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1

77 FR 58399 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The recommendations provide specific guidance on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated...finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking on the design of BE studies to support ANDAs for pentosan...

2012-09-20

2

Pentosan polysulfate therapy for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (chronic pelvic pain syndrome category IIIA): a prospective multicenter clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has clinical and perhaps etiologic characteristics similar to interstitial cystitis. Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), an oral medication indicated for the treatment of interstitial cystitis, has shown moderate benefit in reducing chronic pelvic pain and voiding symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis. We undertook a prospective open-label, multicenter Phase II pilot study to

J. Curtis Nickel; Brenda Johnston; Joe Downey; Jack Barkin; Peter Pommerville; Mireille Gregoire; Ernest Ramsey

2000-01-01

3

Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses  

PubMed Central

Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:23365668

Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2013-01-01

4

Pentosan polysulfate inhibits atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits: differential modulation of metalloproteinase-2 and -9  

PubMed Central

Pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a heparinoid compound essentially devoid of anticoagulant activity, modulates cell growth and decreases inflammation. We investigated the effect of PPS on the progression of established atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. After severe atherosclerosis developed on an atherogenic diet, WHHL rabbits were treated with oral PPS or tap water for 1 month. The aortic intima-to-media ratio and macrophage infiltration were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased, and plaque fibrous caps were preserved by PPS treatment. Plasma lipid levels and post-heparin hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged. However, net collagenolytic activity in aortic extracts was decreased, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) activity were increased by PPS. Moreover, PPS treatment decreased tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-stimulated proinflammatory responses, in particular activation of nuclear factor-?B and p38, and activation of MMPs in macrophages. In conclusion, oral PPS treatment prevents progression of established atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. This effect may be partially mediated by increased MMP-2 and TIMP activities in the aortic wall and reduced TNF?-stimulated inflammation and MMP activation in macrophages. Thus, PPS may be a useful agent in inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:22042083

Lupia, Enrico; Zheng, Feng; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Tack, Ivan; Doublier, Sophie; Elliot, Sharon J; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

2013-01-01

5

Postmortem findings in a case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease treated with intraventricular pentosan polysulfate  

PubMed Central

Background A small number of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) have been treated with intraventicular pentosan polysulfate (iPPS) and extended survival has been reported in some cases. To date, there have been no reports on the findings of postmortem examination of the brain in treated patients and the reasons for the extended survival are uncertain. We report on the neuropathological findings in a case of vCJD treated with PPS. Methods Data on survival in vCJD is available from information held at the National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit and includes the duration of illness in 176 cases of vCJD, five of which were treated with iPPS. One of these individuals, who received iPPS for 8?years and lived for 105?months, underwent postmortem examination, including neuropathological examination of the brain. Results The mean survival in vCJD is 17?months, with 40?months the maximum survival in patients not treated with PPS. In the 5 patients treated with PPS survival was 16 months, 45 months, 84 months, 105 months and 114?months. The patient who survived 105?months underwent postmortem examination which confirmed the diagnosis of vCJD and showed severe, but typical, changes, including neuronal loss, astrocytic gliosis and extensive prion protein (PrP) deposition in the brain. The patient was also given PPS for a short period by peripheral infusion and there was limited PrP immunostaining in lymphoreticular tissues such as spleen and appendix. Conclusions Treatment with iPPS did not reduce the overall neuropathological changes in the brain. The reduced peripheral immunostaining for PrP may reflect atrophy of these tissues in relation to chronic illness rather than a treatment effect. The reason for the long survival in patients treated with iPPS is unclear, but a treatment effect on the disease process cannot be excluded. PMID:24554103

Newman, P K; Todd, N V; Scoones, D; Mead, S; Knight, R S G; Will, R G; Ironside, J W

2014-01-01

6

Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS) treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (sc) injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. Methodology/Principal Findings One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly sc injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED)), or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED) for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly sc PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of sc treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, sc. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of sc PPS administration. Conclusions Once weekly sc administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from sc PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period. PMID:24964042

Frohbergh, Michael; Ge, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Karabul, Nesrin; Solyom, Alexander; Lai, Alon; Iatridis, James; Schuchman, Edward H.; Simonaro, Calogera M.

2014-01-01

7

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

8

Pentosan Polysulfate Decreases Myocardial Expression of the Extracellular Matrix Enzyme ADAMTS4 and Improves Cardiac Function In Vivo in Rats Subjected to Pressure Overload by Aortic Banding  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that cleavage of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans versican and aggrecan by ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) proteases, which contributes to stress-induced ECM-reorganization in atherogenesis and osteoarthritis, also play a role in heart failure development. Objectives The primary objective was to identify alterations in expression of ADAMTS versicanases and aggrecanases during development of heart failure, while evaluation of the effects of in vivo modulation of relevant changes in ADAMTS activity constituted the secondary objective. Methods Myocardial levels of versican, aggrecan, and their ADAMTS cleaving proteases were examined in Wistar rats six weeks after aortic banding (AB), and versican and selected ADAMTS versicanases were further analyzed in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCM) and cardiac fibroblasts (NFB) after stimulation by inflammatory mediators. Based on the initial findings, ADAMTS4 was selected the most promising therapeutic target. Thus, rats with AB were treated with pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a polysaccharide with known ADAMTS4-inhibitory properties, and effects on versican fragmentation, left ventricular function and geometry were evaluated. Results We discovered that myocardial mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS1 and -4, and mRNA levels of versican, aggrecan, and ADAMTS8 increased after AB, and TNF-? and IL-1? synergistically increased mRNA of versican and ADAMTS4 in NCM and NFB and secretion of ADAMTS4 from NCM. Furthermore, PPS-treatment improved systolic function, demonstrated by an improved fractional shortening (vehicle 48±3% versus PPS 60±1%, p<0.01) after AB. Following PPS-treatment, we observed an ?80% reduction in myocardial ADAMTS4 mRNA (p?=?0.03), and ?50% reduction in the extracellular amount of the p150 versican fragments (p?=?0.05), suggesting reduced versicanase activity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that AB induces an increase in myocardial ADAMTS4 versicanase activity, and that PPS-treatment improved systolic function in the pressure-overloaded heart, holding promise as a novel therapeutic agent in heart failure. PMID:24595230

Vistnes, Maria; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida G.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Carlson, Cathrine R.; Christensen, Geir

2014-01-01

9

Enzymatic changes in liver in Calcium oxalate stone forming rats treated with sodium pentosan polysulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP) in calcium oxalate stone forming rats was studied in relation to enzymatic\\u000a changes in liver. A significant increase in liver glycollate oxidase (GAO) activity was observed in stone forming rats fed\\u000a sodium glycollate. SPP treatment lowered the enzyme acitivity in both stone formers and 30 days drug treated control rats.\\u000a Moderate elevation in

K. Subha; P. Varalakshmi

1992-01-01

10

Comparison of the Anti-Prion Mechanism of Four Different Anti-Prion Compounds, Anti-PrP Monoclonal Antibody 44B1, Pentosan Polysulfate, Chlorpromazine, and U18666A, in Prion-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Molecules that inhibit the formation of an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) in prion-infected cells are candidate therapeutic agents for prion diseases. Understanding how these molecules inhibit PrPSc formation provides logical basis for proper evaluation of their therapeutic potential. In this study, we extensively analyzed the effects of the anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (mAb) 44B1, pentosan polysulfate (PPS), chlorpromazine (CPZ) and U18666A on the intracellular dynamics of a cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) and PrPSc in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells to re-evaluate the effects of those agents. MAb 44B1 and PPS rapidly reduced PrPSc levels without altering intracellular distribution of PrPSc. PPS did not change the distribution and levels of PrPC, whereas mAb 44B1 appeared to inhibit the trafficking of cell surface PrPC to organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway that are thought to be one of the sites for PrPSc formation. In contrast, CPZ and U18666A initiated the redistribution of PrPSc from organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway to late endosomes/lysosomes without apparent changes in the distribution of PrPC. The inhibition of lysosomal function by monensin or bafilomycin A1 after the occurrence of PrPSc redistribution by CPZ or U18666A partly antagonized PrPSc degradation, suggesting that the transfer of PrPSc to late endosomes/lysosomes, possibly via alteration of the membrane trafficking machinery of cells, leads to PrPSc degradation. This study revealed that precise analysis of the intracellular dynamics of PrPC and PrPSc provides important information for understanding the mechanism of anti-prion agents. PMID:25181483

Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

2014-01-01

11

75 FR 53704 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Pentosan Polysulfate To Treat Certain Conditions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...semi-synthetic polysaccharide extracted from beech wood cellulose that is FDA approved for the treatment of interstitial fibrosis. The current technology builds on the surprising discovery that PPS can cause regression of scarring and lesions in...

2010-09-01

12

Digestibility of Sugar, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 196 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Digestibility of Sugars, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS : VOX BOECKMANN-JONES CO...., PRINTERS, 1916: [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] 'EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 196 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Digestibility of Sugars, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages G. S. FRAPS, Ph. D., CHEMIST IN CHARGE; STATE...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1916-01-01

13

Effect of Flour Water-Extractable Pentosans on Molecular Associations in Gluten During Mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat gluten and mixtures of gluten and water-extractable pentosans (WEP) were mixed in a counter-rotating batch mixer at constant hydration level, in order to study the effects of feruloylated arabinoxylans (AX) on gluten mixing properties. The presence of WEP delayed the development time of gluten, suggesting a competition for water during the first stage of dough formation. Changes in macromolecular

Emilie Labat; Xavier Rouau; Marie-Hélène Morel

2002-01-01

14

Effect of laccase and manganese peroxidase on wheat gluten and pentosans during mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat gluten and water extractable pentosans (WEP) were mixed in a batch-mixer in the presence of laccase or manganese peroxidase (MnP). The enzymes provoked different changes in mixing behaviour. Doughs were analysed at time to peak (t) and over two t (2t or overmixed). The effects of the oxidative enzymes were studied on ferulic acid (FA), arabinoxylans (AX), proteins and

E. Labat; M. H. Morel; X. Rouau

2001-01-01

15

Polysulfated Trehalose as a Novel Anticoagulant Agent with Dual Mode of Action  

PubMed Central

Physiological hemostatic balance is a coordinated outcome of counteracting coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. An imbalance of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors may result in life threatening thromboembolism. Presently, anticoagulant administration is the first line of therapy for the treatment of these conditions and several anticoagulants have been approved, including various forms of heparin. However, the polyanionic nature and multispecificity of heparin pose several complications. Generally, the polysulfated compounds with antithrombotic potential are thought to have feasible synthetic procedures with much less bleeding, thus having favourable safety profiles. Here we report the synthesis of a novel compound, trehalose octasulfate and the assessment of its anticoagulation potential. Molecular docking of trehalose and trehalose octasulfate with antithrombin showed a specificity switch in binding affinity on sulfation, where trehalose octasulfate interacts with critical residues of AT that are either directly involved in heparin binding or in the conformational rearrangement of AT on heparin binding. An in vitro analysis of trehalose octasulfate demonstrated prolonged clotting time. Lead compound when intravenously injected in occlusion induced thrombotic rats showed remarkable reduction in the size and weight of the clot at a low dose. Delay in coagulation time was observed by analysing blood plasma isolated from rats preinjected with trehalose octasulfate. A decrease in Adenosine 5?-Diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation indicated a probable dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet mechanism of action. To summarize, this study presents trehalose octasulfate as a novel, effective, dual acting antithrombotic agent.

Rashid, Qudsia; Abid, Mohammad; Gupta, Neha; Tyagi, Tarun; Ashraf, Mohammad Z.; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

2015-01-01

16

Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P?

Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

2014-06-01

17

Pentosan-derived water-soluble carbon nano dots with substantial fluorescence: Properties and application as a photosensitizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal carbonization of monosaccharides and polysaccharides is widely used in the production of carbonaceous material with a desired structure. However, the liquid products are regarded as waste and discarded. Here, we report a facile approach for the synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano dots (CNDs) with substantial fluorescence from the liquid by-products of the hydrothermal carbonization of pentosan, thus the by-products of pulp refining. The synthesized CNDs are monodispersed spheres with abundant oxygen-containing groups and they have an average size of 30 nm. Quantum yield measurements revealed CNDs with substantial green photoluminescence (PL) without passivation. Additionally, excitation was independent, pH-sensitive and stable. The use of CNDs as a photosensitizer in the CNDs/TiO2 system for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation is attractive. The spectral response range of the CNDs/TiO2 system can be widened from the UV region to a part of the visible light region (400-550 nm).

Wu, Qiong; Li, Wei; Wu, Yanjiao; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

2014-10-01

18

Arabinose fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum in sourdough with added pentosans and alphaalpha-L-arabinofuranosidase: a tool to increase the production of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Sixty-five strains of obligately and facultatively heterofermentative sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened for their capacity to grow optimally in the presence of arabinose, ribose and xylose as carbon sources. Lactobacillus alimentarius 15F, Lact. brevis 10A, Lact. fermentum 1F and Lact. plantarum 20B showed higher growth rate, cell yield, acidification rate and production of acetic acid when some pentoses instead of maltose were added to the SDB medium. Lactobacillus plantarum 20B used arabinose also in a synthetic medium where complex growth factors such as yeast extract were omitted. Other Lact. plantarum strains did not show the same property. Pentosan extract was treated with alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger or endo-xylanase from Bacillus subtilis to produce hydrolysates containing mainly arabinose and xylose, respectively. In particular, the hydrolysate containing arabinose substantiated the growth and the production of lactic acid and, especially, of acetic acid by Lact. plantarum 20B. Sourdough fermentation by Lact. plantarum 20B with addition of pentosan extract and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase increased the acidification rate, titratable acidity and acetic acid content compared with traditional sourdough. A facultatively heterofermentative strain, Lact. plantarum 20B, also produced a sourdough with an optimal fermentation quotient. PMID:10736001

Gobbetti, M; Lavermicocca, P; Minervini, F; de Angelis, M; Corsetti, A

2000-02-01

19

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

20

Sodium Phosphate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

21

Sodium Bicarbonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium bicarbonate comes as a tablet and powder to take by mouth. Sodium bicarbonate is taken one to four times a day, depending on the reason you ... flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, ... Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline ( ...

