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1

Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:23365668

Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2013-01-01

2

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

3

Comparison of the effect of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan, corticosteroids, and sodium hyaluronate in the potentiation of a subinfective dose of Staphylococcus aureus in the midcarpal joint of horses.  

PubMed

Four groups of 8 horses each had 1 midcarpal joint injected with 33 colony-forming units (CFU) of viable Staphylococcus aureus plus: 1 ml of saline solution (group 1, control), 250 mg of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG, group 2), 100 mg of methylprednisolone acetate (group 3), or 20 mg of sodium hyaulronate (group 4). Horses were euthanatized, and samples were obtained on the basis of clinical signs of septic arthritis that were nonresponsive to phenylbutazone administration. One group-1 horse, all 8 group-2 horses, 3 group-3 horses, and 4 group-4 horses were culture-positive for S aureus and had clinical signs, results of synovial fluid analysis, and histopathologic findings that were consistent with sepsis. The addition of 250 mg of PSGAG increased the development of sepsis significantly (P = 0.001), compared with results in control horses. Differences in the development of sepsis between horses injected with methylprednisolone acetate or sodium hyaluronate and control horses were not significant. PMID:2610426

Gustafson, S B; McIlwraith, C W; Jones, R L

1989-12-01

4

75 FR 53704 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Pentosan Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...treatment or prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia.'' DATES: Only written...method for treating Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BHP) using the oral medication...of scarring and lesions in prostatic tissue. PPS reduces or...

2010-09-01

5

SuFEx-based synthesis of polysulfates.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight polysulfates are readily formed from aromatic bis(silyl ethers) and bis(fluorosulfates) in the presence of a base catalyst. The reaction is fast and proceeds well under neat conditions or in solvents, such as dimethyl formamide or N-methylpyrrolidone, to provide the desired polymers in nearly quantitative yield. These polymers are more resistant to chemical degradation than their polycarbonate analogues and exhibit excellent mechanical, optical, and oxygen-barrier properties. PMID:25100330

Dong, Jiajia; Sharpless, K Barry; Kwisnek, Luke; Oakdale, James S; Fokin, Valery V

2014-09-01

6

Distribution and Digestibility of the Pentosans of Feeds.  

E-print Network

.. . . . . . . .... . Soluble in chlorine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . Residue.................. . .. . .... . 5.311 1.26 0.21 1.75 *And malt. TABLE B.-COEFFICIENTS OF DIGESTIBILITY OF PENTOSANS (HEADDEN). Alfalfa othy Native Corn ghum Salt 1 1 Tim- I Sor..... . . . . . . .... . Soluble in chlorine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . Residue.................. . .. . .... . 5.311 1.26 0.21 1.75 *And malt. TABLE B.-COEFFICIENTS OF DIGESTIBILITY OF PENTOSANS (HEADDEN). Alfalfa othy Native Corn ghum Salt 1 1 Tim- I Sor...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01

7

Anti?nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in broiler diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. To assess their possible anti?nutritive activity wheat pentosans were isolated from a milling by?product and added at graded levels to a sorghum?based broiler chicken diet.2. A water?insoluble pentosan preparation (WIP, 720 g arabinoxy?lan\\/kg) caused a depression of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of 1.63 MJ\\/kg DM at the highest level of inclusion (41.9 g\\/kg). Broilers maintained on this diet showed

M. Choct; G. Annison

1990-01-01

8

Anti?nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: Roles of viscosity and gut microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The mechanism of the anti?nutritive activity of isolated wheat pentosans was investigated by examining the roles of digesta viscosity and gut microflora in broiler chickens.2. Wheat pentosans were isolated by alkaline extraction and purified by sequential treatment with pancreatin, a?amylase and lichenase, and high?speed centrifugation. Some of the pentosans were depolymerised using a ß?xylanase, which reduced the relative viscosity

M. Choct; G. Annison

1992-01-01

9

Digestibility of the Sugars, Starches, Pentosans, and Protein of Some Feeding Stuffs.  

E-print Network

-free extract of hays allrl ioclders is less ~aluahle to animals than the same quantity of ( digestible nitrogen-free extract in concentrates. It may throw some / light upon the prelerence slronrn by animals for one feed over another. A knowledge... with the digestibility of sugar?, starches, and pentosans / of roughages. Comparatively little work has been done upon the composition and clirectibility of tlie nitrogen-free extract of feecling stuffs. The writer ha. stuclierl the digestibility of sugars ancl...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

10

Challenges and opportunities in the analysis of raffinose oligosaccharides, pentosans, phytate, and glucosinolates.  

PubMed

In this paper, the status of the analytical technologies for assaying animal antinutritional compounds, such as raffinose oligosaccharides, pentosans, phytic acid, and glucosinolates, is reviewed in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, and sample throughput. The implementation of simplified sample preparation schemes, use of novel separation approaches, and alternate detector technologies are discussed. The challenges and opportunities posed by these assays are highlighted along with the recommendations for best analytical practices. PMID:14753376

Vinjamoori, D V; Byrum, J R; Hayes, T; Das, P K

2004-01-01

11

Synthesis and biological evaluation of polysulfated oligosaccharide glycosides as inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth.  

PubMed

A series of polysulfated penta- and tetrasaccharide glycosides containing alpha(1-->3)/alpha(1-->2)-linked mannose residues were synthesized as heparan sulfate (HS) mimetics and evaluated for their ability to inhibit angiogenesis. The compounds bound tightly to angiogenic growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2, and VEGF) and strongly inhibited heparanase activity. In addition, the compounds exhibited potent activity in cell-based and ex vivo assays indicative of angiogenesis, with tetrasaccharides exhibiting activity comparable to that of pentasaccharides. Selected compounds also showed good antitumor activity in vivo in a mouse melanoma (solid tumor) model resistant to the phase III HS mimetic 1 (muparfostat, formerly known as PI-88). The lipophilic modifications also resulted in reduced anticoagulant activity, a common side effect of HS mimetics, and conferred a reasonable pharmacokinetic profile in the rat, as exemplified by the sulfated octyl tetrasaccharide 5. The data support the further investigation of this class of compounds as potential antiangiogenic, anticancer therapeutics. PMID:20128596

Johnstone, Ken D; Karoli, Tomislav; Liu, Ligong; Dredge, Keith; Copeman, Elizabeth; Li, Cai Ping; Davis, Kat; Hammond, Edward; Bytheway, Ian; Kostewicz, Edmund; Chiu, Francis C K; Shackleford, David M; Charman, Susan A; Charman, William N; Harenberg, Job; Gonda, Thomas J; Ferro, Vito

2010-02-25

12

Protection of the blood-brain barrier by pentosan against amyloid-?-induced toxicity.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells of brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier play an important role in the pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-? (A?) peptides are key pathological elements in the development of the disease. A blood-brain barrier model, based on primary rat brain endothelial cells was used in which the barrier properties were induced by glial cells. The effects of amyloid peptides have been tested on cell viability and barrier functions. A? showed toxic effects on primary rat brain endothelial cells measured by MTT dye conversion and the lactate dehydrogenase release. Morphologically cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the structure of cytoplasmic organelles and tight junctions could be observed in brain endothelial cells. Treatment with A?1-42 decreased the electrical resistance, and increased the permeability of brain endothelial cell monolayers for both fluorescein and albumin. Serum amyloid P component which stabilizes A? fibrils in cortical amyloid plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits significantly potentiated the barrier-weakening effect of A?1-42. Sulfated polysaccharide pentosan could decrease the toxic effects of A? peptides in brain endothelial cells. It could also significantly protect the barrier integrity of monolayers from damaging actions of peptides. Pentosan modified the size, and significantly decreased the number of amyloid aggregates demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. The present data further support the toxic effects of amyloid peptides on brain endothelial cells, and can contribute to the development of molecules protecting the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20847411

Deli, Mária A; Veszelka, Szilvia; Csiszár, Boglárka; Tóth, Andrea; Kittel, Agnes; Csete, Mária; Sipos, Aron; Szalai, Anikó; Fülöp, Lívia; Penke, Botond; Abrahám, Csongor S; Niwa, Masami

2010-01-01

13

Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. PMID:25049914

Sheng, Q. K.; Yang, L. Q.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, K.

2013-01-01

14

Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. PMID:25049914

Sheng, Q K; Yang, L Q; Zhao, H B; Wang, X L; Wang, K

2013-09-01

15

Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P?

Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

2014-06-01

16

Further investigations into the potentiation of infection by intra-articular injection of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan and the effect of filtration and intra-articular injection of amikacin.  

PubMed

Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) recently have been reported to potentiate the infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus in horses with experimentally induced septic arthritis. Four groups of 8 horses each had 1 midcarpal joint injected with approximately 33 viable colony-forming units (CFU) of S aureus plus either 1 ml of saline solution (group 1), 250 mg of PSGAG (group 2), 250 mg of PSGAG passed through a 0.6-microns filter (group 3), or 250 mg of PSGAG plus 125 mg of amikacin (group 4). Horses that developed clinical signs consistent with sepsis were euthanatized, and samples were collected at necropsy. Horses that survived had samples obtained by use of arthroscopy at days 13 and 14 after injection. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 1 group-1 horse, 8 group-2 horses, and 7 of 7 group-3 horses that met protocol, but was not isolated from any group-4 horses. All 16 aforementioned horses had clinical signs, results of synovial fluid analysis, and gross pathologic and synovial membrane histopathologic findings that were consistent with septic arthritis. Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (250 mg) increased the infectivity of 33 CFU of S aureus (P = 0.001); filtering the PSGAG had no effect. Intra-articular injection of 125 mg of amikacin immediately after inoculating the joint with 33 CFU of S aureus significantly (P = 0.001) decreased potentiation of infection by the PSGAG. PMID:2610427

Gustafson, S B; McIlwraith, C W; Jones, R L; Dixon-White, H E

1989-12-01

17

Pentosan-derived water-soluble carbon nano dots with substantial fluorescence: Properties and application as a photosensitizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal carbonization of monosaccharides and polysaccharides is widely used in the production of carbonaceous material with a desired structure. However, the liquid products are regarded as waste and discarded. Here, we report a facile approach for the synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano dots (CNDs) with substantial fluorescence from the liquid by-products of the hydrothermal carbonization of pentosan, thus the by-products of pulp refining. The synthesized CNDs are monodispersed spheres with abundant oxygen-containing groups and they have an average size of 30 nm. Quantum yield measurements revealed CNDs with substantial green photoluminescence (PL) without passivation. Additionally, excitation was independent, pH-sensitive and stable. The use of CNDs as a photosensitizer in the CNDs/TiO2 system for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation is attractive. The spectral response range of the CNDs/TiO2 system can be widened from the UV region to a part of the visible light region (400-550 nm).

Wu, Qiong; Li, Wei; Wu, Yanjiao; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

2014-10-01

18

Dalteparin sodium.  

PubMed

Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications. PMID:11585001

Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

2001-08-01

19

Assessment of prospective preventive therapies for chronic wasting disease in mule deer.  

PubMed

We compared prion infection rates among mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) receiving pentosan polysulfate, tannic acid, tetracycline HCl, or no treatment 14 days before to 14 days after (dpi) oral inoculation with tonsil tissue homogenate. All deer were infected, but the rapid disease course (230-603 dpi) suggested our challenge was overwhelming. PMID:22493139

Wolfe, Lisa L; Kocisko, David A; Caughey, Byron; Miller, Michael W

2012-04-01

20

Enhanced Antiscrapie Effect Using Combination Drug Treatment  

PubMed Central

Combination treatment with pentosan polysulfate and Fe(III)meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine in mice beginning 14 or 28 days after scrapie inoculation significantly increased survival times. This increase may be synergistic, implying that the compounds act cooperatively in vivo. Combination therapy may therefore be more effective for treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and other protein-misfolding diseases. PMID:17005828

Kocisko, David A.; Caughey, Byron; Morrey, John D.; Race, Richard E.

2006-01-01

21

Sodium Phosphate  

MedlinePLUS

... at other times before, during, and after your treatment with sodium phosphate. Clear liquids are liquids that can be seen through such as water, flavored water, lemonade without pulp, apple juice, and ginger ale. Do not drink ...

22

Sodium Oxybate  

MedlinePLUS

... attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a short time) and ... go to sleep for the night. Sodium oxybate begins to work very quickly. Place your second dose ...

23

Sodium content (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... contribute to high blood pressure. When watching the intake of sodium, read labels carefully to determine the total sodium content. Canned, packaged, and frozen foods can be particularly high in sodium.

24

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat increased amounts of potassium in the body. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be used as ...

25

Diclofenac sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

26

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427119

Batuman, Vecihi

2014-11-27

27

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427122

Alderman, Michael H

2014-11-27

28

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427121

Graudal, Niels

2014-11-27

29

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427120

Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Gand, Elise; Hadjadj, Samy

2014-11-27

30

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427117

2014-11-27

31

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427118

Cook, Nancy R

2014-11-27

32

Sodium-sulfur thermal battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid

Ludwig

1990-01-01

33

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

34

Sodium fill of FFTF  

SciTech Connect

With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective.

Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

1980-02-01

35

Sodium and Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

... Release 17 and recent manufacturers’ label data from retail market surveys. Serving sizes were standardized to be ... sodium content for selected foods available in the retail market This table is provided to show the ...

36

Sodium Phosphate Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

... the contents. To prepare this dose, unscrew the cap of the bottle and remove 2 tablespoons of ... using a measuring spoon. Then replace the bottle cap.To use the sodium phosphate enema, follow these ...

37

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory...Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production...

2014-07-01

38

Sodium storage and injection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

Keeton, A. R. (inventor)

1979-01-01

39

21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.  

...Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be...the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymers intended...temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used...

2014-04-01

40

Hanford site sodium management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

Guttenberg, S.

1995-09-25

41

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

42

Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.

McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

1980-06-01

43

Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... ON SODIUM? Although it is difficult to abruptly cut back on the amount of sodium in the diet, ... taste adjusts quickly to reduced sodium if they cut back gradually. Fresh herbs, spice blends without sodium, citrus, ...

44

Sodium disorders in the elderly.  

PubMed Central

Disorders of sodium imbalance are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can have a substantial impact on the prognosis of the patient. These disorders are more common in the elderly. Sodium disorders can cause serious neurologic symptoms and even death, particularly among hospitalized patients. The identification of sodium abnormalities and appropriate clinical intervention are critical for improving patient outcomes. Early recognition of hyponatremia and hypernatremia can provide a clue to an underlying disorder. In this update, we have summarized age-related homeostatic changes that impair sodium balance, medications that alter salt and water handling, and the recognition and management of sodium disorders in elderly patients. PMID:15712785

Tareen, Naureen; Martins, David; Nagami, Glenn; Levine, Barton; Norris, Keith C.

2005-01-01

45

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlohner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

46

Effect of sodium chloride supplementation on serum sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance.  

E-print Network

??These studies determined the effects of sodium chloride supplementation on serum and sweat sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance. Sweat sodium losses,… (more)

Pahnke, Matthew Daleon

2010-01-01

47

Sodium bicarbonate: basically useless therapy.  

PubMed

Common clinical practices often are unsupported by experimental evidence. One example is the administration of sodium bicarbonate to neonates. Despite a long history of widespread use, objective evidence that administration of sodium bicarbonate improves outcomes for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest or with metabolic acidosis is lacking. Indeed, there is evidence that this therapy is detrimental. This review examines the history of sodium bicarbonate use in neonatology and the evidence that refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or to treat metabolic acidosis in the NICU. PMID:18829808

Aschner, Judy L; Poland, Ronald L

2008-10-01

48

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-print Network

, is cosmetically unbecoming, adds pounds and tends to reduce the normal flow of blood. One way to remove this excess fluid from the body is to restrict the sodium intake in the diet. Sodium-restricted diets are commonly used to treat a number of disease states..., is cosmetically unbecoming, adds pounds and tends to reduce the normal flow of blood. One way to remove this excess fluid from the body is to restrict the sodium intake in the diet. Sodium-restricted diets are commonly used to treat a number of disease states...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

49

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

50

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

51

Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w\\/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1°C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P<0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic

Khalid Ibrahim Sallam

2007-01-01

52

Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

2007-01-01

53

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2010-10-01

54

77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...203923 for Sodium Thiosulfate Injection for sequential use with sodium...The approved Sodium Nitrite Injection and Nithiodote carry Boxed...are sold individually, as well as in cyanide antidote kits...required on Sodium Nitrite Injection and Nithiodote, which...

2012-11-28

55

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

56

Digestibility of Sugar, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages.  

E-print Network

beaker and heated to boiling. Then add 50 c.c. of the above solution, heat to boiling, and as soon as it boils, turn over the two minute sand glass, heat two minutes, then filter immediately through a thick asbestos filter without diluting, and wash... substance was boiled thirty minutes with 200 c.c. water and 20 c.c. N/5 hydmchloric acid, then 40 c.c. K,/5 soclium hydroxide added, and the boiling continued for fifteen minutes. It was then filtered through asbestos, the volume of the filtrate made 400...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1916-01-01

57

Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2008-01-01

58

21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2013-04-01

59

21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.  

...anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2014-04-01

60

21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2012-04-01

61

21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2011-04-01

62

21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2010-04-01

63

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

... Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2 , CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as slightly hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide....

2014-04-01

64

The Sodium Content of Your Food.  

E-print Network

, shows sodium values. To allow for variability among packages, cereal manufacturers may show higher values on packages of cereal than those shown in Table 1. 4 Some over-the-counter drugs, particularly antacids, contain sodium in significant amounts... per ms per do= 100 ml Analgesic (Various) Aspirin 49 - Antacid analgesic Bromo-Seltzer@ Acetaminophen 717 - Sodium citrate Aspirin (blue box) Sodium citrate 521 - Antacid laxative Sal Hepatica@ Sodium bicarbonate 1,000 - Sodium monohydrogen...

Anonymous,

1982-01-01

65

Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed.

Freskakis, G.N.

1984-09-01

66

Hypoxia and persistent sodium current  

Microsoft Academic Search

During prolonged depolarization of excitable cells, some voltage-activated, tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels are resistant to inactivation and can continue to open for long periods of time, generating a \\

Anna K. Hammarström; Peter W. Gage

2002-01-01

67

Viscosity of Molten Sodium Nitrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experimental data for the viscosity of molten sodium nitrate from its melting point up to 752 K, at atmospheric pressure, with an estimated uncertainty of 2.1%, were measured with an oscillating cup viscometer. A preliminary reference correlation and reference data are proposed, based on the best available data for the viscosity of molten sodium nitrate, for temperatures between 590 and 750 K, with an estimated absolute uncertainty of 0.066 mPa · s ( k = 2).

Nunes, V. M. B.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; de Castro, C. A. Nieto

2006-11-01

68

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

69

Are reductions in population sodium intake achievable?  

PubMed

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

70

Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

2011-01-01

71

The Sodium Activity in Liquid Sodium-Tin Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromotive force measurements in a cell (Na/Pyrex/Na, Sn), SN lead to values for the sodium activity. Excess functions are interpreted on the basis of the zero-order theory and the result is used to estimate the entropy for NaSn(s). (Author)

D. Yuan, F. A. Kroger

1968-01-01

72

Photoabsorption spectra of sodium clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute photoabsorption cross sections of free neutral sodium clusters containing from N=3 to 40 atoms are presented. Investigation of a wide continuous range of cluster sizes reveals the size development of the photoabsorption behavior. In the smallest clusters the absorption is moleculelike. A transition to collective electronic excitations (surface plasmons) occurs in the size range of N=3 to 5. For

Kathy Selby; Vitaly Kresin; Jun Masui; Michael Vollmer; Walt A. de Heer; Adi Scheidemann; W. D. Knight

1991-01-01

73

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01

74

PILOT TESTING OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of pilot plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO2 was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of...

75

Injection of beef strip loins with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride to enhance palatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef strip loins (46 U.S. Choice loins and 49 U.S. Select loins) were used to evaluate the potential for enhancing beef tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by injecting fresh cuts with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride. One half of each loin served as an untreated control, and the other half was injected with either distilled water (110%

D. J. Vote; W. J. Platter; J. D. Tatum; G. R. Schmidt; K. E. Belk; G. C. Smith; N. C. Speer

2010-01-01

76

In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

2014-05-01

77

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2012-04-01

78

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2014-04-01

79

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2010-04-01

80

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2013-04-01

82

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2012-04-01

83

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2011-04-01

84

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2013-04-01

85

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2010-04-01

86

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

...2014-04-01 false Sodium (metallic). 21.128 Section...Denaturants § 21.128 Sodium (metallic). (a) Color. Silvery-white (metallic luster) when freshly cut...when viewed through a cobalt glass. (c) Purity....

2014-04-01

87

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless...

2010-04-01

88

SODIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium-cooled power reactors will require sodium flow rates through the ; reactor of 10,000 to 50,000 gpm at pressures up to 100 psi and temperatures up to ; 1,000 deg F. The present sodium-cooled reactors are smaller then required for ; central power plants; however, a program including development ef pumps and ; piping systems, sodium pre-heating methods, instrumentation, heat

1958-01-01

89

The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo

2009-01-01

90

Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system  

DOEpatents

A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01

91

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...citrate (C6 H5 Na3 O7 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a...

2010-04-01

92

Sodium–blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the

A Franx; EAP Steegers; T de Boo; T Thien; JMWM Merkus

1999-01-01

93

A New Thermometry for Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thermometry for liquid sodium, which stands on the low resistivity and the moderate thermo-emf of liquid sodium, has been developed upon the demand on the individual subassembly outlet instrumentation in the sodium-cooled fast-breeder reactor, which requires \\

Jun Kuwabara

1972-01-01

94

Extracting Silicon From Sodium-Process Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New acid leaching process purifies silicon produced in reaction between silicon fluoride and sodium. Concentration of sodium fluoride and other impurities and byproducts remaining in silicon are within acceptable ranges for semi-conductor devices. Leaching process makes sodium reduction process more attractive for making large quantities of silicon for solar cells.

Kapur, V.; Sanjurjo, A.; Sancier, K. M.; Nanis, L.

1982-01-01

95

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2012-04-01

96

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2014-04-01

97

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2012-04-01

98

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked...parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million...preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations...

2013-04-01

99

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2013-04-01

100

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified...

2014-04-01

101

Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes  

E-print Network

1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) latex particles was investigated. Conductometric titrations were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

103

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

104

Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

105

The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

2001-01-01

106

76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-N-0428] Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries per...Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection,...

