodium\\/mg protein) serum stimulated the sodium-potassium pump as measured by ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and rubidium influx and also exerted a transstimulation of ouabain-insensitive sodium transport resulting in net influx. In cells with high intracellular

Gillian Spurlock; Kevin Morgan; M. Afzal Mir

1986-01-01

95

Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent

Armen Y Mulkidjanian; M. Y. Galperin; Kira S Makarova; Yuri I Wolf; Eugene V Koonin

2008-01-01

96

Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g\\/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them, It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The

Shu-hua MA; Shi-li ZHENG; Hong-bin XU; Yi ZHANG

2007-01-01

97

In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

2014-05-01

98

Mechanisms regulating renal sodium excretion during development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review focuses on the ontogeny of mechanisms involved in renal sodium excretion during renal maturation. The effect of birth on renal excretion of sodium and the role played by the different tubular segments in the regulation of sodium excretion during maturation are discussed. The influence of circulating catecholamines and renal sympathetic innervation in regulating sodium excretion during renal

Jean E. Robillard; Francine G. Smith; Jeffrey L. Segar; Edward N. Guillery; Pedro A. Jose

1992-01-01

99

Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides.

2011-01-01

100

Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

2011-01-01

101

Direct synthesis of sodium polysulfides from sodium and sulfur  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for synthesizing sodium polysulfides of stoichiometries Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/ by the direct reaction of sodium and sulfur. The reaction is carried out in the furnace well of an inert-atmosphere glove box and features the slow addition of sulfur to molten sodium at temperatures ranging from 100-150/sup 0/C at the start of the reaction to about 300/sup 0/C at the end. Batches of 150-200 g of polysulfide product can be prepared with yields approaching 100% and a high purity. 16 references, 1 table.

Brown, A.P.; Battles, J.E.

1984-01-01

102

Human skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow ions to flow in or out of the cell. Sodium and potassium channel activation and inactivation are the basis of action potential's production and conduction. During the past 15 years, ion channels have been implicated in diseases that have come to be known as the channelopathies. Over 30 mutations of the muscle channel gene SCN4A, which encodes the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, have been described and associated with neuromuscular disorders like hypo- and hyper-kalaemic periodic paralyses (hypoPP and hyperPP), paramyotonia congenita, sodium channel myotonias and congenital myasthenic syndrome. Different mutations within the same gene (SCN4A) cause distinct clinical disorders, while mutations in different channel genes may result in similar phenotypes. In addition, identical sodium channel mutations can result in different clinical phenotypes (hyperPP or paramyotonia) in different members of the same family, suggesting that the genetic background and perhaps other epigenetic factors may influence the clinical expression of a particular mutation. This article reviews the clinical features of the skeletal muscle sodium channel diseases and highlights the phenotypic or genetic overlap in these disorders. PMID:16193245

Vicart, S; Sternberg, D; Fontaine, B; Meola, G

2005-10-01

103

Recycling process of sodium metaborate to sodium borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was synthesized by reacting sodium metaborate (NaBO2) with magnesium hydride (MgH2) or magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) by annealing (350–750°C) under high H2 pressure (0.1–7MPa) for 2–4h. As the temperature and the pressure increased, the yield increased to have a maximum value (97–98%) at 550°C under 7MPa, but the value was independent of time. A concept for converting NaBO2

Yoshitsugu Kojima; Tetsuya Haga

2003-01-01

104

Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate  

SciTech Connect

The article gives results of pilot-plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation-inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue-gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO/sub 2/ was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of 100-200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes and improvement in SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency for magnesium-enhanced lime/limestone processes.

Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

1986-01-01

105

Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate  

SciTech Connect

Pilot plant tests have been conducted to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed sulfur dioxide (SO)/sub 2/ was reduced by more than 50 percent in the presence of 100 to 200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes and improvement in SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency for magnesium-enhanced lime/limestone processes.

Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

1986-11-01

106

Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

107

Sodium nightglow measurements and implications on the sodium photochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tilting filter photometry recorded over a two year period at (23.2 S) shot that, on the average, the sodium nightglow intensities reach a maximum close to local midnight. Between midnight and dawn the intensity remains fairly constant or increases slightly. The most consistent feature is the pre-midnight decrease in intensity. Seasonal variations show peak intensities at the equinoxes, with the

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff; B. R. Clemesha; D. M. Simonich

1978-01-01

108

Endocrine Disorders of Sodium Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt and water homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a variety of control mechanisms with the adrenal steroid hormone aldosterone playing a central role. Defects or disturbances in these systems lead to either salt loss, which is life threatening in the neonatal period, or sodium retention causing hypertension. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is required to avoid severe complications. During the last

Ursula Kuhnle; Sabina Lewicka; Peter J. Fuller

2004-01-01

109

Human skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow ions to flow in or out of the cell. Sodium and potassium channel activation and inactivation are the basis of action potential’s production and conduction. During the past 15 years, ion channels have been implicated in diseases that have come to be known as the channelopathies. Over 30 mutations of the muscle channel

S. Vicart; D. Sternberg; B. Fontaine; G. Meola

2005-01-01

110

Liquid Sodium Technology Development, (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

General results obtained from an initial program for developing liquid sodium loop technology and related techniques are reported. The loop systems are outlined, together with operating experiences on three types of test loops, i.e., for studies in corrosion and in purification, and a system of mother and daughter loop. A description is given of results obtained on the purification system

Kazuo FURUKAWA; Ken YAMAMOTO; Isao NIHEP; Yae IGUCHI

1966-01-01

111

Minerals Yearbook, 1989: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. sodium sulfate industry rebounded slightly in 1989 as demand increased in the detergent and pulp and paper sectors. After years of stagnant growth, domestic producers were encouraged at the positive trend but were aware the trend may be short liv...

D. S. Kostick

1989-01-01

112

Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1972-01-01

113

Sodium channel mutations and arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the identification of the first SCN5A mutation associated with long QT syndrome in 1995, several mutations in this gene for the ? subunit of the cardiac sodium channel have been identified in a heterogeneous subset of cardiac rhythm syndromes, including Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction defect, sick sinus node syndrome, atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Robust clinical evidence has

Yanfei Ruan; Nian Liu; Silvia G. Priori

2009-01-01

114

Diffusivity of Sodium in Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rate of diffusion of 22Na in lead has been measured at temperatures between 249 and 313C by sectioning diffusion couples prepared by pressure welding a sodium-lead alloy with pure lead. Over the observed temperature range the 22Na diffusivity is three...

C. W. Owens D. Turnbull

1972-01-01

115

PILOT TESTING OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of pilot plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO2 was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of...

116

Calculation of Thermophysical Properties of Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapo...

J. K. Fink L. Leibowitz

1981-01-01

117

Peritoneal Sodium Transport During Hypertonic Peritoneal Dialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hypertonic peritoneal dialysis is frequently utilized to remove excess sodium and water from the body. It is shown that the ultrafiltrate is probably of extracellular origin and is invariably hyponatric to serum. Sodium accompanies the bulk flow of water ...

K. D. Nolph J. E. Hano P. E. Teschan

1968-01-01

118

The evils of intradialytic sodium loading.  

PubMed

Increased salt intake is related to extracellular fluid expansion and a rise in blood pressure, and has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Several studies have also suggested that sodium can exert detrimental effects via blood pressure-independent mechanisms. Chronic kidney disease patients are particularly susceptible to the negative consequences of sodium loading. While individuals with normal kidney function are able to regulate their sodium balance, hemodialysis patients have to rely virtually entirely on the dialysis procedure for sodium elimination. Tragically, the dialysis procedure has, in many instances, turned into a de facto source of sodium loading rather than a means for sodium removal. The main sources of sodium related to the dialysis procedure are (1) diffusive influx from the dialysate, including inappropriate use of sodium profiling; (2) the use of saline solution for priming and rinsing; and (3) the treatment of intradialytic hypotension and cramps with saline solution. Creating a positive intradialytic sodium balance is effective in acutely reducing the incidence of intradialytic symptoms, but it also sustains a vicious cycle hampering the attainment of dry weight and predisposes the patient to an increased risk of intradialytic complications during the following dialysis session. Avoiding sodium loading in hemodialysis patients is a cornerstone of blood pressure and fluid status management and, therefore, deserves a conscious effort, bearing in mind not only short-term effects but also long-term goals. In the absence of routine means of quantifying sodium balance, sodium profiling should be viewed critically, as it has been shown to induce a positive sodium balance in the majority of cases. A preferred approach under these circumstances may be simple sodium alignment. In combination with the abdication of saline solution for priming, rinsing, and intradialytic infusions, these measures would go a long way to help reduce sodium overload and achieve a more physiologic sodium balance in this patient population. PMID:21625095

Thijssen, Stephan; Raimann, Jochen G; Usvyat, Len A; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter

2011-01-01

119

SODIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium-cooled power reactors will require sodium flow rates through the ; reactor of 10,000 to 50,000 gpm at pressures up to 100 psi and temperatures up to ; 1,000 deg F. The present sodium-cooled reactors are smaller then required for ; central power plants; however, a program including development ef pumps and ; piping systems, sodium pre-heating methods, instrumentation, heat

1958-01-01

120

21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food...fish and meat byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure...

2010-04-01

121

21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food...fish and meat byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure...

2009-04-01

122

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...citrate (C6 H5 Na3 O7 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a...

2013-04-01

123

Final Report On the Safety Assessment of Sodium Lauraminopropionate and Sodium Lauriminodipropionate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium Lauraminopropionate and Sodium Lauriminodipropionate are used in a variety of cosmetic formulations as antistatic agents, hair conditioning agents, and surfactants. Current data on concentrations at which these ingredients appear in cosmetic formulations were unavailable. The oral LD50 for Sodium Lauraminopropionate in albino rats was reported to be 8 g\\/kg. Evidence from limited studies in rabbits suggests that Sodium Lauraminopropionate

F. Alan Andersen

1997-01-01

124

Flotation of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts from their saturated brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of sodium carbonates and sodium bicarbonate has been studied with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of a research program to evaluate the potential of flotation technology for use in the trona industry. Laboratory microflotation experiments generally show that flotation of sodium carbonate salts is possible at least to some extent with

O Ozcan; J. D Miller

2002-01-01

125

Carburisation of Stainless Steel Caused by Oil in Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of this work were to investigate the kinetics of austenitic stainless steel carburization in sodium caused by oil in sodium, and to measure the corresponding 'sodium carbon activity' (a quantitative measure of sodium steel carburisa...

M. R. Hobdell G. Skyrme

1988-01-01

126

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

127

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

128

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

129

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

130

Sodium channel mutations and arrhythmias.  

PubMed

Since the identification of the first SCN5A mutation associated with long QT syndrome in 1995, several mutations in this gene for the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel have been identified in a heterogeneous subset of cardiac rhythm syndromes, including Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction defect, sick sinus node syndrome, atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Robust clinical evidence has been accompanied by bench studies performed in different models spanning from in vitro expression systems to transgenic mice. Together, these studies have helped establish genotype-phenotype correlations and have shaped our understanding of the role of the cardiac sodium channel in health and in disease. Remarkably, these advances in understanding have impacted on clinical management by allowing us to start developing gene-specific risk stratification schemes and mutation-specific management strategies. In this Review, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanism of SCN5A-associated inherited arrhythmias, focusing on the most recent development of mutation-specific management in SCN5A-associated long QT syndrome type 3. We also briefly discuss arrhythmia-causing mutations in the genes encoding the beta subunit of the cardiac sodium channel and in those encoding proteins in the associated macromolecular complex. PMID:19377496

Ruan, Yanfei; Liu, Nian; Priori, Silvia G

2009-05-01

131

Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... low-sodium cheesel Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced-sodium frozen dinners, peanut butter, salad dressingslAir-popped popcorn ... free, salt free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced or less sodium, light in sodium, no salt added, unsalted, and ...

132

Effect of sodium nitrite, sodium chloride , and sodium nitrate on germination and outgrowth of anaerobic spores.  

PubMed

The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. PMID:5645423

Duncan, C L; Foster, E M

1968-02-01

133

Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social Media Complete Directory EMAIL UPDATES Email Address Button to subscribe to email VA HOME Notices Privacy FOIA Regulations Web Policies No FEAR Act Site Index USA.gov ...

134

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats containing sodium levulinate, sodium lactate, or a combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of sodium levulinate to prevent outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Turkey breast roll and bologna were formulated to contain 1%, 2%, or 3% (w/w) sodium levulinate, 2% sodium lactate, a 2% combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate (1.875% sodium lactate and 0.125% sodium diacetate), or no antimicrobial (control). Samples of the RTE products were sliced, inoculated with 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/cm(2) of a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, vacuum packaged, and stored at refrigeration temperature for 0 to 12 wk. Counts reached 10(8) CFU/cm(2) on control turkey roll product after 8 wk, and over 10(7) CFU/cm(2) on control bologna after 12 wk. Addition of 2% or more sodium levulinate to turkey roll and 1% or more sodium levulinate to bologna completely prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during 12 wk of refrigerated storage. A consumer taste panel with pathogen-free samples found no differences in the overall liking among the preparations of turkey roll or among preparations of bologna. These results show that sodium levulinate is at least as effective at inhibiting outgrowth of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat products as the current industry standards of lactate or lactate and diacetate, and levulinate addition does not alter the overall liking of the RTE meat products. PMID:18577007

Thompson, R L; Carpenter, C E; Martini, S; Broadbent, J R

2008-06-01

135

Sodium Movements in Perfused Squid Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm2sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm2sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 ± 3 pmoles/cm2sec and 41 ± 10 pmoles/cm2sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm2impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium.

Rojas, Eduardo; Canessa-Fischer, Mitzy

1968-01-01

136

Individuality of the plasma sodium concentration.  

PubMed

Older literature has suggested that the plasma sodium concentration is not individual, that it is neither intrinsic to an individual nor reproducible, longitudinally. We recently observed that the plasma sodium concentration is heritable. Because demonstrable heritability requires individuality of the relevant phenotype, we hypothesized that the plasma sodium concentration was substantially individual. In two large health plan-based cohorts, we demonstrated individuality of the plasma sodium concentration over a 10-yr interval; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) averaged 0.4-0.5. The individuality of plasma sodium increased significantly with age. Plasma sodium individuality was equal to or only slightly less than that for plasma glucose but was less than the individuality for creatinine. The individuality of plasma sodium was further confirmed by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient for within-individual versus between-individual pairs of sodium determinations and via application of the agreement index. Furthermore, the distribution of all sodium determinations for all participants within a population was similar to the distribution for the mean sodium concentration for individuals within that population. Therefore, the near-normal distribution of plasma sodium measurements within a population is likely not attributable to assay-specific factors but rather to genuine and durable biological variability in the osmotic set point. In aggregate, these data strongly support the individuality of the plasma sodium concentration. They further indicate that serial plasma sodium values for any given individual tend to cluster around a patient-specific set point and that these set points vary among individuals. PMID:24717732

Zhang, Zheng; Duckart, Jonathan; Slatore, Christopher G; Fu, Yi; Petrik, Amanda F; Thorp, Micah L; Cohen, David M

2014-06-15

137

A comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate products.  

PubMed

A comparison of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) products was made. Solutions of NaOCl and NaDCC containing the same levels of available chlorine (av.Cl) exhibited very similar bactericidal activities, despite significant differences in pH. A level of 12.5 ppm av. Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 min. A level of 5 ppm av.Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 min whilst approximately 100 ppm av.Cl achieved the same reduction in the presence of 1% horse serum, and approximately 200 ppm av.Cl in the presence of 2% horse serum, indicating inactivation levels of around 95 and 97.5% respectively. Tablets of NaDCC were stable but solutions were unstable and decomposed much faster than NaOCl solutions of the same strength. Batch-to-batch variability of different NaOCl and NaDCC products was investigated; whilst NaDCC products always contained the minimum level of av.Cl specified, concentrated NaOCl products sometimes did not due to inherent instability. PMID:2859320

Coates, D

1985-03-01

138

Micelle formation of sodium hyodeoxycholate.  

PubMed

Sodium hyodeoxycholate (NaHDC) is the main component of hog bile salts, which play a role in the absorption of sparingly soluble materials in the intestinal solution. The biosurfactant has an amphiphilic molecular structure, similar to that of ursodeoxycholate from bear gallbladder. Micelle formation from hyodeoxycholate was studied at 308.2K using pyrene fluorescence probe to determine critical micelle concentrations (cmc) at various NaCl concentrations. The change in the fluorescence spectrum peak ratios with NaHDC concentration indicated two steps for bile salt aggregation. The first step was the formation of small micelles (cmc) at 5mM, and the second step was the formation of stable aggregates at 14 mM in aqueous solution. The aggregation of hyodeoxycholate, analyzed using the stepwise association model, was found to grow its aggregation number from 4 to 7 with increasing concentration. The aggregation number in aqueous solution was also confirmed by the static light scattering method. The average measured aggregation number of the micelles was 6.7. The micellar size was relatively small as measured by either method, but it was covered by general aggregation number of human bile salts. The degree of counterion binding to the micelles, determined using a sodium ion-selective electrode, was ca. 0.5 for the NaHDC micelles. This value was relatively high among typical bile salts. Moreover, the solubilization capacity of the NaHDC micelles was assessed using cholesterol. It became clear that NaHDC micelles hardly solubilized cholesterol compared to typical human bile salts. The maximum solubilization by NaHDC was equivalent only to that by sodium ursodeoxycholate. PMID:23665117

Matsuoka, Keisuke; Takagi, Kaede; Honda, Chikako

2013-01-01

139

Sodium technology, 1972--1973  

SciTech Connect

References to 897 publications on sodium and NaK technology cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts Volume 26 (1972) through Volume 27 (1973 through June) are contained in this bibliography. Keyword indexing is displayed under each citation to provide information on the contents of the document. References are arranged in order by the original NSA abstract number which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference, and the personal author index refers to these sequence numbers. The subject index refers to the original abstract numbers. (auth)

None

1974-02-01

140

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

Vestergaard, B.

1992-09-01

141

Sodium fluxes and astroglial function.  

PubMed

Astrocytes exhibit their excitability based on variations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, which leads to variety of signalling events. Only recently, however, intracellular fluctuations of more abundant cation Na(+) are brought in the limelight of glial signalling. Indeed, astrocytes possess several plasmalemmal molecular entities that allow rapid transport of Na(+) across the plasma membrane: (1) ionotropic receptors, (2) canonical transient receptor potential cation channels, (3) neurotransmitter transporters and (4) sodium-calcium exchanger. Concerted action of these molecules in controlling cytosolic Na(+) may complement Ca(2+) signalling to provide basis for complex bidirectional astrocyte-neurone communication at the tripartite synapse. PMID:23224889

Verkhratsky, Alexei; Noda, Mami; Parpura, Vladimir; Kirischuk, Sergei

2013-01-01

142

Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.  

PubMed

In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms. PMID:22955490

Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

2013-04-01

143

Sodium-sulfur batteries for satellite applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development status evaluation is presented for the USAF's various efforts to advance sodium-sulfur battery technology as a basis for GEO and LEO satellite energy storage systems. These efforts encompass the High Energy Density Rechargeable Battery program, the LEO Sodium-Sulfur Cell Development program, the Improved Sodium-Sulfur Electrolyte program, and the Lightweight Aerospace Battery (LAB) program. An especially taxing requirement for

Stephan M. Wolanczyk; Stephen P. Vukson

1990-01-01

144

The relevance of dietary sodium in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Since the earliest days of hemodialysis, dietary sodium restriction has been recommended as a therapeutic means to mitigate problems of extracellular volume overload, hypertension and inter-dialytic weight gain. Recently, there has been a proliferation of human subjects' research examining the potential effects of dietary sodium curtailment. Herein we examine the available evidence with respect to the effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinically relevant endpoints among hemodialysis patients. PMID:23129821

Mc Causland, Finnian R; Waikar, Sushrut S; Brunelli, Steven M

2013-04-01

145

The relevance of dietary sodium in hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Since the earliest days of hemodialysis, dietary sodium restriction has been recommended as a therapeutic means to mitigate problems of extracellular volume overload, hypertension and inter-dialytic weight gain. Recently, there has been a proliferation of human subjects' research examining the potential effects of dietary sodium curtailment. Herein we examine the available evidence with respect to the effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinically relevant endpoints among hemodialysis patients.

Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Brunelli, Steven M.

2013-01-01

146

Refractive index of sodium iodide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr. 57, 494 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n = 1.839 +/- 0.002) and 633 nm (n = 1.786 +/- 0.002). These six measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a ?2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

Jellison, G. E.; Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Ramey, L. A.; Singh, D. J.

2012-02-01

147

Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant supported an investigation of lunar sodium by our coronagraph and spectrograph on nearby Mount Lemmon. We report successful operation and data analysis during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, September 15 - 22, 1995, and submittal of a paper to Icarus. The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx.1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg., and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with IRAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

1997-01-01

148

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

149

Double sodium layers observation over Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The altitude of the sodium layer in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is usually from 80 km to 105 km. In this paper, we report a set of double sodium layer (DSL) events observed by sodium lidar over Beijing, China. In these DSL events, the normal sodium layer and secondary sodium layer (SeSL) present separately. There were about 17 DSL events occurred in 319 observation nights during 2009˜2011. All DSL events were observed in spring and summer. The SeSL appeared independently within the altitude range from 105 km to 130 km. The density of the SeSL is very high. The maximum ratio of peak density and the ratio of column density for the SeSL to the normal sodium layer are up to ˜60% and ˜47%, respectively. The SeSL lasted several hours, and then merged into the normal sodium layer. After the SeSL, a sporadic sodium layer occurred in the normal sodium layer.

Wang, Jihong; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Guotao; Song, Shalei; Gong, Shunsheng

2012-08-01

150

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

151

[Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].  

PubMed

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form for its activity. It is interesting to note that well known bacteria, that are resistant to the common antimicrobial agents, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were inhibited by sodium dichloroisocyanurate in a rapid bactericidal action. Our data demonstrates that no significant adverse influence on the activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was shown by pH and by temperature even if in some experimental conditions increased activity was noticed at pH = 6.6. The sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated good activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. This fact extends the broad-spectrum activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate to the protozoa. In conclusion, sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated a good activity against all tested strains, furthermore its activity did not decrease in the presence of 1% of organic substance (serum etc.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2484478

D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

1989-01-01

152

Transference number calculations for sodium polysulfides  

SciTech Connect

Transference numbers of sodium cations and sulfur anions in sodium polysulfide melts are calculated from previously determined experimental data. Concentrated electrolyte theory assuming a binary electrolyte consisting of sodium anions, sulfide cations, in a neutral sulfur solvent is used to relate the transference numbers to fundamental solution transport properties. Slopes of open-circuit potential measurements vs. melt composition on sodium-sulfur cells with and without transference are used to determine the sulfur anion and sodium cation transference numbers. The transference number of sodium cations is calculated from previous experimental data for two temperatures, 573 and 633 K, and range from 0.88 to 0.93 for sodium sulfide mole fractions between 0.20 and 0.34. These values for transference numbers presented here are more accurate than previous interpretations of these data where unity sodium cation transference numbers were assumed. The results of this work are shown to be important in the design of sodium-sulfur cells.

Risch, T.; Newman, J.

1988-07-01

153

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

154

Degradation of Sodium beta''-Alumina Electrolyte in Contact with Sulfur/Sodium Polysulfide Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immersion of sodium beta '' alumina electrolyte in sodium polysulfide and pure sulfur melts, at Na/S battery operation temperatures, showed that the electrolyte was chemically attacked by the melts. The corrosion reactions mostly initiated and concentrate...

M. Liu

1986-01-01

155

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

156

Cell cytotoxicity of sodium nitrite, sodium nitroprusside and Roussin's black salt against Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the action of sodium nitrite and other nitrosyl complexes, such as sodium nitroprusside and Roussin's black salt, on the growth of metronidazole-sensitive and resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis and their hydrogenosomal enzymes. All three chemicals inhibited the growth of T. vaginalis: sodium nitrite at 8 mM, sodium nitroprusside at 1.2 mM and Roussin's black salt at 0.2

Jae-Sook Ryu; David Lloyd

1995-01-01

157

Adsorption of sodium polyacrylate at interface of dicalcium silicate–sodium aluminate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption isotherm of sodium polyacrylate on dicalcium silicate (2CaO·SiO2) in sodium aluminate solution at 80 °C was studied. The type of surface adsorption of sodium polyacrylate is saturated adsorption, and the adsorption behavior belongs to L-type, according with the monolayer adsorption model of Langmuir equation. The surface coverage of sodium polyacrylate is 1.06 mol\\/?m2. The relation curve between the

Hai-yan YU; Xiao-lin PAN; Ting-ting DING; Wu ZHANG; Han LIU; Shi-wen BI

2011-01-01

158

Sodium supplementation is not required to maintain serum sodium concentrations during an Ironman triathlon  

PubMed Central

Context Critical assessment of recommendations that athletes consume additional sodium during athletic events. Objective To evaluate if sodium supplementation is necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations during prolonged endurance activity and prevent the development of hyponatraemia. Design Prospective randomised trial of athletes receiving sodium (620?mg table salt), placebo (596?mg starch), or no supplementation during a triathlon. The sodium and placebo tablets were taken ad libitum, with the suggested range of 1–4 per hour. Setting The 2001 Cape Town Ironman triathlon (3.8?km swim, 180?km cycle, 42.2?km run). Subjects A total of 413 triathletes completing the Ironman race. Main outcome measures Sodium supplementation was not necessary to maintain serum sodium concentrations in athletes completing an Ironman triathlon nor required to prevent hyponatraemia from occurring in athletes who did not ingest supplemental sodium during the race. Results Subjects in the sodium supplementation group ingested an additional 3.6 (2.0)?g (156 (88)?mmol) sodium during the race (all values are mean (SD)). There were no significant differences between the sodium, placebo, and no supplementation groups with regard to age, finishing time, serum sodium concentration before and after the race, weight before the race, weight change during the race, and rectal temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after the race. The sodium supplementation group consumed 14.7 (8.3) tablets, and the placebo group took 15.8 (10.1) tablets (p ?=? 0.55; NS). Conclusions Ad libitum sodium supplementation was not necessary to preserve serum sodium concentrations in athletes competing for about 12?hours in an Ironman triathlon. The Institute of Medicine's recommended daily adequate intake of sodium (1.5?g/65?mmol) seems sufficient for a healthy person without further need to supplement during athletic activity.

Hew-Butler, T D; Sharwood, K; Collins, M; Speedy, D; Noakes, T

2006-01-01

159

Anion Size Does Not Compromise Sodium Recognition by Rats After Acute Sodium Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiloride-insensitive sodium taste transduction is severely limited by large anions (i.e., gluconate). We found that in a brief-access taste test, sodium-depleted rats exhibited similar levels of increased licking to several sodium salts regardless of anion but did not increase licking to nonsodium salts compared with water. The enhanced licking of sodium salts was abolished in the presence of amiloride. These

Laura C. Geran; Alan C. Spector

2004-01-01

160

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

161

Sodium technology. Sodium removal and decontamination of components. Progress report, January-March 1976. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project has several tasks, each with its own specific objectives. One of these tasks is the Sodium Removal Process Development; the first objective of which is to devise, develop, test and evaluate techniques for sodium removal from test specimens and components by the reaction of sodium with alcohol. As a part of the alcohol process development, the following activities

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele; E. Hill

1976-01-01

162

Optimization of Sodium Removal in Paired Filtration Dialysis by Single Pool Sodium and Conductivity Kinetic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium removal is one of the main factors affecting intradialytic cardiovascular stability and interdialytic hypertension, and its removal should therefore be individualized. The aims of this study were: (1) to test the ability of a single-pool variable volume (SPVV) sodium kinetic model (NaKM) to optimize sodium removal in paired filtration dialysis (PFD), and (2) to test a SPVV conductivity kinetic

Salvatore Di Filippo; Mauro Corti; Simeone Andrulli; Giuseppe Pontoriero; Celestina Manzoni; Francesco Locatelli

1997-01-01

163

SODIUM BENTONITE OR SODIUM BICARBONATE AS AIDS IN FEEDING HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS TO LAMBS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Studies were conducted to compare bento- nite and sodium bicarbonate as dietary aids in adaptation and subsequent performance of lambs fed high-concentrate diets under various conditions of protein supplementation. Three protein variations, including no supplemental protein (NSP), soybean meal (SBM) or urea, were factored with a control, 2% or 4% sodium bentonite, and 2% or 4% sodium bicarbonate in

G. B. Huntington; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

2010-01-01

164

Precipitating sandy aluminium hydroxide from sodium aluminate solution by the neutralization of sodium bicarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sinter process for alumina production, it is still difficult to produce sandy aluminium hydroxide by the carbonation of sodium aluminate solution. Therefore, a precisely controllable and feasible process for the precipitation of sandy aluminium hydroxide from the supersaturated sodium aluminate solution neutralized by sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution is proposed for the first time, in which the neutralization reagent

Yan Li; Yifei Zhang; Chao Yang; Yi Zhang

2009-01-01

165

Rapid Changes in Mercury's Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium in the atmosphere of Mercury can be detected by sunlight scattered in the D1 and D2 resonance lines. Images of the sodium emission show that the sodium density changes from day to day and is often concentrated in regions at high or mid latitudes. Drew Potter (NASA/JSC) and Tom Morgan (SWRI) suggested that sputtering by magnetospheric particles was the origin of the sodium. A problem with this is that the magnetic field of Mercury is strong enough that it is believed to shield the surface from solar particles much of the time, although particle precipitation at the magnetospheric cusps could deposit particles to the surface at high latitudes. Ann Sprague (UA/LPL) noted that the "spots" of sodium emission tended to coincide with major geologic features, such as the Caloris Basin. She proposed that the sodium is released from sodiumrich surface rocks that are associated with these features; however, some spots have appeared where there are no obvious geologic features. Some of the difficulty in ascribing a source for the sodium arises from the effect of terrestrial atmospheric blurring of the image. It is hard to tell exactly where the sodium emission originates after the atmosphere has blurred the image. Potter, Killen (SWRI), and Morgan recently developed a technique for correcting sodium images for atmospheric blurring, using images made with a large-area image slicer. They applied this technique to a series of Mercury sodium observations made in November, 1997 at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope. Their technique for producing images from the spectroscopic data provides images of both the sodium emission and of the sunlight reflected from the surface.

Potter, Drew

2000-01-01

166

Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx. 1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg, and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with ERAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

1997-01-01

167

Voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel’s fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment.

Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

2013-01-01

168

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in...product. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other...

2013-04-01

169

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in...product. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other...

2013-04-01

170

Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite efforts over the past several decades to reduce sodium intake in the United States, adults still consume an average of 3,400 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. A number of scientific bodies and professional health organizations, including the Am...

2013-01-01

171

Source dependency of exospheric sodium on Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a large solar radiation effect, the sodium exosphere exhibits many interesting effects, including the formation of an extended corona and a tail-like structure. The current suite of observations allows us to study some physical properties of the sodium exosphere, such as the source rates and the interaction with the surface, both experimentally and theoretically. In order to quantify

Y.-C. Wang; W.-H. Ip

2011-01-01

172

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

173

Built-in reliability through sodium elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minute amounts of sodium can cause semiconductor devices to fail. Wafer processors have steadily reduced sodium content to increasingly low levels in the gate oxide area. However, levels as high as 5E18 cm\\/sup -3\\/ are still commonly detected around metal layers in the industry. The industry has until now relied on the BPSG layer to prevent penetration into the active

J. Chinn; Yueh-Se Ho; M. Chang; T. Turner

1994-01-01

174

[Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].  

PubMed

In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

Sulyok, Endre

2013-09-22

175

Electronic Structure of Small Sodium Clusters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have calculated the electronic structure of three small clusters of sodium consisting of 9, 15, and 27 atoms. These clusters have the cubic symmetry of the first three shells of atoms in body-centered cubic metallic sodium and were not allowed to relax...

N. E. Brener J. Callaway P. Blaha

1986-01-01

176

Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportuni...

M. J. Barnes

1998-01-01

177

Precipitation of boehmite in sodium aluminate liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibbsite is generally precipitated from sodium aluminate liquor in the presence of huge quantity of gibbsite seed at a temperature between 60 and 70 °C. This gibbsite is then calcined to produce alumina. Boehmite is a stable phase at higher temperature (>100 °C) and formation of boehmite below 100 °C in supersaturated sodium aluminate liquor is unusual. In the present study an attempt

B. Dash; B. C. Tripathy; I. N. Bhattacharya; S. C. Das; C. R. Mishra; B. K. Mishra

2009-01-01

178

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a

Elkins

1981-01-01

179

Interaction of 5-fluorouracil with sodium carboxymethylcellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil with sodium carboxymethylcellulose in aqueous solution was studied with a spectral method and viscosity measurement. From the binding data, the standard molar change in enthalpy, entropy and the number of binding sites on polymer were calculated. The standard molar change of enthalpy of 5-fluorouracil is about — 7 Kcal\\/mol with sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The

K. Nishida; Y. Ando; M. Enomoto

1982-01-01

180

The Sodium Tail of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-01-01

181

Jovian sodium emission from Region C2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of emission from sodium presumed to have been ejected from Io in the orbital plane of the Gallilean satellites and extending outward to at least 35 Jupiter radii are reported. Spectra of the sodium D line were observed to have an intensity of 20 to 30 R. Mechanisms for the escape of sodium from Io after sputtering from the surface are: (1) ejection from Io at velocities greater than Jupiter escape velocity, (2) ejection at velocities corresponding to orbits with apoapses of 35 Jupiter radii, and (3) ionization followed by magnetic field sweeping and recombination. The relative contributions of each mechanism are estimated and used to predict the sodium emission intensity at 35 Jupiter radii to be 7 to 8 R, a value considered to be in reasonable agreement with observations. Observations of emission line width and the correlation of intensity with the orbital phase of Io would provide further means of evaluating the proposed mechanisms of sodium ejection.

Pilcher, C. B.; Schempp, W. V.

1979-01-01

182

Destruction of mechanical structures by sodium fires  

SciTech Connect

With respect to pipe ruptures and leakages in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, it can be assumed that relatively large amounts of liquid sodium will be poured or sprayed into an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Under reactor conditions, the sodium will burn immediately, leading to temperature and pressure rises in the containment, and the strong aerosol release may influence ventilation and filter systems. In addition to these consequences, which are well known, it must be taken into account that the sodium fire also attacks mechanical structures like steel and concrete. In the frame work of the sodium fire research program (FAUNA) at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, extensive experiments were performed to investigate the consequences of sodium pool, spray, and combined fires.

Cherdron, W. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (Germany))

1992-01-01

183

The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide melts, Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5}, were measured as a function of temperature between 300 and 360 C. Due to the viscous nature of the sodium polysulfide melts, the conductance cells are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode, instead of capillary cells. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental conductivity data are about 33 kJ/mol. The macroscopic model of sodium polysulfide melts has described the melts as composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. For this model, the binary interaction coefficients quantifying the interaction between sodium cations and monosulfide anions were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and literature data for the transference number, diffusion coefficient, activity coefficient, and density.

Wang, M.H.; Newman, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Division]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-03-01

184

Autoregulation of the electrogenic sodium pump.  

PubMed

The dependence of electrogenic sodium pump activity on changes in the cell volume of Helix pomatia neurons with different levels of intracellular sodium ion concentration was studied. Hypertonic solutions caused hyperpolarization of the membrane and increased membrane resistance in cells with a low sodium content (low-sodium cells; LSC). The activity of the electrogenic sodium pump in hypertonic solutions was increased compared to the activity in hypotonic solutions in LSC and decreased in cells with a high sodium content (high-sodium cells; HSC). The concentration of ouabain which led to maximal inhibition of active 22Na efflux from the neurons was 10(-4) M. Lower concentrations of ouabain (10(-8) M and lower) did not inhibit the sodium pump but stimulated it. The swelling of neurons in hypotonic solutions was accompanied by an increase in the number of binding sites for ouabain, while shrinking in hypertonic solutions led to the opposite effect--a decrease in binding sites. An increase in the number of binding sites also took place in normal isotonic potassium-free solutions compared with normal Ringer's solution. Two saturable components of ouabain binding were detectable in all solutions examined. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) increased the number of ouabain binding sites on the membrane. The results suggest that there are two opposite mechanisms by which cell volume changes can modulate the pump activity. One of them depends on the intracellular sodium ion concentration and causes pump activation in hypertonic solutions in LSC and saturation in HSC, while a second mechanism mediates the activating effect of cell swelling on the sodium pump in HSC. In addition, there may be a negative feedback between the pump activity and the number of functioning pump units in the membrane. PMID:6241843

Ayrapetyan, S N; Suleymanyan, M A; Saghyan, A A; Dadalyan, S S

1984-12-01

185

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

186

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

187

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

189

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

190

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2010-01-01

191

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2009-04-01

192

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2013-04-01

193

21 CFR 522.1884 - Prednisolone sodium succinate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...21-Trihydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione 21-succinate sodium salt. (b) Specifications...milliliter of prednisolone sodium succinate injection contains: Prednisolone sodium succinate equivalent in activity to 10, 20, or 50 milligrams of...

2009-04-01

194

21 CFR 522.1884 - Prednisolone sodium succinate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...21-Trihydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione 21-succinate sodium salt. (b) Specifications...milliliter of prednisolone sodium succinate injection contains: Prednisolone sodium succinate equivalent in activity to 10, 20, or 50 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

195

46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065 ...Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system that...

2013-10-01

196

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

2013-04-01

197

76 FR 63305 - Approaches To Reducing Sodium Consumption; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...approaches designed to promote sodium reduction. The purpose of the public...events.SignUp4.net/FDA_Sodium_Reduction Reduction. It is recommended...it will be posted on FDA's Sodium Reduction Web page at...

2011-10-12

198

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2013-04-01

200

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

201

Factors Contributing to the Breakdown of Sodium beta-Alumina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350 exp 0 C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline ...

A. C. Buechele

1982-01-01

202

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

203

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-01-01

204

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

206

21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

207

Sodium Bicarbonate in Chemical Flooding: Part 1: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil re...

D. A. Peru P. B. Lorenz

1987-01-01

208

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19

209

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. 173.325 Section 173.325 Food and... § 173.325 Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. Acidified sodium chlorite solutions may be safely used in accordance with...

2009-04-01

210

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. 173.325 Section 173.325 Food and... § 173.325 Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. Acidified sodium chlorite solutions may be safely used in accordance with...

2010-01-01

211

Sodium Gallium Oxide Electrolyte Additive for Aluminum Anode Activation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An additive for an aluminum-based semi-fuel cell system includes a combination of components including gallium, oxygen, and a sodium component dissolvable an alkaline electrolyte solution such as seawater and sodium hydroxide. These components form sodium...

L. G. Carreiro S. P. Tucker

2001-01-01

212

40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 ...Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to...

2011-07-01

213

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2010-07-01

214

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2011-07-01

215

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2010-07-01

216

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a...substances identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs...

2011-07-01

218

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...per day, the FDA Daily Value for sodium. (c) Requirements. (1...claim associating diets low in sodium with reduced risk of high blood pressure may...claim states that diets low in sodium âmayâ or âmightâ reduce...

2014-04-01

219

Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.  

PubMed

Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. PMID:24953300

Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

2014-07-21

220

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

221

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallizat...

A. L. Schiozer

1994-01-01

222

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether...Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or...