22

Sodium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... irrationally, and coma or convulsions if the sodium level rises to extremely high concentrations. In rare cases, hypernatremia may be due to Cushing syndrome or a condition caused by too little ADH ... association with blood levels. The body normally excretes excess sodium, so the ...

23

Anionic polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In liver preservation, the substitution of the anion Cl- by lactobionic acid (LB) prevents reperfusion edema and extends the preservation time for human livers. We studied the effect of compounds that are structurally related to lactobionic acid: anionic polycarbohydrates (sulfated anionic polysaccharide, SAP, and pentosan polysulfate, PPS) on liver function and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in isolated perfusion and liver transplant

Chifumi Fukuda; Otto Kollmar; Thilo Schäfer; Ying-Hua Tian; Martin K. Schilling

2002-01-01

24

Assessment of prospective preventive therapies for chronic wasting disease in mule deer.  

PubMed

We compared prion infection rates among mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) receiving pentosan polysulfate, tannic acid, tetracycline HCl, or no treatment 14 days before to 14 days after (dpi) oral inoculation with tonsil tissue homogenate. All deer were infected, but the rapid disease course (230-603 dpi) suggested our challenge was overwhelming. PMID:22493139

Wolfe, Lisa L; Kocisko, David A; Caughey, Byron; Miller, Michael W

2012-04-01

25

Test Your Sodium Smarts  

MedlinePLUS

... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

26

Pravastatin sodium.  

PubMed

Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

2014-01-01

27

21 CFR 522.1850 - Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...glycosaminoglycan. (b) Sponsor . See No. 010797 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Special considerations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use...

2010-04-01

28

Sodium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not for ...

29

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

30

Sodium blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and ... than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

31

Naproxen sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Naproxen sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve mild to moderate aches and pains. Naproxen sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

32

Mercury's sodium exosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

2003-01-01

33

Sodium urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

34

Sodium in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium. Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg ...

35

Sodium reactivity with carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report in this paper some results on the reactivity of different carbon materials, and in particular a set of pitch-coke samples heat treated between 800 and 2400 °C, with sodium. An experimental cell has been designed, which allows carbon to react with sodium vapor at relative pressure close to 0.9 up to 800 °C. The different carbon-sodium samples were

L. Joncourt; M. Mermoux; P. H. Touzain; L. Bonnetain; D. Dumas; B. Allard

1996-01-01

36

METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of ; liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method ; is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a ; molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize ; out and form solid deposits, therefore, the

W. H. Bruggeman; B. G. Voorhees

1957-01-01

37

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size and style no larger than...Any product subject to this paragraph that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an...

2013-04-01

38

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size and style no larger than...Any product subject to this paragraph that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an...

2011-04-01

39

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size and style no larger than...Any product subject to this paragraph that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an...

2012-04-01

40

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size and style no larger than...Any product subject to this paragraph that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an...

2014-04-01

41

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size and style no larger than...Any product subject to this paragraph that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an...

2010-04-01

42

Thermophysical properties of sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

1969-01-01

43

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

44

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21

45

Cardiac sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

2010-01-01

46

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

2011-04-01

47

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

2012-04-01

48

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

2010-04-01

49

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

2013-04-01

50

21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

2014-04-01

51

The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P63) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space

Kali Zheng; Andrea R. Gerson; Jonas Addai-Mensah; Roger St. C. Smart

1997-01-01

52

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

53

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

54

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

55

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of...

2012-04-01

56

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of...

2014-04-01

57

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of...

2010-04-01

58

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of...

2011-04-01

59

21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of...

2013-04-01

60

Complete sodium removal from equipment  

SciTech Connect

Proving that metallic sodium could be successfully removed from the complex internal and external geometries of equipment (such as breeder reactor components) was one goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sodium Waste Technology Program. A pilot-plant facility was designed and built for sodium removal at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. The pilot plant is called the Sodium Process Demonstration (SPD) Facility. It uses a combination of melt-drain-evaporate-calcine (MEDEC) processes to remove metallic sodium from large (up to 1.4-m-diam x 2.2-m-long) nonradioactive-sodium-bearing equipment. The sodium-free equipment can then be reused or disposed of using normal waste disposal methods. The sodium can be converted to storable sodium monoxide or disposed of by other means. Evaluating the effectiveness of this MEDEC process was the object of a methodical test program. After this test program proved successful, the MEDEC process was used on a production scale to remove metallic sodium from a variety of sodium-bearing items as described.

Huebner, M.F.; Abrams, C.S.

1986-01-01

61

Surface Tension of Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the surface tension of molten sodium, by a modified flat drop method, in a high vacuum. In doing so we have used Worthington's correction formula sigma=(K-k)2rho21.641L1.641L+(K-k). From the best mean straight line through the experimental points the surface tension at 100°C and at 250°C was found to be 206.4 and 199.5 dynes per cm respectively. Hence the

Franklin E. Poindexter; Marie Kernaghan

1929-01-01

62

Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

2015-03-13

63

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

64

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

1987-07-01

65

Sodium bicarbonate: basically useless therapy.  

PubMed

Common clinical practices often are unsupported by experimental evidence. One example is the administration of sodium bicarbonate to neonates. Despite a long history of widespread use, objective evidence that administration of sodium bicarbonate improves outcomes for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest or with metabolic acidosis is lacking. Indeed, there is evidence that this therapy is detrimental. This review examines the history of sodium bicarbonate use in neonatology and the evidence that refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or to treat metabolic acidosis in the NICU. PMID:18829808

Aschner, Judy L; Poland, Ronald L

2008-10-01

66

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

67

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

68

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2010-07-01

69

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2013-10-01

70

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2014-10-01

71

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2012-10-01

72

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2011-10-01

73

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2010-10-01

74

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06

75

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

76

Sodium heat transfer system modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

1983-11-01

77

The sodium-sulphur battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the

I. W. Jones

1981-01-01

78

Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2008-01-01

79

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2010-04-01

80

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals...

2014-04-01

81

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals...

2013-04-01

82

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals...

2010-04-01

83

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals...

2012-04-01

84

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

85

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

86

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

87

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

88

CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?  

MedlinePLUS

... tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have different sodium ... can: Develop and implement efforts that: Increase public awareness about the amount of sodium added to processed ...

89

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic...white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In...

2014-04-01

90

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic...white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic...white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In...

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic...white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In...

2010-04-01

93

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic...white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In...

2012-04-01

94

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheate sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J. K.

1982-06-01

95

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

96

Urogynecologic conditions: interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial cystitis, also known as painful bladder syndrome, is a debilitating condition. The diagnosis is difficult and often is one of exclusion. Cystoscopy is the best way to confirm the diagnosis, but treatment can be initiated based on symptoms alone. Most patients benefit from an array of different drugs, including pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, and cimetidine. These treatments must be tailored for each patient. If oral drugs are ineffective, intravesical therapy can be attempted with dimethyl sulfoxide, heparin, or an anesthetic therapeutic combination containing lidocaine. Fulguration typically is performed if Hunner ulcers are found on cystoscopy. Hydrodistention, sacral neuromodulation, and intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA are sometimes useful. PMID:25756373

Desrosiers, Laurephile; Garely, Alan D

2015-03-01

97

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-print Network

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01

98

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

99

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

100

Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

101

Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed.

Freskakis, G.N.

1984-09-01

102

Sodium nitroprusside treatment in erythromelalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of two children with erythromelalgia were relieved promptly by the intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside (1–5 µg\\/kg\\/min). The elevated blood pressure of one of them was also easily controlled with this drug and did not recur during the follow-up period. Taken together with our previous experience, we believe sodium nitroprusside administration to be a treatment of choice for

S. Özsoylu; T. Coskun

1984-01-01

103

Capillary viscometry of sodium soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rheological properties of a sodium tallow-coconut oil soap (15% water) have been determined using a high pressure capillary extrusion viscometer over shear rates of 14.7 to 2560 sec?1 and temperatures of 70–103°C. Capillary flow measurements were also made on sodium stearate (25% water) at 90°C. The data indicated shear thinning characteristics and were fitted to an equation of

John E. Bujake

1966-01-01

104

Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all principal sodium carbonate sources. The kinetics of the recrystallization as well as of the superimposed chemical reaction, the

R. S. Gaertner

2005-01-01

105

21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of...

2013-04-01

106

21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of...

2012-04-01

107

21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of...

2010-04-01

108

21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of...

2011-04-01

109

21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2 , CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of...

2014-04-01

110

21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

2011-04-01

111

21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

2012-04-01

112

21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3 H5 O3 Na , CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared...neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

2013-04-01

114

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

115

Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

2011-01-01

116

Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.  

PubMed

United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March 2001, the company was planning a phase III pivotal study in late-stage PVD by the end of 2001 [424180]. In April 2000, UTC was issued US-06054486 for the method of treating PVD with treprostinil [364130]. In February 2000, UTC entered into an agreement with Paladin Labs for the exclusive Canadian distribution of treprostinil for the remainder of clinical trials and after regulatory approvals [357302]. In November 2000, UTC and Antigen Pharmaceuticals entered into a strategic alliance for the distribution of treprostinil in the UK and Ireland [390157]. In November 2000, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a sales potential of US $250 million to US $350 million [418736]. In August 2001, Merril Lynch predicted sales of US $10 million to $20 million in 2002 [420652]. PMID:12090728

Chattaraj, Sarat C

2002-04-01

117

Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum in wieners.  

PubMed

Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum was inhibited by sodium nitrite levels above 50 mug/g of wiener. Sodium ascorbate at levels of 105 and 655 mug/g of product did not decrease the effectiveness of the sodium nitrite inhibition, nor did sodium ascorbate potentiate it. The results indicate that the use of sodium ascorbate in vacuum-packaged wieners does not appreciably alter the inhibition of C. botulinum toxin formation by sodium nitrite. PMID:4596392

Bowen, V G; Cerveny, J G; Deibel, R H

1974-03-01

118

Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

119

Distribution and Digestibility of the Pentosans of Feeds.  

E-print Network

.S., Director A. B. CoNNER, B. S., Assistant Director CHAS. A. FELKER, Chief Clerk A. S. WARE, Secretary DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE M. FRANCIS, D. V. S., Veterinarian in Charge H. ScHMIDT, D . V. M., Assistant Veter inarian DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY G....89 5.71 3.98 7.30 4238 Johnson grass hay .. . . . ..... 21.33 16.51 10 . 72 4.38 16.95 4.82 5.79 6.34 4546 Kafir fodder ... . ..... 19.68 14.63 9.39 3.35 16.33 5.05 5.24 6 .04 4247 Millet . .. . .. . . . ..... 20.18 11.03 10.11 4.57 15.61 9.15 .92 5...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01

120

The epithelial sodium channel and the control of sodium balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies aiming at the elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenic forms of hypertension have identified mutations in genes coding for the epithelial sodium channel ENaC, for the mineralocorticoid receptor, or for enzymes crucial for the synthesis of aldosterone. These genetic studies clearly demonstrate the importance of the regulation of Na+ absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), for

Laurent Schild

2010-01-01

121

Micelle formation of sodium deoxycholate and sodium ursodeoxycholate (part 1).  

PubMed

Micellization of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium ursodeoxycholate (NaUDC) was studied for the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the micelle aggregation number, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle, where sodium cholate (NaC) was used as a reference. The fluorescence probe technique of pyrene was employed to determine accurately the CMC values for the bile salts, which indicated that a certain concentration range of CMC and a stepwise aggregation for micellization were reasonable. The temperature dependences of micellization for NaDC and NaUDC were studied at 288.2, 298.2, 308.2, and 318.2 K by aqueous solubility change with solution pH. Aggregations of the bile salt anions were analyzed using the stepwise association model and found to grow in size with increasing concentration, which confirmed that the mass action model worked quite well. The average aggregation number was found to be 2.5 (NaUDC) and 10.5 (NaDC) at the concentration of 20 mM and at 308.2 K. The aggregation number determined by static light scattering also agreed well with those by the solubility method in the order of size: NaUDCsodium ions was made by a sodium ion selective electrode in order to confirm the low counterion binding to micelles and the validity of the present association model of bile salts, but the model did not hold good for NaDC at higher concentrations. PMID:11880243

Matsuoka, Keisuke; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

2002-02-28

122

Solubilization of sodium cocoyl isethionate.  

PubMed

Sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) has been a predominant ingredient in syndet bar formulation for more than thirty years. Although cost effective and well recognized for good skin compatibility, SCI is not regularly found in liquid detergent systems due to its limited solubility in water. This study focuses on the understanding of enthalpy of solubilization, equilibrium of solubilization, and the structures and properties of sodium cocoyl isethionate and various surfactants. The purpose of this exercise is to help the formulator to find appropriate surfactant systems to keep sodium cocoyl isethionate in aqueous solution. The solubility of SCI in water is unfavorable in terms of enthalpy of solvation. When setting up equilibrium of solubilization, there are three possible phases, and three methods have been developed to prevent SCI from recrystallizing in aqueous solutions. The first focuses on tying CI ions within micelles made of secondary surfactants. The second focuses on the exchange of sodium ions with ammonium ions (and/or triethanolammonium). The third centers on emulsification of SCI and the subsequent change of micelles into emulsified oil drops. A combination of two or three of these methods will enable the formulator to use SCI as the primary surfactant in liquid detersive systems. PMID:14730372

Sun, James Ziming; Parr, James W; Erickson, Michael C E

2003-01-01

123

PILOT TESTING OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of pilot plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO2 was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of...