2011-06-24

107

Sodium Movements in Perfused Squid Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm2sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm2sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 ± 3 pmoles/cm2sec and 41 ± 10 pmoles/cm2sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm2impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium. PMID:5672003

Rojas, Eduardo; Canessa-Fischer, Mitzy

1968-01-01

108

Individuality of the plasma sodium concentration.  

PubMed

Older literature has suggested that the plasma sodium concentration is not individual, that it is neither intrinsic to an individual nor reproducible, longitudinally. We recently observed that the plasma sodium concentration is heritable. Because demonstrable heritability requires individuality of the relevant phenotype, we hypothesized that the plasma sodium concentration was substantially individual. In two large health plan-based cohorts, we demonstrated individuality of the plasma sodium concentration over a 10-yr interval; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) averaged 0.4-0.5. The individuality of plasma sodium increased significantly with age. Plasma sodium individuality was equal to or only slightly less than that for plasma glucose but was less than the individuality for creatinine. The individuality of plasma sodium was further confirmed by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient for within-individual versus between-individual pairs of sodium determinations and via application of the agreement index. Furthermore, the distribution of all sodium determinations for all participants within a population was similar to the distribution for the mean sodium concentration for individuals within that population. Therefore, the near-normal distribution of plasma sodium measurements within a population is likely not attributable to assay-specific factors but rather to genuine and durable biological variability in the osmotic set point. In aggregate, these data strongly support the individuality of the plasma sodium concentration. They further indicate that serial plasma sodium values for any given individual tend to cluster around a patient-specific set point and that these set points vary among individuals. PMID:24717732

Zhang, Zheng; Duckart, Jonathan; Slatore, Christopher G; Fu, Yi; Petrik, Amanda F; Thorp, Micah L; Cohen, David M

2014-06-15

109

Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.  

PubMed

In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms. PMID:22955490

Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

2013-04-01

110

Sodium Fluxes in Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP. 1 The compound d-ATP

F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

1968-01-01

111

Sodium metabolism of the freshwater cyprinodont, Fundulus catenatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Transfer of the freshwater cyprinodont,Fundulus catenatus, into 40% sea water caused a slow rise in serum sodium levels, total body sodium, and the rate of sodium efflux.2.Serum sodium levels were first reduced by expanding sodium space. In some cases the animals eventually brought sodium parameters (except efflux) back to fresh water levels; in other cases the sodium space remained expanded.3.Transfer

Douglas W. Duff; W. R. Fleming

1972-01-01

112

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

113

Transference number calculations for sodium polysulfides  

SciTech Connect

Transference numbers of sodium cations and sulfur anions in sodium polysulfide melts are calculated from previously determined experimental data. Concentrated electrolyte theory assuming a binary electrolyte consisting of sodium anions, sulfide cations, in a neutral sulfur solvent is used to relate the transference numbers to fundamental solution transport properties. Slopes of open-circuit potential measurements vs. melt composition on sodium-sulfur cells with and without transference are used to determine the sulfur anion and sodium cation transference numbers. The transference number of sodium cations is calculated from previous experimental data for two temperatures, 573 and 633 K, and range from 0.88 to 0.93 for sodium sulfide mole fractions between 0.20 and 0.34. These values for transference numbers presented here are more accurate than previous interpretations of these data where unity sodium cation transference numbers were assumed. The results of this work are shown to be important in the design of sodium-sulfur cells.

Risch, T.; Newman, J.

1988-07-01

114

Degradation of Sodium beta''-Alumina Electrolyte in Contact with Sulfur/Sodium Polysulfide Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immersion of sodium beta '' alumina electrolyte in sodium polysulfide and pure sulfur melts, at Na/S battery operation temperatures, showed that the electrolyte was chemically attacked by the melts. The corrosion reactions mostly initiated and concentrate...

M. Liu

1986-01-01

115

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

116

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

117

Improved sodium pool temperature control in a sodium exposure test cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a design change to the sodium exposure test cell (SETC) developed by JPL for evaluating alkali metal thermal to electric conversion (AMTEC) electrodes. This change, the addition of an antechamber to contain the sodium pool, was made to improve the control of the sodium pool temperature in the test, in order to improve the consistency

Michael Schuller; B. Fiebig; Patricia Hudson; Alicia Williams

2000-01-01

118

Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

1990-03-01

119

Voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel’s fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment. PMID:23531742

Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

2013-01-01

120

Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model does not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions.

Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

121

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of...

2011-04-01

122

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

...citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of...

2014-04-01

123

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2010-04-01

124

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

125

Sodium and potassium in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out of arterial pressure and body content of electrolytes in 91 patients with essential hypertension and 121 normal controls. Exchangeable sodium was found to be positively correlated with arterial pressure in the patients, the correlation being closest in older patients; values of exchangeable sodium were subnormal in young patients; and plasma, exchangeable, and total body potassium

A F Lever; C Beretta-Piccoli; J J Brown; D L Davies; R Fraser; J I Robertson

1981-01-01

126

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

127

Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis. PMID:24626008

Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

2014-03-01

128

Sodium Thiosulfate in the Treatment of Calciphylaxis  

PubMed Central

The authors review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of calciphylaxis and also describe applications of a novel therapeutic option, sodium thiosulfate. Two cases of advanced uremic calciphylaxis from both clinic and hospital settings are presented. One patient, a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, was treated with surgical debridement and sodium thiosulfate 25g three times a week. After introducing sodium thiosulfate treatment, the affected sites continue to heal with encouraging improvement of ulcer depth. Sodium thiosulfate was well-tolerated and facilitated wound healing. The patient did not develop sepsis. Sodium thiosulfate appears to be a viable first-line treatment for calciphylaxis and should be seriously considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:23710271

Cohen, George F.

2013-01-01

129

Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope. PMID:22086290

Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

2012-06-01

130

Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*  

PubMed Central

Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

1973-01-01

131

Structure and composition of model cheeses influence sodium NMR mobility, kinetics of sodium release and sodium partition coefficients.  

PubMed

The mobility and release of sodium ions were assessed in model cheeses with three different lipid/protein ratios, with or without added NaCl. The rheological properties of the cheeses were analysed using uniaxial compression tests. Microstructure was characterised by confocal laser scanning microscopy. (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the molecular mobility of sodium ions in model cheeses through measurements of the relaxation and creation times. Greater mobility was observed in cheeses containing a lower protein content and with added NaCl. The kinetics of sodium release from the cheese to an aqueous phase was correlated with the mobility of sodium ions. The highest rates of sodium release were observed with a lower protein content and with added NaCl. The water/cheese partition coefficients of sodium increased when NaCl was added or the protein content was higher. The study highlighted the effect of model cheese characteristics on molecular and macroscopic behaviours of sodium. PMID:23122164

Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Arnould, Christine; Achilleos, Christine; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

2013-01-15

132

46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system...spills of sodium chlorate solutions are immediately washed...Approval of Surveyors and Handling of Categories A, B,...

2010-10-01

133

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721...?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is...present a risk of injury to human health, the employer must...

2011-07-01

134

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

135

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

136

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

137

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

138

46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065 ...Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system that...

2011-10-01

139

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

2011-04-01

140

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

2010-04-01

141

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs...Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs...Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and...

2014-04-01

143

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs...Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and...

2012-04-01

144

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

145

Recovery of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate from Sambhar Lake brine—A theoretical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sambhar Lake brine contains predominantly sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate. The mutual solubility relationships\\u000a existing in the system NaCl?Na2SO4?Na2C03?H20 have been projected isothermally at 0°, 20°, 35°and 100°C, indicating various\\u000a solid phases formed. The theoretical recoveries have been calculated by plotting the course of change in brine and bittern\\u000a compositions on the respective phase diagrams. Various steps to

V R K S Susarla; J M Parekh; U V Chitnis

1991-01-01

146

A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

2012-07-01

147

Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

1989-12-01

148

Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

1989-01-01

149

Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake  

PubMed Central

Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs. PMID:22580974

Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

2013-01-01

150

Sodium nitroprusside suppresses male fertility in vitro.  

PubMed

Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor involved in the regulation of the motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, and acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the molecular basis for the effects of sodium nitroprusside on different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on subsequent oocyte fertilization and embryo development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (1, 10, and 100 ?m) for 90 min. Our results showed that sodium nitroprusside inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics in a dose-dependent manner by significantly enhancing intracellular iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing Ca(2+) , and adenosine triphosphate levels in spermatozoa. Moreover, short-term exposure of spermatozoa to sodium nitroprusside increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins involved in PKA-dependent regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which induced a robust AR. Finally, sodium nitroprusside significantly decreased the rates of fertilization and blastocyst formation during embryo development. Based on these results, we propose that sodium nitroprusside increases ROS production and precocious AR may alter overall sperm physiology, leading to poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. PMID:25180787

Rahman, M S; Kwon, W-S; Lee, J-S; Kim, J; Yoon, S-J; Park, Y-J; You, Y-A; Hwang, S; Pang, M-G

2014-11-01

151

Solar control of sodium escape from Io  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

report ground-based spectroscopic observations of the Io sodium cloud before and after eclipse by Jupiter, in a search for possible effects of sunlight on the total atomic sodium content in Io's exosphere. These observations test the importance of the Sun in maintaining the supply of atoms from the thicker atmosphere, which lies close to the surface, to the thinner, more extended, sodium cloud. We performed ground-based spectroscopy of the sodium doublet at 589 nm with a high-resolution échelle spectrograph on the Italian National Telescope Galileo on La Palma Island. We find that the total atomic sodium content immediately after eclipse falls by a factor of ~4 during eclipse and recovers to preeclipse values on a timescale of ~5 h. We evaluate potential causes of the precipitous drop including condensation of the atmosphere, collapse of the ionosphere, and changes in atmospheric chemistry. We conclude that most plausible cause of the drop in atomic sodium production is the interruption of photodissociation of sodium-bearing molecules during eclipse. We discuss further implications of this change in atmospheric chemistry.

Grava, Cesare; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Leblanc, François; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mangano, Valeria; Barbieri, Cesare

2014-03-01

152

A global model of meteoric sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

2013-10-01

153

A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

2013-01-01

154

Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.  

PubMed

Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

2013-04-01

155

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

156

21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used for chickens and turkeys as follows: (i) Grams per ton. 90 (0...Withdraw 5 days before slaughter; as sole source of organic arsenic. (2) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance...

2010-04-01

157

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a performance evaluation, conducted with a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP), studying the effects of injecting anhydrous sodium carbonate into the exhaust of a utility boiler burning Western coal. In situ resistivity measurements, ESP operating conditio...

158

Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.  

PubMed

The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow. PMID:17501423

Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

2007-04-20

159

Parabrachial and hypothalamic interaction in sodium appetite  

PubMed Central

Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347

Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.

2011-01-01

160

Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors  

E-print Network

In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

2012-01-01

161

21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in salt in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding...

2010-04-01

162

Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

2008-02-01

163

Kinetic characteristics of sodium borohydride formation when sodium meta-borate reacts with magnesium and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium borohydride is attracting considerable interests as a hydrogen storage medium. In this paper, we investigated the effects of hydrogen pressure, reaction temperature and transition metal addition on sodium borohydride synthesis by the reaction of sodium meta-borate with Mg and H2. It was found that higher H2 pressure was beneficial to NaBH4 formation. The increase in reaction temperature first improved

B. H. Liu; Z. P. Li; N. Morigasaki; S. Suda

2008-01-01

164

Maternal Sodium Intake Does Not Affect Postprandial Sodium Concentrations in Human Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium concentrationin human milk is known to varydiurnallyand throughout lactation. To investigatepotential postprandial variation, eight exclusively breast-feeding mothers of infants 10-19 wk of age were visited on two different days after a 3-h fast. On one day, they were fed a low sodium lunch (130 mg), and on the other, the same lunch with a high sodium content (2175 mg).

ROCHELLE R. EREMAN; BO LÃ-NHERDALANDKATHRYN C. DEWEY

165

Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories

Foust

1978-01-01

166

Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

167

Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+\\/-10 mM Na +\\/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+\\/-17 mM Na +\\/d excreted) sodium

H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; B. Haditsch; K. Pilz; A. Rössler; Z. Laszlo

2002-01-01

168

Kinetics of reaction of cyclopentadiene with sodium  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the topochemical reaction of cyclopentadiene with metallic sodium were studied in a toluene medium. It was found that the observed rate of the first-order reaction is proportional to the surface of sodium and the cyclopentadiene concentration. The values of the energy of activation and reaction-rate constants are: E = 31 kJ/mole; k = 7.4 x 10/sup -4/ liter/m/sup 2/ x sec at 40/sup 0/C.

Koshkina, S.B.; Krylov, A.V.; Rozovskii, V.Ya.; Zhitkov, I.V.

1987-08-01

169

Future directions in sodium channel research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium channels act in concert to play a critical role not only in electrical signalling in the nervous system but also in\\u000a terms of regulating neuronal excitability in response to external cues. Splice variants, channel editing, post-translational\\u000a modification and association with accessory proteins all may amplify the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels. Using\\u000a adult inducible knockouts of the various components

John N. Wood

170

Sodium Azide Resistance in Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The sodium azide resistance pattern of Proteus hauseri is not of the all- or-none unilocal type reported for Escherichia coli but rather of the obligatory multi-step or penicillin variety. Independently isolated 1st-step resistant variants possessed similar degrees of resistance to sodium azide. Some properties of azide-resistant variants of P. hauseri are described. In support of the above finding it

J. N. Coetzee; H. C. de Klerk; I. J. Mare

1963-01-01

171

Simulations of the lunar sodium atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Monte Carlo type model of the lunar sodium atmosphere has been developed and applied to recent ground-based imaging observations. The model assumes a steady state atmosphere with production of sodium due to a spatially uniform source (e.g., meteor impact vaporization) or a solar zenith angle dependent source (e.g., solar wind sputtering or photodesorption). The loss processes included in

B. Flynn; M. Mendillo

1995-01-01

172

NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

2013-09-01

173

Biomedical Applications of Sodium MRI In Vivo  

PubMed Central

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational imaging research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on sodium magnetic resonance, and (3) a review of some studies on sodium MRI on different organs/diseases to date. PMID:23722972

Madelin, Guillaume; Regatte, Ravinder R.

2013-01-01

174

Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops enhance tear film stability.  

PubMed

Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops can relieve various dry eye symptoms by prolonging the stability of the precorneal tear film. To determine the most effective concentration of sodium hyaluronate, we studied the concentration-dependent effects of sodium hyaluronate eyedrops on the precorneal tear film breakup time (BUT) in 12 volunteers. These subjects had a BUT of 10 seconds or less and a low tear volume determined with the phenol red thread test. They received four different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate eyedrops (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3%). BUT was measured noninvasively using a non-contact specular microscope before the sodium hyaluronate eyedrop instillation and again after 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The tear film stability period was prolonged significantly with 0.1% and 0.3% eyedrops at all measurement times (P < 0.05), while the eyes treated with 0% and 0.05% eyedrops showed no significant prolongation of tear film stability at any measurement times. The findings of this study confirm that sodium hyaluronate at a concentration of at least 0.1% is required to delay the breakup of the precorneal tear film. PMID:8739501

Hamano, T; Horimoto, K; Lee, M; Komemushi, S

1996-01-01

175

[Disorders in sodium-water balance.  

PubMed

Water balance control is aimed at normalizing cellular hydration, and sodium balance control at normalizing extracellular volume. Water balance control is based on the regulation of body fluid tonicity, while the control of sodium balance is based on the regulation of effective arterial volume. Disorders of water balance act on cellular hydration: primary disorders induce a proportional change in tonicity; secondary disorders are induced by a change in tonicity or effective arterial volume. Disorders of sodium balance act on extracellular volume: primary disorders of sodium balance induce a change in effective arterial volume; secondary disorders are induced by a change in effective arterial volume. Physical examination of the patient allows assessing the extracellular volume and the severity of the sodium balance disorder. Natremia - that generally reflects tonicity - allows to assess cellular hydration and to determine the type of water balance disorder. In the case of natremia disturbance, the assessment of both the tonicity and the extracellular volume allows the determination of the type of water and/or sodium balance disorder that is necessary for prescribing the adequate therapy. PMID:23177272

Petitclerc, Thierry

2012-11-21

176

The low-pressure sodium lamp  

SciTech Connect

For many years before the introduction of the sodium vapor lamp, scientists had been aware of the remarkably high luminous efficacy of the sodium discharge. However, many technical problems had to be overcome before these lamps could be marketed. The first commercial low pressure sodium lamps were introduced in the early 1930s and to this day they remain the most efficient light sources available. The high efficacy is due partly to the fact that these lamps emit nearly monochromatic yellow light, which is very close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Sodium lamps have come a long way since their introduction, and efficacies are now approaching 200 lumens per watt. Despite increasing competition from other types of discharge lamp, low pressure sodium lamps of the SOX type find widespread use in road and security lighting, particularly in Great Britain and many other parts of Europe. This paper reviews the operation and development of the low pressure sodium lamp, and shows what makes it different from the many other types of discharge lamp available.

Hooker, J.D. [GE Lighting, Leicester (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

177

Coupling efficiency measurements for long-pulsed solid sodium laser based on measured sodium profile data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2013, a serial sky test has been held on 1.8 meter telescope in Yunnan observation site after 2011-2012 Laser guide star photon return test. In this test, the long-pulsed sodium laser and the launch telescope have been upgraded, a smaller and brighter beacon has been observed. During the test, a sodium column density lidar and atmospheric coherence length measurement equipment were working at the same time. The coupling efficiency test result with the sky test layout, data processing, sodium beacon spot size analysis, sodium profile data will be presented in this paper.

Jin, Kai; Wei, Kai; Xie, Shiyong; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Feng, Lu; Xue, Xianghui; Li, Min; Cheng, Xuewu; Cui, Chaolong; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Otárola, Angel; Dai, Xiaolin; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong

2014-08-01

178

Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A. [UNAM (Mexico)] [and others

1995-11-01

179

Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-one children aged 10.5 ñ 0.2 years (range, 8.0ÃÂ15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 ñ 36.6 g (range, 765ÃÂ1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = ÃÂ0.445, P < 0.005) between reported dietary sodium intake and the neonatal lowest serum sodium level (NLS) recorded for each child as an index of sodium loss. The relationship of NLS and dietary sodium intake was found in both boys and girls and in both Arab and Jewish children, despite marked ethnic differences in dietary sources of sodium. Hence, low NLS predicts increased intake of dietary sodium in low birth weight children some 8ÃÂ15 yr later. Taken together with other recent evidence, it is now clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

Adi Shirazki (University of Haifa Pscyhology); Zalman Weintraub (Galilee Medical Center); Dan Reich (Ha'Emeq Medical Center); Edith Gershon (University of Haifa Psychology); Micah Leshem (University of Haifa Psychology)

2006-12-14

180

Implications of Salt and Sodium Reduction on Microbial Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of

Peter J. Taormina

2010-01-01

181

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

182

Solubility of sodium soaps in aqueous salt solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of sodium soaps in dilute aqueous salt solutions has been systematically investigated by direct visual phase behavior observations. The added electrolytes, including simple inorganic salts and bulky organic salts, influence the solubility of sodium soaps in water, as represented by the varied soap Krafft point. Two inorganic salts, sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate, demonstrate a “salting-out” property. On

Bin Lin; Alon V. McCormick; H. Ted Davis; Reinhard Strey

2005-01-01

183

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01

184

Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor  

PubMed Central

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

2011-01-01

185

Sodium Taste Detectability in Rats Is Independent of Anion Size: The Psychophysical Characteristics of the Transcellular Sodium Taste Transduction Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two known sodium transduction pathways in the rat gustatory system. The transcellular pathway is blocked by amiloride, and the paracellular pathway is limited by the anion gluconate. The contribution of each pathway to sodium detection was assessed. Sodium gluconate (NaGlu) and NaCl thresholds did not differ, implying that the paracellular pathway is not necessary for normal sodium detection.

Laura C. Geran; Alan C. Spector

2000-01-01

186

Polymerization of styrene initiated by a novel initiator sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate and sodium lauryl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (SFS) along with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was used as a novel initiator for aqueous polymerization of styrene (St) at 80°C. The rather stable emulsion lattices and a uniform size distribution of lattice particles were obtained. The polymerization behaviors and the qualities of the product were determined. The course of polymerization is similar to the traditional emulsion

Cheng-Chien Wang; Jen-Feng Kuo; Chuh-Yung Chen

2000-01-01

187

Systemic Bioavailability of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel 1% Versus Oral Diclofenac Sodium in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% were compared with those of oral diclofenac sodium 50-mg tablets. In a randomized, 3-way crossover study, healthy volunteers (n = 40) received three 7-day diclofenac regimens: (A) 16 g gel applied as 4 g to 1 knee 4 times daily (4 g on surface area 400 cm2), (B) 48 g

Jean-Luc Kienzler; Morris Gold; Fabrice Nollevaux

2010-01-01

188

Osmotic regulation of sodium pump in rat brain synaptosomes: the role of cytoplasmic sodium.  

PubMed

The effect of hypoosmolality of incubation medium on the rat of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ transport in rat brain synaptosomes was studied. A decreased osmolality from 310 to 250 mOsm increased the rate of 86Rb+ uptake from 3.72 to 6.23 nmol/mg of protein min. To evaluate the involvement of cytoplasmic sodium in sodium pump stimulation inhibitors of ion channels and transport pathways able to increase [Na+]in were used. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM), amiloride (0.5 mM) and verapamil (0.1 mM) had no influence on the osmotic response of the sodium pump. The decrease of sodium concentration in incubation medium to 15 mM, leading to a practical loss of its transmembrane gradient, did not abolish stimulation of pump. No increase in 22Na+ influx or intrasynaptosomal sodium content was registered at hypotonic conditions. It is suggested that osmotic regulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is not connected with an increase of internal sodium through opening of sodium channels, or with activation of other membrane sodium-transporting systems. PMID:8032937

Aksentsev, S L; Mongin, A A; Orlov, S N; Rakovich, A A; Kaler, G V; Konev, S V

1994-04-25

189

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve of Salinity Salinity affects plant growth through ionic and osmotic effects. Sometimes these effectsSodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER

Cramer, Grant R.

190

Comparison of sodium amylosulfate and sodium polyanetholsulfonate in blood culture media.  