2009-04-01

223

Filling and sealing sodium heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes facilities for filling and sealing high purity sodium heat pipes. The purpose of the work is to define a process for filling heat pipes with sodium that contains less than 10 ppm of oxygen. Small, cylindrical heat pipes were used to define the process. The work was performed for the NASA Lewis Research Stirling Space Power Converter program and was conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). Once the low-oxygen filling process is defined, a large, complex heat pipe for a Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC) will be loaded with sodium. The heat pipes were processed at a fill station on a High Temperature Sodium Loop circulating 180 kg (400 lb) of liquid sodium. The oxygen content of the sodium in the loop was below the detection limit of the analytical technique (the detection limit is about 6 ppm). The heat pipes were baked out and subjected to multiple flushes and extended soaks with liquid sodium before the final filling operation. A final purity of 8 ppm of oxygen was achieved. A process for performing the final closure of the fill tube was developed which maintained vacuum tight conditions in the heat pipe.

Stelman, D.; Newcomb, J.C. (Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-10

224

Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion  

SciTech Connect

Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until {approximately}64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s).

Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1988-09-01

225

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

226

Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium.

Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

1981-01-01

227

Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.  

PubMed

Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

2013-04-01

228

Current Regulator For Sodium-Vapor Lamps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regulating circuit maintains nearly-constant alternating current in sodium-vapor lamp. Regulator part of dc-to-ac inverter circuit used to supply power to street lamp from battery charged by solar-cell array.

Mclyman, W. T.

1989-01-01

229

Sodium and sulfur chemistry in combustion gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present work the chemistry of sodium and sulfur in flue gas are examined with respect to deposit formation and corrosion effects. Measurements, industrial as well as laboratory, constitute the basis of the treatment. In the theoretical consideratio...

R. Backman

1989-01-01

230

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Pyrithiobac-sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrithiobac-sodium is a pre and post-emergent cotton herbicide intended to be used to control Palmer Amaranth, Florida Beggerweed, Common Cocklebur, Coffee senna, Devilsclaw, Wright Groundcherry, Nightshade, Wild Poinsettia, Pigweed, Wild Radish, Redweed,...

1995-01-01

231

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a performance evaluation, conducted with a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP), studying the effects of injecting anhydrous sodium carbonate into the exhaust of a utility boiler burning Western coal. In situ resistivity measurements, ESP operating conditio...

232

Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.  

PubMed

The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow. PMID:17501423

Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

2007-04-20

233

Sodium-sulfur batteries for satellite applications  

SciTech Connect

A development status evaluation is presented for the USAF's various efforts to advance sodium-sulfur battery technology as a basis for GEO and LEO satellite energy storage systems. These efforts encompass the High Energy Density Rechargeable Battery program, the LEO Sodium-Sulfur Cell Development program, the Improved Sodium-Sulfur Electrolyte program, and the Lightweight Aerospace Battery (LAB) program. An especially taxing requirement for batteries of this type is the substantial number of charge/discharge cycles typical of LEO satellite applications. The LAB program, which will extend to 1993, is intended to develop a bipolar, flat-plate sodium-sulfur satellite battery with 7-10 year service life in LEO and 15 years in GEO.

Wolanczyk, S.M.; Vukson, S.P.

1990-01-01

234

Sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery that sodium and potassium vapor can be observed in the lunar atmosphere using ground-based telescopes has opened up a field of investigation that was closed after the last Apollo mission to the Moon. Sodium has been detected at altitudes up to 1500 km above the surface. This implies a high effective temperature for sodium, of the order of 1000 K. However, there is some evidence for two populations of sodium and potassium, one at temperatures corresponding to the surface, and another corresponding to high temperatures. The sources for the lunar atmosphere are not understood. Meteoric bombardment of the surface, solar wind sputtering of the surface, and photo-sputtering of the surface have all been suggested as possible sources for the lunar atmosphere. One of the objectives of the current research is to test different hypotheses by measurements of the atmosphere under different conditions of solar illumination and shielding from the solar wind by the Earth.

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

1991-01-01

235

Prediction of Sodium Concentration in Lignite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prediction models were constructed for seam elevation, overburden, and sodium concentration for a lignite deposit in Ward County, N. Dak. These models were developed by mathematical-statistical techniques using surface coordinates as independent variables...

M. Gomez K. Hazen E. A. Sondreal

1970-01-01

236

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and dried. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2013-04-01

237

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2010-01-01

238

Sodium Technology, January 1975--June 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

References to 1129 publications on sodium and NaK technology cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts Volume 31 through Volume 33 are contained in this bibliography. References are arranged in order by the original NSA abstract number which approximately places...

1977-01-01

239

Pentobarbital Sodium Anesthesia in the Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been done in the dog to determine some of the circulatory effects of anesthetic amounts of pentobarbital sodium. The results indicate that (1) except for the initial transient hypotension that occurs on injection of the anesthetic, pentobarbi...

J. P. Gilmore

1965-01-01

240

Primary Sodium Pumps of Phenix and Superphenix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report shows how design experience at Hispano--Suiza (SNECMA Division), Bergeron SA and the French Atomic Energy Commission has determined the hydraulic and mechanical features of the primary sodium pumps for the Phenix and Superphenix reactors. (ERA...

R. Chabassier J. Blateyron P. Guiton R. Canavelis J. Roumailhac

1977-01-01

241

Compatibility of Refractory Materials with Boiling Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability a...

S. A. Meacham

1976-01-01

242

Water and sodium regulation in heart failure.  

PubMed

Heart failure is the pathophysiological state characterized by ventricular dysfunction and associated clinical symptoms. Decreased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance lead to arterial underfilling. That is an important signal which triggers multiple neurohormonal systems to maintain adequate arterial pressure and peripheral perfusion of the vital organs. The kidney is the principal organ affected when cardiac output declines. Alterations of hemodynamics and neurohormonal systems in heart failure result in renal sodium and water retention. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic vasopressin release stimulate the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. Dysregulation of aquaporin-2 and sodium transporters also play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention. PMID:21468184

Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon

2009-12-01

243

Neuronal Sodium Channels in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project is to study the role of neuronal sodium channels in mechanisms of neuronal injury neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection. The primary objective of this research project is to characterize the expression, and study the ...

F. C. Tortella

2002-01-01

244

Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories

Foust

1978-01-01

245

Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

246

Crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization pressure of salt crystals growing in confined pores is found to be the main cause for damage to stone and\\u000a masonry. In this work, the crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in Cordova Cream and Indiana limestones is investigated\\u000a using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The DSC experiments indicate that sodium\\u000a heptahydrate always precipitates prior to

Rosa M. Espinosa Marzal; George W. Scherer

2008-01-01

247

Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that

Duygu Yilmazer; Mehmet Kanik

248

Mechanochemical processing of chrysocolla with sodium sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autogenous solid state processing of chrysocolla with sodium sulphide has been carried out at different CuSiO3–Na2S-ratios, particle sizes and temperatures. Water soluble sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and covellite (CuS) were determined by means of chemical analysis and X-ray examination as reaction products. More than 84% of chrysocolla and 50% of associated malachite were converted to covellite at 80 °C, atmospheric pressure,

A. N. Banza; E. Gock

2003-01-01

249

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

250

Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

2008-02-01

251

Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A. [UNAM (Mexico)] [and others

1995-11-01

252

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

Reynolds, J. G.; Bernards, J. K. [Washington Group International, 1779 Terminal Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01

253

Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-one children aged 10.5 ñ 0.2 years (range, 8.0ÃÂ15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 ñ 36.6 g (range, 765ÃÂ1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = ÃÂ0.445, P < 0.005) between reported dietary sodium intake and the neonatal lowest serum sodium level (NLS) recorded for each child as an index of sodium loss. The relationship of NLS and dietary sodium intake was found in both boys and girls and in both Arab and Jewish children, despite marked ethnic differences in dietary sources of sodium. Hence, low NLS predicts increased intake of dietary sodium in low birth weight children some 8ÃÂ15 yr later. Taken together with other recent evidence, it is now clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

Adi Shirazki (University of Haifa Pscyhology); Zalman Weintraub (Galilee Medical Center); Dan Reich (Ha'Emeq Medical Center); Edith Gershon (University of Haifa Psychology); Micah Leshem (University of Haifa Psychology)

2006-12-14

254

Process for vitrification of contaminated sodium oxide  

SciTech Connect

A glass composition was developed to accommodate 30 wt % sodium oxide and resist devitrification and leaching. An in-can melting process that is compatible with a comtaminated sodium calciner developed by Argonne National Laboratory was tested both on a laboratory and on an engineering scale and found to be viable. The Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor experimental program continues to produce elemental sodium contaminated with radionuclides. This material is presently in temporary storage facilities because the current criterion will not permit alkali metals to be disposed of in shallow land burials. As a first step in treatment, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a calciner that will convert the sodium metal to an oxide. In work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing and demonstrating a process that is compatible with the calciner and facilities at ANL-West for incorporating sodium oxide into a glass. Glass, which normally contains sodium oxide, was chosen as the waste form because it is chemically durable and nondispersible. It is simple to produce, and the technology for incorporating nuclear wastes into glass is well developed.

Blair, H.T.; Mellinger, G.B.

1983-03-01

255

Stability of frozen solutions of cefazolin sodium.  

PubMed

The stability of frozen solutions of cefazolin sodium was investigated in nine commonly used diluents at concentrations of 1 g with 2.5 ml, 500 mg with 100 ml and 10 g with 45 ml in both glass and polyvinylchloride plastic containers. The diluents were: Water for Injection USP; 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP; 5% Dextrose Injection USP (D5W); D5W with 0.02% sodium bicarbonate; D5W in Lactated Ringer's Injection USP; Lactated Ringer's Injection USP; Ionosol B in D5W; Normasol M in D5W; and Plasmalyte in D5W. Frozen cefazolin sodium solutions, containing Water for Injection USP, 5% Dextrose Inection USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP as the diluents, retained more than 90% of labeled potency for up to 26 weeks when frozen within one hour after reconstitution and held at -10 C or -20 C. Frozen cefazolin sodium solutions, made with other diluents, were stable for up to four weeks when frozen within one hour after reconstitution and held at -10 C. PMID:7955

Carone, S M; Bornstein, M; Coleman, D L; Thomas, P N; Boylan, J C

1976-07-01

256

[Importance of the structure of the clot in thrombolysis].  

PubMed

Activation of plasminogen by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tpA) is potentiated by fibrin. We have demonstrated the role of fibrin polymerization in the potentiating effect of tpA-induced fibrinolysis. Therefore a pathogenic mechanism of thrombotic disorder may be related to an abnormal fibrin polymerization: the abnormal clot being less accessible to fibrinolysis than normal one. This defective lysis may be due to a defective enhancement by the abnormal fibrin of plasminogen activation by tpA, as demonstrated for fibrinogen Dusard, a congenital dysfibrinogenemia associated with a very severe thrombotic disorder. In some other cases, a decrease in the availability of the plasmin cleavage sites in fibrin clot may be involved. On the contrary, some antithrombotic drugs such as pentosane polysulfate in modifying clot structure allow a better degradation of fibrin clot by fibrinolytic enzymes. It is speculated that this enhanced fibrinolysis could explain, almost in part, the antithrombotic action of these drugs. PMID:2441630

Soria, C; Soria, J; Mirshahi, M; Desvignes, P; Bonnet, P; Caen, J P

1987-01-01

257

21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...crystallization of sodium carbonate in an amount not to...Act: (1) Sodium carbonate produced in accordance...of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene...

2010-01-01

258

21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates...crystallization of sodium carbonate in an amount not to...Act: (1) Sodium carbonate produced in accordance...of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene...

2009-04-01

259

Implications of Salt and Sodium Reduction on Microbial Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of

Peter J. Taormina

2010-01-01

260

U. S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing  

SciTech Connect

Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered. (DLC)

Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

1982-05-01

261

Development of Bellows for Sodium Valve in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium valves for FBR are required to isolate sodium side from the atmosphere completely throughout its lifetime because of preventing sodium leakage with or without radioactivity. A great number of sodium valves have been used in FBR test facilities at O...

S. Tanigawa K. Mukai T. Fukada T. Takahashi

1979-01-01

262

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

263

A Critical Review of Sodium Profiling for Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sodium profiling, the sodium concentration in the dialysis fluid, instead of being constant, follows a time-dependent profile over the course of a hemodialysis session. The main aim of this manipulation is to avoid osmotic disequilibrium by keeping plasma osmolality in the physiological range. Further advantages of sodium profiling are a reduction in the incidence of muscle cramps, improved sodium

Siegfried Stiller; Edeltraud Bonnie-Schorn; Aileen Grassmann; Ingrid Uhlenbusch-Körwer; Helmut Mann

2001-01-01

264

Double sodium layer observation over Beijing, China by lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium layer is usually located between 80-105 km. The double sodium layer (DSL) event observed by sodium lidar (light detection and radar) over Wuhan extend the altitude to about 125km. A secondary sodium layer appeared above the normal sodium layer. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the DSL formation is still unclear, due to lack of DSL events observed. In this paper, we reports a series of double sodium layer events observed by sodium lidar over Beijing, China. About ten DSL events occurred during 2010 and 2011. All DSL events were observed in summer. The SeSL last about several hours and joined the normal sodium layer, which seems its loss mechanism. When the SeSL disappeared, the sporadic sodium layer occurred in the normal sodium layer.

Wang, Jihong; Yang, Guotao; Yong, Yang; Song, Shalei; Gong, Shunsheng; Cheng, Xuewu

2012-07-01

265

Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor  

PubMed Central

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability.

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

2011-01-01

266

Sodium Taste Detectability in Rats Is Independent of Anion Size: The Psychophysical Characteristics of the Transcellular Sodium Taste Transduction Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two known sodium transduction pathways in the rat gustatory system. The transcellular pathway is blocked by amiloride, and the paracellular pathway is limited by the anion gluconate. The contribution of each pathway to sodium detection was assessed. Sodium gluconate (NaGlu) and NaCl thresholds did not differ, implying that the paracellular pathway is not necessary for normal sodium detection.

Laura C. Geran; Alan C. Spector

2000-01-01

267

The sodium abundance in ? Bootis stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: .Numerous observational studies have shown that the atmospheres of ? Boo type stars are strongly deficient in such elements as Ti, Cr, Fe, while some of the light elements (e.g. carbon, oxygen and sulphur) do not show any remarkable abundance anomalies. Such a specific abundance pattern is regarded to be the direct consequence of the selective accretion of stellar envelope material after its depletion of refractory elements. At the same time, sodium with its rather high condensation temperature shows almost normal content in ? Boo star atmospheres in apparent contradiction to a prediction of the accretion hypothesis.Aims.We aim to show that the normal sodium abundance seen in some ? Boo type stars is connected with the specific ionization regime of the sodium atoms which is formed in the circumstellar envelope.Methods.The analytical expression connecting the fraction of ionized atoms and circumstellar envelope characteristics (electron temperature, optical depth, etc.) is used.Results.Under the special assumptions about the circumstellar envelope characteristics, the sodium remains essentially ionized over the whole envelope volume, while elements such as iron are ionized only in the vicinity of the central star. This favours iron dust grain formation in the envelope, and prevents effective adhesion of the sodium charged particles. Thus, the sodium remains in the gaseous medium which is accreted by the star, while such elements as Ti, Fe and some other refractory elements, which are locked in the dust grains, are effectively swept out of the envelope. This results in a specific abundance pattern which is seen in some ? Boo stars whose atmospheres appear to be deficient in Ti, Fe, Ni, but possess almost normal sodium content.

Andrievsky, S. M.

2006-04-01

268

Water and sodium balance in space.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that fluid balances and body fluid regulation in microgravity (microG) differ from those on Earth (Drummer et al, Eur J Physiol 441:R66-R72, 2000). Arriving in microG leads to a redistribution of body fluid-composed of a shift of fluid to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid balance adaptation in weightlessness. PMID:11532707

Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

2001-09-01

269

Lunar Sodium Exosphere Measured By Selene (kaguya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is known to have a surface-bounded exosphere, that is, a collision-free tenuous atmosphere. Although many ground-based observations have been conducted under different conditions of source candidates, continuous observations from the ground covering the whole lunar phase have been difficult because of strong reflected sunlight and geometrical constraints. Observations from a lunar orbiter, however, would be free of the constraints of ground-based observations. The present study presents the results of continuous observations of the sodium exosphere from the same lunar polar orbiter over a period of six months. Observations of the lunar sodium exosphere were conducted from December 2008 through June 2009 using the UPI-TVIS (UPI: upper atmosphere and plasma imager; TVIS: telescope for visible light) instrument onboard the Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya). Variations in line-of-sight integrated intensity measured on the night-side hemisphere of the Moon could be described as a spherical symmetric distribution of the sodium exosphere with a temperature of 2400 to 6000 K. The average surface density in February is well above that in the other months, namely, by 30%. As for variation depending on lunar-phase angle, the sodium density gradually decreased by about 20% from the first to the last quarters during each lunar cycle, although any clear indication of changes in sodium density caused by the Moon's passages through the Earth's magnetotail could not be seen. One of the possible explanations for such a density decay in a half lunar cycle is an inhomogeneous source distribution of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) on the lunar surface. If a sodium-rich region exists on the surface around ? = 90 ± 90 degrees, increased release of sodium atoms by PSD will explain the observed result.

Kagitani, Masato; Taguchi, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kameda, S.; Okano, S.

2010-10-01

270

Synergistic inhibition of carbon steel corrosion by sodium tungstate and sodium silicate in neutral aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungstate inhibitors are seldom used alone in open recirculating cooling water systems due to their low oxidising ability and high cost. The objective of the present work was to develop efficient synergistic inhibitor combinations comprising sodium silicate and very low concentration of sodium tungstate, keeping in view of their application in industrial cooling water system. It was demonstrated in the

V. S. Saji; S. M. A. Shibli

2002-01-01

271

Sodium technology. Sodium removal and decontamination of components. Progress report, July-September 1975. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium (Na) removal from test specimens and components by the reaction of sodium with alcohol. As a prat of the alcohol process development, the following activities will be investigated (1) reaction rate studies, (2) process control and repeatability, control and inspection technique development, and (5) alcohol-Na

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele; E. Hill

1975-01-01

272

Antiadhesive effect of the mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose after endoscopic sinus surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of the mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) for prevention of adhesion after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods: Preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were graded. At the completion of surgery, HA-CMC was applied to Merocel and repeatedly applied after the removal of Merocel. As a control, normal saline was applied.

Jeong Hong Kim; Joo-Hwan Lee; Joo-Heon Yoon; Jung Hyun Chang; Jung Ho Bae; Kyung-Su Kim

2007-01-01

273

Sodium acetate as a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in medical toxicology: a review.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate is central to the treatment of many poisonings. When it was placed on the FDA drug shortage list in 2012, alternative treatment strategies to specific poisonings were considered. Many hospital pharmacies, poison centers, and medical toxicologists proposed sodium acetate as an adequate alternative, despite a paucity of data to support its use in medical toxicology. The intention of this review is to educate the clinician on the use of sodium acetate and to advise them on the potential adverse events when given in excess. We conducted a literature search focused on the pharmacology of sodium acetate, its use as a buffer in pathologic acidemia and dialysis baths, and potential adverse events associated with excess sodium acetate infusion. It appears safe to replace sodium bicarbonate infusion with sodium acetate on an equimolar basis. The metabolism of acetate, however, is more complex than bicarbonate. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm the efficacy of sodium acetate in the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:23636658

Neavyn, Mark J; Boyer, Edward W; Bird, Steven B; Babu, Kavita M

2013-09-01

274

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

275

Depression of fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog without sodium diuresis  

PubMed Central

The effect of infusions of hyperoncotic solutions on fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog was studied by the recollection micropuncture method. Tubule fluid to plasma inulin concentration ratios were measured for identified proximal tubule segments before and after infusion of 25% albumin or dextran solutions. Results were compared with changes in fractional reabsorption during saline diuresis. Plasma volume increased 66% ± SE 5.8 after infusion of albumin solution and 94% ± SE 8.2 after infusion of dextran solution. Fractional sodium reabosorption by the proximal tubule was depressed after infusion of both of these hyperoncotic solutions. Nevertheless, changes in sodium excretion after infusion of albumin and dextran were small. In contrast, after infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution, which increased plasma volume 61% ± SE 5.8, a decrease in fractional reabsorption of 50.7% ± SE 7.2 was associated with large changes in sodium excretion.