124

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01

125

Liquid sodium cooled fast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of cylindrical shells is interposed between the main vessel wall of an integrated sodium-cooled fast reactor and the primary core containment vessel so as to form a siphon having two downwardly directed branches. One branch opens into the intervessel zone which is separated from the primary vessel by a shell. The other branch which is nearest the main

J. M. Gama; J. Lallement; L. Pugnet

1977-01-01

126

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01

127

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium ? ? dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2 = 30 cm,; L=30 cm,; f1 = 120 Hz,; f2 = 30 Hz ). It is designed to simulate the generation of large scale magnetic fields in massive black hole accretion disks, galaxies, and stars. The omega gain is due to the shear flow of differential rotation of Couette flow between two differentially rotating co-axial cylinders. Differential rotation in a conducting fluid twists a radial or quadrupole magnetic flux into a greatly enhanced toroidal flux. A large coherent helicity is produced by driven plumes and astrophisically by star-disk collisions, supernova explosions, or large scale plume convection respectively. We have rotated the apparatus with water and hot oil and demonstrated stable Couette flow with only Ekman-flow-induced torque. We will report on the ? gain with liquid sodium. This Work has been supported by NMIMT, EMRTC, NSF, & LDRD of LANL.

Colgate, Stirling; Beckley, Howard; Li, Hui; Sonnenfield, Richard; Westpfahl, Dave; Bentley, Ian; Ginanni, Rocky; McKinnly, Travis; Pariev, Valadimir

2004-11-01

128

Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

behavior. Keywords: sodium ion battery, anodes, titanates,possibility is the sodium ion battery [4, 5]. Like the moresodium insertion hosts illustrate the utility of investigating this chemistry for battery

Doeff, Marca

2014-01-01

129

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

2012-04-01

130

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or...

2013-04-01

131

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or...

2012-04-01

132

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

2014-04-01

133

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

2013-04-01

134

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or...

2011-04-01

135

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

2010-04-01

136

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or...

2010-04-01

137

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or...

2014-04-01

138

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

2011-04-01

139

Adsorption of Sodium Hexanoate on ?-Alumina  

E-print Network

carbons and sodium persulfate as oxidizer supplied by GE Analytical instruments Ltd. The adsorption isotherm of sodium hexanoate was determined by the solution depletion method, where the change in adsorbate concentration (depletion) after contact...

Lee, Seung Yeon; Welbourn, Rebecca; Clarke, Stuart; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Clifton, Luke; Zarbakhsh, Ali

2013-06-27

140

Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system  

DOEpatents

A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01

141

Sodium wash station operational testing report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the test report for the Operability Test Procedure (OTP) performed on the Westinghouse Hanford Company developed Sodium Wash Station. The purpose of the Sodium Wash Station is to provide the capability to control and monitor the water vapor nitrogen reaction of sodium remaining in drained tanks and other components.

Knotek, H.M.

1996-10-01

142

21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food...

2010-04-01

143

Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

Silvey, Ronald L.

1993-01-01

144

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic...slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b) In...

2011-04-01

145

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic...slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b) In...

2010-04-01

146

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2012-04-01

147

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic...slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b) In...

2013-04-01

148

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic...slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b) In...

2014-04-01

149

21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis -9-octadecenoic...slight tallow-like odor. Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b) In...

2012-04-01

150

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2013-04-01

151

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2014-04-01

152

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2011-04-01

153

A Liquid Sodium alpha omega Dynamo Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Liquid Sodium alpha omega Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium alpha omega dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2

Stirling Colgate; Howard Beckley; Hui Li; Richard Sonnenfield; Dave Westpfahl; Ian Bentley; Rocky Ginanni; Travis McKinnly; Valadimir Pariev

2004-01-01

154

Flotation of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts from their saturated brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of sodium carbonates and sodium bicarbonate has been studied with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of a research program to evaluate the potential of flotation technology for use in the trona industry. Laboratory microflotation experiments generally show that flotation of sodium carbonate salts is possible at least to some extent with

O Ozcan; J. D Miller

2002-01-01

155

40 CFR 180.487 - Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. 180.487...Tolerances § 180.487 Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General...residues of the herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium, (sodium...

2010-07-01

156

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

157

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

158

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

160

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

161

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

162

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

163

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

164

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

165

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

166

In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

2014-05-01

167

Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.  

PubMed

Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

Daugirdas, John T

2013-01-01

168

76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2011-N-0428] Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries per Milliliter...Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10 to 200...

2011-06-24

169

Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

170

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-02-01

171

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

172

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

173

Sodium Sulfur Technology Program Nastec  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and ground and flight test objectives are described in textual and graphic form.

Highley, Bob; Somerville, W. Andrew

1992-01-01

174

The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

2001-01-01

175

Deranged sodium to sudden death.  

PubMed

In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na(+) channel structure, function and regulation, and Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na(+) in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na(+) homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na(+) -based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na(+) channels and Na(+) homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy. PMID:25772289

Clancy, Colleen E; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M; Belardinelli, Luiz; Boyden, Penelope A; Csernoch, Laszlo; Despa, Sanda; Fermini, Bernard; Hool, Livia C; Izu, Leighton; Kass, Robert S; Lederer, W Jonathan; Louch, William E; Maack, Christoph; Matiazzi, Alicia; Qu, Zhilin; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rippinger, Crystal M; Sejersted, Ole M; O'Rourke, Brian; Weiss, James N; Varró, András; Zaza, Antonio

2015-03-15

176

Modeling the neutral sodium tails of comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and, at some comets, a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) data taken using CoCam [1], but, since this initial detection, similar features have been observed at near-Sun comets using the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO. A full picture of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be established using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout the orbit. The high efficiency of the sodium D transition has allowed it to be detected in systems, even if the column density of sodium is extremely low. In these instances it is sometimes possible to determine some of the system's characteristics from the sodium emission detection, such as in Io's plasma torus [2] and Enceladus's plume [3,4]. It is hoped that a similar approach may be applied to the active cometary environment, but, at present, the production of neutral sodium is unknown. Various authors [5--9, thorough review presented in 10] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail, and ion tail. The morphology and evolution of the neutral cometary sodium tail are difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three-dimensional, heliocentric-distance-dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model, which incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. Our model was initially based on that of Brown et al [7]. We present preliminary results from this model. We have found initial agreement with the overall morphology and brightness of the neutral sodium tail observed at C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp, for which this phenomenon was studied most extensively) and our model, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present our initial analysis of the likely presence of neutral sodium in the SOHO LASCO images of C/2012 S1 (ISON) and a comparison of this dataset with our model. The versatility of the model allows it to be easily adapted to any other cometary sodium tail.

Birkett, K.; Jones, G.; Coates, A.

2014-07-01

177

A comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate products.  

PubMed

A comparison of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) products was made. Solutions of NaOCl and NaDCC containing the same levels of available chlorine (av.Cl) exhibited very similar bactericidal activities, despite significant differences in pH. A level of 12.5 ppm av. Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 min. A level of 5 ppm av.Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 min whilst approximately 100 ppm av.Cl achieved the same reduction in the presence of 1% horse serum, and approximately 200 ppm av.Cl in the presence of 2% horse serum, indicating inactivation levels of around 95 and 97.5% respectively. Tablets of NaDCC were stable but solutions were unstable and decomposed much faster than NaOCl solutions of the same strength. Batch-to-batch variability of different NaOCl and NaDCC products was investigated; whilst NaDCC products always contained the minimum level of av.Cl specified, concentrated NaOCl products sometimes did not due to inherent instability. PMID:2859320

Coates, D

1985-03-01

178

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

179

Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60 % reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20 % reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions

ANN M. WOODHULL

1973-01-01

180

In vitro antisickling activity of cromolyn sodium.  

PubMed

The improvement in sickle cell disease (SCD) children receiving cromolyn sodium therapy prompted us to investigate its antisickling activity in vitro. The number of sickle cells was determined in deoxygenated blood samples from 15 children with severe SCD. At the eight concentrations tested, cromolyn sodium exhibited a significantly higher activity than pentoxifylline, the standard compound. Therefore cromolyn sodium would appear to be an interesting candidate for SCD therapy and deserves further in vivo investigations. PMID:9886306

Fall, A B; Toppet, M; Ferster, A; Fondu, P; Vanhaelen-Fastré, R; Vanhaelen, M

1998-12-01

181

Sodium Fluxes in Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP. 1 The compound d-ATP

F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

1968-01-01

182

Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite.  

PubMed

A water deprived animal that ingests only water efficiently corrects its intracellular dehydration, but remains hypovolemic, in negative sodium balance, and with high plasma renin activity and angiotensin II. Therefore, it is not surprising that it also ingests sodium. However, separation between thirst and sodium appetite is necessary to use water deprivation as a method to understand the mechanisms subserving sodium appetite. For this purpose, we may use the water deprivation-partial repletion protocol, or WD-PR. This protocol allows performing a sodium appetite test after the rat has quenched its thirst; thus, the sodium intake during this test cannot be confounded with a response to thirst. This is confirmed by hedonic shift and selective ingestion of sodium solutions in the sodium appetite test that follows a WD-PR. The separation between thirst and sodium appetite induced by water deprivation permits the identification of brain states associated with sodium intake in the appetite test. One of these states relates to the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptors. Other states relate to cell activity in key areas, e.g. subfornical organ and central amygdala, as revealed by immediate early gene c-Fos immunoreactivity or focal lesions. Angiotensin II apparently sensitizes the brain of the water deprived rat to produce an enhanced sodium intake, as that expressed by spontaneously hypertensive and by young normotensive rat. The enhancement in sodium intake produced by history of water deprivation is perhaps a clue to understand the putative salt addiction in humans. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20226201

De Luca, Laurival A; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Vendramini, Regina C; David, Richard B; Menani, José V

2010-07-14

183

[Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].  

PubMed

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form for its activity. It is interesting to note that well known bacteria, that are resistant to the common antimicrobial agents, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were inhibited by sodium dichloroisocyanurate in a rapid bactericidal action. Our data demonstrates that no significant adverse influence on the activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was shown by pH and by temperature even if in some experimental conditions increased activity was noticed at pH = 6.6. The sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated good activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. This fact extends the broad-spectrum activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate to the protozoa. In conclusion, sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated a good activity against all tested strains, furthermore its activity did not decrease in the presence of 1% of organic substance (serum etc.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2484478

D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

1989-01-01

184

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

185

A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries  

E-print Network

Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

186

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

187

Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant supported an investigation of lunar sodium by our coronagraph and spectrograph on nearby Mount Lemmon. We report successful operation and data analysis during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, September 15 - 22, 1995, and submittal of a paper to Icarus. The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx.1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg., and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with IRAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

1997-01-01

188

Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide  

SciTech Connect

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n=1.839 0.002) and 633 nm (n=1.786 0.002). These 6 measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a 2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Ramey, Lucas A [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2012-01-01

189

Are Sodium Transporters in Urinary Exosomes Reliable Markers of Tubular Sodium Reabsorption in Hypertensive Patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Altered renal sodium handling has a major pathogenic role in salt-sensitive hypertension. Renal sodium transporters are present in urinary exosomes. We hypothesized that sodium transporters would be excreted into the urine in different amounts in response to sodium intake in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant patients. Methods: Urinary exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, and their content of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) and

Xiaoyan Wang; Elisabet Ars; Elena Guillén-Gómez; Laia Sans; Isabel González Saavedra; Ferran Torres; Roser Torra; Shyama Masilamani; José Aurelio Ballarín; Patricia Fernández-Llama

2010-01-01

190

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

191

SODIUM BENTONITE OR SODIUM BICARBONATE AS AIDS IN FEEDING HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS TO LAMBS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Studies were conducted to compare bento- nite and sodium bicarbonate as dietary aids in adaptation and subsequent performance of lambs fed high-concentrate diets under various conditions of protein supplementation. Three protein variations, including no supplemental protein (NSP), soybean meal (SBM) or urea, were factored with a control, 2% or 4% sodium bentonite, and 2% or 4% sodium bicarbonate in

G. B. Huntington; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

2010-01-01

192

Rapid Changes in Mercury's Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium in the atmosphere of Mercury can be detected by sunlight scattered in the D1 and D2 resonance lines. Images of the sodium emission show that the sodium density changes from day to day and is often concentrated in regions at high or mid latitudes. Drew Potter (NASA/JSC) and Tom Morgan (SWRI) suggested that sputtering by magnetospheric particles was the origin of the sodium. A problem with this is that the magnetic field of Mercury is strong enough that it is believed to shield the surface from solar particles much of the time, although particle precipitation at the magnetospheric cusps could deposit particles to the surface at high latitudes. Ann Sprague (UA/LPL) noted that the "spots" of sodium emission tended to coincide with major geologic features, such as the Caloris Basin. She proposed that the sodium is released from sodiumrich surface rocks that are associated with these features; however, some spots have appeared where there are no obvious geologic features. Some of the difficulty in ascribing a source for the sodium arises from the effect of terrestrial atmospheric blurring of the image. It is hard to tell exactly where the sodium emission originates after the atmosphere has blurred the image. Potter, Killen (SWRI), and Morgan recently developed a technique for correcting sodium images for atmospheric blurring, using images made with a large-area image slicer. They applied this technique to a series of Mercury sodium observations made in November, 1997 at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope. Their technique for producing images from the spectroscopic data provides images of both the sodium emission and of the sunlight reflected from the surface.