PubMed Central

A comparison between sodium polyanetholsulfonate and sodium amylosulfate in unvented vacuum blood culture bottles containing tryptic soy broth was made with 5,800 sets of blood cultures. No statistically significant differences in isolation rates of bacteria were noted. PMID:1254719

Hall, M M; Warren, E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1976-01-01

191

Sodium Appetite in Sheep Induced by Cerebral Ventricular Infusion of Angiotensin: Comparison with Sodium Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraventricular administration of supraphysiological amounts of renin, nerve growth factor preparation, or angiotensin II greatly increased the consumption of water and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution by sheep. These effects were antagonized by intraventricular administration of drugs that prevent the formation of angiotensin II or block its receptors. The fact that these angiotensinblocking drugs did not change the sodium intake of

J. P. Coghean; P. J. Considine; D. A. Denton; D. T. W. Fei; L. G. Leksell; M. J. McKinley; A. F. Muller; Eva Tarjan; R. S. Weisinger; R. A. Bradshaw

1981-01-01

192

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

193

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

194

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

195

Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from coronagraphic imaging of Mercury's sodium tail over a 7 deg field of view. Several sets of observations made at the McDonald Observatory since May 2007 show a tail of neutral sodium atoms stretching more than 1000 Mercury radii (R(sub m)) in length, or a full degree of sky. However, no tail was observed extending beyond 120 R(sub m) during the January 2008 MESSENGER Fly-by period, or during a similar orbital phase of Mercury in July 2008. Large changes in Mercury's heliocentric radial velocity cause Doppler shifts about the Fraunhofer absorption features; the resultant change in solar flux and radiation pressure is the primary cause of the observed variation in tail brightness. Smaller fluctuations in brightness may exist due to changing source rates at the surface, but we have no explicit evidence for such changes in this data set. The effects of radiation pressure on Mercury's escaping atmosphere are investigated using seven observations spanning different orbital phases. Total escape rates of atmospheric sodium are estimated to be between 5 and 13 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s and show a correlation to radiation pressure. Candidate sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include desorption by UV sunlight, thermal desorption, solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, and micro-meteor impacts. Wide-angle observations of the full extent of Mercury's sodium tail offer opportunities to enhance our understanding of the time histories of these source rates.

Schmidt, Carl A.; Wilson, Jody K.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

2009-01-01

196

Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.  

PubMed

The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. PMID:25297008

Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

2014-11-01

197

The Effect of Chronic Sodium Loading and Sodium Restriction on Plasma Prostaglandin A, E and F Concentrations in Normal Humans  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in the control of sodium homeostasis. Prostaglandin A and prostaglandin E have been shown to increase renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion and prostaglandin A has been shown to stimulate aldosterone release. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic sodium loading and sodium restriction on plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations. Seven normal human volunteers were placed on three sodium intake diets: (a) ad lib. sodium intake, (b) high sodium intake, and (c) low sodium intake. Plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean prostaglandin A levels on the ad lib. diet were 1.60 ng/ml. Prostaglandin A levels decreased 49% to 0.82 ng/ml on the high sodium intake and increased 34% to 2.14 ng/ml on the low sodium intake. Prostaglandin A levels increased 161% on the low sodium diet in comparison with levels on the high sodium diet. Plasma prostaglandin E and F concentrations did not change significantly during variation in sodium intake. These results show that dietary sodium content markedly effects plasma prostaglandin A levels and that prostaglandins may play a role in the physiologic mechanism of sodium homeostasis. PMID:4700484

Zusman, Randall M.; Spector, David; Caldwell, Burton V.; Speroff, Leon; Schneider, George; Mulrow, Patrick J.

1973-01-01

198

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the

Alexander Apelblat; Emanuel Manzurola

2003-01-01

199

Indirect fluorometric determination of diclofenac sodium.  

PubMed

A simple and easy method of analysis for diclofenac sodium is reported. A spectrofluorometric method for the microdetermination of diclofenac sodium has been developed through its reaction with cerium(IV) in an acidic solution and measurement of the fluorescence of the Ce(III) ions produced. Under the optimum experimental conditions for the oxidation reaction, 1.0 M H2SO4 with 90 min of heating time (100 degrees C), the range of application is 124.3-600 ng mL(-1) and the limit of detection is 72.7 ng mL(-1). The proposed method was applied to the determination of diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical tablets. The results of the analysis show a good agreement with those obtained by the official USP 27 HPLC method. PMID:16733317

Castillo, Marcela A; Bruzzone, Liliana

2006-03-01

200

Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

1987-08-01

201

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

202

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

203

Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

Nollet, Billy K.

204

Risperidone inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels.  

PubMed

In contrast to several other antipsychotic drugs, the effects of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone on voltage-gated sodium channels have not been characterized yet, despite its wide clinical use. Here we performed whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings to analyze the effects of risperidone on voltage-dependent sodium currents of N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells carried by either endogenous sodium channels or transfected NaV1.6 channels. Risperidone inhibited both endogenous and NaV1.6-mediated sodium currents at concentrations that are expected around active synaptic release sites owing to its strong accumulation in synaptic vesicles. When determined for pharmacologically isolated NaV1.6, risperidone inhibited peak inward currents with an IC50 of 49 µM. Channel block occurred in a state-dependent fashion with risperidone displaying a fourfold higher affinity for the inactivated state than for the resting state. As a consequence of the low state dependence, risperidone produced only a small, but significant leftward shift of the steady-state inactivation curve and it required concentrations ? 30 µM to significantly slow the time course of recovery from inactivation. Risperidone (10 µM) gave rise to a pronounced use-dependent block when sodium currents were elicited by trains of brief voltage pulses at higher frequencies. Our data suggest that, compared to other antipsychotic drugs as well as to local anesthetics and sodium channel-targeting anticonvulsants, risperidone displays an unusual blocking profile where a rather low degree of state dependence is associated with a prominent use-dependent block. PMID:24508524

Brauner, Jan M; Hessler, Sabine; Groemer, Teja W; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias

2014-04-01

205

Sodium p-toluenesulfinate tetra-hydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, Na+·C7H7O2S?·4H2O, is the hydrate of the sodium salt of para-toluene­sulfinic acid. The mol­ecular geometry around the sulfur atom is tetra­hedral with X–S–Y angles spanning a range of 102.23?(6)–110.04?(6)°. In the crystal, the water mol­ecules connect the sodium cations into chains along the b axis via O—H?O hydrogen bonds. An inter­molecular O—H?? inter­action is also observed. PMID:21836887

Betz, Richard; Gerber, Thomas

2011-01-01

206

Disorders of sodium and water balance.  

PubMed

Dysnatremias occur simultaneously with disorders in water balance. The first priority is to correct dehydration; once the patient is euvolemic, the sodium level can be reassessed. In unstable patients with hyponatremia, the clinician should rapidly administer hypertonic saline. In unstable patients with hypernatremia, the clinician should administer isotonic intravenous fluid. In stable patients with either hyponatremia or hypernatremia, the clinician should aim for correction over 24 to 48 hours, with the maximal change in serum sodium between 8 to 12 mEq/L over the first 24 hours. This rate of correction decreases the chances of cerebral edema or osmotic demyelination syndrome. PMID:24766939

Harring, Theresa R; Deal, Nathan S; Kuo, Dick C

2014-05-01

207

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

Elkins, P. E.

1981-09-22

208

A comparison of sodium currents in rat and frog myelinated nerve: normal and modified sodium inactivation.  

PubMed Central

1. Sodium currents were measured under voltage-clamp conditions in Ranvier nodes of rat and frog nerve fibres at 20 degrees C. Voltage errors due to the resistance in series with the nodal membrane were minimized by reducing sodium currents with tetrodotoxin in the extracellular solutions. 2. The stationary and kinetic properties of sodium activation and inactivation were determined for a wide range of potentials (V) from -40 to 160 mV with respect to the initial holding level (V = 0 mV). 3. The curves m infinity(V) and h infinity(V) of stationary sodium activation and inactivation were not different in rat and frog fibres. 4. The time constants tau m, tau h of sodium activation and inactivation were normally larger in the rat than in the frog. At moderate depolarizations (0 less than or equal to V less than or equal to 80 mV) tau m in the rat was 15-50% larger; the ratio of the rat to the frog tau h values was usually smaller. Thus tau m/tau h = 0.116 for the rat and 0.0965 for the frog at V = 60 mV (potential with maximum peak sodium inward current). 5. Sodium inactivation in rat nerve was slowed and became incomplete by application of intra-axonal iodate or by treatment with external Anemonia toxin II (ATX II), chloramine-T or Ruthenium Red. Peak sodium currents were not increased by these substances. 6. Wash-out of ATX II from frog nerve was rapid and complete but partly irreversible in rat nerve. This suggests different properties or accessibilities of sodium channels in frog and rat nodes. PMID:2442360

Neumcke, B; Schwarz, J R; Stämpfli, R

1987-01-01

209

Sodium amytal and partially reinforced runway performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition performance of rats in a simple runway was investigated as a function of percentage reinforced trials (100% vs. 50%) and injection solution received prior to daily training (sodium amytal vs. isotonic saline) in a 2 X 2 factorial design. The results obtained from 4 groups of 12 Ss showed 50% reinforcement to lead to faster final speeds than 100%

Allan R. Wagner

1963-01-01

210

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

...benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 H5 NaO2 ), produced by the neutralization of...National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2014-04-01

211

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results.

C. Lhuillier; O. Descombin; F. Baque; B. Marchand; J. F. Saillant; J. M. Augem

2011-01-01

212

Instrumentation for liquid sodium in nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the instrumentation for the measurement of ; physical and chemical characteristics of liquid sodium in reactor coolant and ; related applications. It covers flow, temperature, acceleration and pressure, ; displacement, void fraction and level. Also included are the descriptions of ; instruments for monitoring the general purity and the specific impurities of ; oxygen, hydrogen and

1974-01-01

213

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

...Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium...

2014-04-01

214

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium...

2012-04-01

215

Nedocromil sodium and exercise induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial exercise tests were carried out by 12 children with asthma on two study days. After a control exercise test either nedocromil sodium 4 mg or placebo were given double blind by metered dose inhaler. Highly significant inhibition of exercise induced asthma occurred after nedocromil, lasting for over two hours.

N Chudry; F Correa; M Silverman

1987-01-01

216

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2011-04-01

217

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2010-04-01

218

Dietary Changes for Fat/Cholesterol/Sodium  

E-print Network

G. Dietary Changes for Fat/Cholesterol/Sodium #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Restricted Fat Meal Plan foods. ·Avoid foods with strong odors or those which cause gas production G--DietaryChangesforFat/Cholesterol and Extension Nutrition Specialist, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, The Texas A&M System . G--DietaryChangesforFat/Cholesterol

219

Physics studies for sodium cooled ATW blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the choice of blanket technologies is among the most important technical decisions faced in the Accel- erator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, extensive system studies have been pursued on blanket design. A wide range of potential transmuter configurations and fuel cycle scenarios have been investigated using sodium, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), and gas as coolant. The primary objective has been

R. N. Hill; H. S. Khalil

2001-01-01

220

Concentrated Sodium Citrate (23%) for Catheter Lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

For chronic central venous dialysis catheters, the standard method for maintaining catheter patency between treatments is to instill (lock) catheters with 5000 _ 10 000 units of heparin in each lumen. Sodium citrate (citrate) is an anticoagulant with intrinsic antibacterial activity (at 20% concentration or higher). Citrate has only transient anticoagulant effects if accidentally infused to the patient. Prior studies

Stephen R. Ash; Rita A. Mankus; James M. Sutton; Ruth E. Criswell; Carol C. Crull; Katherine A. Velasquez; Brian D. Smeltzer; Todd S. Ing

221

Inelastic scattering of positrons with sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two potential approach is used to study the resonant 3s-3p excitation of sodium atom by positrons of energy 40 and 54.4eV. The angular variation of coherence and correlation parameters is presented. Comparison with the corresponding parameters in electron scattering is given to see the role of various interaction potentials in electron and positron scattering.

Purohit, S. P.; Mathur, K. C.

1990-01-01

222

Induction of sodium channel clustering by oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As oligodendrocytes wrap axons of the central nervous system (CNS) with insulating myelin sheaths, sodium channels that are initially continuously distributed along axons become segregated into regularly spaced gaps in the myelin called nodes of Ranvier1. It is not known whether the regular spacing of nodes results from regularly spaced glial contacts or is instead intrinsically specified by the axonal

M. R. Kaplan; A. Meyer-Franke; S. Lambert; V. Bennett; I. D. Duncan; S. R. Levinson; B. A. Barres

1997-01-01

223

Sodium Cyclamate, Saccharin and Food Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOLLOWING experiments with 0.43 per cent sodium cyclamate in rat's food1 in which rats consuming cyclamate had a better food efficiency than the controls, I performed two further experiments using two basic rations; saccharin was introduced, and both sweetening agents were given in varying amounts to weanling Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes during 5 weeks.

L. M. Dalderup

1969-01-01

224

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

225

Ball Bearings for High Temperature Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project has been conducted in support of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor development, in which ball bearings have been designed, manufactured, and tested specifically for a typical reactor application involving operation in high temperature sodium.A powder-processed tool steel was selected for rings and balls, and cages were manufactured from various candidate materials. Test bearings were made

Warren E. Jamison; James J. McVeigh

1975-01-01

226

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

227

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

228

Structural elucidation of rabeprazole sodium photodegradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabeprazole sodium is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. It is known to be an acid-labile drug, however, few data about its stability under other factors are available. The aim of this work was to study the photodegradation of rabeprazole, to determine its kinetics and to elucidate the structures of the main

Cássia V. Garcia; Norma S. Nudelman; Martin Steppe; Elfrides E. S. Schapoval

2008-01-01

229

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

230

Power plant VI - Sodium-air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sodium-air cycle central receiver solar electric generating plant is described. The system is designed for liquid sodium to be heated to 750 C in the central receiver heat exchangers, pumped down to the tower base to transfer heat to an air loop, then be returned to the receiver aperture. The air loop would heat to 730 C, insufficient for efficient operation of turbines, and would require a further heating by a supplementary burner to temperatures of 950 C. An efficiency of 35.4 percent is projected for a total output of 10,620 kW. The flux is furnished by a field of 743 heliostats with a total surface area of 36,425 sq m, and received by a tower 120 m tall outfitted with a receiver inclined 45 deg from the horizontal. The sodium-air heat exchange is envisioned to take place in a tank of air interpenetrated by continuous, closed, boustrophedonic loops filled with superheated sodium.

Genier, R.

231

[Determination of sodium by near infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The research on near infrared spectroscopy of sodium in biological and medicine is significant. Sodion is the main component of electrolytes in human blood and electrolytes help maintain the body's acid-base balance. In the present paper the concentration of sodium was determined with the use of NIR spectra. On the basis of NIR spectroscopic measurement mechanism of sodion, prediction models of the concentration of sodium were developed with linear regression using the absorbance at selected wavelengths. In order to reduce temperature perturbations to water bands with the measurement of sodium, Partial least squares regression (PLS) was adopted using select spectra area. The result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.82%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) = 14.5, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 23.7, for the calibration model. It meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy. This technique can be applied to quantitative analysis of sodion in the hospital laboratory. PMID:22715759

Chen, Jian-hong; Zhu, Ling-jian; Hua, Deng-xin

2012-04-01

232

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

233

The Coordinated Sodium Airglow and Lidar Observations over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the relation between the sodium airglow emission and sodium atoms, a narrow-band and narrow field-of-view sodium airglow photometer was operated in campaign modes from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) in conjunction with sodium lidar during March, 2007 and 2008. The airglow observations yielded the temporal variation of altitude-integrated sodium airglow intensity whereas sodium lidar observations provided the altitudinal profile of neutral sodium atoms from 80 to 105 km. These observations reveal the dominance of 30-60 minutes periodicity in sodium airglow variation. Interestingly, sodium airglow on 18-19 March, 2007 shows an unusual variation compared to the other nights of observations. The power spectrum analysis indicates that the periods are different from other nights over Gadanki. Both airglow intensity variation and map of Height-Time-Concentration (HTC) of neutral sodium atoms obtained from sodium lidar observation reveal oscillatory patterns. The periods from the power spectra of sodium atoms variation at 93 and 94 km match well with the periods obtained from sodium airglow variation. Correlation analysis is carried out between the sodium airglow variation and sodium atoms variation at each altitude which also reveals the same peak altitude. The volume emission rate profile of sodium airglow is derived using mesospheric ozone retrieved by SABER instrument onboard TIMED satellite (measured at 01:30 IST; IST=UT+5.5 hrs) nearly over Gadanki. Both the ozone and sodium concentration profiles at that time show a peak at around 94 km. The result obtained from this investigation will be discussed.

Sarkhel, S.; Sekar, R.; Chakrabarty, D.; Narayanan, R.; Sridharan, S.

2009-05-01

234

High Sodium Intake in Women with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Metabolic syndrome and high sodium intake are associated with frequent cardiovascular events. Few studies have estimated sodium intake in subjects with metabolic syndrome by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. We evaluated sodium intake in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Subjects and Methods Participants were recruited by random selection and through advertisement. Twenty four-hour urine collection, ambulatory blood pressure measurements, and blood test were performed. Sodium intake was estimated by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Participants receiving antihypertensive medications were excluded from analysis. Results Among the 463 participants recruited, subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher levels of 24-hour urine sodium excretion than subjects without metabolic syndrome (p=0.0001). There was a significant relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome factors and 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p=0.001). The proportion of subjects with metabolic syndrome was increased across the tertile groups of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001). The association of high sodium intake and metabolic syndrome was significant only among women. Among the factors related to metabolic syndrome, body mass index had an independent association with 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001). Conclusion Women with metabolic syndrome exhibited significantly higher sodium intake, suggesting that dietary education to reduce sodium consumption should be emphasized for women with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497887

Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Chung, Jin-Wook; Bae, Jun-Ho; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Young-Kwon; Lee, Myoung-Mook; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Byun, Jae-Eon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kang, Baeg-Won; Kim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Sun-Woong

2014-01-01

235

75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CALCIUM (Risendronate Sodium and Calcium Carbonate (Copackaged)) Tablets, 35...CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35...CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets,...

2010-07-07

236

Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

237

Sodium-23 and hydrogen-2 nuclear magnetic resonance study of microemulsions containing sodium oleate  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 23/Na shielding and the /sup 23/Na and /sup 2/H relaxation were studied in the microemulsion systems water/sodium oleate/butanol and water/sodium oleate/pentanol/benzene or decane. The results show that at low concentrations of water as well as at high concentrations of alcohol the sodium nuclei experience great electric field gradients. Increasing the water concentration results in an increased shielding of the sodium nuclei and a decrease in both the /sup 23/Na and the /sup 2/H relaxation rates. The effect of added hydrocarbon to a ternary microemulsion depends on the initial water concentration and also on the nature of the hydrocarbon. At low water content the /sup 23/Na relaxation rate decreases, while at high water content the relaxation rate increases. This is interpreted as a consequence of a redistribution of water and alcohol between the aqueous, nonaqueous, and interfacial regions. 24 references.

Sjoblom, E.; Henriksson, U.

1982-10-28

238

Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache. PMID:23463909

Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

2013-10-01

239

Weight loss in narcolepsy patients treated with sodium oxybate  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionNarcolepsy is often associated with increased body weight. Sodium oxybate has efficacy in many narcolepsy symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium oxybate on weight in patients with narcolepsy.

Aatif M. Husain; Ruzica K. Ristanovic; Richard K. Bogan

2009-01-01

240

Changes During Recovery from Sodium Deficiency in Atriplex  

PubMed Central

Although the concentration of sodium in leaves of Atriplex plants increased rapidly after receiving sodium, no growth response was detectable for about 6 days. It was found that respiration rate increased to its maximum within 3 days. Chlorophyll content also increased from an early stage, whereas the concentrations of sugars and starch did not increase, and ratios of soluble to total nitrogen did not decrease until later. The respiratory response appears to be specific to sodium as different salts of sodium caused similar responses, and no other univalent cation substituted for sodium. In addition, both growth response and respiration rate tended towards their maxima with the same concentration of applied sodium. The rate of anaerobic CO2 production increased when sodium was fed to leaves, suggesting that the effect of sodium is in the glycolytic sequence. PMID:16656296

Brownell, P. F.; Jackman, Margaret E.

1966-01-01

241

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-print Network

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

242

21 CFR 520.2261 - Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms. 520.2261...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2261 Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 520.2261 - Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms. 520.2261...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2261 Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage...

2011-04-01

244

21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01...2012-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582...582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

2012-04-01

245

21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582...582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

2013-04-01

246

21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582...582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

2010-04-01

247

21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01...2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582...582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

2011-04-01

248

[Cure of experimental hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis by sodium dichloroacetate].  

PubMed

Sodium dichloroacetate prevents and fights against the severe hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis induced by phenformin, intense muscular work, hypoxia and by adrenalin perfusion. The beneficent effects of sodium dichloroacetate and insulin are additive. PMID:828559

Loubatières, A; Ribes, G; Rondot, A M

1976-12-20

249

[Correction of experimental hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis by sodium dischloroacetate].  

PubMed

Sodium dichloroacetate prevents and fights against the severe hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis induced by phenformin, intense muscular work, hypoxia and by adrenalin perfusion. The beneficent effects of sodium dichloroacetate and insulin are additive. PMID:826352

Loubatières, A; Ribes, G; Valette, G; Rondot, A M

1976-10-18

250

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...factors. (ii) Nature of the food. The food shall meet all of the nutrient content...101.61 for a “low sodium” food. (d) Optional information...dietary sodium consumption: Family history of high blood pressure,...

2011-04-01

251

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...factors. (ii) Nature of the food. The food shall meet all of the nutrient content...101.61 for a “low sodium” food. (d) Optional information...dietary sodium consumption: Family history of high blood pressure,...

2013-04-01

252

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...factors. (ii) Nature of the food. The food shall meet all of the nutrient content...101.61 for a “low sodium” food. (d) Optional information...dietary sodium consumption: Family history of high blood pressure,...

2012-04-01

253

Adhesive properties of soy proteins modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on adhesive and water-resistance properties of soy protein isolates modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate\\u000a (SDS) (0.5, 1, and 3%) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) (0.5, 1, and 3%) and applied on walnut, cherry, and pine\\u000a plywoods. Soy proteins modified by 0.5 and 1% SDS showed greater shear strengths than did unmodified protein. One percent\\u000a SDS modification

Weining Huang; Xiuzhi Sun

2000-01-01

254

Properties and dynamics of mesospheric sodium and the impact on sodium LGS AO systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics systems correct for atmospheric distortion in real time in order to produce sharper images and enhance scientific capabilities. Sky coverage is greatly increased by the use of laser guide stars generated by resonant excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms. However, the performance of such systems is affected by physical process in the upper atmosphere. The extent and density of the sodium region is governed by competing processes of meteoric ablation that produce, and chemical reactions that remove, sodium atoms. The structure of this region is affected by gravity waves, wind shear and turbulence. Temporal and spatial variations in the mean sodium altitude produce focus-induced wavefront errors, degrading performance. Spatial density variations result in laser guide star image structure that reduces wavefront sensing accuracy. In order to better quantify these effects, we developed a high-performance sodium lidar system for the 6-m Large Zenith Telescope. With a power-aperture product more than two orders of magnitude greater than most atmospheric lidar systems, the facility is capable of recording sodium density profiles with sub-second and meter-scale resolution. Results from three years of observations will be presented. These reveal striking variability in the sodium region due to dynamical processes, strong nightly variations, and sporadic events. Meteor ablation trails produce strong spikes in sodium density on sub-second time scales. A recent upgrade now enables us to simulate laser asterisms and directly measure horizontal structure variations. Such variations can produce differential focus errors, an important aspect for multi-laser guide star facilities and multi-object adaptive optics.