Howards, Stuart S.; Davis, Bernard B.; Knox, Franklyn G.; Wright, Fred S.; Berliner, Robert W.

1968-01-01

276

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

277

Sodium heat engine/AMTEC system experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a high efficiency device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. The SHE system operates as a thermally regenerative concentration cell using sodium as the working fluid. Its operation relies on the high sodium ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity of sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte. The SHE/AMTEC is a static system employing no moving parts, uses sodium as the single working fluid, and offers the prospect of excellent reliability. The major operating features of the SHE/AMTEC system have been tested in lab studies of systems at power levels up to 100 W. Goals of the present program include the design, construction and testing of systems at power levels up to the 1 kW level. While these and all previously tested SHE systems have been designed for terrestrial applications, several concepts to be considered in the design of kW level devices should yield information useful for the development of systems for space power applications.

Hunt, T. K.; Lasecki, J. V.; Novak, R. F.; McBride, J. R.; Brockway, J. T.

278

No Sodium in Enceladus' Vapor Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of water vapor and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fueled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. The presence or absence of sodium chloride salt, expected in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core, offers clues. While sodium has been detected in particles escaping Enceladus (Postberg et al., submitted), by far the vast majority of mass escapes in gaseous form. Here we report results from a groundbased spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus which places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapor plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapor, plus the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a scenario in which a deep, salty ocean fuels a near-surface geyser through cracks in the crust. The observed low-sodium vapor is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption hypotheses from liquid water or from ice, and offers significant constraints on each. The combination of Cassini and groundbased data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

Schneider, N. M.; Burger, M. H.; Johnson, R. E.; Kargel, J. S.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Dougherty, M.; Achilleos, N.

2009-05-01

279

Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  

PubMed

Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2013-05-01

280

Fuel and fission product release from sodium  

SciTech Connect

The NALA program at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe is concerned with the release of fuel and fission products from hot or boiling sodium pools (radiological secondary source term) in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor accident scenario with tank failure. The main concern is to determine retention factors (RF), to uncover the most essential parameters that influence the RF values, and to describe the way they do it. In the framework of the last NALA series, NALA IIIc, the influence of sodium-concrete interaction was investigated, partly with subsequent sodium burning. In our experiments, [approx]3 kg of sodium and added pieces of concrete reaching from 4 to 40 g was used. The composition of the concrete was suitable for shielding and construction as used in the SNR-300 reactor. Fuel was simulated by 20-[mu]m particles of depleted UO[sub 2], and CeO[sub 2], NaI, and TeO[sub 2] were used as fission products. Most experiments were performed in an inert argon gas atmosphere with monitored hydrogen development. In some cases, the preheated pool was allowed to come into contact with ambient air, which caused an ordinary sodium fire. For the latter case, we used the 220-m[sup 3] FAUNA vessel as an outer containment and collected the fire aerosols by a trap and subsequent filters for analysis.

Sauter, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany))

1992-01-01

281

Idraparinux sodium: SANORG 34006, SR 34006.  

PubMed

Idraparinux sodium [SANORG 34006, SR 34006], a synthetic, anti Xa pentasaccharide and analogue of SR 32701 and fondaparinux sodium, was in development with Sanofi (now Sanofi-Synthélabo) and Organon (Akzo Nobel) in Europe and the USA (now Sanofi-Synthélabo alone). It may have potential in the treatment and secondary prevention of thrombosis, especially deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Because of the long duration of action of idraparinux sodium, it may be suitable for once-weekly administration. In January 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo announced it was to acquire, before the end of the first quarter 2004, all the rights of Organon relating to idraparinux sodium, subject to approval of the regulatory authorities. Sanofi-Synthélabo is to make payments to Organon based on future sales. Idraparinux sodium has completed phase IIb development with the PERSIST study and it is in phase III clinical trials. In June 2003, Organon announced the initiation of pivotal phase III studies as a once-weekly treatment of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The AMADEUS study will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation while the Van Gogh PE, Van Gogh DVT and the Van Gogh extension (EXT) will focus on patients with DVT or PE. PMID:15139779

2004-01-01

282

Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from coronagraphic imaging of Mercury's sodium tail over a 7 deg field of view. Several sets of observations made at the McDonald Observatory since May 2007 show a tail of neutral sodium atoms stretching more than 1000 Mercury radii (R(sub m)) in length, or a full degree of sky. However, no tail was observed extending beyond 120 R(sub m) during the January 2008 MESSENGER Fly-by period, or during a similar orbital phase of Mercury in July 2008. Large changes in Mercury's heliocentric radial velocity cause Doppler shifts about the Fraunhofer absorption features; the resultant change in solar flux and radiation pressure is the primary cause of the observed variation in tail brightness. Smaller fluctuations in brightness may exist due to changing source rates at the surface, but we have no explicit evidence for such changes in this data set. The effects of radiation pressure on Mercury's escaping atmosphere are investigated using seven observations spanning different orbital phases. Total escape rates of atmospheric sodium are estimated to be between 5 and 13 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s and show a correlation to radiation pressure. Candidate sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include desorption by UV sunlight, thermal desorption, solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, and micro-meteor impacts. Wide-angle observations of the full extent of Mercury's sodium tail offer opportunities to enhance our understanding of the time histories of these source rates.

Schmidt, Carl A.; Wilson, Jody K.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

2009-01-01

283

Sodium and potassium in essential hypertension.  

PubMed Central

A study was carried out of arterial pressure and body content of electrolytes in 91 patients with essential hypertension and 121 normal controls. Exchangeable sodium was found to be positively correlated with arterial pressure in the patients, the correlation being closest in older patients; values of exchangeable sodium were subnormal in young patients; and plasma, exchangeable, and total body potassium correlated inversely with arterial pressure in the patients, the correlations being closest in young patients. Three hypotheses were proposed to explain the mechanisms relating electrolytes and arterial pressure in essential hypertension--namely, a cell-salt hypothesis, a dietary salt hypothesis, and a kidney-salt hypothesis. It was concluded that two mechanisms probably operate in essential hypertension. In the early stages of the disease blood pressure is raised by an abnormal process related more closely to potassium than to sodium. A renal lesion develops later, possibly as a consequence of the hypertension. This lesion is characterised by resetting of pressure natriuresis and is manifest by an abnormal relation between body sodium and arterial pressure and by susceptibility to increased dietary sodium intake.

Lever, A F; Beretta-Piccoli, C; Brown, J J; Davies, D L; Fraser, R; Robertson, J I

1981-01-01

284

The mutagenic activity of sodium perborate.  

PubMed

Sodium perborate (CAS No. 1333-73-9, 10486-00-7, or 13517-20-9, depending on the structural formula given) is produced in huge amounts mainly for its use as a bleaching agent in laundry detergents. Its action involves the liberation of active oxygen species at elevated temperatures. In view of the widespread use of this compound it is surprising to note that no mutagenicity test data yet exist. The investigations reported in this paper have shown that sodium perborate is indeed capable of producing mutagenic changes in a number of in vitro test systems. Its potential for inflicting damage to DNA could be demonstrated in an assay which is tailored to probe for oxidative damage induced by a chemical agent. As expected, sodium perborate proved to be able to oxidize thymidine to an appreciable extent at an incubation temperature of 80 degrees C, but even at 40 degrees C thymidine oxidation was measurable. The compound induced point mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA102, while TA98 did not respond. Also, incubation in the presence of a mammalian auxiliary metabolic system (rat liver S9) abolished the mutagenic activity completely. Finally, Chinese hamster ovary cells (strain CHO-K1) were shown to undergo extensive chromosomal damage when treated with sodium perborate. The rather unusual prevalence of chromosome rearrangements was especially noted. Sodium perborate is thus to be regarded as a direct-acting in vitro mutagen. PMID:2677709

Seiler, J P

1989-10-01

285

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

286

Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal border of toad bladder by intracellular sodium and calcium: role of sodium-calcium exchange in the basolateral membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepitheliaI transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal

HERBERT S. CHASE; QAIS AL-AWQATI

1981-01-01

287

Eclipse measurements of Io's sodium atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The satellites of Jupiter eclipsed each other in 1985, and these events allowed an unusual measurement of the sodium in Io's extended atmosphere. Europa was used as a mirror to look back through the Io atmosphere at the sun. The measured column abundances suggest that the atmosphere is collisionally thin above 700 km and may be collisionally thin to the surface. The sodium radial profile above 700 km resembles a 1500 K exosphere with a surface density near 20,000 sodium atoms per cubic centimeter, but a complete explanation of the dynamics requires a more complex nonthermal model: the calculated loss rates suggest that the atmosphere is being replaced on a time scale of hours.

Schneider, Nicholas M.; Hunten, Donald M.; Wells, William K.; Trafton, Laurence M.

1987-01-01

288

Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

Degruson, James A.

1992-01-01

289

Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fitted by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 ?Hz to 4 mHz. The best-fitting power law was found be be 10???, with ?=-1.79±0.02 and ?=1.12±0.40. Applications to wavefront sensing require knowledge of the behavior of the sodium layer at kilohertz frequencies. Direct measurements at these frequencies do not exist. Extrapolation from low-frequency behavior to high frequencies suggests that this variability may be a significant source of error for laser guide star adaptive optics in large-aperture telescopes.

Davis, D. Saul; Hickson, Paul; Herriot, Glen; She, Chiao-Yao

2006-11-01

290

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

291

Variation of sodium on Mercury with solar radiation pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodiums atoms in the atmosphere of Mercury can be accelerated by solar radiation pressure, and several authors have suggested that radiation pressure could sweep sodium off the planet. As a consequence, the sodium abundance might be expected to decrease as the radiation pressure increases. The authors have measured the average sodium abundance over a range of solar radiation pressures and found that the sodium abundance does decrease with increasing radiation pressure. Possible explanations for the observed variation are (1) that radiation pressure sweeps away transient high-velocity sodium atoms generated upon meteoric material impacts, thus reducing the supply rate of sodium, or (2) that the accommodation coefficient of sodium for surface interactions is less than unity, so that radiation pressure can effectively push sodium to the dark side of the planet, where it cannot be detected by scattered sunlight.

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

1987-09-01

292

Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

Nollet, Billy K.

293

Sodium in a strong magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of a magnetic field with low to intermediate strength on several spectroscopic properties of the sodium atom. A model potential is used to describe the core of sodium, reducing the study of the system to an effective one-particle problem. All states with principal quantum numbers n = 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are studied and analysed. A grid of twenty values for the field strength in the complete regime B = 0 - 0.02 a.u. is employed. Ionisation energies, transition wavelengths and their dipole oscillator strengths are presented.

González-Férez, R.; Schmelcher, P.

2003-05-01

294

Disorders of sodium and water balance.  

PubMed

Dysnatremias occur simultaneously with disorders in water balance. The first priority is to correct dehydration; once the patient is euvolemic, the sodium level can be reassessed. In unstable patients with hyponatremia, the clinician should rapidly administer hypertonic saline. In unstable patients with hypernatremia, the clinician should administer isotonic intravenous fluid. In stable patients with either hyponatremia or hypernatremia, the clinician should aim for correction over 24 to 48 hours, with the maximal change in serum sodium between 8 to 12 mEq/L over the first 24 hours. This rate of correction decreases the chances of cerebral edema or osmotic demyelination syndrome. PMID:24766939

Harring, Theresa R; Deal, Nathan S; Kuo, Dick C

2014-05-01

295

Spectroscopy of size-selected sodium clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of angular resolved elastic scattering has been used to achieve a size selection of neutral sodium clusters. After the scattering process the clusters are ionized by single photon ionization with various laser energies and detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The elastic scattering of Na2 by Ne serves as a test for the experimental setup. Angular dependence of scattered sodium clusters ionized with 308 nm shows a significant amount of fragmentation of the neutral Na6 to Na9 clusters which are observed in the Na{5/+} and Na{6/+} ion channels.

Goerke, A.; Feser, M.; Palm, H.; Schulz, C. P.; Hertel:, I. V.

1991-03-01

296

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01

297

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

Elkins, P.E.

1981-09-22

298

Voltammetry of sodium polysulfides at metal electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of sodium polysulfides and candidate metals for the current collector and cell casing in sodium/sulfur cells at 300/sup 0/ and 350/sup 0/C is explored using cyclic voltammetry. The metals investigated are chromium and molybdenum, and data for voltammetric sweeps at rates of 10-500 mV/s in Na/sub 2/S/sub 1/ are reported. The results are compared with those of previous experiments conducted at carbon and platinum electrodes, and mechanisms are proposed to explain the data in terms of specific melt-metal interactions. A model describing the observed cathodic sweep data is presented.

Dobson, J.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

1986-10-01

299

Wound healing evaluation of sodium fucidate-loaded polyvinylalcohol/sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based wound dressing.  

PubMed

The cross-linked hydrogel films containing sodium fucidate were previously reported to be prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method and their physicochemical property was investigated. For the development of novel sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing, here its in vivo wound healing test and histopathology were performed compared with the conventional ointment product. In wound healing test, the sodium fucidate-loaded composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the hydrogel without drug, indicating the potential healing effect of sodium fucidate. Furthermore, from the histological examination, the healing effect of sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel was greater than that of the conventional ointment product and hydrogel without drug, since it might gave an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, the sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing composed of 5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug is a potential wound dressing with excellent wound healing. PMID:20661719

Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

2010-07-01

300

Relationships Among Grain Hardness, Pentosan Fractions, and End-Use Quality of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(2):241-247 Grain texture (hardness) in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a major determinant of end-usage. Variation in grain texture can be conceptually assigned to the two major hardness classes that result from the action of one major gene (Hardness) or to as-yet undetermined factors contributing to residual variation within hardness classes. Identifying the physico- chemical basis of

A. D. Bettge; Craig F. Morris

2000-01-01

301

Mechanism of action of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) on insect sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) are a relatively new class of insecticides, with a mechanism of action different from those of other classes of insecticides that target voltage-gated sodium channels. These compounds have no effect at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, but cause a voltage-dependent, nearly irreversible block as the membrane potential is depolarized. The mechanism of action of SCBIs is similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs), class I anticonvulsants and class I antiarrhythmics. In this article, we review the physiological actions of these compounds on the whole animal, the nervous system and sodium channels, and also present the results from recent studies that elucidate the receptor site of SCBIs.

Silver, Kristopher S.; Song, Weizhong; Nomura, Yoshiko; Salgado, Vincent L.; Dong, Ke

2013-01-01

302

Increasing the dialysate sodium concentration based on serum sodium concentrations exacerbates weight gain and thirst in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Most dialysis centers adopt a standard dialysate sodium prescription. While pre-hemodialysis (HD) serum sodium levels remain relatively constant in each individual patient on chronic HD, these levels can vary between different patients. Therefore, a single dialysate sodium prescription may not be appropriate for all patients. Nineteen stable patients on maintenance HD were dialyzed for 9 HD sessions with their current dialysis solutions, followed by another 9 sessions using individualized prescriptions created by aligning dialysate sodium levels to each patient's serum sodium concentration. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the average pre-HD serum sodium concentration was higher than (higher serum sodium group, n = 13) or equal to (equal sodium group, n = 5) the standard dialysate sodium concentration. Pre-HD serum sodium levels remained constant during entire study period in both groups. In higher serum sodium group, interdialytic weight gain increased after implementation of the sodium alignment (2.0 ± 0.3 kg vs. 2.3 ± 0.4 kg; P = 0.008). Thirst scores also increased in patients whose dialysate sodium was increased by 4 mmol/L (n = 7) (6.4 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 1.5, P = 0.015). There were no significant changes in blood pressure and intradialytic complications. In equal sodium group, significant differences were not observed in any parameters. Our results suggest that alignment of dialysate sodium levels to each patient's serum sodium concentration is of little benefit in hemodynamically stable patients who have pre-HD serum sodium concentrations higher than dialysate sodium concentration. PMID:23782720

Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jay Wook; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Kim, Yon Su; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

2013-01-01

303

40 CFR 415.660 - Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chlorate Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production...

2010-07-01

304

40 CFR 415.660 - Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chlorate Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the sodium chlorate production...

2009-07-01

305

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive...homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive...homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive...

2010-04-01

306

21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide...Devices § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic...

2009-04-01

307

21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide...Devices § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic...

2010-04-01

308

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2009-07-01

309

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2010-07-01

310

Mutant sodium channel for tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein-Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant. PMID:19259066

Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O

2009-05-01

311

Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant.

Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; Garcia-Anoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O

2009-01-01

312

Safety of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some physical and technical aspects of sodium-cooled fast reactor safety are discussed. An approach to the solution of safety problems in the designs of the first fast-reactor generation in the USSR was based (as a result of thermal reactor operating expe...

Y. E. Bagdasarov L. A. Kochetkov V. I. Matveev M. Y. Kulakovskii I. A. Kuznetsov

1977-01-01

313

Study on life of sodium heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel heat pipes containing a sodium working fluid were subjected to life tests at evaporator surface temperatures of 600, 650, and 700 C for 1200 hours of operation in ambient environments. At the end of the heat tests the pipes were cut open and examined by means of X-ray microanalysis, metallurgical microscopy, etc. Results show that the inner surfaces

T. Yamamoto; Y. Tanaka; M. Sasaki; H. Hatori

1981-01-01

314

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

315

Clinical experience with sodium cellulose phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no treatment program which is capable of correcting the basic abnormality of absorptive hypercalciuria, although several drugs are available which have been shown to restore normal calcium excretion. Sodium cellulose phosphate best meets the criteria for optimum therapy. When given orally, this non-absorbable ion exchange resin binds calcium and inhibits calcium absorption. However, this inhibition is caused

Charles Y. C. Pak; Michael J. Nicar; Faye Britton

1983-01-01

316

Sodium cleaning procedures for PEC prototype mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Casaccia's Energy Research Center (CRE) of the Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), within the scope of testing activities for penetrating structures (mechanisms) of the Prova Elementi di Combustibile (PEC) reactor plug and of operating procedure acquisition for the PEC itself, a facility for the cleaning of mechanisms after in-sodium testing has been in operation for

Caponetti

1985-01-01

317

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01

318

Sodium technology at EBR-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves

J. T. Holmes; C. R. F. Smith; W. H. Olson

1976-01-01

319

Thermal conductivity of sodium chloride aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations representing the thermal conductivity of water as a function of temperature and pressure, as well as the thermal conductivity of sodium chloride aqueous solutions at temperatures from 20 to 325°C and pressures from 0.1 to 100 MPa and concentrations up to 5 mol/kg are obtained.

Aleksandrov, A. A.; Dzhuraeva, E. V.; Utenkov, V. F.

2013-03-01

320

The Circadian Clock Modulates Renal Sodium Handling  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock contributes to the control of BP, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed circadian rhythms in kidneys of wild-type mice and mice lacking the circadian transcriptional activator clock gene. Mice deficient in clock exhibited dramatic changes in the circadian rhythm of renal sodium excretion. In parallel, these mice lost the normal circadian rhythm of plasma aldosterone levels. Analysis of renal circadian transcriptomes demonstrated changes in multiple mechanisms involved in maintaining sodium balance. Pathway analysis revealed the strongest effect on the enzymatic system involved in the formation of 20-HETE, a powerful regulator of renal sodium excretion, renal vascular tone, and BP. This correlated with a significant decrease in the renal and urinary content of 20-HETE in clock-deficient mice. In summary, this study demonstrates that the circadian clock modulates renal function and identifies the 20-HETE synthesis pathway as one of its principal renal targets. It also suggests that the circadian clock affects BP, at least in part, by exerting dynamic control over renal sodium handling.

Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Pradervand, Sylvain; Centeno, Gabriel; Zavadova, Vlasta; Tokonami, Natsuko; Maillard, Marc; Bonny, Olivier

2012-01-01

321

Zinc and the sodium pump in uremia.  