Potter, Drew

2000-01-01

193

Sodium currents and sodium-current fluctuations in rat myelinated nerve fibres  

PubMed Central

1. Sodium currents and fluctuations of sodium currents were measured in myelinated fibres of rat sciatic nerve under voltage clamp at 20 °C. 2. Relaxations of sodium currents during various test potentials were recorded in the presence of 6 nM-TTX in the extracellular solution. The activation of sodium currents at low depolarizations could be described with the m2 formulation. At increasing potentials higher powers of m up to 4 were required. The mid-point of the PNa (E) curve was located near E = -32 mV. Sodium inactivation during various depolarizations developed in two phases. 3. The resistance in series with the nodal membrane was calculated from peak sodium currents without and with 6 nM-TTX in the extracellular solution. The resistance varied between different fibres and ranged between 190 and 620 k?. 4. From peak sodium currents at the same mambrane potential without and in the presence of TTX an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 1·6 nM was calculated for TTX binding to sodium channels. 5. The conductance ? and the number N0 (corrected for series-resistance effects) of sodium channels were evaluated from ensemble average values of the mean sodium current and the variance of sodium-current fluctuations at the beginning of a test pulse. The mean values were ? = 14·5 pS, N0 = 21,000 per node. 6. The spectral density of stationary sodium-current fluctuations exhibited two relaxation components whose time constants were comparable to those of sodium activation and inactivation. At low depolarizations the variance produced by inactivation fluctuations was larger than predicted by the m3. h formulation. 7. It is concluded that individual sodium channels of rat and frog nerve have similar gating properties. In mammalian nodes the number of sodium channels is lower and the single-channel conductance higher than in amphibian nodes. PMID:6292404

Neumcke, B.; Stämpfli, R.

1982-01-01

194

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-print Network

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

195

Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the

Himeno

1978-01-01

196

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of...

2011-04-01

197

The Sodium Tail of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-01-01

198

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

199

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2011-04-01

201

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2014-04-01

202

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2012-04-01

203

21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

2013-04-01

204

Sodium and potassium in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out of arterial pressure and body content of electrolytes in 91 patients with essential hypertension and 121 normal controls. Exchangeable sodium was found to be positively correlated with arterial pressure in the patients, the correlation being closest in older patients; values of exchangeable sodium were subnormal in young patients; and plasma, exchangeable, and total body potassium

A F Lever; C Beretta-Piccoli; J J Brown; D L Davies; R Fraser; J I Robertson

1981-01-01

205

Liquid sodium model of Earth's outer core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth's outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of Earth's outer core. Heat transfer, zonal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates O and temperature drops DeltaT across the convecting sodium.

Woodrow Shew

2004-01-01

206

[Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].  

PubMed

In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

Sulyok, Endre

2013-09-22

207

[Cerebral oedema caused by sodium valproate].  

PubMed

Sodium valproate is widely used as an antiepileptic drug. It has potential side effects and its overdosage is toxic. We present a case where a sodium valproate intoxication with severe cerebral oedema was managed in the intensive care unit with hemodialysis, levocarnitine and supportive care. PMID:25558630

Hurri, Lauri; Posti, Jussi; Seppä, Juha Matti; Rauhala, Esa; Puustinen, Juha

2014-01-01

208

Pharmacobezoar complicating treatment with sodium alginate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We encountered a gastric bezoar that had developed in a 9-year-old girl treated with sodium alginate (Alloid G) for acute gastritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. A hard mass palpated in the left upper abdomen proved, upon gastric endoscopy, to be an intragastric foreign body. Sodium alginate was detected in an analysis of a sample from this bezoar. In an

Hiroaki Kaneko; Takeshi Tomomasa; Yumi Kubota; Makoto Todokoro; Masahiko Kato; Reiko Miyazawa; Tomoko Suzuki; Yukie Hatori; Fumio Kunimoto; Koujirou Yamamoto; Akihiro Morikawa

2004-01-01

209

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

210

Interaction of 5-fluorouracil with sodium carboxymethylcellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil with sodium carboxymethylcellulose in aqueous solution was studied with a spectral method and viscosity measurement. From the binding data, the standard molar change in enthalpy, entropy and the number of binding sites on polymer were calculated. The standard molar change of enthalpy of 5-fluorouracil is about — 7 Kcal\\/mol with sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The

K. Nishida; Y. Ando; M. Enomoto

1982-01-01

211

Sodium quercetin-8-sulfonate trihydrate  

PubMed Central

The organic anion of the title compound, {[Na(C15H9O10S)(H2O)2]·H2O}n {systematic name: poly[[diaqua­[?-2-(3,4-dihy­droxy­phen­yl)-3,5,7-trihy­droxy-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-sulfon­ato]­sodium] monohydrate]}, has a nearly planar structure. The Na atom is six-coordinated by O atoms, two from water mol­ecules and four from the anion. The dihedral angle between the ring systems in the anion is 10.1?(1)°. Intra­molecular O—H?S and O—H?O inter­actions occur. In the crystal structure, an extensive network of classical inter­molecular O—H?S and O—H?O hydrogen bonds forms layers along the c axis. PMID:21588109

Zhang, Xian; Li, Yueqing; Chen, Pingping; Han, Tianjiao; Zhao, Weijie

2010-01-01

212

Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx. 1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg, and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with ERAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

1997-01-01

213

Voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel’s fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment. PMID:23531742

Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

2013-01-01

214

Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

215

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01

216

Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*  

PubMed Central

Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

1973-01-01

217

Sodium valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man with a background of poststroke epilepsy, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension, presented to the medical assessment unit with acute confusion and altered consciousness. Medications included sodium valproate, aspirin and antihypertensives. On examination he was confused, with his Glasgow Coma Scale fluctuating between 10 and 14. Routine blood tests, thyroid function tests, serum sodium valproate level, urine dip, CT of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were all normal. EEG revealed changes consistent with an encephalopathic process. Serum ammonia was elevated (75 µg/dL), consistent with a diagnosis of valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy. Sodium valproate was changed to a different antiepileptic drug and his confusion gradually resolved. Valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a treatable condition which should be considered as a diagnosis in anyone taking sodium valproate with new onset confusion, even in the presence of therapeutic sodium valproate levels and normal liver function tests. PMID:24722719

Pegg, Emily Jane; Zaman, Fawad

2014-01-01

218

Sodium Thiosulfate in the Treatment of Calciphylaxis  

PubMed Central

The authors review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of calciphylaxis and also describe applications of a novel therapeutic option, sodium thiosulfate. Two cases of advanced uremic calciphylaxis from both clinic and hospital settings are presented. One patient, a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, was treated with surgical debridement and sodium thiosulfate 25g three times a week. After introducing sodium thiosulfate treatment, the affected sites continue to heal with encouraging improvement of ulcer depth. Sodium thiosulfate was well-tolerated and facilitated wound healing. The patient did not develop sepsis. Sodium thiosulfate appears to be a viable first-line treatment for calciphylaxis and should be seriously considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:23710271

Cohen, George F.

2013-01-01

219

Sodium D-line emission in Comet West /1975n/ and the sodium source in comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectrum of the sodium D-line emission from Comet West (1975n) taken at heliocentric distance 1.4 AU is analyzed by comparing the D-line brightness to that in the underlying continuum. Using the observations of this comet by Ney and Merrill, it is found that the dust grains which dominate the visible and infrared continua are too cool to provide the observed sodium atoms through evaporation of sodium metal or a sodium compound from grain surfaces. Though sodium metal may evaporate from a small-grain component, it is suggested that molecules embedded in the volatile nuclear matrix are a more plausible source of sodium. The relationship between this source and the interstellar sodium abundance is discussed.

Oppenheimer, M.

1980-01-01

220

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2014-04-01

221

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2011-04-01

222

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2013-04-01

223

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2012-04-01

224

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 ...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2011-04-01

225

21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

226

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34 Section 181.34 ...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior...

2011-04-01

227

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19

228

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2013-04-01

229

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2012-04-01

230

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2014-04-01

231

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2011-04-01

232

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2010-04-01

233

78 FR 40505 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1110 (Review)] Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate from China would be...Publication 4410 (June 2013), entitled Sodium Hexametaphosphate from China:...

2013-07-05

234

21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116...Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food prepared from...

2010-04-01

235

40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41 Section 141.41 Protection... § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for community...distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels;...

2010-07-01

236

40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a...substances identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs...

2011-07-01

237

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2013-07-01

238

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2010-07-01

239

40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 ...Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to...

2011-07-01

240

40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2011-07-01

242

40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 ...Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...as alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783,...

2010-07-01

243

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

244

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation  

E-print Network

Atomic Transition Probabilities of Sodium and Magnesium. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera lines of sodium and magnesium nuclear charge Z=11­12, respectively . The cited values; magnesium; oscillator strengths; sodium; tran- sition probabilities; uncertainties. CONTENTS 1. Introduction

Magee, Joseph W.

245

40 CFR 180.487 - Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...487 Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium, (sodium 2-chloro-6-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)thio]benzoate),...

2013-07-01

246

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

2013-04-01

247

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

2012-04-01

248

21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

2014-04-01

249

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 ...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications...solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to...

2010-04-01

250

21 CFR 522.1884 - Prednisolone sodium succinate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1884 Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. (a...Specifications. Each milliliter of prednisolone sodium succinate injection...

2010-04-01

251

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

252

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

254

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

255

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

256

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

257

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

258

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

259

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

260

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

261

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

262

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

263

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

264

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

265

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

267

21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

269

21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

270

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2011-04-01

271

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

272

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

273

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

275

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

277

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2014-04-01

278

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

279

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2013-04-01

280

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

281

21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

282

21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section 522.1883... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of...

2012-04-01

283

21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

284

40 CFR 721.10672 - Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic). 721.10672 Section...721.10672 Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substances...generically as sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (PMNs P-09-447 and...

2014-07-01

285

21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 ...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

2010-04-01

286

21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

287

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34 Section 181.34 ...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior...

2010-04-01

288

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution of 0.95...

2012-04-01

289

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution of 0.95...

2014-04-01

290

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution of 0.95...

2010-04-01

291

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution of 0.95...

2011-04-01

292

21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution of 0.95...

2013-04-01

293

Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Diet Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet in Stumbleupon Most Americans consume ... trying a potassium-based salt substitute. Sodium and Potassium Amounts in Fresh and Processed Foods Food* Sodium, ...

294

The role of angiotensin II on sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) on sodium appetite in rats subjected to a normal or a low-sodium diet (1% or > 0.1% NaCl) for 4 days. During sodium restriction, a reduction in water intake, urinary volume and sodium excretion was observed. After a low-sodium diet, we observed decreased plasma protein concentrations and haematocrit associated with a slight reduction in arterial pressure, without any significant changes in heart rate, natraemia, corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone levels. After providing hypertonic saline, there was an increase in saline intake followed by a small increase in water intake, resulting in an enhanced saline intake ratio and the recovery of arterial pressure. Sodium deprivation increased plasma but not brain Ang I and II concentrations. A low-sodium diet increased kidney renin and liver angiotensinogen mRNA levels but not lung angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression. Moreover, Ang II type 1a receptor mRNA expression was increased in the subfornical organ and the dorsal raphe nucleus and decreased in the medial preoptic nuclei, without changes in the paraventricular nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract after a low-sodium diet. Blockade of AT(1) receptors or brain Ang II synthesis led to a reduction in sodium intake after a low-sodium diet. Intracerebroventricular injection of Ang II led to a similar increase in sodium and water intake in the control and low-sodium diet groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Ang II is involved in the increased sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet. PMID:23002791

Mecawi, A S; Vilhena-Franco, T; Fonseca, F V; Reis, L C; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

2013-03-01

295

Sodium nitroprusside suppresses male fertility in vitro.  

PubMed

Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor involved in the regulation of the motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, and acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the molecular basis for the effects of sodium nitroprusside on different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on subsequent oocyte fertilization and embryo development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (1, 10, and 100 ?M) for 90 min. Our results showed that sodium nitroprusside inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics in a dose-dependent manner by significantly enhancing intracellular iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing Ca(2+), and adenosine triphosphate levels in spermatozoa. Moreover, short-term exposure of spermatozoa to sodium nitroprusside increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins involved in PKA-dependent regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which induced a robust AR. Finally, sodium nitroprusside significantly decreased the rates of fertilization and blastocyst formation during embryo development. Based on these results, we propose that sodium nitroprusside increases ROS production and precocious AR may alter overall sperm physiology, leading to poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. PMID:25180787

Rahman, M S; Kwon, W-S; Lee, J-S; Kim, J; Yoon, S-J; Park, Y-J; You, Y-A; Hwang, S; Pang, M-G

2014-11-01

296

Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

1989-01-01

297

Sodium of Small Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium is one of the interesting compositions, probably related to the dust particles, in small solar system bodies (ex. Huebner, Astron. Astrophys., Vol.5, 286, 1970). Sodium emission is easily observed due to the high efficiency of its resonant fluorescence, and plays an important role as tracers of materials in small bodies. The variation of the sodium emission is investigated from the recent observations of several bright comets such as Comet C/2002 C2 (Ikeya-Zhang). Including the past data, we studied the heliocentric dependence of the ratio of the sodium emission to the continuum flux, which seems to follow roughly an inverse square low. This suggests that the cometary sodium is released from the dust particles. Recent observations of Leonids meteors also suggests that the sodium is included in a part of the "glue" for connecting smaller grains in a meteoroid. This may be related to the meteoroid clusters which cause the apparitions of more than 30-40 meteors in a few seconds. The possible relation between the "glue" in fresh meteoroids and the sodium is also discussed in this presentation.

Watanabe, J.; Kawakita, H.; Furusho, R.; Fujii, M.

298

Sodium Inactivation in Nerve Fibers  

PubMed Central

A number of models proposed to account for the sodium conductance changes are shown to fall into two classes. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model falls into a class (I) in which the conductance depends on two or more independent variables controlled by independent processes. The Mullins, Hoyt, and Goldman models fall into class II in which conductance depends directly on one variable only, a variable which is controlled by two or more coupled processes. The HH and Hoyt models are used as specific examples of the two classes. It is shown that, contrary to a recently published report, the results from double experiments can be equally well accounted for by both models. It is also shown that steady-state conditioning, or “inactivation,” curves, obtained at more than one test potential, can be used to distinguish the two models. The HH equations predict that such curves should be shifted, by very small amounts, in the hyperpolarizing direction when more depolarizing test potentials are used, while the Hoyt model predicts that they should be shifted in the depolarizing direction, by quite appreciable amounts. Several pieces of published experimental information are used as tests of these predictions, and give tentative support to the class II model. Further experiments are necessary before a definite conclusion can be reached. PMID:5679390

Hoyt, Rosalie C.