Pfrommer, T.; Hickson, P.

2011-09-01

255

Bacteria and acid drainage from coal refuse: inhibition by sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that the application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulphur coal refuse inhibits the activity of iron- and sulphur-oxidising chemo-autotrophic bacteria and reduces the amount of acid drainage from the refuse. Further studies are recommended to assess the usefulness of this method for controlling formation of acid mine

P. R. Dugan; W. A. Apel

1983-01-01

256

[Determination of target compounds in cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium for injection by capillary electrophoresis].  

PubMed

A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in the injectable powder of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium with hydrochlorothiazide as the internal standard. The operation was carried out on a quartz capillary (75 cm x 75 microm i. d. , 63 cm effective length). The electrophoretic conditions were as follows: 40 mmol/L borax solution as the back ground electrolyte (BGE), 12. 0 kV applied voltage, 220 nm as the detection wavelength; the sample solution was injected by hydraulic pressure for 10 s at the height of 10 cm. The cefoperazone and tazobactam showed good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.25-3.96 g/L and 0.062-0.99 g/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 5 and 0.999 6, respectively. The relative standard deviations of relative peak areas were less than 3%. The preparation was stable in 208 min. The recovery results met the methodology requirements. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and suitable to control the quality of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injectable powder. PMID:22667102

Jiang, Ruiyuan; Sun, Guoxiang

2012-01-01

257

Elevation of Morning Blood Pressure in Sodium Resistant Subjects by High Sodium Diet  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the response of blood pressure (BP) by dietary sodium in sodium resistant (SR) subjects. One hundred one subjects (mean age, 46.0 yr; 31 hypertensives) were admitted and given low sodium-dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mM NaCl/day) for 7 days and high sodium-DASH diet (HSD, 300 mM NaCl/day) for the following 7 days. On the last day of each diet, 24 hr ambulatory BP was measured. Morning systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were elevated after HSD in all subjects (P < 0.01), but daytime SBP and DBP were not changed (P > 0.05). In hypertensive subjects, morning DBP elevation was greater than daytime DBP elevation (P = 0.036), although both DBPs were significantly elevated after HSD. The augmented elevation of morning DBP in hypertensive subjects was contributed by the absolute elevation of morning DBP (P = 0.032) and relative elevation to daytime DBP (P = 0.005) in sodium resistant (SR) subjects, but not by sodium sensitive subjects. Although there was no absolute elevation, SR subjects with normotension showed a relative elevation of morning SBP compared to daytime SBP change after HSD (P = 0.009). The present study demonstrates an absolute and relative elevation of morning BP in SR subjects by HSD. PMID:23580363

Lim, Chi-Yeon; Shin, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sang-Woo; Park, Yong-Soon; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Sun-Woong

2013-01-01

258

A sodium manganese oxide cathode by facile reduction for sodium batteries.  

PubMed

A nonstoichiometric sodium manganese oxide (Na(x)MnO(2+?)) cathode useful for sodium batteries was synthesized by an ambient-temperature strategy that involved facile reduction of aqueous sodium permanganate in sodium iodide and subsequent heat treatment at 600?°C. Combined powder X-ray diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the annealed sample to belong to a Na(x)MnO2 phase with a P2-hexagonal structure. The ICP-AES results confirmed the stoichiometry of the sample to be Na0.53MnO(2+?) . Electron microscopy studies revealed the particle size of the electrode to be in the range of a few hundred nanometers. The Na0.53MnO(2+?) cathode delivered an average discharge capacity of 170?mA?h?g(-1) with a stable plateau at 2.1?V for the initial 25?cycles versus sodium. Ex?situ XANES studies confirmed the reversible intercalation of sodium into Na0.53MnO(2+?) and suggested the accommodation of over-stoichiometric Mn(4+) ions to contribute towards the performance of the electrode. PMID:24692202

Song, Jinju; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Sungjin; Kang, Jungwon; Mathew, Vinod; Ahn, Docheon; Kim, Jaekook

2014-06-01

259

THE MODIFICATION OF ALUMINIUM-SILICON ALLOYS BY SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements by autoradiography and activation analysis have revealed ; the distribution of sodium in the microstructures of aluminum --7.5% silicon ; alloys modified by the addition of various amounts of sodium. ; Electronmicroscopic studies indicate that there is no fundamental difference ; between modication by chill casting and modification by sodium addition. A ; previously unobserved submicroscopic phase, the amount

R. C. Plumb; J. E. Lewis

1958-01-01

260

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs P-97-1060...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2013-07-01

261

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs P-97-1060...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2010-07-01

262

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs P-97-1060...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2012-07-01

263

Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

1968-01-01

264

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

265

Sodium deprivation alters neural responses to gustatory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The effects of sodium deprivation for 10 d, a period sufficient to induce sodium appetite, on gustatory nerve discharges in rats were determined. Chorda tympani responses to concentration series of sodium chloride, sucrose, hydrochloric acid, and quinine hydrochloride were recorded and analyzed without the experimenter knowing the animal's deprivation condition. After deprivation,

R. J. Contreras

1979-01-01

266

FFTF sodium and cover gas characterization and purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FFTF Primary and Secondary Heat Transport System (HTS) sodium is purified with cold traps which have packed crystallizers and external economizers. The Primary HTS cold trap is NaK cooled and the Secondary HTS cold traps are air cooled. The FFTF cold traps have maintained high purity in the sodium since sodium fill. Plant operational procedures during fill and initial

J. J. McCown; G. R. Bloom; G. E. Meadows; G. W. Mettler

1980-01-01

267

Thermal stability of dry detergent formulation containing sodium percarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry laundry detergent formulations, powders and unit doses, contain sodium percarbonate at high weight concentrations. Sodium percarbonate is a key cleaning and stain removal technology delivering unbeaten removal of bleachable stains, at affordable cost; however incorporation of this ingredient into detergent formulations poses severe stability problems to be solved. Sodium percarbonate is an unstable chemical ingredient, which, naturally, over ageing

Fabio Zonfrilli; Sarah Germanà; Vincenzo Guida

268

Salty Six--Common Foods Loaded with Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

... stroke . Sodium overload is a major health problem in the United States. The average American consumes about 3,400 milligrams ... the Salty Six, the top sources for sodium in today’s diet : ... to Sodium Consumption—United States, 2007–2008, February 10, 2012 / 61(05);92- ...

269

The Absolute Thermoelectric Power of Some Dilute Liquid Sodium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute thermoelectric powers of liquid sodium and of dilute liquid alloys of sodium with silver, cadmium, indium and tin have been measured within the temperature range 100–460°C. The thermopower of liquid sodium is decreased by the addition of cadmium, indium or tin, with cadmium having the smallest and indium the greatest effect, whereas it is increased slightly on the

H. A. Davies

1969-01-01

270

Evidence for a circulating sodium transport inhibitor in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active sodium transport of white cells and red cells obtained from patients with essential hypertension was impaired. Incubating white cells from normotensive subjects in serum obtained from patients with essential hypertension caused an impairment in sodium transport in the white cells of normotensive subjects similar to that found in the white cells of hypertensive patients. The impairment in sodium

L Poston; R B Sewell; S P Wilkinson; P J Richardson; R Williams; E M Clarkson; G A MacGregor; H E de Wardener

1981-01-01

271

DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins\\/genes

Sunil Sagar; Mandeep Kaur; Adam Dawe; Sundararajan Vijayaraghava Seshadri; Alan Christoffels; Ulf Schaefer; Aleksandar Radovanovic; Vladimir B Bajic

2008-01-01

272

Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Potassium Acid Tartrate, Sodium Potassium Tartrate, Sodium Tartrate and Tartaric Acid as Food Ingredients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, by a group of qualified scientists designated the Select Committee of GRAS Substances (SCOGS), provides an independent evaluation of the safety of potassium acid tartrate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium tartrate, and tartaric acid when used...

1979-01-01

273

A Quantitative Model for the Exchange Current of Porous Molybdenum Electrodes on Sodium Beta-Alumina in Sodium Vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a model of the exchange current developed for porous molybdenum electrodes on sodium beta-alumina ceramics in low pressure sodium vapor, but which has general applicability to gas/porous metal electrodes on solid electrolytes.

Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; LeDuc, H.; Cortez, R. H.; Saipetch, C.; Shields, V.; Manatt, K.; Homer, M. L.

1998-01-01

274

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-16

275

21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...about the level of sodium or salt in a food may only be made...sodium.” (c) The term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium...

2011-04-01

276

Randomized Trial of Oral Sodium Phosphate Compared with Oral Sodium Picosulphate (Picolax) for Elective Colorectal Surgery and Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sodium picosulphate (Picolax) is considered by most British surgeons as standard preparation for colonoscopy and elective surgery. Oral sodium phosphate may be better tolerated and more efficient as bowel preparation. Methods: A randomized trial was performed to compare oral sodium phosphate (n = 76) with Picolax (n = 77) as bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. A parallel study

K. Yoshioka; A. B. Connolly; O. A. Ogunbiyi; H. Hasegawa; D. G. Morton; M. R. B. Keighley

2000-01-01

277

Sodium MRI in a rat migraine model and a NEURON simulation study support a role for sodium in migraine  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increased lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sodium has been reported during migraine. We used ultra-high field MRI to investigate cranial sodium in a rat migraine model, and simulated the effects of extracellular sodium on neuronal excitability. Methods Behavioral changes in the nitroglycerin (NTG) rat migraine model were determined from von Frey hair withdrawal response and photography. Central sensitization was measured by counting cFos-immunoreactive cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Sodium was quantified in vivo by ultra-high field sodium MRI at 21 Tesla. Effects of extracellular sodium on neuronal excitability were modeled using NEURON software. Results NTG decreased von Frey withdrawal threshold (p=0.0003), decreased eyelid vertical height:width ratio (p<0.0001), increased TNC cFos stain (p<0.0001), and increased sodium between 7.5 and 17% in brain, intracranial CSF, and vitreous humor (p<0.05). Simulated neurons exposed to higher sodium have more frequent and earlier spontaneous action potentials, and corresponding earlier sodium and potassium currents. Conclusions In the rat migraine model, sodium rises to levels that increase neuronal excitability. We propose that rising sodium in CSF surrounding trigeminal nociceptors increases their excitability and causes pain and that rising sodium in vitreous humor increases retinal neuronal excitability and causes photosensitivity. PMID:21816771

Harrington, Michael G; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Schepkin, Victor; Fonteh, Alfred N; Arakaki, Xianghong

2012-01-01

278

Analysis of diclofenac sodium and derivatives.  

PubMed

There are two reasons explaining why several researchers have carried out the in vitro release studies of diclofenac sodium (DFNa) using pH media of above 6.5. Firstly the pH dependence of solubility, and secondly the intramolecular cyclization suffered under acidic conditions which causes the salt to become inactivated. Nevertheless, many commercially available pharmaceutical dosage forms have no protective coat to avoid the inactivation in the gastric juices. A possible explanation may be found if reconstitution of the cyclated form takes place. It is therefore necessary to study the behaviour of diclofenac sodium when it is submitted to the action of different solutions in a wide pH range. To perform this study five analytical methods have been employed: UV-vis spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis (IR), X-ray diffractometry (DRX) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). PMID:10701916

Palomo, M E; Ballesteros, M P; Frutos, P

1999-10-01

279

Hydrogen production from ammonia using sodium amide.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new type of process for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts. Effecting the decomposition of NH3 using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na), this represents a significant departure in reaction mechanism compared with traditional surface catalysts. In variable-temperature NH3 decomposition experiments, using a simple flow reactor, the Na/NaNH2 system shows superior performance to supported nickel and ruthenium catalysts, reaching 99.2% decomposition efficiency with 0.5 g of NaNH2 in a 60 sccm NH3 flow at 530 °C. As an abundant and inexpensive material, the development of NaNH2-based NH3 cracking systems may promote the utilization of NH3 for sustainable energy storage purposes. PMID:24972299

David, William I F; Makepeace, Joshua W; Callear, Samantha K; Hunter, Hazel M A; Taylor, James D; Wood, Thomas J; Jones, Martin O

2014-09-24

280

Reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes with sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

Vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes react readily with nucleophilic reagents to form the products of the replacement of one halogen by a nucleophilic residue. These reactions have been studied with F/sup -/ anion and C-, O-, and S-nucleophiles as examples. The present work studies the analogous reaction with the azide anion. When vicinal dibromopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds react with NaN/sub 3/ in DMF, N-methylpyrrolidone, or hexametapol, halogen is replaced by an azide group, and ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides form. The reaction of vicinal dihalopolyfluoroalkanes and related compounds with sodium azide causes replacement of halogen by an azide group probably by an ionic cleavage-addition chain mechanism. Nucleophilic azidobromination of fluoroolefins has been carried out by the action of sodium azide and bromine. These reactions were used to synthesize new ..beta..-halopolyfluoroalkyl azides.

Postovoi, S.A.; Zeifman, Yu.V.; Knunyants, I.L.

1986-12-10

281

Sodium Oxybate in the Treatment of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Narcolepsy is a lifelong neurodegenerative disorder which causes considerable impairment of quality of life. So far the treatment\\u000a for one of the main symptoms excessive daytime sleepiness was restricted to stimulants, whereas the other main symptom cataplexy\\u000a was treated with antidepressants, and fragmented night-time sleep with hypnotics. Sodium oxybate is an efficacious drug for\\u000a all three symptoms which improves the

Geert Mayer

282

FT Raman investigation of sodium cellulose sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

FT Raman investigation of sodium cellulose sulfates (NaCS) was reported. Different NaCS were prepared by two diverse sulfation\\u000a methods and their total degrees of substitution (DS) of sulfate groups were determined through either 13C-NMR spectroscopy or elemental analysis. Subsequently, these NaCS were characterized with FT Raman spectroscopy. The caused\\u000a bands through the introduction of the sulfate groups in cellulose chain

Kai Zhang; Erica Brendler; Steffen Fischer

2010-01-01

283

Materials research for sodium engine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience has shown that the major reason for failure of the sodium heat engine (SHE) is breakage of the β{double prime} - AlâOâ electrolytes (BASE). The life-limiting flaws in BASE tubes are generally found to be large grains and voids. These flaws are thought to originate from inhomogeneities and impurities in the β{double prime} - AlâOâ powder. As a result

D. S. Kupperman; S. Majumdar; J. S. Gregar; J. P. Singh; S. Doris; N. Gopalsami; S. Dieckman; A. C. Raptis

1991-01-01

284

Effects of sodium arsenite on fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single intraperitoneal injections of sodium arsenite were given to albino Swiss-Webster mice on one of days 7–12 of gestation. Two dose levels were used: 10 or 12 mg\\/kg. Arsenite treatment resulted in high rates of fetal deaths and tended to decrease fetal weights-compared with H2O injected controls. Arsenite induced a variety of fetal malformations on gestation days 7–10; the

Ronald D. Hood

1972-01-01

285

Volumetric Properties of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature data for the volumetric properties of sodium chloride solutions to concentrations of 5.5 molal have been compiled and critically evaluated. A semi-empirical equation of the same type found to be effective in describing the thermal properties of NaCl solutions has been used to reproduce the volumetric data from O °C to 300 °C and 1 bar to 1000 bar.

P. S. Z. Rogers; Kenneth S. Pitzer

1982-01-01

286

Radiation-Induced Coloring of Sodium Azide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coloring of sodium azide (NaN3) by gamma-ray and fast and slow neutron bombardment has been studied by reflection measurements. Gamma rays alone produce a broad absorption band at 3600 A, which is little affected by heating at 90°C, and poorly-defined bands at 6600 A and 7600 A which decay completely at room temperature. Fast neutron irradiation at room temperature,

Hyman Rosenwasser; Russell W. Dreyfus; Paul W. Levy

1956-01-01

287

Photoabsorption of Atomic Sodium in the VUV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption spectrum of atomic sodium in the photon energy region from 30 to 150 eV has been investigated. A great number of sharp absorption lines which can be attributed to the excitation of a 2p- or a 2s-electron has been detected. Simultaneous excitation of one 2p- and one 3s-electron gives rise to considerably strong broad and asymmetric absorption structures

H. W. Wolff; K. Radler; B. Sonntag; R. Haensel

1972-01-01

288

Fabrication of Branched Nanotubes of Sodium Niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel three-dimensional (3D) branched nanotubes of sodium niobate (NaNbO3) were produced by a multi-step reaction, which involves the synthesis of Nb2O5 branched nanowires and subsequently treating these precursors in alkali solution. XRD and SEM have been used to analyze current products. All the obtained nanobranches exhibited tubular structure, which was induced by nanoscale Kirkendall effect and surface diffusion. This work

Fei Liu; Dongfeng Xue

2010-01-01

289

Synchrotron radiation damage in sodium bromate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role that lattice defects play in solid-state reactivity and in particular in chemical decomposition has long been of interest to solid-state chemists. Sodium bromate is known to decompose photolytically [I, 2] and thermally [3] to yield a complex range of solids with the evolution of gases such as Br2, O~ and BrO2. This Letter describes a simultaneous assessment of

K. J. Roberts; J. N. Sherwood; D. K. Bowen; S. T. Davies

1982-01-01

290

Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride (F) is known to affect mineralizing tissues, but effects upon the developing brain have not been previously considered. This study in Sprague-Dawley rats compares behavior, body weight, plasma and brain F levels after sodium fluoride (NaF) exposures during late gestation, at weaning or in adults. For prenatal exposures, dams received injections (SC) of 0.13 mg\\/kg NaF or saline on

Phyllis J. Mullenix; Pamela K. Denbesten; Ann Schunior; William J. Kernan

1995-01-01

291

Epithelial sodium channel, salt intake, and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a membrane protein made of three different but homologous subunits (?, ?, and ?) present\\u000a in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of, for example, the distal nephron. This channel is responsible for salt reabsorption\\u000a in the kidney and can cause human diseases by increasing channel function in Liddle’ syndrome, a form of hereditary

Edith Hummler

2003-01-01

292

Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

1985-08-01

293

Equation of state for pure sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

An equation of state for pure sodium chloride has been developed on the basis of experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model (RPM). The experimental data base included limited vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data as well as dimerization equilibrium constants. The liquid densities have been extrapolated to the supercooled region using liquid-phase Monte Carlo data. For this purpose, the parameters of the primitive model have been calculated by assuming that sodium chloride and RPM obey the corresponding states principle over a limited range of conditions. In the near-critical region Monte Carlo data as well as results of cluster calculations have been used with parameters scaled to reproduce the critical temperature obtained by extrapolating saturation data. The RPM parameters employed in the calculations are close to those for crystalline NaCl. The experimental and scaled Monte Carlo data have been reproduced within their accuracy using a van der Waals-type equation of state with two temperature-dependent parameters a and b. The functions representing the temperature dependence of the parameters have been designed to ensure reliable extrapolation to lower and higher temperatures. Dimerization of sodium chloride has been allowed for by using a closed-form term representing the effect of association on the compressibility factor. The performance of the equation has been additionally verified by predicting compressibility factors at low reduced temperatures outside the saturation region and comparing them with scaled Monte Carlo data. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Anderko, A; Pitzer, K S

1991-06-01

294

Unexpected stable stoichiometries of sodium chlorides  

E-print Network

At ambient pressure, sodium, chlorine, and their only known compound NaCl, have well-understood crystal structures and chemical bonding. Sodium is a nearly-free-electron metal with the bcc structure. Chlorine is a molecular crystal, consisting of Cl2 molecules. Sodium chloride, due to the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, has highly ionic chemical bonding, with stoichiometry 1:1 dictated by charge balance, and rocksalt (B1-type) crystal structure in accordance with Pauling's rules. Up to now, Na-Cl was thought to be an ultimately simple textbook system. Here, we show that under pressure the stability of compounds in the Na-Cl system changes and new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at pressure as low as 25 GPa. In addition to NaCl, our theoretical calculations predict the stability of Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3 and NaCl7 compounds with unusual bonding and electronic properties. The bandgap is closed for the majority of these materials. Guided by these predictions, we h...