PubMed

A defect in sodium transport is known to exist in the leucocytes of uremic patients. Recent work has shown changes in cation flux rates associated with alterations of extracellular zinc concentration. As plasma zinc is known to be low in uremia, the possibility that this might be the cause of the defect in membrane transport was investigated. Plasma zinc was shown to be lower in uremic patients than in normal controls but this was not matched by alterations in leucocyte zinc content. Leucocytes from normal subjects and from patients with uremia have similar increases in the sodium efflux rate constant when exposed to elevated extracellular zinc concentrations. However, the abnormality in leucocyte sodium transport in uremia was not completely corrected by elevation of the extracellular zinc, when compared with normal cells in the same zinc concentrations. Although extracellular zinc is a factor that must be controlled in studies of cellular membrane transport, a low plasma zinc is not the explanation for the defect of sodium transport seen in uremia. PMID:707352

Michael, J; Hilton, P J; Jones, N F

1978-10-01

322

2AF Sodium Nitrite Monitor: Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of monitoring the sodium nitrite in the 2AF makeup tank in the Purex process by measuring the NO sub 2 concentration of the gas phase was investigated in simulation studies. It was concluded that the NO sub 2 concentration is a function of...

R. D. Dierks J. L. Russell

1970-01-01

323

Fuel Cladding: Wire Wrap Wear in Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests involving longitudinal-motion and transverse-motion rubbing of fuel cladding by wire wrap were performed in ambient air and in elevated temperature sodium to determine the type and magnitude of wear of the fuel cladding. Adhesive wear was encountere...

J. J. Droher N. J. Hoffman J. D. Stearns

1978-01-01

324

Absence of Mutagenic Effects of Sodium Dichloroacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is a drug with potential for treating patients with stroke and head injury. Conflicting evidence has been published on the mutagenic potential of DCA. A series of genetic tests for mutagenicity and clastogenicity was carried out on pharmaceutical grade DCA. Four types of mutagenicity test were included, with and without metabolic activation where appropriate. These studies included:

Anthony W. Fox; Xiaoqing Yang; Hemathala Murli; Timothy E. Lawlor; Maria A. Cifone; Frederick E. Reno

1996-01-01

325

Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1...

M. J. Barnes R. A. Peterson R. F. Swingle C. T. Reeves

1995-01-01

326

Observations on the martensitic transition in sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of neutron scattering measurements on sodium near the martensitic transition at 36K, large single crystals were subjected to transformation cycles. On three occasions the original BCC orientation completely disappeared when the partially transformed crystal went through the reverse transition, and large grains (in one case a new excellent single crystal) with different orientations appeared. Analysis of relative

R. Stedman

1976-01-01

327

Rayleigh Turbidities of Sodium Aluminate Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rayleigh turbidities, refractive index gradients, densities, and pH values of three series of sodium aluminate solutions were measured at 25 C. Each study covered the concentration range 0.025-0.25 M aluminum, using 1 M NaClO4 as the solvent. Stoichiometr...

D. B. Copley S. Y. Tyree

1975-01-01

328

Development tendencies of the sodium fast breeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of the fifties twelve experimental sodium breeders ; have been built, of which eight have already provided some years of operating ; experience while the remaining four are still not in operation. Since the end of ; the sixties, this phase of experimental reactors has overlapped the construction ; of prototype power stations with capacities of around

Traube

1973-01-01

329

Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

1981-01-01

330

Potassium Substitution by Sodium in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is an ever-increasing constraint to crop productivity worldwide especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. In contrast to all the soil reclamation strategies to decrease salt concentrations in root zone, the use of sodium (Na) in plant nutrition may be an interesting tactic. The roles of potassium (K) and Na in plant nutrition suggest that K is the only

Abdul Wakeel; Muhammad Farooq; Manzoor Qadir; Sven Schubert

2011-01-01

331

SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

332

Atmospheric Motions from Sodium Cloud Drifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal motions from 25 sodium cloud experiments are examined in the alti- tude range from 70 to 190 km. The outstanding characteristics of the apparent motion are pro- nounced velocity oscillations in the 70- to 130-km layer; they reach a maximum near 105 km and attenuate at greater heights. A quiescent zone appears from 140 to 190 km, where, despite

Adam Kochanski

1964-01-01

333

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

334

Reduced Sodium Requirement for Fermented Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to develop a test for determining the replacement value of calcium for sodium in preventing firmness loss in brined cucumbers due to mold polygalacturonases (PG). Of four methods tested, firmness loss of tissue sections a...

J. A. Macon

1983-01-01

335

Inelastic scattering of positrons with sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two potential approach is used to study the resonant 3s-3p excitation of sodium atom by positrons of energy 40 and 54.4eV. The angular variation of coherence and correlation parameters is presented. Comparison with the corresponding parameters in electron scattering is given to see the role of various interaction potentials in electron and positron scattering.

Purohit, S. P.; Mathur, K. C.

1990-01-01

336

The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

Meihui Wang.

1992-06-01

337

Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

338

Substructure and Properties of Sodium Beta Alumina Solid Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium beta alumina solid electrolyte is the key component in sodium sulfur batteries that are currently under development. The electrolytes that have been tested in prototype cells have been found to deteriorate more rapidly than is acceptable for a reli...

L. C. De Jonghe

1975-01-01

339

Surface Modification of Sodium Aluminosilicate Glasses Using Microwave Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microwave energy has been used in ion exchange reactions for four sodium-aluminosilicate compositions. The exchangeable cation in the glass sodium (+) was replaced at the surface by a larger atomic radii cation Potassium (+). Secondary ion mass spectrosco...

Z. Fathi I. Ahmad J. H. Simmons D. E. Clark A. R. Loding

1992-01-01

340

Changes During Recovery from Sodium Deficiency in Atriplex  

PubMed Central

Although the concentration of sodium in leaves of Atriplex plants increased rapidly after receiving sodium, no growth response was detectable for about 6 days. It was found that respiration rate increased to its maximum within 3 days. Chlorophyll content also increased from an early stage, whereas the concentrations of sugars and starch did not increase, and ratios of soluble to total nitrogen did not decrease until later. The respiratory response appears to be specific to sodium as different salts of sodium caused similar responses, and no other univalent cation substituted for sodium. In addition, both growth response and respiration rate tended towards their maxima with the same concentration of applied sodium. The rate of anaerobic CO2 production increased when sodium was fed to leaves, suggesting that the effect of sodium is in the glycolytic sequence.

Brownell, P. F.; Jackman, Margaret E.

1966-01-01

341

Laboratory-Scale Sodium-Carbonate Aggregate Concrete Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600 deg C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for ...

H. R. Westrich H. W. Stockman A. Suo-Anttila

1983-01-01

342

Characterization of Corrosion Product Deposits in Sodium Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characterization of mass transfer deposits on the containment surface of sodium systems is an essential step in the development of LMFBR decontamination processes. The surfaces of a sodium test facility used to study radioactive mass transport were ex...

R. P. Colburn

1978-01-01

343

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity...1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder prepared from chlorophyll by...and replacement of magnesium by copper. Chlorophyll is extracted...

2009-04-01

344

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity...1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder prepared from chlorophyll by...and replacement of magnesium by copper. Chlorophyll is extracted...

2010-04-01

345

Evidence for magnetospheric effects on the sodium atmosphere of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monochromatic images of Mercury at the sodium D2 emission line showed excess sodium emission in localized regions at high northern and southern latitudes and day-to-day global variations in the distribution of sodium emission. These phenomena support the suggestion that magnetospheric effects could be the cause. Sputtering of surface minerals could produce sodium vapor in polar regions during magnetic substorms, when magnetospheric ions directly impact the surface. Another important process may be the transport of sodium ions along magnetic field lines toward polar regions, where they impact directly on the surface of Mercury and are neutralized to regenerate neutral sodium atoms. Day-to-day variations in planetary sodium distributions could result from changing solar activity, which can change the magnetosphere in time scales of a few hours. Observations of the sodium exosphere may provide a tool for remote monitoring of the magnetosphere of Mercury.

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

1990-01-01

346

Emissivity of Sodium Wetted and Oxidized Type 304 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emissivity of sodium wetted and oxidized Type 304 stainless steel was determined to provide data for calculating the heat flow through Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) reflector plates, located above the sodium pool, to the reactor closure he...

N. L. Haines R. E. Craig D. R. Forsyth E. H. Novendstern

1980-01-01

347

Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache. PMID:23463909

Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

2013-10-01

348

Dietary sodium restriction for mild hypertension in general practice.  

PubMed Central

Eighteen patients with stable mild hypertension (mean blood pressure 144/93 mm Hg) restricted their sodium intake for eight weeks while taking part in a double blind randomised crossover trial of slow sodium and placebo tablets. Mean 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was 143 mmol(mEq) during the period on slow sodium and 87 mmol during the period on placebo. Five patients were unable to reduce their sodium intake below 120 mmol, but the others had a mean 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of 59 mmol during the period on placebo. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between the slow sodium and placebo treatment periods, although the study had a power of 99% to detect a difference of 5 mm Hg in mean arterial pressure between the two periods. Moderate dietary sodium restriction does not lower blood pressure in patients with this degree of hypertension.

Watt, G C; Edwards, C; Hart, J T; Hart, M; Walton, P; Foy, C J

1983-01-01

349

Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Casual Urinary Sodium Concentrations in Western Populations  

PubMed Central

High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984–1987 at the ages of 20–59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were ?1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and ?1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

Brown, Ian J.; Dyer, Alan R.; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

2013-01-01

350

Gas chromatographic determination of organomercury following aqueous derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate and sodium tetraphenylborate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hyphenated analytical techniques, including gas chromatography (GC) coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (AES), and mass spectrometry (MS), have been evaluated for methylmercury and ethylmercury analysis following aqueous derivatization with both sodium tetraethylborate and sodium tetraphenylborate. Both GC–AFS and GC–AES were shown to be excellent techniques with detection limits in the range of sub-picogram

Yong Cai; Sugunya Monsalud; Rudolf Jaffé; Ronald D Jones

2000-01-01

351

Epithelial sodium channel is a key mediator of growth hormone-induced sodium retention in acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Acromegalic patients present with volume expansion and arterial hypertension but the renal sites and molecular mechanisms of direct antinatriuretic action of growth hormone (GH) remain unclear. Here, we show that acromegalic GC rats, which are chronically exposed to very high levels of GH, exhibited a decrease of furosemide-induced natriuresis and an increase of amiloride-stimulated natriuresis compared to controls. Enhanced Na+,K+-ATPase activity and altered proteolytic maturation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of GC rats provided additional evidence for an increased sodium reabsorption in the late distal nephron under chronic GH excess. In vitro experiments on KC3AC1 cells, a murine CCD cell model revealed the expression of functional GH receptors (GHR) and IGF-1 receptors coupled to activation of JAK2/STAT5, ERK and AKT signaling pathways. That GH directly controls sodium reabsorption in CCD cells is supported by i) stimulation of transepithelial sodium transport inhibited by GHR antagonist pegvisomant ii) induction of ?ENaC mRNA expression iii) identification of STAT5 binding to a response element located in the ?ENaC promoter, indicative of the transcriptional regulation of ?ENaC by GH. Our findings provide first evidence that GH, in concert with IGF-1, stimulates ENaC-mediated sodium transport in the late distal nephron, accounting for the pathogenesis of sodium retention in acromegaly.

Kamenicky, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Blanchard, Anne; Meduri, Geri; Zizzari, Philippe; Imbert-Teboul, Martine; Doucet, Alain; Chanson, Philippe; Lombes, Marc

2008-01-01

352

Elevation of Morning Blood Pressure in Sodium Resistant Subjects by High Sodium Diet  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the response of blood pressure (BP) by dietary sodium in sodium resistant (SR) subjects. One hundred one subjects (mean age, 46.0 yr; 31 hypertensives) were admitted and given low sodium-dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mM NaCl/day) for 7 days and high sodium-DASH diet (HSD, 300 mM NaCl/day) for the following 7 days. On the last day of each diet, 24 hr ambulatory BP was measured. Morning systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were elevated after HSD in all subjects (P < 0.01), but daytime SBP and DBP were not changed (P > 0.05). In hypertensive subjects, morning DBP elevation was greater than daytime DBP elevation (P = 0.036), although both DBPs were significantly elevated after HSD. The augmented elevation of morning DBP in hypertensive subjects was contributed by the absolute elevation of morning DBP (P = 0.032) and relative elevation to daytime DBP (P = 0.005) in sodium resistant (SR) subjects, but not by sodium sensitive subjects. Although there was no absolute elevation, SR subjects with normotension showed a relative elevation of morning SBP compared to daytime SBP change after HSD (P = 0.009). The present study demonstrates an absolute and relative elevation of morning BP in SR subjects by HSD.

Lim, Chi-Yeon; Shin, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sang-Woo; Park, Yong-Soon; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Sun-Woong

2013-01-01

353

Compatibility and activity of enoxaparin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for 48 hours.  

PubMed

The stability of enoxaparin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers was studied. Triplicate solutions of 120 mg (1.2 mL) of enoxaparin (as the sodium salt) and 98.8 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in 250-mL PVC containers and stored at room temperature (20-22 degrees C). Samples were taken immediately after preparation and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 4, 12, 16, 24, and 48 hours. Inspections for color change and precipitation were performed with a clarity inspection station and a magnifying glass. Samples of the three admixtures were evaluated in duplicate for pharmacologic activity by an automated coagulation heparin assay. Throughout the 48-hour study period, the enoxaparin admixtures were free of color change, evolution of gas, and precipitates. The pharmacologic activity of enoxaparin in the PVC containers remained > 94% of the initial measured activity for 48 hours. Enoxaparin 1.2 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in PVC containers was stable for up to 48 hours at 20-22 degrees C. PMID:8653483

Mewborn, A L; Kessler, J M; Joyner, K A

1996-01-15

354

[Determination of target compounds in cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium for injection by capillary electrophoresis].  

PubMed

A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in the injectable powder of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium with hydrochlorothiazide as the internal standard. The operation was carried out on a quartz capillary (75 cm x 75 microm i. d. , 63 cm effective length). The electrophoretic conditions were as follows: 40 mmol/L borax solution as the back ground electrolyte (BGE), 12. 0 kV applied voltage, 220 nm as the detection wavelength; the sample solution was injected by hydraulic pressure for 10 s at the height of 10 cm. The cefoperazone and tazobactam showed good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.25-3.96 g/L and 0.062-0.99 g/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 5 and 0.999 6, respectively. The relative standard deviations of relative peak areas were less than 3%. The preparation was stable in 208 min. The recovery results met the methodology requirements. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and suitable to control the quality of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injectable powder. PMID:22667102

Jiang, Ruiyuan; Sun, Guoxiang

2012-01-01

355

A sodium manganese oxide cathode by facile reduction for sodium batteries.  

PubMed

A nonstoichiometric sodium manganese oxide (Na(x)MnO(2+?)) cathode useful for sodium batteries was synthesized by an ambient-temperature strategy that involved facile reduction of aqueous sodium permanganate in sodium iodide and subsequent heat treatment at 600?°C. Combined powder X-ray diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the annealed sample to belong to a Na(x)MnO2 phase with a P2-hexagonal structure. The ICP-AES results confirmed the stoichiometry of the sample to be Na0.53MnO(2+?) . Electron microscopy studies revealed the particle size of the electrode to be in the range of a few hundred nanometers. The Na0.53MnO(2+?) cathode delivered an average discharge capacity of 170?mA?h?g(-1) with a stable plateau at 2.1?V for the initial 25?cycles versus sodium. Ex?situ XANES studies confirmed the reversible intercalation of sodium into Na0.53MnO(2+?) and suggested the accommodation of over-stoichiometric Mn(4+) ions to contribute towards the performance of the electrode. PMID:24692202

Song, Jinju; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Sungjin; Kang, Jungwon; Mathew, Vinod; Ahn, Docheon; Kim, Jaekook

2014-06-01

356

Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population.

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

1968-01-01

357

21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184.1804...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4 H4 KNaO6 ·4H2 O,...

2009-04-01

358

21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184.1804...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4 H4 KNaO6 ·4H2 O,...

2010-01-01

359

Evidence for a circulating sodium transport inhibitor in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active sodium transport of white cells and red cells obtained from patients with essential hypertension was impaired. Incubating white cells from normotensive subjects in serum obtained from patients with essential hypertension caused an impairment in sodium transport in the white cells of normotensive subjects similar to that found in the white cells of hypertensive patients. The impairment in sodium

L Poston; R B Sewell; S P Wilkinson; P J Richardson; R Williams; E M Clarkson; G A MacGregor; H E de Wardener

1981-01-01

360

Thermal degradation behaviour of sodium fire extinguishant powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although liquid sodium has proved to be a technologically superior and economically viable coolant in the heat-exchange circuits of fast reactors, it is fraught with the serious problems of fire hazards in the event of accidental leakages into the ambient air. For the rapid and effective suppression of sodium fires, sodium bicarbonate has emerged as a potential extinguishant. This paper

R. K. Singh Raman; F. C. Parida; A. S. Khanna

1988-01-01

361

77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9333-6] Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption...for Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane...residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane...approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44...

2012-04-11

362

76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for residues of bispyribac- sodium, including its metabolites...measuring only bispyribac-sodium, (2,6-bis[(4,6...dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoic acid, sodium salt), in or on the commodity...approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44...

2011-02-02

363

Calcined sodium silicate as solid base catalyst for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the use of calcined sodium silicate as a novel solid base catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. The calcined sodium silicate was characterized by DTA-TG, Hammett indicator method, XRD, SEM, BET, IR and FT-IR. It catalyzed the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with a yield of almost 100% under the following conditions: sodium

Feng Guo; Zhen-Gang Peng; Jian-Ying Dai; Zhi-Long Xiu

2010-01-01

364

Initiation of Degradation in Polycrystalline Sodium-beta Alumina Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium-beta alumina solid electrolytes degrade during use in sodium sulfur cells. The degradation can take two forms: Mode I degradation involving the rapid propagation of macroscopic cracks driven by cathodic deposition of sodium in them; and Mode II deg...

L. C. De Jonghe L. Feldman A. Buechele

1980-01-01

365

40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to collect and analyze water samples for sodium more frequently in locations where the sodium content is variable. (b) The supplier of water...the State the results of the analyses for sodium within the first 10 days of the month...

2009-07-01

366

40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to collect and analyze water samples for sodium more frequently in locations where the sodium content is variable. (b) The supplier of water...the State the results of the analyses for sodium within the first 10 days of the month...