1968-01-01

299

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used...

2010-04-01

300

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a performance evaluation, conducted with a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP), studying the effects of injecting anhydrous sodium carbonate into the exhaust of a utility boiler burning Western coal. In situ resistivity measurements, ESP operating conditio...

301

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

2014-04-01

302

Current Regulator For Sodium-Vapor Lamps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regulating circuit maintains nearly-constant alternating current in sodium-vapor lamp. Regulator part of dc-to-ac inverter circuit used to supply power to street lamp from battery charged by solar-cell array.

Mclyman, W. T.

1989-01-01

303

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which... (1) A weight average molecular weight of 2,000 to 2,300; and (2) A weight average molecular weight to number average...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which... (1) A weight average molecular weight of 2,000 to 2,300; and (2) A weight average molecular weight to number average...

2014-04-01

305

21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which... (1) A weight average molecular weight of 2,000 to 2,300; and (2) A weight average molecular weight to number average...

2012-04-01

306

Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.  

PubMed

The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow. PMID:17501423

Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

2007-04-20

307

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15

308

Sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery that sodium and potassium vapor can be observed in the lunar atmosphere using ground-based telescopes has opened up a field of investigation that was closed after the last Apollo mission to the Moon. Sodium has been detected at altitudes up to 1500 km above the surface. This implies a high effective temperature for sodium, of the order of 1000 K. However, there is some evidence for two populations of sodium and potassium, one at temperatures corresponding to the surface, and another corresponding to high temperatures. The sources for the lunar atmosphere are not understood. Meteoric bombardment of the surface, solar wind sputtering of the surface, and photo-sputtering of the surface have all been suggested as possible sources for the lunar atmosphere. One of the objectives of the current research is to test different hypotheses by measurements of the atmosphere under different conditions of solar illumination and shielding from the solar wind by the Earth.

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

1991-01-01

309

The Absorption Spectrum of Sodium Vapor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures and discussion of an experiment to be used in an undergraduate course in spectroscopy are presented. The experiment involves the measurement of the absorption spectrum of sodium vapor. (DT)

Ashby, R. A.; Gotthard, H. W.

1974-01-01

310

Resonance Broadening of the Sodium D Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

By direct measurement of the contours of the line wings, the resonance broadening of the sodium D lines in absorption was determined for vapor pressures of sodium ranging from 10-3 to 70 mm Hg with negligible amount of foreign gases. Over nearly the entire range, the half-intensity width varied linearly with the density of the absorbing atoms; i.e., Deltanu12N=0.80×10-7 sec.-1

Kenichi Watanabe

1941-01-01

311

Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

312

Evaporative removal of sodium from reactor components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation of sodium from components using heat and vacuum was investigated as a method of sodium removal from liquid-metal fast breeder reactor components. The method was determined to be capable of efficiently cleaning components at temperatures as low as 260 to 315°C and at pressures of approx. 1 x 10⁻³ to 1 x 10⁻⁴ Pa. The most rapid cleaning was

F. H. Welch; O. P. Steele

1980-01-01

313

Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-one children aged 10.5 ± 0.2 years (range, 8.0�15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 ± 36.6 g (range, 765�1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = �0.445, P < 0.005) between reported dietary sodium intake and the neonatal lowest serum sodium level (NLS) recorded for each child as an index of sodium loss. The relationship of NLS and dietary sodium intake was found in both boys and girls and in both Arab and Jewish children, despite marked ethnic differences in dietary sources of sodium. Hence, low NLS predicts increased intake of dietary sodium in low birth weight children some 8�15 yr later. Taken together with other recent evidence, it is now clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

Adi Shirazki (University of Haifa Pscyhology)

2006-12-14

314

Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae  

SciTech Connect

Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A. [UNAM (Mexico)] [and others

1995-11-01

315

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

Reynolds, J. G.; Bernards, J. K. [Washington Group International, 1779 Terminal Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01

316

NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

2013-09-01

317

Biomedical Applications of Sodium MRI In Vivo  

PubMed Central

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational imaging research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on sodium magnetic resonance, and (3) a review of some studies on sodium MRI on different organs/diseases to date. PMID:23722972

Madelin, Guillaume; Regatte, Ravinder R.

2013-01-01

318

Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

319

Sodium sensing in the brain.  

PubMed

Sodium (Na) homeostasis is crucial for life, and the Na(+) level ([Na(+)]) of body fluids is strictly maintained at a range of 135-145 mM. However, the existence of a [Na(+)] sensor in the brain has long been controversial until Nax was identified as the molecular entity of the sensor. This review provides an overview of the [Na(+)]-sensing mechanism in the brain for the regulation of salt intake by summarizing a series of our studies on Nax. Nax is a Na channel expressed in the circumventricular organs (CVOs) in the brain. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the principal site for the control of salt intake behavior, where Nax populates the cellular processes of astrocytes and ependymal cells enveloping neurons. A local expression of endothelin-3 in the SFO modulates the [Na(+)] sensitivity for Nax activation, and thereby Nax is likely to be activated in the physiological [Na(+)] range. Nax stably interacts with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase whereby Na(+) influx via Nax is coupled with activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase associated with the consumption of ATP. The consequent activation of anaerobic glucose metabolism of Nax-positive glial cells upregulates the cellular release of lactate, and this lactate functions as a gliotransmitter to activate GABAergic neurons in the SFO. The GABAergic neurons presumably regulate hypothetic neurons involved in the control of salt intake behavior. Recently, a patient with essential hypernatremia caused by autoimmunity to Nax was found. In this case, the hypernatremia was considered to be induced by the complement-mediated cell death in the CVOs, where Nax specifically populates. PMID:25491503

Noda, Masaharu; Hiyama, Takeshi Y

2015-03-01

320

Implications of Salt and Sodium Reduction on Microbial Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of

Peter J. Taormina

2010-01-01

321

The epithelial sodium channel and the control of sodium balance.  

PubMed

Studies aiming at the elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenic forms of hypertension have identified mutations in genes coding for the epithelial sodium channel ENaC, for the mineralocorticoid receptor, or for enzymes crucial for the synthesis of aldosterone. These genetic studies clearly demonstrate the importance of the regulation of Na(+) absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), for the maintenance of the extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Recent studies aiming at a better understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of ENaC-mediated Na(+) absorption in the distal part of nephron, have essentially focused on the regulation ENaC activity and on the aldosterone-signaling cascade. ENaC is a constitutively open channel, and factors controlling the number of active channels at the cell surface are likely to have profound effects on Na(+) absorption in the ASDN, and in the amount of Na(+) that is excreted in the final urine. A number of membrane-bound proteases, kinases, have recently been identified that increase ENaC activity at the cell surface in heterologous expressions systems. Ubiquitylation is a general process that regulates the stability of a variety of target proteins that include ENaC. Recently, deubiquitylating enzymes have been shown to increase ENaC activity in heterologous expressions systems. These regulatory mechanisms are likely to be nephron specific, since in vivo studies indicate that the adaptation of the renal excretion of Na(+) in response to Na(+) diet occurs predominantly in the early part (the connecting tubule) of the ASDN. An important work is presently done to determine in vivo the physiological relevance of these cellular and molecular mechanisms in regulation of ENaC activity. The contribution of the protease-dependent ENaC regulation in mediating Na(+) absorption in the ASDN is still not clearly understood. The signaling pathway that involves ubiquitylation of ENaC does not seem to be absolutely required for the aldosterone-mediated control of ENaC. These in vivo physiological studies presently constitute a major challenge for our understanding of the regulation of ENaC to maintain the Na(+) balance. PMID:20600867

Schild, Laurent

2010-12-01

322

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

323

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alterna- tive splicing of

Jianguo Tan; Zhiqi Liu; Yoshiko Nomura; Alan L. Goldin; Ke Dong

2002-01-01

324

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alternative splicing of sodium channels has not been demonstrated. In this study, we identified three mutually exclusive alternative exons encoding part of segments 3 and 4 of domain III in the German cockroach sodium channel gene, paraCSMA. The splice site is conserved in the mouse, fish, and human Nav1.6 sodium channel genes, suggesting an ancient origin. One of the alternative exons possesses a stop codon, which would generate a truncated protein with only the first two domains. The splicing variant containing the stop codon is detected only in the PNS, whereas the other two full-size variants were detected in both the PNS and CNS. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the two splicing variants produced robust sodium currents, but with different gating properties, whereas the splicing variant with the stop codon did not produce any detectable sodium current. Furthermore, these two functional splicing variants exhibited a striking difference in sensitivity to a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin. Exon swapping partially reversed the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Our results therefore provide the first evidence that alternative splicing of a sodium channel gene produces pharmacologically distinct channels. PMID:12097481

Tan, Jianguo; Liu, Zhiqi; Nomura, Yoshiko; Goldin, Alan L.; Dong, Ke

2011-01-01

325

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS G.R. CRAMER Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200 University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve

Cramer, Grant R.

326

DNA and its precursors might interact with the food preservatives, sodium sulphite and sodium benzoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The interaction of sodium sulphite and sodium benzoate with nucleosides and DNA has been studied in vitro. Reduction in UV-absorbance was consistently noticed. However, no new products result from such interaction. It is likely that our previous observations of the effects of the 2 food preservatives on DNA synthesis and mitotis inVicia faba root meristems is not due to

G. D. E. Njagi; H. N. B. Gopalan

1980-01-01

327

Studies on bipolar membranes. Part II — Conversion of sodium acetate to acetic acid and sodium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodialytic water-splitting technology using bipolar membrane is an attractive cost-effective process for the production of acids and alkalies from the corresponding salts occurring in waste waters. Earlier report by us described the preparation of bipolar membranes and its application in converting sodium sulfate into sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. In this paper, as an extension of our earlier published

G. S. Trivedi; B. G. Shah; S. K. Adhikary; V. K. Indusekhar; R. Rangarajan

1997-01-01

328

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21

329

Relaxation of Spin Polarisation of Sodium Vapor due to Sodium-Xenon Van Der Waals Molecules.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the relaxation of ground state sodium spin polarisation in xenon gas as a function of magnetic field in the presence of nitrogen and helium as buffer gases. The dependence of the sodium spin relaxation on magnetic. field and on the pressure of helium gas shows that the relaxation. mostly takes place in loosely bound sodium-xenon van der Waals. molecules. It is observed that the spin orbit interaction is the. dominant mechanism for the relaxation of sodium spin polarisation. We report the first measurement of the average spin orbit coupling. constant (gamma) (H/2PI)('-1) = 0.9 MHz in sodium -xenon molecule. The life time(' ). of the molecules is found to be. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). in cells containing 2 torr of xenon, 10 torr of nitrogen and a helium pressure P(He) ranging from 24 to 200 torr.

Suleman, Badar

330

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

331

Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  

PubMed

Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2013-05-01

332

Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from coronagraphic imaging of Mercury's sodium tail over a 7 deg field of view. Several sets of observations made at the McDonald Observatory since May 2007 show a tail of neutral sodium atoms stretching more than 1000 Mercury radii (R(sub m)) in length, or a full degree of sky. However, no tail was observed extending beyond 120 R(sub m) during the January 2008 MESSENGER Fly-by period, or during a similar orbital phase of Mercury in July 2008. Large changes in Mercury's heliocentric radial velocity cause Doppler shifts about the Fraunhofer absorption features; the resultant change in solar flux and radiation pressure is the primary cause of the observed variation in tail brightness. Smaller fluctuations in brightness may exist due to changing source rates at the surface, but we have no explicit evidence for such changes in this data set. The effects of radiation pressure on Mercury's escaping atmosphere are investigated using seven observations spanning different orbital phases. Total escape rates of atmospheric sodium are estimated to be between 5 and 13 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s and show a correlation to radiation pressure. Candidate sources of Mercury's sodium exosphere include desorption by UV sunlight, thermal desorption, solar wind channeled along Mercury's magnetic field lines, and micro-meteor impacts. Wide-angle observations of the full extent of Mercury's sodium tail offer opportunities to enhance our understanding of the time histories of these source rates.

Schmidt, Carl A.; Wilson, Jody K.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

2009-01-01

333

Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.  

PubMed

The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. PMID:25297008

Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

2014-11-01

334

Efficacy of stepwise sodium profile versus individualized dialysate sodium in blood pressure control among hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension is very common in patients with end-stage renal disease and accelerates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The most important factor in achieving normal blood pressure in these patients is reaching dry weight. Sodium and extracellular fluid balance play a vital role in this regard. Considering the lack of consensus about the efficacy of stepwise sodium profile and individualized dialysate sodium, this study aimed to determine the superior method for blood pressure control in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were enrolled through convenience sampling. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of stepwise sodium profile and individualized dialysate sodium. Information record form was used for data collection. Data were analyzed with paired and independent t-test and descriptive statistics using SPSS for Windows 20.0. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar in qualitative and quantitative background variables. While systolic blood pressure significantly decreased following hemodialysis with individualized dialysate sodium (P < 0.001), there was no significant difference between pre- and post-dialysis systolic blood pressure values using stepwise sodium profile (P = 0.060). Individualized dialysate sodium caused greater change in the mean systolic blood pressure than stepwise sodium profile did (P = 0.040). Pre- and post-dialysis diastolic blood pressure values showed significant differences in both groups (P < 0.001 using individualized dialysate sodium and P = 0.009 using stepwise sodium profile). However, the mean changes in diastolic blood pressure of the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.295). Conclusions: We found no significant difference in interdialytic weight gain and blood pressure control by the two methods. The change in systolic blood pressure was lower in the stepwise profile method than in the individualized dialysate sodium method, and this method did not cause interdialytic hypertension. So, by adjusting the dialysis solution with regard to plasma sodium levels, lead to more blood pressure control. Meanwhile, the two groups were not significantly different in the mean changes of diastolic blood pressure. PMID:25709685

Shahgholian, Nahid; Hashemi, Maryam Sadat; Shahidi, Shahrzade

2015-01-01

335

Electrochemical insertion of sodium into carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical insertion of sodium ions into carbon using solid polymer electrolytes or organic liquid electrolytes is described. Cells with the configuration Na P(EO)(sub *)NaCF3SO3 CP(EO) = polyethylene oxide or Na/liquid electrolyte/C were galvanostatically discharged, charged, and cycled. The extent of insertion into C (i.e., x in Na(+)C(sub x -)) was found to be a strong function of the type and particle size of the carbon used, and the reversibility of the process was highly dependent upon the type of electrolyte used. The possibility of designing sodium ion rocking chair cells is discussed, and a first-generation example, using a petroleum coke anode, polymer electrolyte, and sodium cobalt bronze cathode is described.

Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; Dejonghe, Lutgard C.

1993-12-01

336

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-12-01

337

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h kg -1 theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h kg -1 have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. We, at JPL, are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. Our approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, our studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl 2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

338

Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

Alcaraz, O.; Demmel, F.; Trullas, J.

2014-12-01

339

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

340

Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

Degruson, James A.

1992-01-01

341

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

342

An emerging antiarrhythmic target: late sodium current.  

PubMed

The cardiac late sodium current (INa,L) has been in the focus of research in the recent decade. The first reports on the sustained component of voltage activated sodium current date back to the seventies, but early studies interpreted this tiny current as a product of a few channels that fail to inactivate, having neither physiologic nor pathologic implications. Recently, the cardiac INa,L has emerged as a potentially major arrhythmogenic mechanism in various heart diseases, attracting the attention of clinicians and researchers. Research activity on INa,L has exponentially increased since Ranolazine, an FDA-approved antianginal drug was shown to successfully suppress cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting INa,L. This review aims to summarize and discuss a series of papers focusing on the cardiac late sodium current and its regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. We will discuss critical evidences implicating INa,L as a potential target for treating myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:25354179

Banyasz, T; Szentandrássy, N; Magyar, J; Szabo, Z; Nánási, P P; Chen-Izu, Y; Izu, L T

2015-01-01

343

Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide.  

PubMed

We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential. PMID:25554168

Alcaraz, O; Demmel, F; Trullas, J

2014-12-28

344

Micellization of AOT in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate media: a case of two different concentration regions of counterion binding.  

PubMed

Critical micelle concentrations of AOT in water in the presence of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate were determined at 25 degrees C by the surface tension method. The co-ions do not have any effect on the value of critical micelle concentration. The surface density of AOT at the air-water interface increases in the presence of added electrolyte and attains a maximum value of 2.5+/-0.1 mol m-2 at a particular electrolyte concentration which is different for sodium chloride and the other three electrolytes. From the Corrin-Harkins plot it has been found that for AOT micelles the counterion binding constant has values 0.40 and 0.82 below and above approximately 0.015 mol kg-1 electrolyte concentration (c*), respectively. Measurement of sodium ion activity from the EMF method has confirmed such a shift in the counterion binding constant of AOT at c*. The higher value of the counterion binding constant for AOT has been reported for the first time. From fluorescence spectroscopy it has been found that the aggregation number of AOT is 22 in water and its average aggregation numbers in the presence of electrolytes are about 34 and 136 below and above c*, respectively. The increase by a factor of 2 in the counterion binding constant is shown to be due to a change in the shape of the AOT micelles around c*. The shape of AOT micelles in the electrolyte concentration range c* is inferred to be oblate spheroid and a change from this shape appears to occur above c*. A sudden increase in the polarity of the micelle-solution interface is also observed above c*. PMID:15975587

Umlong, I M; Ismail, K

2005-11-15

345

Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

Nollet, Billy K.

346

Some antisolvents for crystallisation of sodium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behaviour of ten aqueous mixtures of an alkanediol saturated with sodium carbonate was studied: between 40 and 90°C the solubility of sodium carbonate was measured in mixtures with different alkane-diol to water ratios. Six systems featured phase separation: polyethylene-glycol 200, polyethylene-glycol 400, tri-ethylene-glycol, 1,2-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol and 1,4-butanediol. Four antisolvents were fully miscible: ethylene glycol, di-ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and 1,2-propanediol.

H. Oosterhof; G. J. Witkamp; G. M. van Rosmalen

1999-01-01

347

Optical and electronic properties of dense sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution Raman spectroscopy of dense sodium reveals additonal low-energy lattice excitations in the three high-pressure phases cI16, oP8, and tI19 from 108 to 178 GPa. The Raman-active lattice modes indicate profound changes of the chemical bonding in Na upon its transformation to an insulating state (hP4 phase) at pressures above 178(2) GPa. The calculated values of the valence electron localization maxima versus pressure provide insights into the experimentally observed solid-solid phase transitions and anomalous melting behavior of sodium.

Marqués, Miriam; Santoro, Mario; Guillaume, Christophe L.; Gorelli, Federico A.; Contreras-García, Julia; Howie, Ross T.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Gregoryanz, Eugene

2011-05-01

348

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

Elkins, P. E.

1981-09-22

349

Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics.  

PubMed

One of the major objectives in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This goal may be achieved using mechanical instrumenation and chemical irrigation in conjunrction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular patholic. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria and popular tissue remnants, the use of various irrigation solution during treatment have been suggested. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI), the most common irrigant, is an excellent nonspecific proteolytic and antimicrobial agent. The purpose of this paper is to review the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24494267

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

2013-01-01

350

[Sodium intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular events].  

PubMed

High dietary salt intake increases blood pressure and impairs cardiovascular health in the long-run. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have argued for a target of 1500-2000mg of sodium per day (4-5 g sodium chloride daily). However, this recommendation is accompanied by a growing criticism. Recently, two papers published in the New England Journal of Medicine and a meta-analysis published in the September issue of the American Journal of Hypertension have flared up the "salt controversy". This paper presents an overview of recent study results. PMID:25643449

Ströhle, Alexander

2014-12-01

351

Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell  

DOEpatents

A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

1985-04-02

352

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01

353

Thermoanalytical properties of analytical grade reagents V. Sodium halates.  

PubMed

The thermoanalytical properties of sodium halates have been investigated by means of a derivatograph and a visual DTA instrument. The thermal decomposition of the compounds studied was found to proceed only in the melt phase to a measurable extent, while the corresponding sodium halides were being formed. For sodium chlorate the formation and decomposition of sodium perchlorate could also be observed. The comparison of the results of thermal investigations with results of X-ray measurements has shown that the ionic character of the chemical bonds is highest for sodium iodate and lowest for sodium chlorate. PMID:18960347

Erdey, L; Simon, J; Gál, S

1968-07-01

354

Wound healing evaluation of sodium fucidate-loaded polyvinylalcohol/sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based wound dressing.  

PubMed

The cross-linked hydrogel films containing sodium fucidate were previously reported to be prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method and their physicochemical property was investigated. For the development of novel sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing, here its in vivo wound healing test and histopathology were performed compared with the conventional ointment product. In wound healing test, the sodium fucidate-loaded composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the hydrogel without drug, indicating the potential healing effect of sodium fucidate. Furthermore, from the histological examination, the healing effect of sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel was greater than that of the conventional ointment product and hydrogel without drug, since it might gave an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, the sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing composed of 5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug is a potential wound dressing with excellent wound healing. PMID:20661719

Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

2010-07-01

355

Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate  

E-print Network

of Clostridi um sporogenes spores and Listeria monocytogenes cells in vacuum-packaged, nitrite-free beef roasts. The roasts were stored at 2, 5, and 10 C to simulate wholesale storage, retail display, and in- 13 home refrigerated storage. Sodium lactate (2...

Grones, Kelly Leann

2000-01-01

356

Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

2014-01-01

357

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2012-07-01

358

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2014-07-01

360

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2011-07-01

361

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2013-07-01

362

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2010-04-01

363

Neutron activation analysis method and apparatus for determining sodium and sodium compounds in liquid samples  

SciTech Connect

Sodium is determined, virtually without known interferences, based on neutron activation of liquid sample to produce radioactive 23Ne activation product from 23Na, sparging of the sample whereby a headspace gas mixture comprising 23Ne in an inert sparging gas is collected, and remote analysis of the headspace gas mixture to determine total parent sodium based on monitoring radiation emissions of 23Ne. As an illustration of utility, the analysis is demonstrated as applicable to determinations of sodium in aqueous or organic matrices at concentrations of 1 part per thousand and greater using preferred forms of 241Am/Be radioactive isotope as the activation source.

Kamp, A.J.; Kelly, K.J.

1981-10-06

364

21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or a granular crystalline powder. It is odorless, or has a faint acetic-butyric acid odor, and is deliquescent. It is prepared by...

2010-04-01

365

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dipping it in concentrated hydrochloric acid and holding it over a Bunsen burner until the flame is no longer colored. Moisten the...hydrochloric acid and dip it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a golden...

2010-04-01

366

27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dipping it in concentrated hydrochloric acid and holding it over a Bunsen burner until the flame is no longer colored. Moisten the...hydrochloric acid and dip it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a golden...

2011-04-01

367

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

368

Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services,

R. D. Oldenkamp; J. E. Brunings; E. Guenther; R. Hren

1988-01-01

369

Potassium Substitution by Sodium in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is an ever-increasing constraint to crop productivity worldwide especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. In contrast to all the soil reclamation strategies to decrease salt concentrations in root zone, the use of sodium (Na) in plant nutrition may be an interesting tactic. The roles of potassium (K) and Na in plant nutrition suggest that K is the only

Abdul Wakeel; Muhammad Farooq; Manzoor Qadir; Sven Schubert

2011-01-01

370

SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

371

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

372

Induction of sodium channel clustering by oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As oligodendrocytes wrap axons of the central nervous system (CNS) with insulating myelin sheaths, sodium channels that are initially continuously distributed along axons become segregated into regularly spaced gaps in the myelin called nodes of Ranvier1. It is not known whether the regular spacing of nodes results from regularly spaced glial contacts or is instead intrinsically specified by the axonal

M. R. Kaplan; A. Meyer-Franke; S. Lambert; V. Bennett; I. D. Duncan; S. R. Levinson; B. A. Barres

1997-01-01

373

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01

374

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2012-04-01

375

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2014-04-01

376

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2013-04-01

377

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2011-04-01

378

21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hygroscopic white crystals or flakes. It is manufactured by passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250 parts per million as a slimicide in the manufacture...

2010-04-01

379

Thermal decomposition of bioactive sodium titanate surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali-treated orthopaedic titanium surfaces have earlier shown to induce apatite deposition. A subsequent heat treatment under air improved the adhesion of the sodium titanate layer but decreased the rate of apatite deposition. Furthermore, insufficient attention was paid to the sensitivity of titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. The microstructure and composition of their surfaces were characterized to clarify what mechanism is responsible for inhibiting in vitro calcium phosphate deposition after heat treatment. All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate. Depending on the atmosphere, several forms of Ti yO z were formed and Na 2O was sublimated. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This pointed to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

Ravelingien, Matthieu; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan; Meynen, Vera; Vinck, Evi; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

2009-09-01

380

An Atomic Distribution Function for Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atomic distribution function for liquid sodium is developed. A simple liquid model of the quasi-solid type is assumed in which each atom is trapped by its immediate neighbors in a small spherical cell within which it is free to move about. The resulting distribution function contains three parameters which are evaluated by fitting the function to the experimental distribution

C. N. Wall

1938-01-01

381

Inelastic scattering of positrons with sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two potential approach is used to study the resonant 3s-3p excitation of sodium atom by positrons of energy 40 and 54.4eV. The angular variation of coherence and correlation parameters is presented. Comparison with the corresponding parameters in electron scattering is given to see the role of various interaction potentials in electron and positron scattering.

Purohit, S. P.; Mathur, K. C.

1990-01-01

382

SODIUM ZEOLITE A SUPPLEMENTATION TO DAIRY CALVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium zeolite A (SZA), an aluminosilicate, has been used in a number of animal studies, but alterations in mineral metabolism and tissue composition have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of SZA on mineral metabolism and tissue mineral composition...

383

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

384

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

385

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

386

Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu ller  

E-print Network

Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu¨ ller Cells of the Rat ERIC A. NEWMANH; imaging; BCPCF; pH regulation ABSTRACT Sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in retinal glial cells was studied

Newman, Eric A.

387

Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache. PMID:23463909

Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

2013-10-01

388

Evidence for magnetospheric effects on the sodium atmosphere of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monochromatic images of Mercury at the sodium D2 emission line showed excess sodium emission in localized regions at high northern and southern latitudes and day-to-day global variations in the distribution of sodium emission. These phenomena support the suggestion that magnetospheric effects could be the cause. Sputtering of surface minerals could produce sodium vapor in polar regions during magnetic substorms, when magnetospheric ions directly impact the surface. Another important process may be the transport of sodium ions along magnetic field lines toward polar regions, where they impact directly on the surface of Mercury and are neutralized to regenerate neutral sodium atoms. Day-to-day variations in planetary sodium distributions could result from changing solar activity, which can change the magnetosphere in time scales of a few hours. Observations of the sodium exosphere may provide a tool for remote monitoring of the magnetosphere of Mercury.

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

1990-01-01

389

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-print Network

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

390

The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts  

SciTech Connect

The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

Meihui Wang.

1992-06-01

391

Diagnosing the bladder as the source of pelvic pain: successful treatment for adults and children.  