Zhang, Weiwei; Goncharov, Alexander F; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B

2012-01-01

295

Pharmacological Modifications of the Sodium Channels of Frog Nerve  

PubMed Central

Voltage clamp measurements on myelinated nerve fibers show that tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and DDT specifically affect the sodium channels of the membrane. Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin render the sodium channels impermeable to Na ions and to Li ions and probably prevent the opening of individual sodium channels when one toxin molecule binds to a channel. The apparent dissociation constant of the inhibitory complex is about 1 nM for the cationic forms of both toxins. The zwitter ionic forms are much less potent. On the other hand, DDT causes a fraction of the sodium channels that open during a depolarization to remain open for a longer time than is normal. The effect cannot be described as a specific change in sodium inactivation or as a specific change in sodium activation, for both processes continue to govern the opening of the sodium channels and neither process is able to close the channels. The effects of DDT are very similar to those of veratrine. PMID:5641635

Hille, Bertil

1968-01-01

296

Effect of Sodium Alkanoates on Micellization of Dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium Chloride in Aqueous Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the interaction of sodium alkanoates viz. sodium acetate, sodium propionate, sodium butanoate, sodium hexanoate and sodium benzoate on the micellization of dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride using conductometeric and flourscence quenching experiments carried out at 25°C. The analysis has been made through study of variation of critical micelle concentration (cmc), degree of counterion binding (?), aggregation number (N),

Adil Amin; Aijaz Ahmad Dar; Mohsin Ahmad Bhat; Musarat Jan; Nuzhat Rehman; Mohammad Amin Mir; Ghulam Mohammad Rather

2008-01-01

297

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15

298

Sodium vanadium oxide: a new material for high-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have the potential to become the technology of choice for large-scale electrochemical energy storage because of the high sodium abundance and low costs. However, not many materials meet the performance requirements for practical applications. Here, we report a novel sodium-ion battery electrode material, Na(2.55)V(6)O(16)?0.6?H(2)O, that shows significant capacities and stabilities at high current rates up to 800 mA?g(-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are carried out to better understand the underlying reactions. Moreover, due to the different oxidation states of vanadium, this material can also be employed in a symmetric full cell, which would decrease production costs even further. For these full cells, capacity and stability tests are conducted using various cathode:anode mass ratios. PMID:25044526

Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Nair, Vivek Sahadevan; Ling, Cheah Yan; Wang, Yuxi; Hoster, Harry E; Srinivasan, Madhavi

2014-07-21

299

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst  

PubMed Central

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

300

Effect of sodium ascorbate on resin bonding to sodium perborate-bleached dentin.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This was an in vitro study to evaluate the effect of sodium ascorbate on the microshear bond strength (MSBS) of resin composite to sodium perborate-bleached dentin. Molar dentin sections were divided into six groups: 1) control, 2) sodium perborate (SP) bleach and immediate bonding, 3) SP and 30 second sodium ascorbate (SA); 4) SP and 1 minute SA; 5) SP and 2 minute SA; and 6) SP and 7 day delay before bonding. They were further divided into two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond) or all-in-one self-etching (Xeno IV) adhesive systems. Resin composite microtubes were bonded according to dentin location-center, pulp horn, and peripheral positions-and an MSBS test was carried out. Failure mode was determined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. There were no significant differences between the treatment types/groups. MSBSs were significantly higher for two-step self-etching adhesive compared with all-in-one self-etching adhesive (p=0.028). For the all-in-one adhesive, MSBSs at the center and pulp horn positions were significantly lower than the peripheral positions (p<0.001). All-in-one groups had significantly more adhesive failures than two-step adhesive groups (p=0.015). The odds of adhesive failure were higher at the pulp horn position than the peripheral position (p=0.004). Sodium perborate bleaching of dentin had no effect on MSBS or mode of failure for either two-step or all-in-one self-etching adhesives; therefore, the effect of sodium ascorbate was negligible. The two-step adhesive groups demonstrated the highest MSBS, and the all-in-one groups, when bonded to center and pulp horn dentin, exhibited the lowest MSBS. PMID:23713808

Yoon, M; Burrow, M F; Wong, R; Parashos, P

2014-01-01

301

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09

302

Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

Cao Guangxiang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Song Xinyu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Haiyun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan Chunhua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yin Zhilei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun Sixiu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

2006-02-02

303

Sodium movements in perfused squid giant axons. Passive fluxes.  

PubMed

Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm(2)sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm(2)sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 +/- 3 pmoles/cm(2)sec and 41 +/- 10 pmoles/cm(2)sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm(2)impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium. PMID:5672003

Rojas, E; Canessa-Fischer, M

1968-08-01

304

Sodium-coupled motility in a swimming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

The energetics of motility in Synechococcus strain WH8113 were studied to understand the unique nonflagellar swimming of this cyanobacterium. There was a specific sodium requirement for motility such that cells were immotile below 10 mM external sodium and cell speed increased with increasing sodium levels above 10 mM to a maximum of about 15 microns/s at 150 to 250 mM sodium. The sodium motive force increased similarly with increasing external sodium from -120 to -165 mV, but other energetic parameters including proton motive force, electrical potential, the proton diffusion gradient, and the sodium diffusion gradient did not show such a correlation. Over a range of external sodium concentrations, cell speed was greater in alkaline environments than in neutral or acidic environments. Monensin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone inhibited motility and affected components of sodium motive force but did not affect ATP levels. Cells were motile when incubated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and arsenate, which decreased cellular ATP to about 2% of control values. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion that the direct source of energy for Synechococcus motility is a sodium motive force and that below a threshold of about -100 mV, cells are immotile. PMID:3112121

Willey, J M; Waterbury, J B; Greenberg, E P

1987-01-01

305

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-01-01

306

Self association of sodium salicylate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation behavior of sodium salicylate (SS) in aqueous solutions has been studied by positronium annihilation technique. From the change of the pick-off life time as well as the intensity of the ortho-positronium component, it has been concluded that the minimal hydrotropic concentration (MHC) of SS lies in the range 0.9-1.0 M concentration. To support the above contention, the molecular association of SS has also been investigated by the changes in light scattering intensity, conductivity as well as NMR data. These experiments conjointly infer that the stacking of SS molecules appears to start beyond 0.9 M concentration.

Das, Subir Kumar; Das, Shrabani; Ganguly, B. Nandi; Maitra, Amarnath

2003-09-01

307

Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. PMID:22961543

Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, Francois

2012-01-01

308

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

SciTech Connect

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

309

Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels. PMID:15769164

Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

2005-03-23

310

Sodium: a male moth's gift to its offspring.  

PubMed Central

Males of the moth Gluphisia septentrionis acquire sodium by drinking from mud puddles. Analyses of male and female bodies indicate that such "puddling" behavior enables the male to provide his mate with a nuptial gift of sodium, presumably via the spermatophore. This gift (about 10 microg), amounting to more than half of a puddler male's total body sodium, is in large measure apportioned by the female to her eggs. Puddler-sired eggs contain 2 to 4 times more sodium than those control-sired; this difference is already apparent in eggs laid the night after mating. Paternal endowment of offspring with sodium had not previously been demonstrated for an insect to our knowledge. The potential adaptive significance of such chemical bestowal is evident, given that the foliar diet of G. septentrionis larvae is extremely low in sodium content. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:11607627

Smedley, S R; Eisner, T

1996-01-01

311

Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Systemic bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% were compared with those of oral diclofenac sodium 50-mg tablets. In a randomized, 3-way crossover study, healthy volunteers (n = 40) received three 7-day diclofenac regimens: (A) 16 g gel applied as 4 g to 1 knee 4 times daily (4 g on surface area 400 cm(2)), (B) 48 g gel applied as 4 g per knee 4 times daily to 2 knees plus 2 g gel per hand applied 4 times daily to 2 hands (12 g on 1200 cm(2)), and (C) 150 mg oral diclofenac applied as 50-mg tablets 3 times daily. Thirty-nine participants completed all 3 regimens. Systemic exposure was greater with oral diclofenac (AUC(0-24), 3890 +/- 1710 ng x h/mL) than with topical treatments A (AUC(0-24), 233 +/- 128 ng x h/mL) and B (AUC(0-24), 807 +/- 478 ng x h/mL). Oral diclofenac inhibited platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and COX-2. Topical diclofenac did not inhibit platelet aggregation and inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 less than oral diclofenac. Treatment-related adverse events were mild and limited to application site reactions with diclofenac sodium gel 1% (n = 4) and gastrointestinal reactions with oral diclofenac (n = 3). Systemic exposure with diclofenac sodium gel 1% was 5- to 17-fold lower than with oral diclofenac. Systemic effects with topical diclofenac were less pronounced. PMID:19841157

Kienzler, Jean-Luc; Gold, Morris; Nollevaux, Fabrice

2010-01-01

312

Sodium transport and mechanism(s) of sodium tolerance in Frankia strains.  

PubMed

The mechanism(s) underlying differential salt sensitivity/tolerance were investigated in the terms of altered morphological and physiological responses against salinity such as growth, electrolyte leakage, Na? uptake, efflux, accumulation and intracellular concentrations of macronutrients among the Frankia strains newly isolated from Hippöphae salicifolia D. Don. Growth was minimally reduced at 500 and 250?mM NaCl respectively in HsIi10 and rest of the strains (HsIi2, HsIi8, HsIi9) which proved that 500 and 250?mM NaCl are the critical concentrations for the respective strains. The differences in the sodium influx/efflux rate was responsible for the differential amount of remaining sodium among the frankial strains and might be one of the primary determinants for the reestablishment of macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) during salinity. Secondly, the interactive effect of sodium influx/efflux rate, remaining sodium and intracellular macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) concentration has been responsible for the extent of membrane damage and growth sustenance of the tolerant/sensitive frankial strains during salinity. HsIi10 showed better co-regulation of various factors and managed to tolerate salt stress up to considerable extent. Therefore, HsIi10 can serve as a potential biofertilizer in the saline soil. PMID:22733696

Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Satya Shila; Mishra, Arun Kumar

2013-02-01

313

Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows.  

PubMed

Lactating dairy cows prepared with rumen fistulas were fed on grass silage and concentrates and used in two experiments to compare the effects of sodium acetate and sodium chloride infused over 3 h into the rumen on the voluntary intake of silage. Silage intake was depressed in an approximately linear manner by increasing amounts (6-15 mol) of sodium acetate (NaOAc) and 15 mol NaCl had an effect similar to that of 12 mol NaOAc. Sodium in rumen fluid was significantly correlated with intake as was osmolality. 5.5, 7.4 or 9.1 mol of NaOAc significantly depressed silage intake, while 7.4 and 9.1 mol NaCl had significant effects. There were significant negative relationships between intake and the level of NaOAc or NaCl. It is concluded that the major effect of either salt was via the elevation of osmolality of rumen fluid and the relevance to normal control of feeding is discussed. PMID:1482166

Forbes, J M; Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H

1992-12-01

314

Degradation of sodium beta''-alumina electrolyte in contact with sulfur/sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

Immersion of sodium ..beta..'' alumina electrolyte in sodium polysulfide and pure sulfur melts, at Na/S battery operation temperatures, showed that the electrolyte was chemically attacked by the melts. The corrosion reactions mostly initiated and concentrated on defect areas, and were catalyzed by the presence of impurities such as water, moist air, oxygen, etc. The corrosion power of sodium polysulfide melts increased going from Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/ to Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/. The reaction products at the interface were believed to be Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, NaHSO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, NaOH, etc. Recrystallization of the sulfates occurred on preferred areas after saturation. Corrosion products of transition metals also deposited on the electrolyte surface. Degraded sodium ..beta..''-alumina electrolytes, removed from four commercial cells, were characterized. Observations indicated that during cell operation a protective layer formed on the electrolyte surface. This layer, similar to that found in the static tests, spalled off when inhomogeneous ionic currents cause the nonuniform formation of compounds underneath it during cell operation, leading to continued electrochemical degradation. The intergranular regions were corroded preferentially due to local current concentration. The influence of the microstructure of the electrolyte, impurity contamination, cell construction, and cycling conditions on electrolyte degradation are discussed.

Liu, M.

1986-05-01

315

Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

1985-01-01

316

Influence of sodium sulphite on corrosion inhibition by the sodium gluconate –Zn2+ system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency of sodium gluconate (SG) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in the environment containing 60 ppm Cl– has been evaluated in the presence and absence of Zn2+ by weight loss method. SG and Zn2+ show a synergistic effect. The protective film has been analysed by FTIR and fluorescence spectra. The protective film consists of Fe2+-gluconate complex

A. John Amalraj; M. Sundaravadivelu; A. Peter Pascal Regis; S. Rajendran

2001-01-01

317

Sodium valproate induced increased frequency of micturition and enuresis  

PubMed Central

Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiepileptic drug (AED) for control of a broad range of seizures. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to sodium valproate range from sedation to nausea, vomiting, weight gain, idiosyncratic adverse effects like hepatotoxicity and life threatening conditions like pancreatitis. We present a case of sodium valproate induced enuresis in child. This ADR of valproate is an underreported ADR and requires special attention of pediatricians as it can interfere with the further treatment of the disease. PMID:23543036

Gosavi, Devesh D.; Suman, Akanksha; Jain, Manish

2013-01-01

318

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio-LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970-Campinas, SP, Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

319

The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

1976-01-01

320

SOME MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVE SODIUM TRANSPORT*  

PubMed Central

A method was experimentally tested which allows simultaneous morphological and bioelectrical studies of a tissue that performs active sodium transport, i.e., the isolated, surviving frog skin. In a four cell lucite chamber with four separate electric potential and current circuits, skin specimens for morphological observation (light and electron microscopy) were fixed in situ in well-defined functional states. The rate of active sodium transport through the epithelium of Rana temporaria skin was modified by changing the strength of the electric current passed through the specimens. A marked, reversible swelling of the outermost layer of the stratum granulosum was observed during short circuiting of the skin compared to the homogeneous appearance of the epithelium under open circuit conditions. Doubling the ingoing current led to an additional small increase of the swelling or the appearance of islets of cell necrosis in the same layer. There were signs of a slight shrinkage of the underlying cell layers. The observations are discussed in the light of previous bioelectrical and morphological observations. PMID:5645551

Voute, Cornelis L.; Ussing, Hans H.

1968-01-01

321

Review of sodium analysis proficiency test results.  

PubMed

Proficiency testing results for sodium analysis in foods raised concerns over the proportion of laboratories achieving satisfactory z-scores. Test materials for sodium analysis include fruit juice, canned meat meal, tomato sauce, cheese and pasta meal, and snack food. Fruit juice and tomato sauce data sets are the most problematic in deriving the assigned value with sufficiently low uncertainty to provide evaluative z-scores. The standard deviation for proficiency is derived from Horwitz, with a lack of collaborative trial data for these matrices to provide other guidance. The status of accreditation for the method/matrix does not appear to influence the observed variation in results. Microwave digestion is much less commonly used than simple acid digestion. The choice of determination method appears to be entirely matrix dependent (whether flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame photometry or inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy). Results for juice matrix may be overestimated if flame photometry is used, due to either potassium interference or careless reporting where potassium is also determined. PMID:21240823

Sykes, M; Parmar, B; Knaggs, M

2011-02-01

322

QUANTIFICATION OF A GASTROINTESTINAL SODIUM CHANNELOPATHY  

PubMed Central

Nav1.5 sodium channels, encoded by SCN5A, have been identified in human gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). A recent study found a novel, rare missense R76C mutation of the sodium channel interacting protein telethonin in a patient with primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The presence of a mutation in a patient with a motility disorder, however, does not automatically imply a cause-effect relationship between the two. Patch clamp experiments on HEK-293 cells previously established that the R76C mutation altered Nav1.5 channel function. Here the process through which these data were quantified to create stationary Markov state models of wild-type and R76C channel function is described. The resulting channel descriptions were included in whole cell ICC and SMC computational models and simulations were performed to assess the cellular effects of the R76C mutation. The simulated ICC slow wave was decreased in duration and the resting membrane potential in the SMC was depolarized. Thus, the R76C mutation was sufficient to alter ICC and SMC cell electrophysiology. However, the cause-effect relationship between R76C and intestinal pseudo-obstruction remains an open question. PMID:21959314

Yong Cheng, Poh; Beyder, Arthur; Strege, Peter R.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Buist, Martin L.

2012-01-01

323

New role for plasmin in sodium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hypertension and edema are clinical manifestations of the extracellular volume expansion generated by abnormal renal sodium handling. Perturbations in epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity disrupt volume homeostasis. ENaC activity can be enhanced by proteases that cleave its long extracellular domains. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be involved in individuals with volume overload and proteinuria. Recent findings Several observations indicate a link between proteinuria and hypertension, with proteinuria preceding and predicting the onset of incident hypertension in some individuals. Recently, enhanced cleavage of ENaC's extracellular loops was identified in kidney tissue of proteinuric mice. Plasmin, a serine protease known for its role in fibrinolysis, has been implicated as an activator of ENaC in proteinuric states as (i) nephrotic urine activates ENaC expressed in a mouse collecting duct cell line, (ii) aprotinin-affinity precipitation of nephrotic urine abolishes its ability to activate ENaC, (iii) plasmin is a major component within aprotinin-affinity purified nephrotic urine and is absent in non-proteinuric urine, and (iv) plasmin activates ENaC by cleaving the extracellular loop of its ? subunit. Summary Enhancement of ENaC activity by proteases represents a likely mechanism for extracellular volume overload relevant to some individuals with proteinuria. Proteases not normally found in the urine can enter the urinary space across damaged glomeruli and activate ENaC. Further understanding of this mechanism may guide targeted therapeutics in individuals with proteinuria, edema, and hypertension. PMID:19864949

Passero, Christopher J.; Hughey, Rebecca P.; Kleyman, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

324

Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

1983-08-15

325

Conceptual design report, Sodium Storage Facility, Fast Flux Test Facility, Project F-031  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Storage Facility Conceptual Design Report provides conceptual design for construction of a new facility for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium.

Shank, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-14

326

Local and systemic effects of orally applied sodium salts.  

PubMed

This study determines whether the oral application of a baking soda-3% hydrogen peroxide dentifrice and a nearly saturated sodium chloride mouthwash, as a home care method for treating periodontal disease, creates a sodium burden for human subjects. The dietary intake and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were monitored in participating subjects. Urinary sodium did not increase in subjects using the method. Desquamative gingival lesions, however, were seen in all treated subjects. Further study is needed to determine safe salt concentrations for this home care regimen. PMID:3021830

Herrin, J R; Rubright, W C; Squier, C A; Lawton, W J; Osborn, M O; Stumbo, P J; Grigsby, W R

1986-10-01

327

Sodium and Potassium Intake Patterns and Trends in South Korea  

PubMed Central

We examined major trends and patterns regarding sodium and potassium intake and the ratio of sodium and potassium in the diets of South Koreans. We analyzed detailed 24-hour dietary recall data collected from 10,267; 8,819; and 9,264 subjects ages two years and older in the 1998, 2005, and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, respectively. Mean sodium intake did not change significantly between 1998 and 2009 (4.6 g/d vs 4.7 g/d), while potassium intake increased significantly [2.6 g/d vs. 2.9 g/d (p < 0.001)]. The major dietary sodium sources were kimchi, salt, soy sauce, and soybean paste, and most potassium came from unprocessed foods (white rice, vegetables, kimchi, and fruits). About 50 percent of the participants consumed 4 or more grams of sodium per capita per day. The proportion of respondents consuming 4 to 6 grams of potassium per capita per day increased from 10.3 percent in 1998 to 14.3 percent in 2009 (p < 0.001), and the sodium-potassium ratio decreased from 1.88 to 1.71 (p < 0.001). One major implication is that efforts to reduce sodium in processed foods will be ineffective and future efforts must focus on both education to reduce use of sodium in food preparation and sodium replacement in salt, possibly with potassium. PMID:23151751

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

2013-01-01

328

Effect of Nedocromil Sodium on Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Plasma Membrane  

PubMed Central

The effect of nedocromil sodium on the plasma membrane fluidity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated by measuring steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1-[4-trimethylammonium-phenyl]-6-phenyl- 1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) incorporated in the membrane. Our results show that nedocromil sodium 300 ?M significantly decreased membrane fluidity of PMNs. The decrease in membrane fluidity of PMNs induced by fMLP was abolished in the presence of nedocromil sodium. These data suggest that nedocromil sodium interferes with the plasma membranes of PMNs and modulates their activities. PMID:18475598

Oggiano, N.; Giorgi, P. L.; Coppa, G. V.; Gabbianelli, R.; Bruni, S.; Cutrona, F. M.; Fiorini, R.

1994-01-01

329

21 CFR 862.1665 - Sodium test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1665 Sodium test system. (a)...

2011-04-01

330

21 CFR 862.1665 - Sodium test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1665 Sodium test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

331

21 CFR 862.1665 - Sodium test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1665 Sodium test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

332

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.  

SciTech Connect

Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

2012-05-01

333

Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

1990-01-01

334

Theoretical and experimental studies of the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric atomic sodium was studied with a laser radar system. Photocount data were processed using a digital filter to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium concentration versus altitude. Wave-like structures in the sodium layer were observed, and there was evidence for the presence of a standing wave in the layer. The bottomside of the layer was observed to undulate with a period of about 2 1/2 hours, and the layer was observed to broaden through the night. A meteor ablation-cluster ion theory of sodium was developed. The theory shows good agreement with existing atmospheric observations as well as laboratory measurements of rate constants.

Richter, E. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

1978-01-01

335

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

Schiozer, A.L.

1994-03-01

336

Vapour pressure of water over saturated solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate, calcium tartrate, barium tartrate, citric acid, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate at temperatures from 277 K to 317 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate, calcium tartrate, barium tartrate, citric acid, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate were determined in the temperature range (277 to 317)K using an electronic hygrometer. Only for tartaric acid, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate and citric acid was it possible to compare the

Emanuel Manzurola; Alexander Apelblat

2003-01-01

337

Sodium intake among adults - United States, 2005-2006.  

PubMed

Excessive dietary sodium consumption increases blood pressure, which increases the risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and renal disease. Based on predictive modeling of the health benefits of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, a population-wide reduction in sodium of 1,200 mg/day would reduce the annual number of new cases of coronary heart disease by 60,000-120,000 cases and stroke by 32,000-66,000 cases. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommends that specific groups, including persons with hypertension, all middle-aged and older adults, and all blacks should limit intake to 1,500 mg/day of sodium. These specific groups include nearly 70% of the U.S. adult population. For all other adults, the recommended limit is <2,300 mg/day of sodium. To estimate the proportion of adults whose sodium consumption was within recommended limits, CDC analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2005-2006, the most recent data available. Estimated average sodium intake and sources of sodium and calories by food category also were analyzed. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that only 5.5% of adults in the sodium intake to below the recommended limits, food manufacturers and retailers can reduce sodium content in processed and restaurant foods, public health professionals and health-care providers can implement sodium reduction strategies and educate consumers about sodium, and consumers can modify their eating habits. PMID:20577156

2010-06-25

338

On the sodium abundance in cometary meteoroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained the chemical abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni relative to Si for thirteen fireballs, most of them produced by cometary meteoroids. We used a model developed by Borovicka (1993) to determine realistic physical parameters in the meteor column and the relative chemical abundances along the fireball path (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2003). Although most of the relative elemental chemical abundances in meteoroids fit well with chondritic values, we have noted that sodium is overabundant in meteor columns (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004). This overabundance is accompanied by other interesting patterns: (i) The spectral lines associated with multiplet 1 of Na I usually appear before the lines of other elements. This could be related to some volatile phase that is easily removed from the meteoroid in the first steps of ablation. Different reservoirs of easily-removable Na may be present in cometary meteoroids, such as organics or phyllosilicates (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004); (ii) The intensity of the Na I lines increases in bright flares associated with the process of fragmentation of the incoming meteoroid. If the structure of cometary meteoroids is similar to the dustball model invoked by Hawkes & Jones (1975), Na could be present as a mineral phase "gluing" mineral grains and, in consequence, it would be released easily during fragmentation events. Although Na is practically omnipresent in cometary meteor spectra, Na-bearing phases are rare in aggregate and cluster Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and usually the Na/Si ratio is clearly below the chondritic value (Rietmeijer, 2002). Our analysis, however, shows that sodium is overabundant in cometary meteoroids (Trigo-Rodriguez et al., 2004). One possibility, as proposed by Rietmeijer (1999), is that the accepted cosmic ratio of Na/Si is not accurate, being two times the currently accepted value. In any case, our idea is that an important part of the sodium present in meteoroids is unable to survive the heating induced during atmospheric deceleration and/or the solar irradiation suffered during the meteoroids residence in the interplanetary medium. From a theoretical point of view, degradation of such volatile elements as potassium (and sodium) is also predicted during long stays in the interplanetary medium (Young, 2000). Therefore, we propose to use Na as a tracer for the presence of volatile phases in cometary meteoroids. If this element is really associated with these phases, its detection could bring important insights about the role that degradation processes play in the delivery of organic matter and volatiles to the Earth from cometary material (Jenniskens, 2001). Meteor spectroscopy can be a valuable tool in understanding the mechanisms that regulate the entry of cometary matter into the Earth. REFERENCES Betlem H., Jenniskens P., Spurny P., Van Leeuwen G.D., Miskotte K, Ter Kuile C.R., Zarubin P. and Angelos C., 2000, EM&P 82-83, p.277-284. Borovicka J. (1993) Astronomy & Astrophysics 279, 627-645. Borovicka J., R.Stork and J. Bocek (1999) Met. & Planet. Sci. 34, p.987-994. Hawkes R.L. and J. Jones (1975) Mon.Not. Roy. Astron.Soc. 173, pp.339-356. Jenniskens P. (2001) Proc. Meteoroids 2001 Conf., 6-10, Kiruna, Sweden. Ed.: Barbara Warmbein. ESA SP-495, Noordwijk, 247-254. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (1999) ApJ 514, L125-L127. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (2002) in Planetary Materials, Reviews in Mineralogy 36, pp.2-1, 2-95. Trigo-Rodríguez J.M., J. Llorca, J. Borovi?ka and J. Fabregat (2003) Met. & Planet. Science 38, n. 8, pp. 1283-1294. Trigo-Rodríguez J.Ma, J. Llorca and J. Fabregat (2004) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Association, in press. Young E.D. (2000) Earth & Planetary Science Letters 183, pp. 321-333.

Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.

339

Sodium transport system in plant cells  

PubMed Central

Since sodium, Na, is a non-essential element for the plant growth, the molecular mechanism of Na+ transport system in plants has remained elusive for the last two decades. The accumulation of Na+ in soil through irrigation for sustainable agricultural crop production, particularly in arid land, and by changes in environmental and climate conditions leads to the buildup of toxic level of salts in the soil. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, extensive molecular research has identified several classes of Na+ transporters that play major roles in the alleviation of ionic stress by excluding toxic Na+ from the cytosol or preventing Na+ transport to the photosynthetic organs, and also in osmotic stress by modulating intra/extracellular osmotic balance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of three major Na+ transporters, namely NHX, SOS1, and HKT transporters, including recently revealed characteristics of these transporters. PMID:24146669

Yamaguchi, Toshio; Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

340

Sodium oxybate-induced central sleep apneas.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (?-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969

Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

2013-09-01

341

Sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in polyacrylamide gels.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyacrylamide gels have been made in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The use of these gels for electrophoresis, after removal of the SDS, has demonstrated that the micelles modify the internal gel structure(R. Rill, B. Locke, Y. Liu, J. Dharia, D Van Winkle, Electrophoresis 17), 1304 (1996).. The phase diagram of SDS in buffer exhibits several transitions as a function of concentration and ionic strength. The SDS concentration used for templating gels is quite high, on the order of 20 - 30% by weight. This is the range in which the micellar system undergoes phase transitions. X-ray and light scattering experiments on gels with and without SDS and in SDS-buffer solutions were performed to understand the structure of the templated pores left after SDS removal. These experiments indicate the characteristic length scales associated with SDS micelles in gels changes from 3 to 15 nm as the gel and the SDS concentrations are varied.

van Winkle, David H.; Kettwig, Franz; Rill, Randolph L.; Liu, Yingjie; Locke, Bruce R.

1997-03-01

342

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOEpatents

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19

343

Unexpected Stable Stoichiometries of Sodium Chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or rocksalt, is well characterized at ambient pressure. As a result of the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, it has highly ionic chemical bonding (with 1:1 stoichiometry dictated by charge balance) and B1-type crystal structure. By combining theoretical predictions and diamond anvil cell experiments, we found that new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at high pressures. Compounds such as Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3, and NaCl7 are theoretically stable and have unusual bonding and electronic properties. To test this prediction, we synthesized cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl. These experiments establish that compounds violating chemical intuition can be thermodynamically stable even in simple systems at nonambient conditions.

Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konôpková, Zuzana

2013-12-01

344

Sudden sodium layers in polar latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses sudden sodium layers (SSLs), which are observed with an Na lidar instrument at Andenes, Norway. There is an SSL if, in a narrow altitude range (typically less than 2 km), the Na density increases over the normal Na density by a factor of at least 2 within 5 min. Between December 1985 and November 1987, 42 such layers were observed in 378 h of lidar measurements. This number increases to 75 if only an increase of a factor of 1.5 within 8 min is required. SSLs have the following properties: (1) they develop between 90 and 110 km altitude; (2) they develop between 20 and 02 LT; (3) their appearance shows a strong positive correlation with that of f-type Es layers; and (4) their appearance does not show a strong correlation with either riometer absorption or meteor showers.

Hansen, G.; von Zahn, U.

1990-08-01

345

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation  

E-print Network

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera Transition Probabilities, Vol. II: Sodium through Calcium, NSRDS-NBS Vol. 2 U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1969 . Atomic transition probabilities have been critically evaluated and compiled for about 11 400 spectral

Magee, Joseph W.

346

Estimation of sodium requirement of growing chukar partridge (Alectoris graeca).  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted with growing chukar partridges to estimate their sodium requirement for growth. Birds fed the basal diet (0.025% Na) had poor growth and high mortality. A total of about 0.095% dietary sodium was adequate for maximum growth and minimal mortality. PMID:674019

Anthony, D L; Lumijarvi, D H; Vohra, P

1978-01-01

347

Sodium fast reactor power monitoring using 20F tagging agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the use of gamma spectrometry to monitor the fourth generation sodium fast reactor (SFR) power. Simulation part has shown that power monitoring in short response time and with high accuracy is possible measuring delayed gamma emitters produced in the liquid sodium. An experimental test is under preparation at French SFR Phe?nix experimental reactor to validate simulation

R. Coulon; S. Normand; G. Ban; V. Dumarcher; H. P. Brau; L. Barbot; T. Domenech; V. Kondrasovs; G. Corre; A. M. Frelin; T. Montagu; T. Dautremer; E. Barat

2009-01-01

348

Non destructive examination of immersed structures within liquid sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In Service Inspection of internal structures of future liquid sodium cooled fast reactors implies, among different options, the use of ultrasounds from the outside of sodium circuit. In these conditions, ultrasounds have to propagate through the metallic envelope of main vessel, then other immersed plates. Thus the study aims at mastering ultrasonic propagation in these multilayered structures in order

F. Baque; K. Paumel; G. Corneloup; M A. Ploix; J. M. Augem

2011-01-01

349

Ultrasonic techniques for improving inspection of sodium-cooled systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, the CEA, EDF, AREVA launched a coordinated research program for the development of Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR). A R&D program has been defined for the development of ultrasonic (US) techniques in sodium which are required for periodic inspections and continuous monitoring. This program involves both experimentation and modeling of the associated phenomenon. Within the scope of

G. Gobillot; F. Baque?; C. Lhuillier; P. H. Brau; M. A. Ploix; J. M. Augem; J. F. Saillant

2009-01-01

350

Design and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Ophthalmic Inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diclofenac sodium ophthalmic inserts were prepared by using methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) alone and in combination. Weight variation, thickness, drug content, ocular irritation and stability of medicated inserts were evaluated. In vitro study was carried out by using a semipermeable dialysis membrane. According to the results, 97 % of drug was released from the formulation containing 4%

V. Sankar; A. K. Chandrasekaran; S. Durga; G. Geetha; V. Ravichandran

2006-01-01

351

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction Sodium Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) is to receive molten sodium coolant from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), store the sodium in a solid state for an extended period, and then melt the sodium for transfer to a future Sodium Reaction Facility. SSF is required for sodium offload during FFTF transition to a safe, stable condition for long-term surveillance and maintenance pending final decommissioning. About 984,100 liters of sodium will be offloaded from FFTF to tank storage in SSF during this transition period. Unused carbon steel sodium tanks originally built for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant will be used. Once the storage tanks are in place, a concrete building will be constructed around and over them to provide shielding and weather protection. This document serves as a notice of construction pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code WAC 246-247-060 and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations CFR 61.96 for SSF. Information is arranged to closely reflect the order of the requirements in WAC 246-247-110.

Homan, N.A.

1995-01-01

352

Friction and Wear of Ball Bearings in Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the friction and wear properties of ball bearings has been conducted in liquid sodium at 400°C. Out of a number of materials compatible with sodium, Stellite 6, Hastelloy C and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) were chosen. A medium size, single-row, deep groove, radial type ball bearing was selected for the form of test bearings. The

Takeo UGA; Takeshi IKUSHIMA; Masao NOZAWA; Hiroaki SUGIYAMA

1971-01-01

353

Analysis of the Raman spectra of sodium and potassium tartrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The polarisation characteristics of the light scattered by single crystals of sodium and potassium tartrates have been investigated\\u000a using the mercury resonance radiation as exciter. The study revealed that the behaviour of the Raman lines in sodium tartrate\\u000a and potassium tartrate satisfied the selection rules for the orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry respectively.

V. M. Padmanabhan

1951-01-01

354

Red cell sodium and potassium in hypertension among blacks.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular sodium and potassium were estimated in a series of normotensive (n = 120) and hypertensive (n = 97) blacks attending an outpatient screening clinic. All participants were free of other major medical illnesses and had not taken prescription medications, including antihypertensives, for at least two weeks. Mean intracellular sodium was 11% higher in the hypertensives than the normotensives (8.51 +/- 2.46 v 7.77 +/- 2.27 mmol, respectively, P = 0.02). A significant correlation was noted between diastolic blood pressure and cell sodium (r = 0.138, P = 0.04) when measurements from both groups were combined. Logistic regression analysis likewise demonstrated a borderline significant role of cell sodium in determining case-noncase status (P = 0.06); this finding was independent of other covariates, such as age and obesity. No relationship was noted between cell potassium and blood pressure. A significant correlation was noted between cell sodium and potassium (r = 0.272; P = 0.001); whereas no relationships were found among cell sodium and body mass index, age, sex, habitual alcohol intake, or educational achievement. These data, obtained from the largest series of US blacks reported to date, confirm and extend the finding that the intracellular concentration of sodium in the erythrocyte is increased in hypertensives. The data also lend support to the contention that abnormal sodium metabolism at the cellular level may play a role in the biochemical pathway leading to hypertension. PMID:2738946

Cooper, R.; Aina, O.; Chaco, L.; Achilihu, A. G.; Shamsi, N.; Ford, E.

1989-01-01

355

Preparation and evaluation of sodium diclofenac controlled-release tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution behaviour of a direct compression compact prepared with sodium diclofenac and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) in different weight ratios with or without Biosoluble polymer® (acrylic-based resin) was investigated in distilled water and in a medium with changing pH. The results indicate that the amount of sodium diclofenac released from the compact was dependent on the amount of drug

Shan-Yang Lin; Ching-Li Cheng; Pei-Chin Lin

1995-01-01

356

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

357

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis  

PubMed Central

Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated.

Adeva-Andany, Maria M.; Fernandez-Fernandez, Carlos; Mourino-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Dominguez-Montero, Alberto

2014-01-01

358

Sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In thirteen patients with extrinsic asthma the effects of placebo, sodium cromoglycate, ipratropium bromide, and ipratropium bromide plus sodium cromoglycate were studied in a random double-blind fashion to assess their inhibitory action in exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Exercise testing consisted of steady state running on an inclined treadmill for up to eight minutes. In eight of the 13 patients studied the

N C Thomson; K R Patel; J W Kerr

1978-01-01

359

Sodium hypochlorite and its use as an endodontic irrigant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium hypochlorite has been used as an endodontic irrigant for more than 70 years, and is now one of the most common solutions for this purpose. The chemical properties and production of commercial sodium hypochlorite are reviewed. Domestic bleaches and an infant sanitizer are compared from the point of view of cost and ease of use - Milton being recommended

Roger M. Clarkson; Alex J. Moule

1998-01-01

360

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

361

Effect of intratesticular injection of sodium fluoride on spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of sodium fluoride to affect spermatogenesis in the rat was assessed by intratesticular injection. Experimental rats' left testis was injected with sodium fluoride (50, 175 and 250 ppm) in vehicle (0.9% physiological saline); control testes were injected with vehicle. The right testis served as a non-injected control. Testicular tissues collected ‘at’ and ‘distal to’ the injection site and

R. L. Sprando; T. N. Black; M. J. Ames; J. I. Rorie; T. F. X. Collins

1996-01-01

362

Sodium aluminate from alumina-bearing intermediates and wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been ascertained from theoretical premises and commercial practice that sodium aluminate may be produced using alumina-bearing industrial intermediates and wastes, including spent potliner and salt cake resulting from aluminum-dross recycling. The utilization of these unused waste materials can provide a supply for the world’s demand for sodium aluminate and improve environmental conditions.

Rayzman, Victor; Filipovich, Igor; Nisse, Leonid; Vlasenko, Yuri

1998-11-01

363

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01...2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085...582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a)...

2011-04-01

364

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01...2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085...582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a)...

2014-04-01

365

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085...582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a)...

2010-04-01

366

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01...2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085...582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a)...

2012-04-01

367

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085...582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a)...

2013-04-01

368

FFTF sodium and cover gas characterization and purification  

SciTech Connect

The FFTF Primary and Secondary Heat Transport System (HTS) sodium is purified with cold traps which have packed crystallizers and external economizers. The Primary HTS cold trap is NaK cooled and the Secondary HTS cold traps are air cooled. The FFTF cold traps have maintained high purity in the sodium since sodium fill. Plant operational procedures during fill and initial sodium heatup to 800/sup 0/F were controlled to assure low release rates of impurities to the sodium. The FFTF sodium systems are monitored by plugging temperature indicators and by several sampling methods. During reactor fill and non-fueled operations at 400 to 800/sup 0/F, impurity changes in the sodium were followed by continuous plugging indicator coverage, by exposing wires and foils to measure carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and by bulk sample analysis of all other trace constituents. The sampling and analysis methods and data are presented, impurity excursions in the cover gas and sodium are described, and impurity trends are discussed.

McCown, J.J.; Bloom, G.R.; Meadows, G.E.; Mettler, G.W.

1980-02-01

369

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-print Network

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

370

Effect of sodium gluconate on the solubility of calcium lactate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium and lactate are present in excess of their solubility in Cheddar cheese. Consequently, calcium lactate crystals (CLC) are a common defect in Cheddar cheese. A novel approach for preventing CLC is the addition of sodium gluconate. Sodium gluconate has the potential to increase the solubility of calcium and lactate by forming soluble complexes with calcium and lactate ions, and

C. Phadungath; L. E. Metzger

2011-01-01

371

Effects of sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin on focus induction in explant cultures of rat bladder.  

PubMed

The tumour-promoting activities of sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were investigated in an assay based on the induction of epithelial foci exhibiting enhanced growth potential in a rat bladder explant culture system. An initiating, non-focus-inducing dose was defined for the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) to make promotion studies possible. Saccharin induced epithelial foci when added to cultures pretreated with an initiating dose of MNU, and also increased the incidence of foci in cultures treated with transforming doses of MNU. Cyclamate was found to induce a high incidence of foci when added to cultures by itself. When MNU and cyclamate treatments were combined, an additive effect could be detected. These results indicate that both cyclamate and saccharin can contribute to epithelial transformation in this system. PMID:2456995

Nicholson, L J; Jani, H

1988-08-15

372

Self-association of sodium deoxycholate with EHEC cellulose cooperatively induced by sodium dodecanoate.  

PubMed

Some aspects of ethyl (hydroxyethyl) cellulose (EHEC) aqueous behavior in the presence of ionic surfactants are described in the literature; however, most of the studies reported address moderately concentrated solutions. Few studies have been carried out in the dilute regime using mixtures of biosurfactants. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the interaction of EHEC in the dilute regime and to verify the mixture of two surfactants: sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium dodecanoate (SDoD). The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac) and saturation of the polymer by surfactants (psp) were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration in basic conditions. The cmc of NaDC-SDoD mixtures showed non-ideal behavior. However, EHEC added to mixtures of SDoD and NaDC acts as a stabilizer for the mixed aggregate during the association process. PMID:25037371

Modolon, Samuel de M; Felippe, Arlindo C; Fizon, Tiago E; da Silva, Luciano; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G

2014-10-13

373

Sodium removal disassembly and examination of the Fermi secondary sodium pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fermi secondary pump is a centrifugal single stage design. The pump had been operated more than 42,000 hours between 450 and 800°F. Sodium was drained from the pump in 1973 and the system was back filled with carbon dioxide. The pump was fabricated for 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Croloy steel. Prior to cleaning the pump was inerted and heated with

H. P. Maffei; C. W. Funk; J. L. Ballif

2011-01-01

374

Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium-sodium alginate microparticles  

PubMed Central

Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20–96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres’ surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae. PMID:23960820

Ahmed, Mahmoud M.; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.

2011-01-01

375

Sodium Oxybate and Sleep Apnea: A Clinical Case  

PubMed Central

Sodium oxybate (GHB, Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) is used to treat cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. We report the case of a middle aged, normo-ponderal narcoleptic woman without risk factors who developed reversible sleep apnea and objective sleepiness when treated by sodium oxybate, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 19.7 on sodium oxybate and AHI 4.8 without treatment. Despite a subjective improvement in vigilance, mean sleep latency on MWT decreased from 21 minutes to 8 minutes on sodium oxybate. Citation: Hartley S; Quera-Salva MA; Machou M. Sodium oxybate and sleep apnea: a clinical case. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):667-668. PMID:22171208

Hartley, Sarah; Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Machou, Mourad

2011-01-01

376

Psychosis in the Context of Sodium Oxybate Therapy  

PubMed Central

Sodium oxybate (brand name Xyrem) is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), an endogenous CNS depressant, which is an effective treatment of narcolepsy. As a drug of abuse, GHB produces severe psychiatric side effects and withdrawal. However, there are no reports of these effects when using clinically recommended doses. This paper presents a case of a patient who developed altered mental status while taking the recommended dose of sodium oxybate and subsequently became psychotic upon abrupt discontinuation of the medication. It is important for prescribers of sodium oxybate to be aware of the possibility of significant psychiatric side effects of this medication, as well as withdrawal symptoms, even at clinical doses. Citation: Langford J; Gross WL. Psychosis in the context of sodium oxybate therapy. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):665-666. PMID:22171207

Langford, Jody; Gross, William L.

2011-01-01

377

Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

378

A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

Galloway, R. C.

1987-01-01

379

Sodium metabisulfite--a marker for cosmetic allergy?  

PubMed

A 45-year-old woman developed dermatitis of the face after she applied a cosmetic package comprising day and night creams. Patch tests were performed with the British Contact Dermatitis Society (BCDS) standard, bases + preservatives, and cosmetic series in addition to samples of both creams and the individual constituents. She had positive tests to both cosmetic creams, sodium sulfite from the manufacturer's samples (5% white soft paraffin (WSP)), and sodium metabisulfite (1% pet) in our bases + preservatives battery. Sodium sulfite is a constituent of both cosmetic creams. We assume that the positive test to sodium metabisulfite is a cross-reaction. We hypothesize that a reaction to sodium metabisulfite may be a marker for sulfite allergy in cosmetics and might account for some of the unexplained positives in previous reports. PMID:17343630

Malik, Mohsin M; Hegarty, Mary A; Bourke, John F

2007-04-01

380

Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.

2014-09-01

381

Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

1983-11-01

382

Two-dimensional distribution of sodium polysulfide composition in sulfur electrodes of sodium-sulfur cells  

SciTech Connect

Distributions of the sodium polysulfide composition in the sulfur electrode of the sodium-sulfur cell and the current density in the cell are investigated using a two-dimensional and two-component (ionic and electronic) conduction model. The following points are clarified from the results of calculations and experiments. The polarization of a vertically supported cell at the end of charge starts partially from the upper surface of the solid electrolyte due to the gravitational drop of the sodium polysulfide melt, but the polarization at the end of discharge is axially almost uniform. A dual mat design of which a porous graphite mat has a high electric resistance adjacent to the electrolyte is preferable for improving the rechargeability. An oriented mat of which the radial resistivity is smaller than the axial resistivity is able to reduce the cell resistance. The larger the current density is, the larger the nonuniformity of the melt composition becomes, and the sulfur utilization is reduced by the high current density operation. Voids of the melt at the electrolyte surface accelerate the degradation of the solid electrolyte and reduce the sulfur utilization. Voids at the metal container side accelerate the corrosion of the metal container.

Kawamoto, H. (Hitachi, Ltd., Advanced Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dept., Hitachi Works, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 317 (JP))

1989-07-01

383

Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. Almost one-fourth of that  

E-print Network

or is added when foods are made or processed. Salt is sodium chloride. All of us should be aware of the amount substitutes. Table salt is sodium chloride. Many times salt substitutes are potassium chloride. AnyoneGuidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

384

Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining  

SciTech Connect

The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

2005-09-01

385

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus.

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand; Peter V. Bonnesen; Jeffrey C. Bryan; Tamara J. Haverlock

2002-01-01

386

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand

2001-01-01

387

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand

2000-01-01

388

The Role of Sodium-Potassium—Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase in the Reabsorption of Sodium by the Kidney*  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the possible role of sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase in the active transport of sodium by the renal tubules, we examined the effect of large changes in the tubular reabsorptive load of sodium on the Na-K-ATPase activity of rat kidney homogenates. Glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption of sodium per gram of kidney tissue increased progressively after contralateral uninephrectomy. This was paralleled by an increase in Na-K-ATPase per milligram of protein in a microsomal fraction of kidney cortex. The importance of this change is underlined by the absence of simultaneous increases in other microsomal enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and Mg++-dependent ATPase, or in succinic dehydrogenase or glutaminase. Similar increases in Na-K-ATPase were observed when the net tubular reabsorption of sodium was increased by feeding the animals a high-protein diet or after injection of methylprednisolone. On the other hand, Na-K-ATPase was lowered when tubular transport of sodium was reduced by bilateral adrenalectomy. The results of these experiments show that renal Na-K-ATPase changes in an adaptive way when renal reabsorption of sodium is chronically increased or diminished and support the hypothesis that this enzyme system is involved in the process by which sodium is actively transported across the renal tubule. PMID:4294572

Katz, Adrian I.; Epstein, Franklin H.