2010-07-01

367

Alterations of red blood cell sodium transport during malarial infection.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that malaria induces changes in erythrocytic membrane permeability and susceptibility to osmotic lysis. The present study investigated erythrocytic transport of sodium with cells from Rhesus monkeys infected with Plasmodium knowlesi. Red blood cell sodium concentration was significantly elevated in 37 parasitized animals (21.8+/-1.2 mM; mean +/-SEM), as compared to 23 control animals (10.0+/-0.38 mM). The cellular sodium increased with the density of parasitemia and the cellular potassium decreased in proportion to the elevation of sodium. Nonparasitized as well as parasitized erythrocytes possessed this abnormality of cation metabolism. Effective chloroquine therapy reversed the changes over a period of 4 days. Active sodium outflux rate constants were depressed in animals with malaria (0.202+/-0.012), as compared to controls (0.325+/-0.027). Passive sodium influx rate constants were higher in infected monkeys (0.028+/-0.002) than in control animals (0.019+/-0.002). The cross incubation of malarial plasma with normal red blood cells induced a 22% diminution in active sodium outflux but no changes were observed in sodium influx. It is concluded that malaria alters erythrocytic sodium transport in all erythrocytes. The elevated intracellular sodium concentration is the net result of decreased sodium outflux and increased sodium influx. The plasmodium organism or the affected host may produce a circulating substance that is deleterious to erythrocytic membrane cation transport. PMID:4975361

Dunn, M J

1969-04-01

368

The Absolute Thermoelectric Power of Some Dilute Liquid Sodium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute thermoelectric powers of liquid sodium and of dilute liquid alloys of sodium with silver, cadmium, indium and tin have been measured within the temperature range 100–460°C. The thermopower of liquid sodium is decreased by the addition of cadmium, indium or tin, with cadmium having the smallest and indium the greatest effect, whereas it is increased slightly on the

H. A. Davies

1969-01-01

369

THE MODIFICATION OF ALUMINIUM-SILICON ALLOYS BY SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements by autoradiography and activation analysis have revealed ; the distribution of sodium in the microstructures of aluminum --7.5% silicon ; alloys modified by the addition of various amounts of sodium. ; Electronmicroscopic studies indicate that there is no fundamental difference ; between modication by chill casting and modification by sodium addition. A ; previously unobserved submicroscopic phase, the amount

R. C. Plumb; J. E. Lewis

1958-01-01

370

Indirect complexometric titration of sodium and potassium with EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium is precipitated as sodium zinc uranyl acetate, filtered and dissolved in water, and zinc is titrated with EDTA using eriochrome black T as indicator. Potassium is precipitated as potassium sodium cobaltinitrite and dissolved in hot water containing little hydrochloric acid. The blue colored solution produced by cobalt in solution, with ammonium thiocyanate and acetone was titrated with EDTA until

Buddhadev Sen

1957-01-01

371

SPECTROGRAPHIC EXAMINATION OF SODIUM NITRITE FOR TRACE IMPURITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods for determining trace amounts of the lighter ; elements in sodium nitrite is described, Aluminums berylliums calciums and ; magnesium are determined by the iron flux procedure after preliminary separation ; from sodium on a cation exchange column. Beryllium, scandiums and titandium are ; similarly determined after separation from sodium by coprecipitation with iron ; hydroxide. Lithium

G. I. Goodfellow; Housley; A. P. S. f Seyfang; T. H. Boyd; M. Diggle

1952-01-01

372

Fast Flux Test Facility replacement of a primary sodium pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW Thermal Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. During startup testing in 1979, the sodium level in one of the primary sodium pumps was inadvertently raised above the normal height. This resulted in distortion of the pump shaft. Pump replacement was carried out

S. A. Krieg; J. D. Thomson

1985-01-01

373

21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176.320 Food...and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component...

2013-04-01

374

A Quantitative Model for the Exchange Current of Porous Molybdenum Electrodes on Sodium Beta-Alumina in Sodium Vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a model of the exchange current developed for porous molybdenum electrodes on sodium beta-alumina ceramics in low pressure sodium vapor, but which has general applicability to gas/porous metal electrodes on solid electrolytes.

Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; LeDuc, H.; Cortez, R. H.; Saipetch, C.; Shields, V.; Manatt, K.; Homer, M. L.

1998-01-01

375

Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Potassium Acid Tartrate, Sodium Potassium Tartrate, Sodium Tartrate and Tartaric Acid as Food Ingredients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, by a group of qualified scientists designated the Select Committee of GRAS Substances (SCOGS), provides an independent evaluation of the safety of potassium acid tartrate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium tartrate, and tartaric acid when used...

1979-01-01

376

Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.  

PubMed

The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. PMID:22698996

Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

2012-12-01

377

Sodium efflux from voltage clamped squid giant axons.  

PubMed Central

1. The efflux of radioactive sodium was measured from squid axons during simultaneous voltage clamp experiments such that it was possible to determine the efflux of sodium associated with a measured voltage clamp current. 2. The extra efflux of sodium associated with voltage clamp pulses increased linearly with the magnitude of the depolarization above 40 mV. A 100 mV pulse of sufficient duration to produce all of the sodium current increased the rate constant of efflux by about 10(-6). 3. Application of 100 nM tetrodotoxin eliminated the sodium current and the extra efflux of radioactive sodium. 4. Cooling the axon increased the extra efflux/voltage clamp pulse slightly with a Q10 of 1/1-1. On the same axons cooling increased the integral of the sodium current with a Q10 of 1/1-4. 5. Replacing external sodium with Tris, dextrose or Mg-mannitol reduced the extra efflux of sodium by about 50%. The inward sodium current was replaced with an outward current as expected. 6. Replacing external sodium with lithium also reduced the extra efflux by about 50% but the currents seen in lithium were slightly larger than those in sodium. 7. The effect of replacing external sodium was not voltage dependent. Cooling reduced the effect so that there was less reduction of efflux on switching to Tris ASW in the cold than in the warm. 8. The extra efflux of sodium into sodium-free ASW is approximately the same as the integral of the sodium current. Adding external sodium produces a deviation from the independence principle such that there is more exchange of sodium than predicted. Such a deviation from prediction was noted by Hodgkin & Huxley (1952c). 9. Using the equations of Hodgkin & Huxley (1952c) modified to include the deviation from independence reported in this paper and its temperature dependence, one can predict the temperature dependence of the sodium efflux associated with action potentials and obtain much better agreement than is possibly without these phenomena. 10. This deviation from independence in the sodium fluxes is the type expected from some kind of mixing and binding of sodium within the membrane phase.

Landowne, D

1977-01-01

378

Action of ouabain on sodium transport in toad urinary bladder, Evidence for two pathways for sodium entry  

PubMed Central

The cardiac glycoside ouabain inhibits transepithelial sodium transport in the toad urinary bladder. It is shown that this drug reduces the rate coefficient for sodium exit at the serosal pump site. In addition, ouabain inhibits entry across the mucosal border whenever the electrochemical potential gradient for sodium is made less favorable. The data are interpreted as indicating the existence of two separate pathways for sodium entry, one of which is ouabain inhibitable.

1975-01-01

379

Effect of Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Chloride, and Sodium Nitrate on Germination and Outgrowth of Anaerobic Spores1  

PubMed Central

The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Duncan, Charles L.; Foster, E. M.

1968-01-01

380

Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels.  

PubMed

A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNa(v)1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNa(v)1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNa(v)1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNa(v)1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels. PMID:20888415

Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

2011-01-01

381

Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels  

PubMed Central

A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNav1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNav1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNav1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNav1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels.

Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

2010-01-01

382

ION RECOGNITION APPROACH TO VOLUME REDUCTION OF ALKALINE TANK WASTE BY SEPARATION AND RECYCLE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A 3-year collaborative project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Bruce A. Moyer) and the University of North Texas (Prof. Alan P. Marchand) is proposed to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide and other predominant sodium salts such as sodium nitrate f...

383

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2010-04-01

384

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2012-04-01

386

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2014-04-01

387

Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.  

PubMed

Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were negative in mutagenicity studies. Sodium Bisulfite produced both positive and negative results. Clinical oral and ocular-exposure studies reported no adverse effects. Sodium Sulfite was not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. These ingredients, however, may produce positive reactions in dermatologic patients under patch test. In evaluating the positive genotoxicity data found with Sodium Bisulfite, the equilibrium chemistry of sulfurous acid, sulfur dioxide, bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite was considered. This information, however, suggests that some bisulfite may have been present in genotoxicity tests involving the other ingredients and vice versa. On that basis, the genotoxicity data did not give a clear, consistent picture. In cosmetics, however, the bisulfite form is used at very low concentrations (0.03% to 0.7%) in most products except wave sets. In wave sets, the pH ranges from 8 to 9 where the sulfite form would predominate. Skin penetration would be low due to the highly charged nature of these particles and any sulfite that did penetrate would be converted to sulfate by the enzyme sulfate oxidase. As used in cosmetics, therefore, these ingredients would not present a genotoxicity risk. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:14555420

Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

2003-01-01

388

The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

2009-04-01

389

Reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes with sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

Vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes react readily with nucleophilic reagents to form the products of the replacement of one halogen by a nucleophilic residue. These reactions have been studied with F/sup -/ anion and C-, O-, and S-nucleophiles as examples. The present work studies the analogous reaction with the azide anion. When vicinal dibromopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds react with NaN/sub 3/ in DMF, N-methylpyrrolidone, or hexametapol, halogen is replaced by an azide group, and ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides form. The reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds with sodium azide causes replacement of halogen by an azide group probably by an ionic cleavage-addition chain mechanism. Nucleophilic azidobromination of fluoroolefins has been carried out by the action of sodium azide and bromine. These reactions were used to synthesize new ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides.

Postovoi, S.A.; Zeifman, Yu.V.; Knunyants, I.L.

1986-12-10

390

Sodium-sulfur battery program in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 11-year program was started in Japan in 1980 to develop new electric-energy storage systems. The advanced batteries chosen for this project are sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, and Redox batteries. Here, the development of a Na/S battery is discussed. The battery consists of a series of cells containing beta-alumina tubes as electrolyte and molten sodium and sulfur as active materials. A 1kW/8kWh battery is to be built by the end of 1983. The system, if successful, will be scaled up to 10kW/80kWh by the end of 1986 and to 1MW/8MWh in 1987. The basic design features of the 1kW/8kWh battery and its expected performance characteristics are presented.

Fuchida, K.; Okada, K.; Iwabuchi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Nakahara, K.

391

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17

392

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02

393

Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) - Design status  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant concept employs a 350-MWe pool-type LMR Power Pak as its basic module. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can be barge shipped to the plant site for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and minimizes the overall plant construction schedule and capital cost. Several passive, inherent features provide public safety and plant investment protection. The design capitalizes on the favorable intrinsic properties of sodium (e.g., high boiling point, low vapor pressure, and strong natural convection), provides inherent capability for core shutdown under all circumstances, and provides multiple passive systems to assure adequate core and spent fuel cooling.

Brunings, J.E.; Guenther, E.; Hren, R.

1986-01-01

394

Photometer for detection of sodium day airglow.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a photometer for daytime ground-based measurements of sodium airglow emission. The photometer described can be characterized by the following principal features: (1) a narrow (4.5-A) interference filter for initial discrimination; (2) cooled photomultiplier detector to reduce noise from dark current fluctuations and chopping to eliminate the average dark current; (3) a sodium vapor resonance cell to provide an effective bandpass comparable to the Doppler line width; (4) separate detection of all light transmitted by the interference filter to evaluate the Rayleigh and Mie components within the Doppler width of the resonance cell; and (5) temperature quenching of the resonance cell to evaluate and account for instrumental imperfections.

Mcmahon, D. J.; Manring, E. R.; Patty, R. R.

1973-01-01

395

Io's fast sodium: Implications for molecular and atomic atmospheric escape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational evidence for sodium-bearing molecular ions in the Io plasma torus has strong implications for the nature of Io's atmosphere (Schneider et al. 1991). We use a Monte Carlo model offast-sodium production to analyze high-resolution ground-based images of sodium emission. We find the observations can be explained if a significant fraction of Io's exobase is molecular, possible including a sodium-bearing molecule, Total sodium loss rates from Io imply a collisionally thick atmosphere. Most of the images indicate significant slow-down of the corotating plasma near Io.

Wilson, Jody K.; Schneider, Nicholas M.

1994-01-01

396

Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

1985-01-01

397

From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort.

Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

398

From menu to mouth: opportunities for sodium reduction in restaurants.  

PubMed

Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans' sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

Levings, Jessica Lee; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

399

Enhanced growth of methane–propane clathrate hydrate crystals with sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and sodium hexadecyl sulfate surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the effect of three commercially available anionic surfactants on the hydrate growth from a gas mixture of 90.5mol% methane\\/9.5mol% propane mixture was investigated. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), and sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). The morphology of the growing crystals and the gas consumption were observed during the experiments. The

Jeffry Yoslim; Praveen Linga; Peter Englezos

2010-01-01

400

Mechanical Properties Of Large Sodium Iodide Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data on mechanical properties of large crystals of thallium-doped sodium iodide. Five specimens in shape of circular flat plates subjected to mechanical tests. Presents test results for each specimen as plots of differential pressure versus center displacement and differential pressure versus stress at center. Also tabulates raw data. Test program also developed procedure for screening candidate crystals for gamma-ray sensor. Procedure eliminates potentially weak crystals before installed and ensures material yielding kept to minimum.

Lee, Henry M.

1988-01-01

401

Spin-polarized energy bands in sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The augmented-plane-wave (APW) method was used with a spin-dependent potential to calculate the one-electron energies in solid sodium. The charge density from which this potential was obtained was derived from spin-polarized Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic wave functions with fractional occupation of the valence spin orbitals. The atoms were placed on a cesium chloride Bravais lattice with alternating spin density. This \\

A. M. Boring

1968-01-01

402

Sodium polyacrylate mediated dispersion of calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilising action of sodium polyacrylate (NaPA) on colloidal dispersions of calcite has been investigated through measurement\\u000a of viscosity, electrophoretic mobility and solution ion concentration. The dose of NaPA was in the range 0 to 28 mg per g\\u000a of calcite and the dispersions were prepared at a solids content of 70% (by weight). The ionic strength of the dispersions

K. R. Rogan; A. C. Bentham; G. W. A. Beard; I. A. George; D. R. Skuse

403

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16

404

Impairment of mice spermatogenesis by sodium arsenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effect of arsenic on the male reproductive impairment in mice, 7-week-old animals were exposed to 7.5 mg sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)\\/kg body weight, during 35 days (one spermatogenic cycle). One group of animals was sacrificed after exposure, while another group received distilled water for an additional period of 35 days, in order to study the spermatoxic

Mónica Ferreira; Rita Cerejeira Matos; Helena Oliveira; Bruno Nunes; Maria de Lourdes Pereira

2012-01-01

405

Sodium sulfur technology program NaSTEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and ground and flight test objectives are described in textual and graphic form.

Highley, Bob; Somerville, W. Andrew

406

Sodium sulfur technology program NaSTEC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and ground and flight test objectives are described in textual and graphic form.

Highley, Bob; Somerville, W. Andrew

1992-01-01

407

Sodium sulfur technology program NaSTEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na\\/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and

Bob Highley; W. Andrew Somerville

1992-01-01

408

Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1\\/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV\\/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in

Bakhos A Tannous; Adam P Christensen; Lisa Pike; Thomas Wurdinger; Katherine F Perry; Okay Saydam; Andreas H Jacobs; Jaime García-Añoveros; Ralph Weissleder; Miguel Sena-Esteves; David P Corey; Xandra O Breakefield

2009-01-01

409

Cobalt precipitation by reduction with sodium borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of cobalt(II) with borohydride is very complicated, as evidenced by the fact that various authors have obtained different reaction stoichiometries and have proposed a number of mechanisms. To clarify the cobalt reduction process, the reaction stoichiometry and reduction efficiency were studied using a controlled rate of addition of sodium borohydride in the temperature range 5–35°C and at pH

Jianming Lu; D. B. Dreisinger; W. C. Cooper

1997-01-01

410

Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin\\u000a sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone\\u000a (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose\\u000a were used to aid

Supriya S. Shidhaye; Pritesh V. Thakkar; Neha M. Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

2010-01-01

411

First Principle Study of Sodium Nanoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and electronic properties of small Nan (n = 2-5) nanoclusters have been investigated by employing an ab-initio self-consistent density functional theory in the local density approximation. The total energy, binding energy, bond length and HOMO-LUMO gap are calculated in large energy interval for various isomeric forms of sodium nanoclusters. The results are compared with the other theoretical calculations.

Saxena, Prabodh Sahai; Srivastava, Pankaj; Shrivastava, Ashwani Kumar

2011-12-01

412

Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a cell membrane-bound ion-channel that is permeable for Na+, Li + and H + , and it is a major regulator of salt and water reabsorption in a number of epithelial tissues. Abnormalities in ENaC function have been directly linked to several human disease states including Liddle's syndrome, psuedohypoaldosteronism, and cystic fibrosis and may

Hongbao Ma; Yan Yang

413

Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

1986-01-01

414

Viscosity properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through viscosity measurements, concentration and temperature dependences of viscosity of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)\\u000a solution were recorded. Effects of glycerin, mechanical shearing and several electrolytes on the CMC solution were also determined.\\u000a Results showed that the viscosity dependence on concentration obeyed the Huggins and Kramer equation, the dependence on temperature\\u000a complied with the Arrhenius equation. CMC chain could synergize with glycerin,

Xiao Hong Yang; Wei Ling Zhu

2007-01-01

415

Plasma 11-Hydroxycorticoid Levels after Carbenoxolone Sodium  

PubMed Central

A definite rise in plasma 11-hydroxycorticoid levels has been shown in eight patients with duodenal ulcer following the oral administration of carbenoxolone sodium. A similar rise was seen in one patient with sarcoidosis whose pituitary A.C.T.H. secretion had been acutely suppressed with dexamethasone. No such rise, however, was seen in three patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency. It is suggested that carbenoxolone acts directly on the adrenal cortex, causing an increased production of corticosteroids.

Mattingly, D.; Tyler, Christine; Bilton, Elaine

1970-01-01

416

Background Sodium Current Underlying Respiratory Rhythm Regularity  

PubMed Central

Rhythm generating neural circuits underlying diverse behaviors such as locomotion, sleep states, digestion and respiration play critical roles in our lives. Irregularities in these rhythmic behaviors characterize disease states - thus, it is essential that we identify ionic and/or cellular mechanisms that are necessary for triggering these rhythmic behaviors on a regular basis. Here, we examine which ionic conductances underlie regular or “stable” respiratory activities, proposed to underlie eupnea, or normal quiet breathing. We used a mouse in vitro medullary slice preparation containing the rhythmogenic respiratory neural circuit, called the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) that underlies inspiratory respiratory activity. We varied either [K+]o, [Na+]o, or blocked voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) while recording from synaptically isolated respiratory pacemakers and examined which of these manipulations resulted in their endogenous bursting to become more irregular. Of these, lowering [Na+]o increased the irregularity of endogenous bursting by synaptically isolated pacemakers. Lowering [Na+]o also decreased the regularity of fictive eupneic activity generated by the ventral respiratory group (VRG) population and hypoglossal motor output. Voltage clamp data indicate that lowering [Na+]o, in a range that results in irregular population rhythm generation, decreased persistent sodium currents, but not transient sodium currents underlying action potentials. Our data suggest that background sodium currents play a major role in determining the regularity of the fictive eupneic respiratory rhythm.

Chevalier, Marc; Mabrouk, Faiza Ben; Tryba, Andrew Kieran

2009-01-01

417

Equation of state for pure sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

An equation of state for pure sodium chloride has been developed on the basis of experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model (RPM). The experimental data base included limited vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data as well as dimerization equilibrium constants. The liquid densities have been extrapolated to the supercooled region using liquid-phase Monte Carlo data. For this purpose, the parameters of the primitive model have been calculated by assuming that sodium chloride and RPM obey the corresponding states principle over a limited range of conditions. In the near-critical region Monte Carlo data as well as results of cluster calculations have been used with parameters scaled to reproduce the critical temperature obtained by extrapolating saturation data. The RPM parameters employed in the calculations are close to those for crystalline NaCl. The experimental and scaled Monte Carlo data have been reproduced within their accuracy using a van der Waals-type equation of state with two temperature-dependent parameters a and b. The functions representing the temperature dependence of the parameters have been designed to ensure reliable extrapolation to lower and higher temperatures. Dimerization of sodium chloride has been allowed for by using a closed-form term representing the effect of association on the compressibility factor. The performance of the equation has been additionally verified by predicting compressibility factors at low reduced temperatures outside the saturation region and comparing them with scaled Monte Carlo data. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Anderko, A; Pitzer, K S

1991-06-01

418

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

419

Sodium Benzoate for Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious but usually reversible neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis, inborn errors of metabolism involving disorders of the urea cycle, and noncirrhotic portosystemic shunting that most commonly arises from a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting procedure. Symptoms can include alterations in cognitive function, neuromuscular activity, and consciousness, as well as sleep disorders and mood changes. HE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and, if not properly treated, will lead to increased hospital admissions and healthcare costs. Although the standard therapies of lactulose and rifaximin (Xifaxan, Salix) are effective for most patients, these drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects and expense and, in some patients, inadequate therapeutic response. A need for adjunctive therapies exists. Drugs that target serum and tissue ammonia metabolism and elimination may be important adjuncts to drugs that reduce ammonia production and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract for patients with severe or persistent overt symptoms of HE. Sodium benzoate is an inexpensive adjunctive agent that can be used in addition to lactulose and rifaximin and may provide an option for some select patients with refractory HE who have failed to respond to standard therapies or who cannot afford them. Although sodium benzoate does not share the same adverse effect profiles of standard therapies for HE, its efficacy has not been well established. Given the significant dose-dependent sodium content of this therapy, it may not be appropriate for patients with significant fluid retention or kidney dysfunction.