PubMed

The key to successful therapy of interstitial cystitis (IC) is to correctly diagnose it. The significant majority of patients with IC have a dysfunctional bladder epithelium that allows urinary solutes (primarily potassium) to leak into the bladder wall, causing symptoms and tissue damage. Drugs that correct this dysfunction and suppress symptoms are important to achieve successful outcomes in patients. Today over 95% of females with IC are misdiagnosed as having gynecologic chronic pelvic pain, vulvodynia, vaginitis, endometriosis, overactive bladder or urinary tract infection. Men are misdiagnosed as having prostatitis. Often children are not diagnosed at all. Multimodal drug therapy may be required and can achieve successful resolution of IC in over 90% of patients. IC in children can be treated successfully with pentosan polysulfate. PMID:25300387

Parsons, C Lowell

2014-07-01

392

Mixed solvent reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new conversion process for the production of soda (Na2CO3(s)) from trona (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O(s)) and other sodium bicarbonate containing sodium carbonate sources is presented. By using a mixed solvent consisting of ethylene glycol and water, the boiling point of the solution was increased and the stability of trona could be decreased to such a degree, that it spontaneously recrystallized to anhydrous

Robert S. Gärtner; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2007-01-01

393

Thermal porosity analysis of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the applicability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on porosity analysis\\u000a for cellulose and starch. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were allowed to sorb moisture in 85%,\\u000a 90%, 95%, and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 40°C for 24 hours. The pretreated samples were then subjected to DSC running\\u000a temperature ranging

Damrongsak Faroongsarng; Garnet E. Peck

2003-01-01

394

Sodium dodecyl sulfate promoting a cooperative association process of sodium cholate with bovine serum albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cholate (NaC) was used as a representative bile salt in the process of cooperative binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiments were performed in 0.02 M Tris–HCl buffer solution (pH 7.50), in the presence of 0.1% BSA and at 25?°C. The aim of this study is to provide information on

Bianca Schweitzer; Arlindo C. Felippe; Alexandre Dal Bó; Edson Minatti; Dino Zanette; Antonio Lopes

2006-01-01

395

Effect of sex chromosome complement on sodium appetite and Fos-immunoreactivity induced by sodium depletion.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate a sex chromosome complement (SCC) effect on the angiotensin II-sexually dimorphic hypertensive and bradycardic baroreflex responses. We sought to evaluate whether SCC may differentially modulate sexually dimorphic-induced sodium appetite and specific brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the rennin angiotensin system. For this purpose, we used the "four core genotype" mouse model, in which the effect of gonadal sex and SCC is dissociated, allowing comparisons of sexually dimorphic traits between XX and XY females as well as in XX and XY males. Gonadectomized mice were sodium depleted by furosemide (50 mg/kg) and low-sodium diet treatment; control groups were administered with vehicle and maintained on normal sodium diet. Twenty-one hours later, the mice were divided into two groups: one group was submitted to the water-2% NaCl choice intake test, while the other group was perfused and their brains subjected to the Fos-immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) procedure. Sodium depletion, regardless of SCC (XX or XY), induced a significantly lower sodium and water intake in females than in males, confirming the existence in mice of sexual dimorphism in sodium appetite and the organizational involvement of gonadal steroids. Moreover, our results demonstrate a SCC effect on induced brain FOS-ir, showing increased brain activity in XX-SCC mice at the paraventricular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and lateral parabrachial nucleus, as well as an XX-SCC augmented effect on sodium depletion-induced brain activity at two circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and area postrema, nuclei closely involved in fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:24259464

Dadam, Florencia M; Caeiro, Ximena E; Cisternas, Carla D; Macchione, Ana F; Cambiasso, María J; Vivas, Laura

2014-02-01

396

Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01–2.0M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the

Karthik Subramanian; John Mickalonis

2005-01-01

397

Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

2006-01-01

398

Carcinogenicity studies of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate in F-344 rats.  

PubMed

The carcinogenicity of sodium and of sodium nitrate was examined in F-344 rats. Sodium nitrite was administered in the drinking-water for 2 yr at levels of 0.125 or 0.25%. Sodium nitrate was given in the diet at levels 2.5 or 5%. A variety of tumours occurred in all groups including the controls. The only significant difference between treated and control groups in the total number of tumours detected in either of the studies was a significant decrease in tumour incidence in the high-dose females given nitrite compared with controls. There was no positive dose-response relationship either in the incidence or in the induction time of tumours in either of the studies. The only significant result was a reduction in the incidence of mononuclear cell leukaemias in the experimental groups in both studies. It is concluded that sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate did not exert a carcinogenic effect that could be detected under the conditions of this study in which the animals showed a high incidence of spontaneous tumours. PMID:7200054

Maekawa, A; Ogiu, T; Onodera, H; Furuta, K; Matsuoka, C; Ohno, Y; Odashima, S

1982-02-01

399

A sodium manganese oxide cathode by facile reduction for sodium batteries.  

PubMed

A nonstoichiometric sodium manganese oxide (Na(x)MnO(2+?)) cathode useful for sodium batteries was synthesized by an ambient-temperature strategy that involved facile reduction of aqueous sodium permanganate in sodium iodide and subsequent heat treatment at 600?°C. Combined powder X-ray diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the annealed sample to belong to a Na(x)MnO2 phase with a P2-hexagonal structure. The ICP-AES results confirmed the stoichiometry of the sample to be Na0.53MnO(2+?) . Electron microscopy studies revealed the particle size of the electrode to be in the range of a few hundred nanometers. The Na0.53MnO(2+?) cathode delivered an average discharge capacity of 170?mA?h?g(-1) with a stable plateau at 2.1?V for the initial 25?cycles versus sodium. Ex?situ XANES studies confirmed the reversible intercalation of sodium into Na0.53MnO(2+?) and suggested the accommodation of over-stoichiometric Mn(4+) ions to contribute towards the performance of the electrode. PMID:24692202

Song, Jinju; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Sungjin; Kang, Jungwon; Mathew, Vinod; Ahn, Docheon; Kim, Jaekook

2014-06-01

400

Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na 1 + 2 w + x - y + z Mw(II)Mx(III)My(V) M2- w - x - y (IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

2015-01-01

401

Osmotic coefficients of aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements are reported for aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C using sodium chloride as reference electrolyte. Osmotic and activity coefficients are calculated from the concentrations of the solutions in isopiestic equilibrium. The results are used to calculate the trace activity coefficients of carbonate ion in sodium chloride solutions; these should approximate the trace activity coefficient of carbonate

R. A. Robinson; J. B. Macaskill

1979-01-01

402

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL  

E-print Network

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL J.-R. HUNT Canada Department of Agriculture (1) and HowEs (1967), that the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate in the diet of the hen results!RPO>&dquo; 1966) and would be unfavourable for sodium bicarbonate to exist in the ionic form. From the results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121...Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food prepared from the...

2010-04-01

404

Photodynamic Alteration of Sodium Currents in Lobster Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic alteration of lobster giant axons drastically changed the magnitude and kinetics of sodium currents seen under voltage clamp using the sucrose gap technique. Illumination of axons following treatment with acridine orange or eosin Y decreased the maximum sodium conductance to a zero asymptote as an exponential function of illumination time. Normal sodium inactivation was slowed, with rh more than

JOHN POOLER

1972-01-01

405

Strategies to Reduce Sodium Consumption: A Food Industry Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products.

Mariska Dötsch; Johanneke Busch; Max Batenburg; Gie Liem; Erwin Tareilus; Rudi Mueller; Gert Meijer

2009-01-01

406

77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0934; FRL-9333-6] Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption...of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with...permissible level for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products...

2012-04-11

407

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522...522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications...milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...number of injection sites, the total volume used should not...

2010-04-01

408

Evidence for a circulating sodium transport inhibitor in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active sodium transport of white cells and red cells obtained from patients with essential hypertension was impaired. Incubating white cells from normotensive subjects in serum obtained from patients with essential hypertension caused an impairment in sodium transport in the white cells of normotensive subjects similar to that found in the white cells of hypertensive patients. The impairment in sodium

L Poston; R B Sewell; S P Wilkinson; P J Richardson; R Williams; E M Clarkson; G A MacGregor; H E de Wardener

1981-01-01

409

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

410

21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184.1804...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4 H4 KNaO6 ·4H2 O,...

2010-04-01

411

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of

Gary J. Sevigny; Adam P. Poloski; Matthew S. Fountain

2008-01-01

412

A Quantitative Model for the Exchange Current of Porous Molybdenum Electrodes on Sodium Beta-Alumina in Sodium Vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a model of the exchange current developed for porous molybdenum electrodes on sodium beta-alumina ceramics in low pressure sodium vapor, but which has general applicability to gas/porous metal electrodes on solid electrolytes.

Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; LeDuc, H.; Cortez, R. H.; Saipetch, C.; Shields, V.; Manatt, K.; Homer, M. L.

1998-01-01

413

40 CFR 180.577 - Bispyribac-sodium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Bispyribac-sodium; tolerances for residues. 180.577...Tolerances § 180.577 Bispyribac-sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General...established for residues of bispyribac-sodium, sodium...

2010-07-01

414

40 CFR 180.383 - Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...Specific Tolerances § 180.383 Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...combined residues of the herbicide sodium salt of acifluorfen, sodium...

2014-07-01

415

76 FR 74039 - Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium in consumers' food intakes...and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium in consumers' food...

2011-11-30

416

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-16

417

Comparison of the bronchodilator and vasodilator activity of sodium azide and sodium nitroprusside in the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

1. Sodium azide and sodium nitroprusside are potent dilators of the intact guinea-pig tracheal preparation in vitro. 2. Both substances are bronchodilators in the anaesthetized guinea-pig in vivo when administered intravenously or by aerosol inhalation. 3. Sodium azide and sodium nitroprusside are also potent vasodilators in the guinea pig. 4. At all doses and by route of administration, including aerosol inhalation, the hypotensive effect predominates over bronchodilatation. PMID:498591

Jamieson, D D; Taylor, K M

1979-01-01

418

Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

Eckert, Laura Anne

1995-01-01

419

Dynamic features of Io's extended sodium distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on two-dimensional imaging observations of D-line emissions from the extended distribution of iogenic sodium atoms with two fields of view (±20 R (narrow FOV) and ±400 R (wide FOV)) simultaneously by using a portable small telescope or camera lens. We derived dynamic feature of the band-shaped and spray-shaped distributions near Io's orbit by means of continuous observation. The observations confirm the phenomenological behavior of the sodium cloud on two spatial scales, as previously observed by Pilcher et al. [Pilcher, C.B., Smyth, W.H., Combi, M.R., Fertel, J.H., 1984. Astrophys. J. 287, 427-444], Schneider et al. [Schneider, N.M., Trauger, J.T., Wilson, J.K., Brown, D.I., Evans, R.W., Shemansky, D.E., 1991. Science 253, 1394-1397], and Mendillo et al. [Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., Flynn, B., Hughes, W.S., 1990. Nature 348, 312-314]. We also confirm an elongated oval emission distribution of the sodium nebula and derivation of its detailed east-west asymmetry depending on Io's phase angle, which was first noted by Flynn et al. [Flynn, B., Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., 1994. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8403-8409]. We then did model analyses to investigate the source process for sodium atoms and the dynamics behind their distribution. We conclude that the essential of molecular ion mechanisms to the band-shaped distribution is in agreement with Wilson and Schneider [Wilson, J.K., Schneider, N.M., 1999. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16567-16583]. We differ from Wilson et al. [Wilson, J.K., Mendillo, M., Baumgartner, J., Schneider, N.M., Trauger, J.T., Flynn, B., 2002. Icarus 157, 476-489] in finding that charge exchange process contributes more to the spray-shaped distribution and sodium nebula than sputtering does. These results derived the double-peaked velocity distribution of released sodium atoms, and re-confirmed the source rates in agreement with past studies.

Takahashi, S.; Misawa, H.; Nozawa, H.; Morioka, A.; Okano, S.; Sood, R.

2005-11-01

420

Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels.  

PubMed

A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNa(v)1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNa(v)1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNa(v)1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNa(v)1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels. PMID:20888415

Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

2011-01-01

421

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2010-04-01

422

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2014-04-01

423

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2013-04-01

424

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2011-04-01

425

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2012-04-01

426

Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

427

Unlike surfactant–polymer interactions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate with water-soluble polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single and mixed micelle formation by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and their mixtures in pure water and in the presence of water-soluble polymers such as Synperonic 85 (triblock polymer, TBP), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) were studied with the help of conductivity, pyrene fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Conductivity measurements showed a

Mandeep S. Bakshi; Rajinderpal Kaur; Ishpinder Kaur; Rakesh Kumar Mahajan; Pankaj Sehgal; Hidekazu Doe

2003-01-01

428

Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.  

PubMed

Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were negative in mutagenicity studies. Sodium Bisulfite produced both positive and negative results. Clinical oral and ocular-exposure studies reported no adverse effects. Sodium Sulfite was not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. These ingredients, however, may produce positive reactions in dermatologic patients under patch test. In evaluating the positive genotoxicity data found with Sodium Bisulfite, the equilibrium chemistry of sulfurous acid, sulfur dioxide, bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite was considered. This information, however, suggests that some bisulfite may have been present in genotoxicity tests involving the other ingredients and vice versa. On that basis, the genotoxicity data did not give a clear, consistent picture. In cosmetics, however, the bisulfite form is used at very low concentrations (0.03% to 0.7%) in most products except wave sets. In wave sets, the pH ranges from 8 to 9 where the sulfite form would predominate. Skin penetration would be low due to the highly charged nature of these particles and any sulfite that did penetrate would be converted to sulfate by the enzyme sulfate oxidase. As used in cosmetics, therefore, these ingredients would not present a genotoxicity risk. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:14555420

Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

2003-01-01

429

Io's fast sodium: Implications for molecular and atomic atmospheric escape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational evidence for sodium-bearing molecular ions in the Io plasma torus has strong implications for the nature of Io's atmosphere (Schneider et al. 1991). We use a Monte Carlo model offast-sodium production to analyze high-resolution ground-based images of sodium emission. We find the observations can be explained if a significant fraction of Io's exobase is molecular, possible including a sodium-bearing molecule, Total sodium loss rates from Io imply a collisionally thick atmosphere. Most of the images indicate significant slow-down of the corotating plasma near Io.