1967-01-01

389

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2012-04-01

391

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2014-04-01

393

21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene...carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device containing ethylene...

2011-04-01

394

21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section...Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification...carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device...

2011-04-01

395

21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section...Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification...carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device...

2010-04-01

396

40 CFR 415.550 - Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. 415.550...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.550 Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

397

40 CFR 415.550 - Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. 415.550...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.550 Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

398

40 CFR 415.550 - Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. 415.550...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.550 Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

399

40 CFR 415.550 - Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. 415.550...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.550 Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

400

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect

This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide.

Bruce A. Moyer; Alan P. Marchand; Peter V. Bonnesen; Jeffrey C. Bryan; Tamara J. Haverlock

2004-06-08

401

The use of sodium and/or potassium lactate to extend shelf-life and reduce sodium levels in precooked beef systems  

E-print Network

% KL; 1. 6% NaL/2. 4% KL; . 8% NaL/3. 2% KL; and 4. 0% KL). The final product contained . 5% sodium chloride and . 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Rounds were cooked (63'C) and stored for 0, 28, 56, and 84 days. TBA, pH, sodium and potassium..., ABSTRACT DEDICATION. . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIS T OF TAB LES . . LIST OF FIGURES. . INTRODUCTION, LITERATURE REVIEW. Sodium Chloride. Potassium Chloride Lactic Acid. . Sodium Lactate. Potassium Lactate...

Pagach, Denise Ann

2012-06-07

402

Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

Van Keuren, J.C.

1994-08-30

403

Measuring Population Sodium Intake: A Review of Methods  

PubMed Central

Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake. PMID:25353661

McLean, Rachael M.

2014-01-01

404

Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

Kloeris, Vickie L.

2010-01-01

405

21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Sorbitol. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Calcium carbonate. Calcium phosphate, dibasic. Sodium N -lauroyl sarcosinate. Artificial sweeteners that are generally...

2012-04-01

406

21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).  

...Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Sorbitol. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Calcium carbonate. Calcium phosphate, dibasic. Sodium N -lauroyl sarcosinate. Artificial sweeteners that are generally...

2014-04-01

407

21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Sorbitol. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Calcium carbonate. Calcium phosphate, dibasic. Sodium N -lauroyl sarcosinate. Artificial sweeteners that are generally...

2011-04-01

408

21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Sorbitol. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Calcium carbonate. Calcium phosphate, dibasic. Sodium N -lauroyl sarcosinate. Artificial sweeteners that are generally...

2010-04-01

409

21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Sorbitol. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Calcium carbonate. Calcium phosphate, dibasic. Sodium N -lauroyl sarcosinate. Artificial sweeteners that are generally...

2013-04-01

410

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2010-04-01

411

Sodium Ferulate Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Rat Balloon Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. Methods Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II) for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline) for 7 days before sacrificed. Results In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle ?-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total ?-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2? and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. Conclusion Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs. PMID:24489938

Chen, Jing; Xu, Changwu; Ding, Jiawang; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing; Hu, Qi; Jiang, Hong

2014-01-01

412

On the structure of luminol sodium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures of Tamerit® ( A) and Galavit® ( B) pharmaceutical preparations have been solved by X-Ray single crystal and powder diffraction. These are luminol sodium salts possessing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is shown that Tamerit® ( A) is a hydrated salt, while Galavit® ( B) is a mixture of two polymorphic modifications ( B1 and B2) of anhydrous salt. Compound A is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 8.3429(4) Å, b = 22.0562(11) Å, c = 5.2825(2) Å, ? = 99.893(3)°, V = 957.59(8) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B1 is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 14.7157(18), b = 3.7029(19), c = 16.0233(15) Å, ? = 116.682(13)°, V = 780.1(4) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B2 is crystallized in an orthorhombic system: a = 27.7765(15) Å, b = 3.3980(19) Å, c = 8.1692(19) Å, V = 771.0(5) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. Pna21. The absence of phase transitions between the B1 and B2 polymorphs has been established by differential scanning calorimetry.

Rybakov, V. B.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Paseshnichenko, K. A.; Sheludyakov, V. D.; Belyakov, N. G.; Boziev, R. S.; Mochalov, V. N.; Storozhenko, P. A.

2014-05-01

413

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01

414

Structural elucidation of rabeprazole sodium photodegradation products.  

PubMed

Rabeprazole sodium is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. It is known to be an acid-labile drug, however, few data about its stability under other factors are available. The aim of this work was to study the photodegradation of rabeprazole, to determine its kinetics and to elucidate the structures of the main degradation products. UVC-254 nm and metal-halide lamps were used. The analysis of the samples was carried out by HPLC. When the drug was in methanol solution, one main degradation product was formed; the degradation rate followed zero-order kinetics. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic determinations revealed the product was the benzimidazolone. Another isolated product was identified as benzimidazole. The latter was confirmed against an authentic sample. A third photodegradation product was identified as the [4-(3-methoxy-propoxy)-3-methyl-pyridin-2-yl]methanol, by (1)H and (13)C NMR of the reaction mixture in chloroform-d. When powdered commercial tablets were exposed to UVC irradiation, they showed the same degradation products along with other unidentified, which appeared as traces; the degradation rate was slower than in solution. The intact tablets were stable after 50 days of exposition to the same light source. PMID:17945453

Garcia, Cássia V; Nudelman, Norma S; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

2008-01-01

415

Sodium orthovanadate inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Sodium orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibits the DNA-binding activity of p53, but its precise effects on p53 function have not been examined. Here, we show that vanadate exerts a potent antiapoptotic activity through both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms relative to other p53 inhibitors, including pifithrin (PFT) alpha. We compared the effects of vanadate to PFTalpha and PFTmicro, an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Vanadate suppressed p53-associated apoptotic events at the mitochondria, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the conformational change of Bax and Bak, the mitochondrial translocation of p53, and the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. Similarly, vanadate suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of a mitochondrially targeted temperature-sensitive p53 in stable transfectants of SaOS-2 cells. In radioprotection assays, which rely on p53, vanadate completely protected mice from a sublethal dose of 8 Gy and partially from a lethal dose of 12 Gy. Together, our findings indicated that vanadate effectively suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis by both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways, and suggested that both pathways must be inhibited to completely block p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20048077

Morita, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Suzuki, Norio; Aoki, Shin; Ito, Azusa; Nanao, Tomohisa; Ohya, Soichiro; Yoshino, Minako; Zhu, Jin; Enomoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Funatsu, Osamu; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ikekita, Masahiko

2010-01-01

416

Structure and Aqueous Solubility of Sodium Isosaccharinate  

SciTech Connect

It has been recently shown that isosaccharinic acid, C6H12O6 (ISA), and its derivative salts have a great potential for practical application in the area of nuclear waste treatment and disposal sites management. Several studies demonstrated the effect of ISA complexation on radionuclide solubility and sorptive properties, especially on actinides in (+4) oxidation state like Np(IV) and Th(IV). The presence of ISA and/or its derivatives strongly affects the migration of radionuclides by increasing their solubility in water by several orders of magnitude and Na-ISA has been proposed as a component of decontamination formulations for actinide-contaminated surfaces. Here we report the synthesis, crystal's structure and characterization (FTIR, TGA) of sodium isosaccharate, NaC6H11O6-H2O (Na-ISA). The structure has been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The solubility of Na-ISA has been evaluated and compared to that of Ca-ISA based on the structural features of both compounds.

Bontchev, Ranko P.; Moore, Robert; Tucker, Mark; Holt, Kathleen

2004-03-29

417

Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ??m. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

2013-02-01

418

Electrospun multifunctional diclofenac sodium releasing nanoscaffold.  

PubMed

Electrospinning is a method utilized to produce nano-scale fibers for tissue engineering applications. A variety of cells are attracted by nano scale surfaces and structures probably due to the similarity of their natural environment scale. In this study, diclofenac sodium (DS) releasing nanofibers were manufactured via electrospinning process. Poly(95 epsilon-capro/5 D,L-lactide) was dissolved into acetic acid to form a 20% w/v solution. 2% w/w of DS was then added into the polymer solution and stirred homogenously. About 1 g of polymer/drug solution was spun onto the collector under electrostatic conditions. The distance between needle tip and sample collector was arranged to 10 cm and applied electric field was 2 kV/cm. Release rate of DS was measured by using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Resulted highly porous nanofiber scaffold was about 2 mm thick and the diameter of nanofibers was approximately 130 nm. Structure included in also spheres with approximately diameter of 3.30 microm. About 45% of DS was released during the first 24 hours and after that the release decreased to almost zero value. After 35 days release rate increased. This study revealed that manufacturing of highly porous DS releasing nanoscaffold by electrospinning process is feasible. Having fast DS release rate nanofibrous scaffold made of poly(95 epsilon-capro/5 D,L-lactide) can be of benefit for applications where immediate control of tissue reaction is needed. PMID:17048549

Nikkola, L; Seppälä, J; Harlin, A; Ndreu, A; Ashammakhi, N

2006-01-01

419

Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation.  

PubMed

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-15

420

Safety considerations for sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety issues and current transport (shipment and in-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles.

Stodolsky, Frank

421

The toxicity of metabolites of sodium valproate in cultured hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Sodium valproate is hepatotoxic in both humans and rat hepatocytes. The toxicity is dose related and frequently associated with simultaneous ingestion of drugs which induce the drug metabolizing system. For these reasons, metabolites of sodium valproate were tested for toxicity using rat hepatocyte cultures. The sodium salts of three metabolites, 2-propylpent-4-enoate, 4-hydroxyvalproate, and perhaps 5-hydroxyvalproate, were toxic in this system. In addition, 2-propylpent-4-enoate was toxic in a dose-related fashion. All are omega and omega-1 oxidation products in the microsome-mediated pathway of valproate metabolism. PMID:6408143

Kingsley, E; Gray, P; Tolman, K G; Tweedale, R

1983-04-01

422

Channelopathies from Mutations in the Cardiac Sodium Channel Protein Complex  

PubMed Central

The cardiac sodium current underlies excitability in heart, and inherited abnormalities of the proteins regulating and conducting this current cause inherited arrhythmia syndromes. This review focuses on inherited mutations in non-pore forming proteins of sodium channel complexes that cause cardiac arrhythmia, and the deduced mechanisms by which they affect function and dysfunction of the cardiac sodium current. Defining the structure and function of these complexes and how they are regulated will contribute to understanding the possible roles for this complex in normal and abnormal physiology and homeostasis. PMID:23557754

Adsit, Graham S.; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Galler, Carla M.; Kyle, John W.; Makielski, Jonathan C.

2013-01-01

423

Naproxen sodium, ibuprofen and a placebo in dysmenorrhea.  

PubMed

Seventy-one patients participated, during three dysmenorrheic episodes, in a study that combined a double-blind parallel comparison of naproxen sodium and ibuprofen to each other with a single-blind comparison of naproxen sodium and ibuprofen to a placebo. The comparative measures of efficacy included hourly and overall ratings of pain by patients, limitation of daily activity due to pain and the need for additional pain medication. Although none of these measures showed a statistically significant difference, an analysis of the differences that did emerge showed a trend slightly favoring naproxen sodium. Both drugs were highly effective and significantly superior to the placebo. PMID:6181256

Hanson, F W

1982-07-01

424

Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO) glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ˜320 mAh/g at 0-1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

Honma, Tsuyoshi; Togashi, Takuya; Kondo, Hiroatsu; Komatsu, Takayuki; Yamauchi, Hideo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Sakai, Tetsuo

2013-11-01

425

Chert and its sodium-silicate precursors in sodium-carbonate lakes of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chert has formed from two sodium-silicate minerals, magadiite (NaSi7,O13(OH)3·3H2O) and kenyaite (NaSi11O20.5(OH)4·3H2O), in uppermost Pleistocene deposits of lakes Magadi and Natron in Kenya and Tanzania. The chert consists of finely crystalline quartz and characteristically forms nodules of irregular shape with white coatings having reticulate surface patterns. Similar nodules are widespread in lower and middle Pleistocene lacustrine deposits in the vicinity

Richard L. Hay

1968-01-01

426

NMR monitoring of intracellular sodium in dog and rabbit kidney tubules  

SciTech Connect

{sup 23}Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to monitor intra- and extracellular sodium in suspensions of dog cortical tubules, rabbit cortical tubules, and dog thick ascending limbs. The NMR visibility of the intracellular sodium was determined by comparing the NMR and flame photometry results and by redistributing the sodium ions between the intra- and extracellular compartments using the ionophore nystatin (influx) or sodium substitution for choline in the extracellular fluid (efflux). The intracellular sodium visibility was {approximately}30% for the total sodium and 58% for the transportable sodium. Addition of sodium to sodium-depleted homogenates of dog renal cortex also showed a loss of visibility. The values of the relaxation times T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} were determined but could not be correlated with the visibility measurements. The intracellular sodium concentration in dog cortical tubules incubated in optimal biochemical conditions was estimated at 51 mM was dependent on the extracellular sodium concentration.

Boulanger, Y.; Vinay, P.; Boulanger, M. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1987-11-01

427

Induction of morphological changes in the urothelium of cultured adult rat bladder by sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate.  

PubMed

The direct effects of sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate on the morphology of organ cultures of normal rat bladder have been studied by histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Untreated cultures retained histologically normal urothelia up to 89 days with cell surface features characteristic of mature, fully differentiated superficial cells and maturing intermediate cells. Continuous treatment with either sodium saccharin (6 or 12 mM) or sodium cyclamate (12 or 24 mM) induced progressive abnormalities in the cultured urothelium. Acute toxicity was not seen but focal necrosis was observed with the higher dose of each compound and histological abnormalities were more severe with the higher doses. Sodium saccharin induced mild hyperplasia of the urothelium on the surface of the culture and foci of altered epithelial polarity from 14 days; abnormal nuclear staining plus changes in the basal lamina were evident from 28 days and were pronounced from 56 days onwards. Hyperplasia of the urothelium over the explants was mild but there were extensive epithelial outgrowths onto the culture support. In general, sodium cyclamate induced more severe changes than did sodium saccharin, with alterations in epithelial cell polarity plus basal cell changes from 14 days and focal nodular urothelial hyperplasia over the explant and gross hyperplasia between the explant and culture support and in the outgrowth from 28 days. The severe and rapid surface changes, evident by SEM, were similar both in saccharin-treated and in cyclamate-treated cultures. There was some early loss of superficial cells to reveal underlying immature cells which, together with the remaining mature cells, developed abnormal blebs and processes. From 14 days small immature cells were located at the culture surface between the mature cells. These were covered by a variety of membrane protrusions including long pleomorphic microvilli. Sodium cyclamate-treated cultures mostly had fewer small membrane protrusions than sodium saccharin-treated cultures but more pleomorphic microvilli. These morphological changes induced in the rat urothelium in vitro by direct treatment with sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate are thus similar to those described previously in association with in vivo long-term feeding studies of sodium saccharin to rats and with both in vivo and in vitro treatment of the rat urothelium with the bladder carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). PMID:2421938

Knowles, M A; Jani, H; Hicks, R M

1986-05-01

428

Psychosis in the context of sodium oxybate therapy.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (brand name Xyrem) is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), an endogenous CNS depressant, which is an effective treatment of narcolepsy. As a drug of abuse, GHB produces severe psychiatric side effects and withdrawal. However, there are no reports of these effects when using clinically recommended doses. This paper presents a case of a patient who developed altered mental status while taking the recommended dose of sodium oxybate and subsequently became psychotic upon abrupt discontinuation of the medication. It is important for prescribers of sodium oxybate to be aware of the possibility of significant psychiatric side effects of this medication, as well as withdrawal symptoms, even at clinical doses. PMID:22171207

Langford, Jody; Gross, William L

2011-12-15

429

Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation  

PubMed Central

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-01

430

Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor  

SciTech Connect

Data have been reviewed to obtain thermodynamically consistent equations for thermodynamic and transport properties of saturated sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed include: enthalpy, heat capacity at constant pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, vapor pressure, boiling point, enthalpy of vaporization, density, thermal expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, speed of sound, critical parameters, and surface tension. Transport properties of liquid sodium that have been assessed include: viscosity and thermal conductivity. For each property, recommended values and their uncertainties are graphed and tabulated as functions of temperature. Detailed discussions of the analyses and determinations of the recommended equations include comparisons with recommendations given in other assessments and explanations of consistency requirements. The rationale and methods used in determining the uncertainties in the recommended values are also discussed.

Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

1995-01-01

431

A novel method for effective sodium ion implantation into silicon  

SciTech Connect

Although sodium ion implantation is useful to the surface modification of biomaterials and nano-electronic materials, it is a challenging to conduct effective sodium implantation by traditional implantation methods due to its high chemical reactivity. In this paper, we present a novel method by coupling a Na dispenser with plasma immersion ion implantation and radio frequency discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling reveals that sodium is effectively implanted into a silicon wafer using this apparatus. The Na 1s XPS spectra disclose Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} bonds and the implantation effects are confirmed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. Our setup provides a feasible way to conduct sodium ion implantation effectively.

Lu Qiuyuan; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2012-07-15

432

Sodium Lactate Infusions and Panic Attacks: A Review and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to sodium lactate infusions has been proposed as an experimental model and a biologic marker for panic attacks. Several authors have claimed that patients suffering from panic attacks, but not normal controls, \\

JURGEN MARGRAF; ANKE EHLERS; WALTON T. ROTH

433

Separation of traces of metal ions from sodium matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for isolating metal ion traces from sodium matrices consists of two extractions and an ion exchange step. Extraction is accomplished by using 2-thenoyltrifluoracetone and dithizone followed by cation exchange.

Korkisch, J.; Orlandini, K. A.

1969-01-01

434

Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

Denman, Matthew R

2011-01-01

435

Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System  

SciTech Connect

This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test.

HILL, L.F.

2000-03-06

436

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 73.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin...use in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications....

2013-04-01

437

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 73.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin...use in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications....

2012-04-01

438

Substitution of Oxides of Nitrogen for Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to discuss the chemistry of nitrous acid, the Savannah River Plant application of nitrogen, environmental effects, and outline a development program for nitrogen replacement of sodium nitrite.

Yeager, C.J.

2001-08-22

439

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine...should be considered for initiating therapy and then titrated downward for...

2013-04-01

440

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine...should be considered for initiating therapy and then titrated downward for...

2014-04-01

441

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine...should be considered for initiating therapy and then titrated downward for...

2010-04-01

442

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine...should be considered for initiating therapy and then titrated downward for...

2011-04-01

443

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine...should be considered for initiating therapy and then titrated downward for...

2012-04-01

444

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-print Network

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01

445

Comparative bioavailability of diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine vs diclofenac sodium in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pharmacokinetic study in man has been made of a new dosage form of diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine (DIEP); soluble salt packed in sachets was compared with diclofenac sodium as enteric coated tablets.

C. A. Maggi; P. Lualdi; G. Mautone

1990-01-01

446

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium (Beta)-Alumina Polycrystalline Ceramic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teh thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of solid samples of new, Li-stabilized, sodium (Beta)-alumina polycrystalline ceramic have been determined in the temperature range 500-1200 K.

Ryan, M. A.; Williams, R. M.; Allevato, C. E.; Vining, C. B.; Lowe-Ma, C. K.; Robie, S. B.

1994-01-01

447

Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors  

E-print Network

Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

2011-01-01

448

Effect of sodium selenite on experimental hypertension in rat.  

PubMed

Prophylactically applied sodium selenite lowers blood pressure of rats with renal hypertension and suppresses rise in blood pressure following infusion of angiotensin II, and it diminishes the epinephrine toxicity by half. PMID:539449

Hilse, H; Oehme, P; Krause, W; Hecht, K

1979-01-01

449

Modulation of L-type calcium channels by sodium ions.  

PubMed Central

It is universally believed that the removal of external sodium ions is without effect on calcium current. We now report that in enzymatically isolated guinea pig ventricular cells, the replacement of external sodium ions with certain other cations causes a 3- to 6-fold increase in peak L-type calcium current. The increase in current is reversibly blocked by L-type calcium-channel antagonists, not mediated by changes in internal calcium, and is inhibited by intracellular 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue. The effects of sodium removal (and isoproterenol) were almost completely blocked by intracellular application of a specific (peptide) inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These experiments demonstrate a previously unknown effect of sodium ions to modulate calcium-channel phosphorylation via cAMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:1374902

Balke, C W; Wier, W G

1992-01-01

450

Observations of sodium in the tenuous lunar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectra showing the sodium D lines above the moon's bright limb (subsolar point) were obtained at first and last quarters, May 27 and June 7, 1988. The number density at the surface is 57 + or - 20 atoms/cu cm and the scale height is 79 + or - 8 km, compatible with the temperature of the surface. Comparison with the Mercurian density of 26,000 atoms/cu cm reveals an enigma. Despite the apparent general similarity of the surfaces, the sodium densities are in a ratio of about 400. The difference may be attributed to differences in source or loss mechanisms or to some fundamental compositional difference between the two planets. The possibility that the source is rapid diffusion of sodium through Mercury's crust and regolith is discussed, as well as recent observational evidence that Mercury's regolith is of intermediate rock type and may be more sodium-rich than the moon's.

Tyler, Ann L.; Hunten, Donald M.; Kozlowski, Richard W. H.

1988-01-01

451

The sodium and hydrogen gas clouds of Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models are developed to describe the spatial distribution of gases emitted by Io and are applied to recent observations which indicate extensive gas clouds of hydrogen and sodium in orbit around Jupiter. Hydrogen and sodium atoms are emitted from Io with velocities in the range from 2 to 3 km/sec, with fluxes of about 10 billion and 100 million per sq cm/sec for hydrogen and sodium, respectively. Hydrogen atoms may be formed by photodecomposition of gases such as NH3 or H2S released from the satellite surface and may escape thermally from an exosphere whose temperature is about 500 K. Sodium may be ejected from the surface by energetic particles or by ultraviolet radiation, and it appears that a nonthermal mechanism drawing energy from Jupiter's magnetic field is required in order to account for its release to space.

Smyth, W. H.; Mcelroy, M. B.

1977-01-01

452

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

...issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as color fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan. 14,...