Misel, Michael L.; Patton, Heather; Mendler, Michel

2013-01-01

420

Sodium benzoate for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious but usually reversible neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis, inborn errors of metabolism involving disorders of the urea cycle, and noncirrhotic portosystemic shunting that most commonly arises from a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting procedure. Symptoms can include alterations in cognitive function, neuromuscular activity, and consciousness, as well as sleep disorders and mood changes. HE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and, if not properly treated, will lead to increased hospital admissions and healthcare costs. Although the standard therapies of lactulose and rifaximin (Xifaxan, Salix) are effective for most patients, these drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects and expense and, in some patients, inadequate therapeutic response. A need for adjunctive therapies exists. Drugs that target serum and tissue ammonia metabolism and elimination may be important adjuncts to drugs that reduce ammonia production and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract for patients with severe or persistent overt symptoms of HE. Sodium benzoate is an inexpensive adjunctive agent that can be used in addition to lactulose and rifaximin and may provide an option for some select patients with refractory HE who have failed to respond to standard therapies or who cannot afford them. Although sodium benzoate does not share the same adverse effect profiles of standard therapies for HE, its efficacy has not been well established. Given the significant dose-dependent sodium content of this therapy, it may not be appropriate for patients with significant fluid retention or kidney dysfunction. PMID:24711766

Misel, Michael L; Gish, Robert G; Patton, Heather; Mendler, Michel

2013-04-01

421

Isomorphous oxidation of sodium titanium dioxide bronze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium titanium dioxide bronze is oxidized into a white and nonstoichiometric compound isostructural with itself by being heated upto about 890 K in air. The oxidation means that dioxide bronze converts into a sodium titanate with only a tetravelent state for the Ti ion, retaining the Na xTiO 2-type structure. The conversion is accompanied by a shrinkage in unit cell volume and a decrease in density. Vegard's law is clearly applicable to the lattice parameters of the oxidized form as well as the dioxide bronze, and the extrapolation of the composition dependency curves of the oxidized form gives the lattice parameters of the new TiO 2 polymorph (R. Marchand, L. Brohan, and M. Tournoux, Mater. Res. Bull.15, 1129 (1980)). The oxygen uptake also shows a composition dependency proportional to sodium content, and the observed amounts are about 16% less than the theoretical values or a half of Na or Ti 3+ content in the ideal chemical formula of Na xTi 3+xTi 4+8- xO 16. This difference will be discussed on the basis of the estimated chemical formulae of these two phases.

Watanabe, Mamoru; Fujiki, Yoshinori

1986-03-01

422

Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Many of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S

2014-07-01

423

Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Hypertension, and Renal Sodium Transport  

PubMed Central

Sodium transport through various nephron segments is quite important in regulating sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. Among several regulators of this process, insulin acts on almost all the nephron segments and is a strong enhancer of sodium reabsorption. Sodium-proton exchanger type 3 (NHE3) is a main regulator of sodium reabsorption in the luminal side of proximal tubule. In the basolateral side of the proximal tubule, sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) mediates sodium and bicarbonate exit from tubular cells. In the distal nephron and the connecting tubule, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of great importance to sodium reabsorption. NHE3, NBCe1, and ENaC are all regulated by insulin. Recently with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, responsible for familial hypertension, stimulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, have been found to be also regulated by insulin. We will discuss the regulation of renal sodium transport by insulin and its roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in insulin resistance.

Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Yamada, Hideomi; Suzuki, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

2011-01-01

424

The various faces of autoimmune endocrinopathies: non-tumoral hypergastrinemia in a patient with lymphocytic colitis and chronic autoimmune gastritis.  

PubMed

Serum gastrin levels exceeding 1000pg/ml (normal, <100) usually raise the suspicion for a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that secretes gastrin. Rarely, such elevated gastrin levels are seen in patients with pernicious anemia which most commonly is associated with autoimmune gastritis (AG). AG can occur concomitantly with other autoimmune disorders including lymphocytic colitis (LC). Gastrin stimulates enterochromaffin-like cells which increase histamine secretion. Histamine excess can cause diarrhea as can bacterial overgrowth or LC. We present a 57-year-old woman with diarrhea, sporadic epigastric pain, and bloating. She also had a history of interstitial cystitis and took pentosan polysulfate and cetirizine. She had no history of ulcers, renal impairment or carcinoid syndrome. Fasting serum gastrin was 1846pg/ml. Esophagoduodenal gastroscopy and biopsies revealed chronic gastritis and a pH of 7 with low stomach acid. Serum gastrin and plasma chromogranin A were suggestive of a gastrinoma or NET. Pernicious anemia was unlikely. Imaging studies did not reveal any tumor. Random colonic biopsy was compatible with LC, possibly explaining her diarrhea, although we also considered excessive histamine from elevated gastrin, bacterial overgrowth, and pentosan polysulfate which can cause diarrhea and be misleading in this setting, pointing to the diagnosis of gastrinoma. At 4year follow-up in 2012, fasting serum gastrin was 1097pg/ml and the patient asymptomatic taking only cetirizine for nasal allergies. This case illustrates that diarrhea may be associated with very high serum gastrin levels in the setting of chronic gastritis, LC, and interstitial cystitis (pentosan use), without clear evidence for a gastrinoma or NET. If no history of ulcers or liver metastases is present in such cases, watchful observation rather than an extensive/invasive and costly search for a NET may be justified. Considering the various forms of polyglandular syndrome, this may represent a variant and we here provide an algorithm for working up such patients, while also reviewing literature on the intertwined relationship between the immune and endocrine systems. PMID:23043903

Melcescu, Eugen; Hogan, Reed B; Brown, Keith; Boyd, Stewart A; Abell, Thomas L; Koch, Christian A

2012-12-01

425

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

426

Sodium-reduction strategies for meals prepared for older adults.  

PubMed

This article describes lessons learned from implementing sodium-reduction strategies in programs that provide meals to older adults in 2 New York counties, with one county replicating the approaches of the other. The implemented sodium-reduction strategies were product substitutions, recipe modifications, and cooking from scratch. Both counties were able to achieve modest sodium reductions in prepared meals. Lessons learned to implement sodium reduction strategies include the following: (1) identifying partners with shared experience and common goals; (2) engaging experts; (3) understanding the complexity of the meals system for older adults; (4) conducting sodium nutrient analysis; (5) making gradual and voluntary reductions to sodium content; and (6) working toward sustainable sodium reduction. PMID:24322812

Losby, Jan L; Patel, Deesha; Schuldt, June; Hunt, Glynnis S; Stracuzzi, Jeanne C; Johnston, Yvonne

2014-01-01

427

Dietary sodium restriction: take it with a grain of salt.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association recently strongly recommended a dietary sodium intake of <1500 mg/d for all Americans to achieve "Ideal Cardiovascular Health" by 2020. However, low sodium diets have not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in normotensive individuals or in individuals with pre-hypertension or hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that a low sodium diet may lead to a worse cardiovascular prognosis in patients with cardiometabolic risk and established cardiovascular disease. Low sodium diets may adversely affect insulin resistance, serum lipids, and neurohormonal pathways, leading to increases in the incidence of new cardiometabolic disease, the severity of existing cardiometabolic disease, and greater cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Although a high sodium intake also may be deleterious, there is good reason to believe that sodium intake is regulated within such a tight physiologic range that there is little risk to leaving sodium intake to inherent biology as opposed to likely futile attempts at conscious control. PMID:24054177

DiNicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; Sadaf, Rizwana; O' Keefe, James H; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

2013-11-01

428

Sodium-23 NMR of intact bovine lens and vitreous humor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium-23 nuclear magnetic resonance was used to investigate the chemical functionality of sodium ion in the intact, crystalline bovine lens and vitreous humor, as compared to physiologic saline. The NMR parameters of chemical shift and T1 and T2 relaxation are consistent with the interpretation that the chemical functionality of sodium ion in bovine vitreous humor is identical with that of sodium ion in physiologic salt solution. Identical studies on intact bovine lens demonstrated that some fraction of the sodium ion in the lens is relatively immobilized. The calculated sodium ion interaction lifetime in the crystalline bovine lens is 3 × 10 -9 s, which is qualitatively similar to interactions described between sodium ion and the proteins troponin C and calmodulin.

Pettegrew, Jay W.; Glonek, Thomas; Minshew, Nancy J.; Woessner, Donald E.

429

Sweat Rates, Sweat Sodium Concentrations, and Sodium Losses in 3 Groups of Professional Football Players  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Sweat sodium losses have never been reported in a large cohort of American football players. Objective: To compare sweat rates (SwtRs), sweat sodium concentrations (SwtNa+), and sodium losses in 3 groups of players (backs and receivers [BK], linebackers and quarterbacks [LB/QB], and linemen [LM]) to determine if positional differences and, therefore, size differences exist. Design: Observational study. Setting: Data were collected during practices in the second week of 2 consecutive training camps. The wet bulb globe temperature was 78.5°F ± 3.5°F (25.9°C ± 1.9°C). Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen BK, 12 LB/QB, and 14 LM volunteered. Intervention(s): Sterile sweat patches were applied to the right forearm after the skin was appropriately cleaned. The patches were removed during practice, placed in sterile tubes, centrifuged, frozen, and later analyzed by flame photometry. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sweat rate, SwtNa+, and sodium loss. We calculated SwtR by change in mass adjusted for urine produced and fluids consumed divided by practice time in hours. Results: Other than age, physical characteristics were different among groups (P < .001). The SwtR was different among groups (F2,41 ?=? 7.3, P ?=? .002). It was lower in BK (1.42 ± 0.45 L/h) than in LB/QB (1.98 ± 0.49 L/h) (P < .05) and LM (2.16 ± 0.75 L/h) (P < .01), but we found no differences between SwtRs for LB/QB and LM. The SwtNa+ was not different among groups (BK ?=? 50 ± 16 mEq/L, LB/QB ?=? 48.2 ± 23 mEq/L, and LM ?=? 52.8 ± 25 mEq/L) and ranged from 15 to 99 mEq/L. Sweat sodium losses ranged from 642 mg/h to 6.7 g/h, and findings for group comparisons approached significance (P ?=? .06). On days when players practiced 4.5 hours, calculated sodium losses ranged from 2.3 to 30 g/d. Conclusions: The BK sweated at lower rates than did the midsized LB/QB and large LM, but LB/QB sweated similarly to LM. Sweat sodium concentration and daily sodium losses ranged considerably. Heavy, salty sweaters require increased dietary consumption of sodium during preseason.

Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Peduzzi, Chris; Burkholder, Richard; Condon, Steve; Dorshimer, Gary; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.

2010-01-01

430

Spot urinary sodium for assessing dietary sodium restriction in cirrhotic ascites  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of spot urinary Na/K and Na/creatinine (Cr) ratios as an alternative to 24-h urinary sodium in monitoring dietary compliance in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretics. METHODS: The study was carried on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretic therapy. Patients were divided into two groups according to 24-h urinary sodium. We measured spot urine Na/K ratio, Na/Cr ratio and 24-h urinary sodium. Student’s t test was used to compare the interval variables and ?2 test to compare the nominal variables between the two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for Na/K and Na/Cr ratio. RESULTS: The best cutoff point for Na/K ratio was 2.5 (P < 0.001) and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9, and for Na/Cr ratio, the best cutoff point was 35 (P < 0.001) and AUC was 0.885. Na/K ratio showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared to Na/Cr ratio (87.5% and 87% for Na/K ratio; 81% and 85% for Na/Cr ratio, respectively). CONCLUSION: Spot urine Na/K ratio has adequate accuracy for assessment of dietary sodium restriction compared with 24-h urinary sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

El-Bokl, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; El-Karmouty, Khaled Zakaria; Mohammed, Inas El-Khedr; Mohammed, Sherif Monier; Shabana, Sherif Sadek; Shalaby, Hassan

2009-01-01

431

Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals  

PubMed Central

Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

2010-01-01

432

Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a sporadic sodium layer (SSL), in particular its fine structure, observed at 92-98 km between 20:00 and 23:30 UT (21:00-24:30 LT) on 11 January 2011 using a sodium lidar, which was installed in the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) radar site at Tromsø, Norway (69.6°N, 19.2°E) in early 2010. The sodium lidar measurement with 5-sec time-resolution reveals the details of dramatic sodium-density increase as well as short-period wavelike structure in the SSL. The rate of increase of height-integrated sodium density at the beginning of the SSL event was 6.4-9.6 × 1010 m-2 s-1. Dominant oscillation periods in the wavelike structures were 7-11 min at 95-98 km and 3 min at 92-95 km. The calculated power spectral densities are well represented by power laws, implying the presence of the short-period waves and turbulence in the frequency range of 10-4-10-1 Hz.

Tsuda, T. T.; Nozawa, S.; Kawahara, T. D.; Kawabata, T.; Saito, N.; Wada, S.; Hall, C. M.; Oyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Ogawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Fujii, R.; Matuura, N.; Brekke, A.

2011-09-01

433

Consumer awareness and interest toward sodium reduction trends in Korea.  

PubMed

Reduction of dietary sodium intake by lowering amount of sodium in foods is a global industry target. Quantitative information on current consumer knowledge of sodium reduction trends in Korea is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the consumer knowledge and awareness of sodium and salt reduction in foods and to characterize consumer interest in health labeling on the food package. Additionally, comparison of consumer knowledge status between Korea and United States was followed. Consumers (n = 289) participated in an internet survey designed to gauge consumer knowledge and attitudes toward dietary sodium, the sodium content in representative food products (n = 27), and their interest toward specific health claims, including sodium labeling. Questions regarding demographics as well as consumption characteristics were asked. Sodium knowledge index and saltiness belief index were calculated based on the number of correct responses regarding the salt level and sodium content in given food products. Kano analysis was conducted to determine the role of nutrition labels in consumer satisfaction with products. Current consumer knowledge on the sodium content in food products was high, and consumers were adept at matching the sodium content with the salty taste intensity of food products. Consumers' knowledge of the relationship between diets high in sodium and an increased risk of developing previously reported sodium-related diseases, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, kidney disease, and stomach cancer, were also high. Information on the nutrition panel that influences the consumer satisfaction (trans-fat, sodium, ingredient list, and country of origin) as well as adjective-nutrition claim pairs that appeal positively to purchase intent of the product were identified. PMID:24975166

Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

2014-07-01

434

Uptake of sodium in quince, sugar beet, and wheat protoplasts determined by the fluorescent sodium-binding dye benzofuran isophthalate.  

PubMed

The uptake of sodium into protoplasts of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill, clone BA29), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monohill), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kadett) was determined by use of the acetoxy methyl ester of the fluorescent sodium-binding benzofuran isopthalate (SBFI-AM). In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, little sodium was taken up in the cytosol of quince mesophyll cells compared to cytosols of sugar beet and wheat. Upon addition of 40 mM NaCl, approximately the same amount of sodium was taken up in leaf and root protoplasts of wheat, but no sodium was taken up in quince. However, in calcium-free medium, obtained by addition of ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (EGTA), quince protoplasts transiently took up sodium in the cytosol when 200-400 mM NaCl was added to the protoplast medium. Moreover, after cultivation of quince in the presence of 200 mM sodium for 4 weeks, the cytosol of isolated protoplasts did not take up any sodium at all from a calcium-free medium. The results show that protoplasts from salt tolerant quince only temporarily take up sodium in the cytosol and that they have a mechanism for fast extrusion of sodium from that compartment. These mechanisms are probably important for the high salt tolerance of quince. Calcium blocks the sodium uptake into the cytosol of both quince and wheat protoplasts. PMID:15900884

D'Onofrio, Claudio; Kader, Abdul; Lindberg, Sylvia

2005-04-01

435

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst.  

PubMed

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

436

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst  

PubMed Central

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

437

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09

438

Colon-specific deletion of epithelial sodium channel causes sodium loss and aldosterone resistance.  

PubMed

Aldosterone promotes electrogenic sodium reabsorption through the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Here, we investigated the importance of ENaC and its positive regulator channel-activating protease 1 (CAP1/Prss8) in colon. Mice lacking the ?ENaC subunit in colonic superficial cells (Scnn1a(KO)) were viable, without fetal or perinatal lethality. Control mice fed a regular or low-salt diet had a significantly higher amiloride-sensitive rectal potential difference (?PDamil) than control mice fed a high-salt diet. In Scnn1a(KO) mice, however, this salt restriction-induced increase in ?PDamil did not occur, and the circadian rhythm of ?PDamil was blunted. Plasma and urinary sodium and potassium did not change with regular or high-salt diets or potassium loading in control or Scnn1a(KO) mice. However, Scnn1a(KO) mice fed a low-salt diet lost significant amounts of sodium in their feces and exhibited high plasma aldosterone and increased urinary sodium retention. Mice lacking the CAP1/Prss8 in colonic superficial cells (Prss8(KO)) were viable, without fetal or perinatal lethality. Compared with controls, Prss8(KO) mice fed regular or low-salt diets exhibited significantly reduced ?PDamil in the afternoon, but the circadian rhythm was maintained. Prss8(KO) mice fed a low-salt diet also exhibited sodium loss through feces and higher plasma aldosterone levels. Thus, we identified CAP1/Prss8 as an in vivo regulator of ENaC in colon. We conclude that, under salt restriction, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the kidney compensated for the absence of ENaC in colonic surface epithelium, leading to colon-specific pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with mineralocorticoid resistance without evidence of impaired potassium balance. PMID:24480829

Malsure, Sumedha; Wang, Qing; Charles, Roch-Philippe; Sergi, Chloe; Perrier, Romain; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Maillard, Marc; Rossier, Bernard C; Hummler, Edith

2014-07-01

439

Effect of sodium ascorbate on resin bonding to sodium perborate-bleached dentin.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This was an in vitro study to evaluate the effect of sodium ascorbate on the microshear bond strength (MSBS) of resin composite to sodium perborate-bleached dentin. Molar dentin sections were divided into six groups: 1) control, 2) sodium perborate (SP) bleach and immediate bonding, 3) SP and 30 second sodium ascorbate (SA); 4) SP and 1 minute SA; 5) SP and 2 minute SA; and 6) SP and 7 day delay before bonding. They were further divided into two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond) or all-in-one self-etching (Xeno IV) adhesive systems. Resin composite microtubes were bonded according to dentin location-center, pulp horn, and peripheral positions-and an MSBS test was carried out. Failure mode was determined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. There were no significant differences between the treatment types/groups. MSBSs were significantly higher for two-step self-etching adhesive compared with all-in-one self-etching adhesive (p=0.028). For the all-in-one adhesive, MSBSs at the center and pulp horn positions were significantly lower than the peripheral positions (p<0.001). All-in-one groups had significantly more adhesive failures than two-step adhesive groups (p=0.015). The odds of adhesive failure were higher at the pulp horn position than the peripheral position (p=0.004). Sodium perborate bleaching of dentin had no effect on MSBS or mode of failure for either two-step or all-in-one self-etching adhesives; therefore, the effect of sodium ascorbate was negligible. The two-step adhesive groups demonstrated the highest MSBS, and the all-in-one groups, when bonded to center and pulp horn dentin, exhibited the lowest MSBS. PMID:23713808

Yoon, M; Burrow, M F; Wong, R; Parashos, P

2014-01-01

440

Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps  

SciTech Connect

Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

Karabourniotis, D. [Department of Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Drakakis, E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-08-09

441

Sodium movements in perfused squid giant axons. Passive fluxes.  

PubMed

Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm(2)sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm(2)sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 +/- 3 pmoles/cm(2)sec and 41 +/- 10 pmoles/cm(2)sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm(2)impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium. PMID:5672003

Rojas, E; Canessa-Fischer, M

1968-08-01

442

Microbial aspects of accelerated degradation of metam sodium in soil.  

PubMed

Preplant soil fumigation with metam sodium is used worldwide to control soilborne diseases. The development of accelerated degradation of pesticides in soil, including metam sodium, results in reduced pesticide efficacy. Therefore, we studied microbial involvement in accelerated degradation of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) following repeated soil applications of the parent compound, metam sodium. MITC degradation was reduced in soil with a history of metam sodium applications following sterilization, indicating the key role of microorganisms in accelerated degradation. Accelerated degradation of MITC was induced by inoculation of soil with no previous application of metam sodium with soil with a history of metam sodium applications. We developed a method to extract the active microbial fraction responsible for MITC degradation from soil with a history of metam sodium applications. This concentrated soil extract induced accelerated degradation of MITC when added to two different soils with no previous application of metam sodium. An extensive shift in total bacterial community composition in concentrated soil extracts occurred after a single metam sodium application. Two Oxalobacteraceae strains, MDB3 and MDB10, isolated from Rehovot soil following triple application of metam sodium rapidly degraded MITC in soil with no previous application of metam sodium. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial community composition showed relative enrichment of MDB3 following metam sodium application, suggesting its potential in situ involvement in accelerated degradation development in Rehovot soil. Responses of resident Oxalobacteraceae community members to metam sodium applications differed between Rehovot and En Tamar soils. Isolate MDB10 did not induce accelerated degradation of MITC in En Tamar soil and, with the slow dissipation of MITC, soil suppressiveness of accelerated degradation is suggested. The isolation and identification of MITC-degrading bacteria might be helpful in developing tools for managing accelerated degradation. PMID:20205540

Triky-Dotan, Shachaf; Ofek, Maya; Austerweil, Miriam; Steiner, Bracha; Minz, Dror; Katan, Jaacov; Gamliel, Abraham

2010-04-01

443

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01

444

Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

2010-04-01

445

Seasonal variations in mesospheric sodium tidal activity  

SciTech Connect

Diurnal and nocturnal laser radar measurements of mesospheric sodium density at San Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23{degree}S, 46{degree}W), show strong oscillations with 12 and 24 hour periods. Data obtained in 1981 showed that atmospheric tides, mainly the vertical wind field, are the major causes of the density variations at a fixed height, thus making it possible to infer vertical wind parameters over a limited height range. In this work, 1984 and 1985 data are added to the earlier 1981 data and the 12- and 24-hour components are determined for different seasons in order to study the seasonal variations of the tides. It is shown that the amplitudes of the oscillations in sodium density and consequently the vertical wind amplitudes, in general, are larger in winter than other seasons. Above 97 km, the semidiurnal amplitude is larger than the diurnal in winter, of the same order of magnitude at the equinoxes and smaller in summer. The phases of the inferred semidiurnal vertical wind component, above 97 km, show regular propagating characteristics with little differences between winter and equinoxes, but a confused pattern in summer. Below 93 km the wavelengths decrease from winter to summer. In all seasons, the phase of the inferred diurnal vertical wind component stays at around 19-23 h below 85 km and above 93 km. The behavior of the phase of the diurnal oscillation in sodium density between 85 and 90 km is quite different in the three seasons. This is explained by seasonal differences in the relative phases of the oscillations in vertical wind and density.

Batista, P.P.; Clemesha, B.R.; Simonich, D.M. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil))

1990-05-20

446

Reducing Sodium Contamination in MOS Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of removing positive ions from oxides in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors and intergrated circuits ensure freedom from contamination by sodium and other mobile positive ions. Electric field applied during oxide growth to push mobile Na + ions to surface. After cooling from growth temperature, field turned off and Na + contaminated surface layer etched away. New method intended to suplement established methods of minimizing ion contamination, such as scrupulous cleanliness in processing, purging with hydrogen chloride to react with and remove contaminants, and growing extra-thick gate oxide, then etching it to remove large portion of contaminants concentrated near surface.

Dehaye, R. F.; Feltner, W. R.

1986-01-01

447

Psoriasiform Drug Eruption Associated with Sodium Valproate  

PubMed Central

As psoriasis is a common skin disorder, knowledge of the factors that may induce, trigger, or exacerbate the disease is of primary importance in clinical practice. Drug intake is a major concern in this respect, as new drugs are constantly being added to the list of factors that may influence the course of the disease. We report a patient with a psoriasiform drug eruption associated with the use of sodium valproate. Physicians should be aware of this type of reaction. Early detection of these cases has practical importance since the identification and elimination of the causative drug are essential for therapy success.

Gul Mert, Gulen; Incecik, Faruk; Gunasti, Suhan; Herguner, Ozlem; Altunbasak, Sakir

2013-01-01

448

Study of soliton interactions in sodium vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision properties of optical solitons are studied experimentally using the technique of self-induced transparency. Numerical plane-wave simulations of collisions using parameters for the input pulses and the atomic system appropriate to the actual experimental situation are presented and compared to matching analytic solutions derived previously by other workers. Experimental studies of overtaking collisions in sodium vapor are presented for the first time and found to be in qualitative agreement with numerical results at intermediate optical absorption. At higher absorption, dynamic transverse effects cause a rapid attenuation of the pulses which prevents the observation of complete collisions. Attempts to compensate for losses by focusing the input beam are described.

Dolfi, D. W.; Hahn, E. L.

1980-04-01

449

Experimental operation of a sodium heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the operation of a 28 in. long sodium heat pipe in the Heat Pipe Test Facility (HPTF) installed at Argonne National Laboratory. Experimental data were collected to simulate conditions prototypic of both a fluidized bed coal combustor application and a space environment application. Both sets of experiment data show good agreement with the heat pipe analytical model. The heat transfer performance of the heat pipe proved reliable over a substantial period of operation and over much thermal cycling. Additional testing of longer heat pipes under controlled laboratory conditions will be necessary to determine performance limitations and to complete the design code validation. 2 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

1985-05-01

450

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-01-01

451

Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels. PMID:15769164

Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

2005-03-23

452

Persistent Sodium Current and Its Role in Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Sodium currents are essential for the initiation and propagation of neuronal firing. Alterations of sodium currents can lead to abnormal neuronal activity, such as occurs in epilepsy. The transient voltage-gated sodium current mediates the upstroke of the action potential. A small fraction of sodium current, termed the persistent sodium current (INaP), fails to inactivate significantly, even with prolonged depolarization. INaP is activated in the subthreshold voltage range and is capable of amplifying a neuron's response to synaptic input and enhancing its repetitive firing capability. A burgeoning literature is documenting mutations in sodium channels that underlie human disease, including epilepsy. Some of these mutations lead to altered neuronal excitability by increasing INaP. This review focuses on the pathophysiological effects of INaP in epilepsy.

Stafstrom, Carl E

2007-01-01

453

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

SciTech Connect

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

454

Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors.

Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, Francois

2012-01-01

455

Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels are Functionally Coupled to Persistent Sodium Currents  

PubMed Central

We report a novel coupled system of sodium-activated potassium currents (IKNa) and persistent sodium currents (INaP), the components of which are widely distributed throughout the brain. Its existence and importance has not been previously recognized. Although IKNa was known to exist in many cell types, the source of Na+ which activates IKNa remained a mystery. We now show in single membrane patches generated from the somas of rat neurons that sodium influx through INaP is sufficient for activation of KNa channels, without substantial contribution from the transient sodium current or bulk [Na+]i. INaP was found to be active at cell membrane resting potentials, a finding that may explain why IKNa can be evoked from negative holding potentials. These results show an unanticipated role for INaP in activating a negative feedback system countering the excitable effects INaP; the interrelatedness of INaP and IKNa suggests new ways neurons can tune their excitability.

Hage, Travis A.; Salkoff, Lawrence

2012-01-01

456

Sodium-23 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of commercial sodium naproxen and its solvates.  

PubMed

We report on the investigation of sodium coordination environments with solid-state ²³Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of various hydrates and solvates of sodium naproxen (SN), a commercially available anti-inflammatory drug sold over the counter as Aleve®, among other names. The ²³Na quadrupolar coupling constant is found to change significantly depending on the hydration state, and subtle changes in oxygen coordination environment about the sodium cations were apparent in the NMR spectra. High-resolution double-rotation NMR experiments are also performed on powdered samples to obtain solution-like ²³Na NMR spectra. Our attempts at crystallizing various solvates of SN have led to the characterization of the first crystal structure for the heminonahydrated form. The composition of commercial SN is also investigated and it is shown that Aleve® is composed of approximately 80% monohydrate solvate. Density-functional theory calculations, using the gauge-including projector-augmented-wave formalism, allow for the assignment of ²³Na NMR peaks to specific sodium sites in the reported X-ray crystal structure. PMID:22619061

Burgess, Kevin M N; Perras, Frédéric A; Lebrun, Aurore; Messner-Henning, Elisabeth; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L

2012-08-01

457

Influence of sodium sulphite on corrosion inhibition by the sodium gluconate –Zn2+ system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency of sodium gluconate (SG) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in the environment containing 60 ppm Cl– has been evaluated in the presence and absence of Zn2+ by weight loss method. SG and Zn2+ show a synergistic effect. The protective film has been analysed by FTIR and fluorescence spectra. The protective film consists of Fe2+-gluconate complex

A. John Amalraj; M. Sundaravadivelu; A. Peter Pascal Regis; S. Rajendran

2001-01-01

458

Sodium transport and mechanism(s) of sodium tolerance in Frankia strains.  

PubMed

The mechanism(s) underlying differential salt sensitivity/tolerance were investigated in the terms of altered morphological and physiological responses against salinity such as growth, electrolyte leakage, Na? uptake, efflux, accumulation and intracellular concentrations of macronutrients among the Frankia strains newly isolated from Hippöphae salicifolia D. Don. Growth was minimally reduced at 500 and 250?mM NaCl respectively in HsIi10 and rest of the strains (HsIi2, HsIi8, HsIi9) which proved that 500 and 250?mM NaCl are the critical concentrations for the respective strains. The differences in the sodium influx/efflux rate was responsible for the differential amount of remaining sodium among the frankial strains and might be one of the primary determinants for the reestablishment of macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) during salinity. Secondly, the interactive effect of sodium influx/efflux rate, remaining sodium and intracellular macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) concentration has been responsible for the extent of membrane damage and growth sustenance of the tolerant/sensitive frankial strains during salinity. HsIi10 showed better co-regulation of various factors and managed to tolerate salt stress up to considerable extent. Therefore, HsIi10 can serve as a potential biofertilizer in the saline soil. PMID:22733696

Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Satya Shila; Mishra, Arun Kumar

2013-02-01

459

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH)] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from

J. G. Reynolds; J. K. Bernards

2006-01-01

460

Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of internal perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the epoxidation of the mixture of cis and trans isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite. Epoxidation was realized with an alkaline aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile. The epoxidation of the geometric isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes by sodium hypochlorite is stereospecific. The /sup 19/F NMR spectra of the cis and trans isomers of internal perfluoroolefin oxides were obtained, and the relationships are discussed.

Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Kolenko, I.P.

1988-07-20

461

Acoustic measurement of penetration of liquid sodium into limestone concrete  

SciTech Connect

An acoustic, pulse-echo technique has been used as part of the large-scale, sodium/concrete interaction tests being conducted at Sandia Laboratories to measure the penetration of a large pool (up to 186 kg) of liquid sodium (initial temperature as high as 600/degree/C) into a limestone concrete crucible. This paper reports the acoustic results from four test, sodium/concrete interaction test program being conducted at Sandia Laboratories. 11 refs.

Sutherland, H.J.; Smaardyk, J.E.; Kent, L.A.

1980-06-01

462

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio-LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970-Campinas, SP, Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

463

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

2010-08-01

464

Sodium aluminate as catalyst for transesterification of waste mutton fat.  

PubMed

Sodium aluminate and its calcinied forms have been evaluated as basic catalysts for the transesterification of waste mutton fat with methanol. The decrease in catalytic activity has been observed with calcinied sodium alumiate. Fat and methanol in 1:29 molar ratio with 1.5 wt.% of sodium aluminate under reflux resulted in 97 % conversion to biodiesel in 1h 20 min. The reaction showed tolerance of additional moisture content of 1 wt.%. PMID:23138256

Mutreja, Vishal; Singh, Satnam; Ali, Amjad

2012-01-01

465

Sodium homeostasis in dogs with chronic renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Volume homeostasis in the fasting rate and 24-hr sodium balance are maintained in chronic renal insufficiency as a result of adaptations in the residual nephrons. This study evaluates the limitations to these adaptations and the dynamics of sodium excretion (UNaV) after an acute challenge with 100 mEq of sodium chloride in normal dogs (GFR 50 ml/min) and in dogs with one remnant kidney and moderate chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 15 ml/min). When food was administered with the sodium challenge, no or minimal changes in serum protein and hematocrit values occurred, and the natriuretic responses were small and equivalent in normal and remnant dogs. On the other hand, when the sodium challenge was given without food, the natriuretic response was large in normal dogs and markedly blunted in remnant. Within 5 hr of the sodium challenge, the various groups of normal dogs excreted 40 to 63% of the sodium load, but the remnant animals eliminated only 12 to 22% (P less than 0.001). The blunted natriuresis in remnant dogs was associated with a prolonged hemodilution of circulating proteins, indicating a longer lasting expansion of the intravascular volume. The blunted response was independent of sodium diet, of the administration route (p.o. vs. i.v.) or strength (isotonic vs. hypertonic) of the sodium load, and appears to result from an inability of the remnant kidney to rapidly excrete a sodium load. Thus, administration of sodium to dogs with chronic renal insufficiency leads to prolonged sodium retention, prolonged extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion, and requires a prolonged excretory cycle to restore 24-hr balance. PMID:7132051

Bourgoignie, J J; Kaplan, M; Gavellas, G; Jaffe, D

1982-06-01

466

Research agenda to support sodium reduction in Canada.  

PubMed

The Sodium Reduction Strategy for Canada includes an identification of priority areas for future research, based on a workshop convened by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and partners. A strong portfolio of research is essential to addressing current developments and controversies raised in relation to the health outcomes associated with dietary sodium. CIHR aims to provide leadership in working together with other funders and partners to catalyze a broad range of sodium research. PMID:24552384

Sherman, Philip M; Makarchuk, Mary-Jo; Belanger, Paul

2014-03-01

467

Energetics of Sodium Transport in Frog Skin  

PubMed Central

Sodium transport and oxygen consumption were studied simultaneously in the short-circuited frog skin. Sodium transport was evaluated from Io/F, where Io is the short-circuit current measured with standard Ringer's solution bathing each surface and F is the Faraday constant. Oxygen tension was measured polarographically. Under a variety of circumstances the rate of oxygen consumption from the outer solution exceeded that from the inner solution, the ratio being constant (0.57 ± 0.09 SD). Both Io and the associated rate of oxygen consumption Jro declined nonlinearly with time, but the relationship between them was linear, suggesting that the basal oxygen consumption was constant. For each skin numerous experimental points were fitted by the best straight line. The intercept (Jro)Io=0 then gave the basal oxygen consumption, and the slope dNa/dO2 gave an apparent stoichiometric ratio for a given skin. The basal oxygen consumption was about one-half the total oxygen consumption in a representative untreated short-circuited skin. Values of dNa/dO2 in 10 skins varied significantly, ranging from 7.1 to 30.9 (as compared with Zerahn's and Leaf and Renshaw's values of about 18). KCN abolished both Io and Jro. 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) depressed Io while increasing Jro four- to fivefold. Anti-diuretic hormone stimulated and ouabain depressed both Io and Jro; in both cases apparent stoichiometric ratios were preserved.

Vieira, F. L.; Caplan, S. R.; Essig, A.

1972-01-01

468

QUANTIFICATION OF A GASTROINTESTINAL SODIUM CHANNELOPATHY  

PubMed Central

Nav1.5 sodium channels, encoded by SCN5A, have been identified in human gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). A recent study found a novel, rare missense R76C mutation of the sodium channel interacting protein telethonin in a patient with primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The presence of a mutation in a patient with a motility disorder, however, does not automatically imply a cause-effect relationship between the two. Patch clamp experiments on HEK-293 cells previously established that the R76C mutation altered Nav1.5 channel function. Here the process through which these data were quantified to create stationary Markov state models of wild-type and R76C channel function is described. The resulting channel descriptions were included in whole cell ICC and SMC computational models and simulations were performed to assess the cellular effects of the R76C mutation. The simulated ICC slow wave was decreased in duration and the resting membrane potential in the SMC was depolarized. Thus, the R76C mutation was sufficient to alter ICC and SMC cell electrophysiology. However, the cause-effect relationship between R76C and intestinal pseudo-obstruction remains an open question.

Yong Cheng, Poh; Beyder, Arthur; Strege, Peter R.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Buist, Martin L.

2012-01-01

469

SOME MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVE SODIUM TRANSPORT*  

PubMed Central

A method was experimentally tested which allows simultaneous morphological and bioelectrical studies of a tissue that performs active sodium transport, i.e., the isolated, surviving frog skin. In a four cell lucite chamber with four separate electric potential and current circuits, skin specimens for morphological observation (light and electron microscopy) were fixed in situ in well-defined functional states. The rate of active sodium transport through the epithelium of Rana temporaria skin was modified by changing the strength of the electric current passed through the specimens. A marked, reversible swelling of the outermost layer of the stratum granulosum was observed during short circuiting of the skin compared to the homogeneous appearance of the epithelium under open circuit conditions. Doubling the ingoing current led to an additional small increase of the swelling or the appearance of islets of cell necrosis in the same layer. There were signs of a slight shrinkage of the underlying cell layers. The observations are discussed in the light of previous bioelectrical and morphological observations.

Voute, Cornelis L.; Ussing, Hans H.

1968-01-01

470

Microencapsulation of oils using sodium alginate.  

PubMed

The feasibility of encapsulating wheatgerm oil and evening primrose oil using sodium alginate by the emulsification method was explored in this study. It is based on the chemical reaction between the water-soluble sodium alginate and polyvalent cation, calcium, to form the water-insoluble alginate. The factors investigated were the physical appearance of the microspheres, the amount of oil that could be encapsulated, the flow property, size distribution and mean size of the microspheres produced. Encapsulation efficiency and oil content of wheatgerm oil increased with an increase in oil load. The mean size of the microspheres increased sharply at a high oil load of 250% w/w. Photographs of microspheres taken showed that the microspheres were larger, spherical and had more vesicles within, as oil load increased. Encapsulation efficiency of evening primrose oil microspheres was similar to wheatgerm oil microspheres at the respective oil loads of 50, 250 and 350% w/w. The emulsification method developed was successfully applied to wheatgerm oil, a fixed oil, with a maximum encapsulation efficiency of approximately 88%. It was satisfactory for evening primrose oil, which also belongs to the family of fixed oils. PMID:11063422

Chan, L W; Lim, L T; Heng, P W

2000-01-01

471

Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

2013-01-01

472

Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

Not Available

1993-09-01

473

Fireball Observations in Visible and Sodium Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 17th at 1:32am MST, a large Leonid fireball was simultaneously imaged by two experiments, a visible band CCD camera and a 590nm filtered band equi-angle fisheye and telecentric lens assembly. The visible band camera, ROTSE (Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment) is a two by two f/1.9 telephoto lens array with 2k x2k Thompson CCD and is located at 35.87 N, 106.25 W at an altitude of 2115m. One-minute exposures along the radiant were taken of the event for 30 minutes after the initial explosion. The sodium band experiment was located at 35.29 N,106.46 W at an altitude of 1860m. It took ninety second exposures and captured several events throughout the night. Triangulation from two New Mexico sites resulted in an altitude of 83km over Wagon Mound, NM. Two observers present at the ROTSE site saw a green flash and a persistent glow up to seven minutes after the explosion. Cataloging of all sodium trails for comparison with lidar and infrasonic measurements is in progress. The raw data from both experiments and the atmospheric chemistry interpretation of them will be presented.

Fletcher, Sandra

474

Anaphylaxis to Topically Applied Sodium Fusidate  

PubMed Central

Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions.

Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Jihyun

2013-01-01

475