2014-04-01

453

Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

1994-01-01

454

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

455

SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN SODIUM-{beta} ALUMINAS  

SciTech Connect

Slow degradation was observed in sodium-beta alumina electrolyte subjected to long term in cycling Na/S cells. The degradation propagated as a layer from the sodium side. It involved the internal deposition of sodium metal during current passage. This Mode II degradation was distinct from chemical coloration and from the Mode I failure (Poiseuille pressure due to cathodic deposition driving isolated cracks). Degradation was also observed on the sulfur side of the electrolyte, and was associated with the graphite felt "imprinting effect." Plausible mechanisms are proposed for the observed effects. It is thought that the Mode II degradation resulted from electron injection into the solid electrolyte from the beta alumina/sodium metal interface during the charging cycle.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Feldman, Leslie; Buechele, Andrew

1980-05-01

456

Sodium metabisulphite as an additive in silage making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition, nutrient losses, calculated feeding value, and palatability of silages made from chopped herbage at two stages of growth, each with and without sodium metabisulphite, were compared.

W. C. Smith; I. L. Campbell

1960-01-01

457

Monte Carlo Simulations of Calcium and Sodium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channels are relatively simple biological proteins with a hole that permit the passage of selected ions through otherwise impermeable membranes and that play a central role in many biological processes. Calcium and sodium channels, which favor the passage of calcium and sodium ions, respectively, are similar in structure, containing four amino acid side chains. In the calcium channel, these side chains are four glutamate residues (EEEE locus) whereas in the sodium channel they are aspartate, glutamate, lysine, and alanine (DEKA locus). In this study, the channel is modeled as a cylinder that penetrates a hard surface, that models the membrane, the residues are modeled as hard spheres with an appropriate charge, and the electolyte in contact with the membrane is modeled by the primitive model, charged hard sphere ions in a dielectric continuum. The selectivity of this model channel is examined by means of a Monte Carlo simulation; these model channels are found to be calcium and sodium selective.

Henderson, Douglas

2003-03-01

458

Sodium borohydride stabilizes very active gold nanoparticle catalysts.  

PubMed

Long-term stable 3 nm gold nanoparticles are prepared by a simple reaction between HAuCl4 and sodium borohydride in water under ambient conditions which very efficiently catalyze 4-nitrophenol reduction to 4-nitroaniline. PMID:25283248

Deraedt, Christophe; Salmon, Lionel; Gatard, Sylvain; Ciganda, Roberto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

2014-10-21

459

How to Follow a Low-Sodium Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... frozen. These products are naturally low in sodium. Cut back on processed foods, which often have higher amounts ... or frozen foods without added sauces or salt. Cut back on convenience foods that are typically high in ...

460

Sodium laser guide star results at the Lick Observatory  

SciTech Connect

Results of return signal level and guide star spot size for a sodium laser guide star recently installed at the Lick Observatory are presented. Operational characteristics of frequency stability, amplitude stability, and pointing accuracy are discussed.

Friedman, H.; Erbert, G.; Kuklo, T. [and others

1995-10-01

461

Radiosensitization of Staphylococcus aureus by secobarbital sodium and other barbiturates  

SciTech Connect

The barbiturate hypnotic, secobarbital sodium, at millimolar concentrations, sensitizes Staphylococcus aureus in anoxic buffer-saline suspension (pH 7.0) to the lethal effects of ..gamma.. rays. The maximal response represents 50% of that for oxygenated suspensions without additive. Secobarbital sodium operates within the oxygen effect. It must be present at the time of irradiation for modification of radiation response. This, coupled with its testing in the presence of other additives, points to its involvement in an intracellular reaction with a radiation-induced short-lived chemical species, probably the electron. Preliminary tests show that pentobarbital sodium also operates as an efficient hypoxic radiosensitizer. Lack of sensitization by phenobarbital sodium is attributed to its low lipid solubility.

Sade, N.; Jacobs, G.P.

1983-10-01

462

21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health...

2010-04-01

463

SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model  

SciTech Connect

SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

Suo-Anttila, A.J.

1983-12-01

464

Viscosity properties of sodium borophosphate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The viscosity behavior of (1 - x)NaPO{sub 3}-xNa{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} glasses (x = 0.05-0.20) have been measured as a function of temperature using beam-bending and parallel-plate viscometry. The viscosity was found to shift to higher temperatures with increasing sodium borate content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m, estimated from the viscosity curve, decreases from 52 to 33 when x increases from 0.05 to 0.20 indicating that the glass network transforms from fragile to strong with the addition of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. The decrease in fragility with increasing x is due to the progressive depolymerization of the phosphate network by the preferred four-coordinated boron atoms present in the low alkali borate glasses. As confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increasing alkali borate leads to enhanced B-O-P linkages realized with the accompanying transition from solely four-coordinated boron (in BO{sub 4} units) to mixed BO{sub 4}/BO{sub 3} structures. The glass viscosity characteristics of the investigated glasses were compared to those of P-SF67 and N-FK5 commercial glasses from SCHOTT. We showed that the dependence of the viscosity of P-SF67 was similar to the investigated glasses due to similar phosphate network organization confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, whereas N-FK5 exhibited a very different viscosity curve and fragility parameter due to its highly coordinated silicate network.

Gaylord, S.; Tincher, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 (United States); Petit, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 (United States)], E-mail: lpetit@clemson.edu; Richardson, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 (United States)

2009-05-06

465

Sodium current in isolated human ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

Although fast sodium current (INa) plays a major role in the generation and conduction of the cardiac impulse, the electrophysiological characteristics of INa in isolated human ventricular myocytes have not yet been fully described. We characterized the human ventricular INa of enzymatically isolated myocytes using whole cell voltage-clamp techniques. Sixty myocytes were isolated from ventricular specimens obtained from 22 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. A low temperature (17 degrees C) and Na+ concentration in the external solution (5 or 10 mM) allowed good voltage control and facilitated the measurement of INa. Cs+ was substituted for K+ in both internal and external solutions to block K+ currents, and F- was added to the internal solution to block Ca2+ current. INa was activated at a voltage threshold of approximately -70 mV, and maximal inward current was obtained at approximately -30 mV (holding potential = -140 mV). The voltage dependence of steady-state INa availability (h infinity) was sigmoidal with half inactivation occurring at -97.3 +/- 1.1 mV and a slope factor of 5.77 +/- 0.10 mV (n = 60). We did not detect any significant differences in these parameters in cells from patients with a variety of disease states, with or without congestive heart failure. The overlap in voltage dependence of h infinity and Na+ conductance suggested the presence of a Na+ "window" current. An inactivation time course was voltage dependent and was fitted best by the sum of two exponentials. The rate of recovery from inactivation also was voltage dependent and fitted by the sum of two exponentials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8238418

Sakakibara, Y; Furukawa, T; Singer, D H; Jia, H; Backer, C L; Arentzen, C E; Wasserstrom, J A

1993-10-01

466

Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bose-Einstein Condensation in an ultracold gas of neutral sodium atoms has been observed and studied. This was achieved utilizing a combination of laser cooling techniques, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling. A novel tightly confining dc magnetic trap was developed and demonstrated. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced Bose condensates of 5× 106 atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous results. The Bose-Einstein phase transition was studied and characterized by mapping out the condensed fraction as a function of temperature across the transition point. The characteristic mean-field interaction of particles in the condensate was investigated. Collective excitations of a dilute Bose condensate have been observed. These excitations are analogous to phonons in superfluid helium. The frequencies of the lowest modes were studied for a temperature close to 0 K and compared with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The characteristic damping of one of the modes was measured and compared to damping of 'sound waves' in an ultra-cold gas above the Bose-Einstein transition. We have also demonstrated an output coupler for Bose condensed atoms in a magnetic trap. With short rf pulses Bose condensates were put into a superposition of trapped and untrapped hyperfine states. By varying the rf amplitude we could adjust the fraction of outcoupled atoms between 0 and 100%. This source produces pulses of coherent atoms and can be regarded as a pulsed 'atom laser'. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Mewes, Marc-Oliver

1997-10-01

467

Volumetric Investigations on Interactions of Acidic\\/Basic Amino Acids with Sodium Acetate, Sodium Propionate and Sodium Butyrate in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent molar volumes, V\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a , of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-lysine monohydrate and L-arginine in water and in aqueous (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0)\\u000a mol?kg?1 sodium acetate and sodium propionate, and (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5) mol?kg?1 sodium butyrate solutions have been determined at 288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K from density measurements. The partial\\u000a molar volumes at infinite dilution, V\\u000a 2o, obtained

Tarlok S. Banipal; Kultar Singh; Parampaul K. Banipal

2007-01-01

468

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-print Network

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01

469

Sodium bicarbonate and Alkaten as buffers in beef cattle diets  

E-print Network

SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A Thesis by BENED ICT JOSEP H BOERNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University im partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC IENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A thesis by BENEDICT JOSEPH BOERNER Approved as to style and content by: Flo M. Byers (Chairma of Committee) ~r( Gerald T. Schelling (Member...

Boerner, Benedict Joseph

2012-06-07

470

Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

1975-01-01

471

Detergency properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-soap-builder systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Data have been presented which illustrate the detergency properties of soap-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-builder systems.\\u000a Practical considerations limit use of CMC to the lower concentrations, and it has been shown that at sodium carboxymethyl\\u000a cellulose concentrations of 5%, or even less, builder tolerance is increased without sacrifice in soil removal properties.\\u000a At CMC concentrations above 3% the soil removal properties of

T. H. Vaughn; M. G. Kramer

1951-01-01

472

Project quality assurance plant: Sodium storage facility, project F-031  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Storage Facility Project Quality Assurance Plan delineates the quality assurance requirements for construction of a new facility, modifications to the sodium storage tanks, and tie-ins to the FFTF Plant. This plan provides direction for the types of verifications necessary to satisfy the functional requirements within the project scope and applicable regulatory requirements determined in the Project Functional Design Criteria (FDC), WHC-SD-FF-FDC-009.

Shultz, J.W.; Shank, D.R.

1994-11-01

473

Ethanol inhibits veratridine-stimulated sodium uptake in synaptosomes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ethanol and pentobarbital on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in whole brain (rat) synaptosomes were studied using isotopic flux measurements. Incubation of synaptosomes with ethanol or pentobarbitalin vitro inhibited veratridine-stimulated /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake. The effect of ethanol is dose-dependent, occurs at sublethal, pharmacologically relevant concentrations and is fully reversible. These results suggest that ethanol and pentobarbital directly interfere with sodium channel function in nervous tissue.

Mullin, M.J.; Hunt, W.A.

1984-01-16

474

Forty mouse strain survey of water and sodium intake  

PubMed Central

We measured voluntary water and sodium intakes of 40 inbred strains of mice. Groups of ~10 males and ~10 females from each strain received a series of 48-h tests with a choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of one of the following: water, 25, 75, and 225 mM NaCl, 25, 75, and 225 sodium lactate. Sodium solution intakes were influenced by strain, sex, anion and concentration: Nine strains drank significantly more chloride than lactate, and only one strain (I/LnJ) drank significantly more lactate than chloride. The other 30 strains drank similar volumes of chloride and lactate. Sodium intakes were higher in females than males of 8 strains and did not differ by sex in the other 32 strains. Some strains had consistently high sodium intakes and preferred all sodium solutions to water (129S1/SvImJ, MA/MyJ, NZW/LacJ and SWR/J), some showed indifference (i.e. preferences not significantly different from 50%) to all concentrations tested (A/J, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and SEA/GnJ), and some had consistently low sodium intakes (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, JF1/Ms, LP/J, NON/LtJ, PERA/EiJ, PL/J, and RIIIS/J). The results illustrate the diversity of voluntary sodium intake in mice and will assist in the selection of appropriate strains for focused genetic and physiological analyses. PMID:17490693

Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

2007-01-01

475

Geopolymer synthesis using silica fume and sodium aluminate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoliths that set rapidly and harden at ambient temperature have been prepared by exploiting sol–gel type condensation reactions\\u000a between sodium silicate, formed in-situ by alkaline dissolution of silica fume, and a solution of sodium aluminate. Structural\\u000a characterisation of the product was carried out by XRD, 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy) and the samples showed reproducibly good compressive strengths, indicating

D. R. M. Brew; K. J. D. MacKenzie

2007-01-01

476

A Sodium-Pump-Mediated Afterhyperpolarization in Pyramidal Neurons  

PubMed Central

The sodium-potassium ATPase (i.e., the “sodium pump”) plays a central role in maintaining ionic homeostasis in all cells. Although the sodium pump is intrinsically electrogenic and responsive to dynamic changes in intracellular sodium concentration, its role in regulating neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here we describe a physiological role for the sodium pump in regulating the excitability of mouse neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Trains of action potentials produced long-lasting (?20 s) afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that were insensitive to blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels or chelation of intracellular calcium, but were blocked by tetrodotoxin, ouabain, or the removal of extracellular potassium. Correspondingly, the AHP time course was similar to the decay of activity-induced increases in intracellular sodium, whereas intracellular calcium decayed at much faster rates. To determine whether physiological patterns of activity engage the sodium pump, we replayed in vitro a place-specific burst of 15 action potentials recorded originally in vivo in a CA1 “place cell” as the animal traversed the associated place field. In both layer 5 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, this “place cell train” generated small, long-lasting AHPs capable of reducing neuronal excitability for many seconds. Place-cell-train-induced AHPs were blocked by ouabain or removal of extracellular potassium, but not by intracellular calcium chelation. Finally, we found calcium contributions to the AHP to be temperature dependent: prominent at room temperature, but largely absent at 35°C. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in regulating the excitability of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:23926257

Dasari, Sameera; Onoue, Keita; Stephens, Emily K.; Hasse, J. Michael; Avesar, Daniel

2013-01-01

477

A sodium-pump-mediated afterhyperpolarization in pyramidal neurons.  

PubMed

The sodium-potassium ATPase (i.e., the "sodium pump") plays a central role in maintaining ionic homeostasis in all cells. Although the sodium pump is intrinsically electrogenic and responsive to dynamic changes in intracellular sodium concentration, its role in regulating neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here we describe a physiological role for the sodium pump in regulating the excitability of mouse neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Trains of action potentials produced long-lasting (?20 s) afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that were insensitive to blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels or chelation of intracellular calcium, but were blocked by tetrodotoxin, ouabain, or the removal of extracellular potassium. Correspondingly, the AHP time course was similar to the decay of activity-induced increases in intracellular sodium, whereas intracellular calcium decayed at much faster rates. To determine whether physiological patterns of activity engage the sodium pump, we replayed in vitro a place-specific burst of 15 action potentials recorded originally in vivo in a CA1 "place cell" as the animal traversed the associated place field. In both layer 5 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, this "place cell train" generated small, long-lasting AHPs capable of reducing neuronal excitability for many seconds. Place-cell-train-induced AHPs were blocked by ouabain or removal of extracellular potassium, but not by intracellular calcium chelation. Finally, we found calcium contributions to the AHP to be temperature dependent: prominent at room temperature, but largely absent at 35°C. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in regulating the excitability of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:23926257

Gulledge, Allan T; Dasari, Sameera; Onoue, Keita; Stephens, Emily K; Hasse, J Michael; Avesar, Daniel

2013-08-01

478

Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

479

Altered brain sodium channel transcript levels in human epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal, and perhaps pathological, characteristics of neuronal excitability are related to the distribution and density of voltage-gated ion channels such as the sodium channel. We studied normal and epileptic human brain using the ligase detection reaction to measure the relative quantities of mRNAs encoding sodium channel subtypes 1 and 2. Normal brains exhibited characteristic 1:2 ratios which varied by brain

Anthony J. Lombardo; Ruben Kuzniecky; Richard E. Powers; George B. Brown

1996-01-01

480

Evidence for apical sodium proton exchange in macula densa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for apical sodium proton exchange in macula densa cells. These studies were performed to determine if changes in luminal sodium chloride concentration ([NaCl]) might alter macula densa intracellular pH. Isolated thick ascending limbs with attached glomeruli were bathed in a 150 mM NaCl Ringer's solution and perfused in vitro with a 25 mM NaCl solution; N-methyl-D-glucamine cyclamate was used

Beth C Fowler; Yoon-Sik Chang; Anouar Laamarti; Michael Higdon; Jean-Yves Lapointe; P Darwin Bell

1995-01-01

481

SODIUM NONATITANATE: A HIGHLY SELECTIVE INORGANIC ION EXCHANGER FOR STRONTIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium nonatitanate (Na4Ti9O20), which is a highly selective inorganic ion exchanger for strontium, is regenerable, is radiation resistant, and has a high cation exchange capacity. This paper summarizes the test results with a variety of simulants for tank waste and groundwater streams that demonstrate the potential of this unique material. Sodium nonatitanate is most effective in an alkaline environment and

S. F. Yates; P. Sylvester

2001-01-01

482

Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in 22 months old child  

PubMed Central

Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature seen in patients suffering from gingival and periodontal diseases and is a common side-effect of drugs such as anti-convulsants, calcium channel blockers and immunosuppresants. This is a case report of 22 months old child suffering from gingival enlargement following intake of sodium valproate. Among the anti-convulsants phenytoin is commonly associated with gingival enlargement; however, there are not many cases reported on sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement.

Dhalkari, Chandulal Digambarrao; Ganatra, Pallav Virendra

2014-01-01

483

Effect of cefoperazone sodium on the physicochemical properties of surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cefoperazone sodium (CS), a pharmaceutical compound, on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactants\\u000a with different charges [cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Triton X-100], the cloud\\u000a point of Triton X-100, and the Krafft temperatures of SDS and CTAB were studied. The interaction of CS with differently charged\\u000a surfactants was determined by ultraviolet and

Junhong Qian; Jinghua Gu; Jiding Xia

2005-01-01

484

Sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger with intermittent broth replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent broth replacement was carried out to enhance the productivity and purity of sodium gluconate usingAspergillus niger by reducing the concentration of unmetabolized glucose. As inoculum size increased, length of lag phase was shortened and\\u000a high initial production rate of sodium gluconate was achieved. However, too high inoculum concentration lowered productivity\\u000a during the later stage of fermentation and increased residual

Sang-Yoon Lee; Bu-Su Park; Jin-Hyup Kim; Byung-Gee Kim; Dong-Il Kim

1999-01-01

485

Manipulation and characterization of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium chloride aerosol particles.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers coupled with Raman spectroscopy can allow the detailed investigation of aerosol dynamics. We describe here measurements of the evolving size, composition, and phase of single aqueous aerosol droplets containing the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the inorganic salt sodium chloride. Not only can the evolving wet particle size be probed with nanometer accuracy, but we show that the transition to a metastable microgel particle can be followed, demonstrating that optical tweezers can be used to manipulate both spherical and non-spherical aerosol particles. Further, through the simultaneous manipulation and characterization of two aerosol droplets of different composition in two parallel optical traps, the phase behavior of a surfactant-doped particle and a surfactant-free droplet can be compared directly in situ. We also illustrate that the manipulation of two microgel particles can allow studies of the coagulation and interaction of two solid particles. Finally, we demonstrate that such parallel measurements can permit highly accurate comparative measurements of the evolving wet particle size of a surfactant-doped droplet with a surfactant-free droplet. PMID:18044858

Buajarern, Jariya; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P

2007-12-20

486

Genomic organization of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel gene  

SciTech Connect

Voltage-dependent sodium channels are essential for normal membrane excitability and contractility in adult skeletal muscle. The gene encoding the principal sodium channel [alpha]-subunit isoform in human skeletal muscle (SCN4A) has recently been shown to harbor point mutations in certain hereditary forms of periodic paralysis. The authors have carried out an analysis of the detailed structure of this gene including delination of intron-exon boundaries by genomic DNA cloning and sequence analysis. The complete coding region of SCN4A is found in 32.5 kb of genomic DNA and consists of 24 exons (54 to >2.2 kb) and 23 introns (97 bp-4.85 kb). The exon organization of the gene shows no relationship to the predicted functional domains of the channel protein and splice junctions interrupt many of the transmembrane segments. The genomic organization of sodium channels may have been partially conserved during evolution as evidenced by the observation that 10 of the 24 splice junctions in SCN4A are positioned in homologous locations in a putative sodium channel gene in Drosophila (para). The information presented here should be extremely useful both for further identifying sodium channel mutations and for gaining a better understanding of sodium channel evolution. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

George, A.L. Jr.; Iyer, G.S.; Kleinfield, R.; Kallen, R.G.; Barchi, R.L. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States))

1993-03-01

487

Sodium and water disturbances in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.  

PubMed

Sheehan's syndrome has been attributed to ischemic damage of the pituitary gland or hypothalamic-pituitary stalk during the peripartum period. Well-described clinical features of Sheehan's syndrome include hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, hypoprolactinemia, and different sodium and water disturbances. The occurrence of sodium and water disturbances associated with Sheehan's syndrome depends on the degree of pituitary damage, time of onset since the initial pituitary insult, and concurrent medical conditions that also may play a role in sodium and water balance. We present a patient with Sheehan's syndrome with severe chronic hyponatremia; discuss a potential problem in the patient's management; and review the literature for various sodium and water disturbances, including acute and chronic hyponatremia as well as overt and subclinical central diabetes insipidus. Although Sheehan's syndrome is more prevalent in developing countries, the increasingly large immigrant population within the United States warrants better awareness of this syndrome and its potential complicating sodium and water disturbances. Prompt diagnosis and an understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of sodium and water disturbances associated with Sheehan's syndrome may avoid potential treatment-related complications. PMID:11532716

Pham, P C; Pham, P A; Pham, P T

2001-09-01

488

Designing & Optimizing a Moving Magnet Pump for Liquid Sodium Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced materials such as NF-616, NF-709, HT-UPS, and silicon carbide (SiC) have greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. Thus, using these high-strength materials to build sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) could potentially reduce construction costs by lessening the required amount of material, and increase the efficiency of electromagnetic pumps by limiting ohmic heating within the pump duct walls. However, information pertaining to the sodium-compatibility of these alloys and ceramics is very sparse. Therefore, two separate test facilities were built to study the impact of both static and dynamic sodium corrosion The dynamic test facility enabled sodium corrosion to be studied under prototypic SFR operating conditions (T = 500 [C], V = 9.35 [m/s], CO = 2-3 [wppm]). The oxygen concentration, CO, within the dynamic test facility was maintained using a cold trap and measured with a plugging meter. The flow rate of the sodium was measured using a calibrated electromagnetic flowmeter. A moving magnet pump (MMP) was used to move the liquid sodium past the corrosion samples at a high velocity. Using newly developed theory, it was found that MMP performance could be accurately modeled and predicted for a wide variety of pump configurations.

Hvasta, Michael G.