Wilson, Jody K.; Schneider, Nicholas M.

1994-01-01

430

Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

1985-08-01

431

From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

432

Separation and estimation of anionic surfactants by thin layer chromatography: i. Mixtures of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecanesulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions for separation and quantitative determination of anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate,\\u000a sodium dodecanesulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate by thin layer chromatography (TLC) were investigated. Analytical results\\u000a for mixtures of 2 or 3 components under optimal TLC conditions were in satisfactory agreement with known values. The absolute\\u000a errors and variation coefficients both were within ca. 4%.

Chizuo Yonese; Takeshi Shishido; Takahide Kaneko; Kazushige Maruyama

1982-01-01

433

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02

434

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

435

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17

436

Hydrogen production from ammonia using sodium amide.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new type of process for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts. Effecting the decomposition of NH3 using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na), this represents a significant departure in reaction mechanism compared with traditional surface catalysts. In variable-temperature NH3 decomposition experiments, using a simple flow reactor, the Na/NaNH2 system shows superior performance to supported nickel and ruthenium catalysts, reaching 99.2% decomposition efficiency with 0.5 g of NaNH2 in a 60 sccm NH3 flow at 530 °C. As an abundant and inexpensive material, the development of NaNH2-based NH3 cracking systems may promote the utilization of NH3 for sustainable energy storage purposes. PMID:24972299

David, William I F; Makepeace, Joshua W; Callear, Samantha K; Hunter, Hazel M A; Taylor, James D; Wood, Thomas J; Jones, Martin O

2014-09-24

437

Photometer for detection of sodium day airglow.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a photometer for daytime ground-based measurements of sodium airglow emission. The photometer described can be characterized by the following principal features: (1) a narrow (4.5-A) interference filter for initial discrimination; (2) cooled photomultiplier detector to reduce noise from dark current fluctuations and chopping to eliminate the average dark current; (3) a sodium vapor resonance cell to provide an effective bandpass comparable to the Doppler line width; (4) separate detection of all light transmitted by the interference filter to evaluate the Rayleigh and Mie components within the Doppler width of the resonance cell; and (5) temperature quenching of the resonance cell to evaluate and account for instrumental imperfections.

Mcmahon, D. J.; Manring, E. R.; Patty, R. R.

1973-01-01

438

The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

2009-04-01

439

Action of sodium aurothiomalate on erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed Central

The number of sulphydryl groups on the erythrocyte membrane has been assessed as a function of nutritional status for two groups of patients, one receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the other receiving sodium aurothiomalate (Myocrisin). The patients receiving NSAIDs had a significantly higher number of sulphydryl groups in both the glucose depleted and glucose activated states than the patients receiving sodium aurothiomalate. The study focuses on the hexose transport protein where there is a specific binding site for gold using the two sulphydryl residues on helices 11 and 12 of the protein. The data suggest that the strong binding of gold to the erythrocyte membrane occurs via thiol pairs rather than by isolated sulphydryl groups and that there are possibly two further binding sites for gold on the membrane, the identities of which are still unclear. PMID:1417122

Campbell, J M; Reglinski, J; Smith, W E; Porter, D; Sturrock, R D

1992-01-01

440

Cisplatin ototoxicity and otoprotection with sodium salicylate.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic drug widely used for the treatment of cancer in both adults and children. One of its most important side effects is ototoxicity, which leads to irreversible bilateral hearing loss for high frequencies (4-8 kHz). Several studies have tried to identify drugs that, when combined with cisplatin, may act as otoprotectors. The mechanism of ototoxicity of cisplatin is known to be related to changes in the antioxidant mechanisms of hair cells, especially the outer hair cells of the cochlea. Our proposal was to assess the action of sodium salicylate, which has a known antioxidant property, as a possible otoprotector of outer hair cells against the action of cisplatin, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and scanning electron microscopy. The study was conducted on albino guinea pigs divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 9, 18 cochleae) receiving a cisplatin dose of 8.0 mg/kg/day by the intraperitoneal (ip) route for 3 days, group 2 (n = 10, 20 cochleae) receiving 100 mg/kg sodium salicylate by the subcutaneous route followed 90 min later by cisplatin, 8.0 mg/kg/day ip for 3 days, and group 3 (n = 3, six cochleae) treated with 100 mg/kg day sodium salicylate for 3 days. In group 1, there was damage with the absence of cilia in all three rows of outer hair cells in the basal turn, followed by turns 2 and 3. In group 2, hair cells were present in all cochlear turns, but exhibited disarrangement of the ciliary structure, especially in row 1, and the DPOAEs were absent after 3 days of treatment. We conclude that drugs such as sodium salicylate, because of their antioxidant properties, may protect, at least partially, the outer hair cells against cisplatin ototoxicity. PMID:16758221

Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; de Oliveira, José Antonio A; Rossato, Maria

2006-09-01

441

Sorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Sodium Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO2 from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO2 were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO2?carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking?core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non?catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were

2006-01-01

442

Electrochemical insertion of sodium into carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical insertion of sodium ions into carbon using solid polymer electrolytes or organic liquid electrolytes is described. Cells with the configuration Na P(EO)(sub *)NaCF3SO3 CP(EO) = polyethylene oxide or Na\\/liquid electrolyte\\/C were galvanostatically discharged, charged, and cycled. The extent of insertion into C (i.e., x in Na(+)C(sub x -)) was found to be a strong function of the type and

Marca M. Doeff; Yanping Ma; Steven J. Visco; Lutgard C. Dejonghe

1993-01-01

443

Electrical Conductivity in Sodium Chlorate Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical conductivity, sigma of single crystals of sodium chlorate (m.p. 256 oC) grown from solution is studied in the temperature range 100 to 250 oC. A plot of 1g (sigma T) against 1000\\/T gives a fairly continuous curve. It is resolved into three straight lines by a special graphical procedure. The experimental data can then be represented by sigma

C. Ramasastry; K. Viswanatha Reddy; V. S. Murthy

1971-01-01

444

Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) - Design status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant concept employs a 350-MWe pool-type LMR Power Pak as its basic module. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can

J. E. Brunings; E. Guenther; R. Hren

1986-01-01

445

Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

1986-01-01

446

Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride (F) is known to affect mineralizing tissues, but effects upon the developing brain have not been previously considered. This study in Sprague-Dawley rats compares behavior, body weight, plasma and brain F levels after sodium fluoride (NaF) exposures during late gestation, at weaning or in adults. For prenatal exposures, dams received injections (SC) of 0.13 mg\\/kg NaF or saline on

Phyllis J. Mullenix; Pamela K. Denbesten; Ann Schunior; William J. Kernan

1995-01-01

447

Sodium alanates for reversible hydrogen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that sodium alanates may be used for reversible hydrogen storage, with the advantage of having high storage capacity combined with low cost. Both NaAlH4 and Na3AlH6 have been investigated for this application, and two complementary techniques have been used: improvement of the reaction kinetics by mechanical grinding, and chemical modification of the alloys. By these

A. Zaluska; L. Zaluski; J. O. Ström-Olsen

2000-01-01

448

Sodium transport in filamentous nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two filamentous, nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria were examined for their salt tolerance and sodium (Na+) transport.Anabaena torulosa, a saline form, grew efficiently and fixed nitrogen even at 150 mM salt (NaCl) concentration while,Anabaena L-31, a fresh water cyanobacterium, failed to grow beyond 35 mM NaCl.Anabaena torulosa showed a rapidly saturating kinetics of Na+ transport with a high affinity for Na+\\u000a (K

Shree Kumar Apte; Joseph Thomas

1983-01-01

449

Sodium hydroxide ions in the stratosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that nonproton hydrate ions observed at 37 km by Arnold, Boehringer, and Henschen are protonated sodium hydroxide cluster ions of the form NaOH2(+)(H2O)n(NaOH)m. It is also suggested that n ranges from 0 to 4 while m ranges from 0 to 2. Since the NaOH believed to be formed from NaO, has a very large proton affinity, protons

Eldon E. Ferguson

1978-01-01

450

Viscosity properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through viscosity measurements, concentration and temperature dependences of viscosity of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)\\u000a solution were recorded. Effects of glycerin, mechanical shearing and several electrolytes on the CMC solution were also determined.\\u000a Results showed that the viscosity dependence on concentration obeyed the Huggins and Kramer equation, the dependence on temperature\\u000a complied with the Arrhenius equation. CMC chain could synergize with glycerin,

Xiao Hong Yang; Wei Ling Zhu

2007-01-01

451

Electromigration and Thermal Transport in Sodium Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to study mass transport under the influence of an electric current and a temperature gradient in sodium, marker-motion experiments have been carried out with both direct and alternating current. The motion of scratches on the surface of samples heated in a vacuum by currents of about 5000 A\\/cm2 has been observed as a function of time and

George A. Sullivan

1967-01-01

452

[Determination of potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Sodium is used as a coolant in China experiment fast reactor (CEFR). Potassium in sodium has an influence on heat property of reactor. A analytical method has been developed to determinate potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy. Sodium sample is dissolved by ultrasonic humidifier. The working conditions of the instrument and inTerferences from matrix sodium, acid effect and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with potassium chloride. The percentage recoveries are 94.7%-109.8%. The relative standard deviation is 4.2%. The analytical range accords with sodium quality control standard of CFFR. The precision corresponds to the international analytical method in sodium coolant reactor. PMID:12947670

Xie, C; Wen, X; Jia, Y; Sun, S

2001-06-01

453

Dietary sodium restriction: take it with a grain of salt.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association recently strongly recommended a dietary sodium intake of <1500 mg/d for all Americans to achieve "Ideal Cardiovascular Health" by 2020. However, low sodium diets have not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in normotensive individuals or in individuals with pre-hypertension or hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that a low sodium diet may lead to a worse cardiovascular prognosis in patients with cardiometabolic risk and established cardiovascular disease. Low sodium diets may adversely affect insulin resistance, serum lipids, and neurohormonal pathways, leading to increases in the incidence of new cardiometabolic disease, the severity of existing cardiometabolic disease, and greater cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Although a high sodium intake also may be deleterious, there is good reason to believe that sodium intake is regulated within such a tight physiologic range that there is little risk to leaving sodium intake to inherent biology as opposed to likely futile attempts at conscious control. PMID:24054177

DiNicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; Sadaf, Rizwana; O' Keefe, James H; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

2013-11-01

454

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

455

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

456

Sodium Benzoate for Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious but usually reversible neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis, inborn errors of metabolism involving disorders of the urea cycle, and noncirrhotic portosystemic shunting that most commonly arises from a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting procedure. Symptoms can include alterations in cognitive function, neuromuscular activity, and consciousness, as well as sleep disorders and mood changes. HE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and, if not properly treated, will lead to increased hospital admissions and healthcare costs. Although the standard therapies of lactulose and rifaximin (Xifaxan, Salix) are effective for most patients, these drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects and expense and, in some patients, inadequate therapeutic response. A need for adjunctive therapies exists. Drugs that target serum and tissue ammonia metabolism and elimination may be important adjuncts to drugs that reduce ammonia production and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract for patients with severe or persistent overt symptoms of HE. Sodium benzoate is an inexpensive adjunctive agent that can be used in addition to lactulose and rifaximin and may provide an option for some select patients with refractory HE who have failed to respond to standard therapies or who cannot afford them. Although sodium benzoate does not share the same adverse effect profiles of standard therapies for HE, its efficacy has not been well established. Given the significant dose-dependent sodium content of this therapy, it may not be appropriate for patients with significant fluid retention or kidney dysfunction. PMID:24711766

Misel, Michael L.; Patton, Heather; Mendler, Michel

2013-01-01

457

Mercury's seasonal sodium exosphere: MESSENGER orbital observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variation but there is little or no year-to-year variation; we do not see the episodic variability reported by ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere is about 1200 K, much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J.

2015-03-01

458

Sodium compounds of the benzophenone dianion (diphenyloxidomethanide).  

PubMed

The benzophenone dianion [diphenyloxidomethanide, (Ph(2)CO)(2-)], which occurs in the well known deeply violet sodium/benzophenone tetrahydrofuran solutions, was crystallised with sodium cations in form of the two polymeric chain compounds [Na(2)(Ph(2)CO)(tetraglyme)](infinity) and [Na(2)(Ph(2)CO)(thf)(2)](infinity). It was found to aggregate with its conjugated acid, the alcoholate (Ph(2)CHO)(-), around a central unit of sodium hydroxide, resulting in the mixed cage compound [Na(13)(Ph(2)CO)(4)(Ph(2)CHO)(4)(OH)(mtbe)(4)].mtbe. The structural parameters of the benzophenone dianion indicate that a considerable amount of its negative charge is located within the phenyl rings, rather than on the formally anionic benzylic carbon atom. The topological analysis of the electron density of the monomeric model structure [Na(2)(Ph(2)CO)] reveals an even positive charge for this particular atom, hence (Ph(2)CO)(2-) is, despite its usual representation, not a vicinal dianion. PMID:16357968

Geier, Jens; Rüegger, Heinz; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

2006-01-01

459

Unexpected stable stoichiometries of sodium chlorides  

E-print Network

At ambient pressure, sodium, chlorine, and their only known compound NaCl, have well-understood crystal structures and chemical bonding. Sodium is a nearly-free-electron metal with the bcc structure. Chlorine is a molecular crystal, consisting of Cl2 molecules. Sodium chloride, due to the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, has highly ionic chemical bonding, with stoichiometry 1:1 dictated by charge balance, and rocksalt (B1-type) crystal structure in accordance with Pauling's rules. Up to now, Na-Cl was thought to be an ultimately simple textbook system. Here, we show that under pressure the stability of compounds in the Na-Cl system changes and new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at pressure as low as 25 GPa. In addition to NaCl, our theoretical calculations predict the stability of Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3 and NaCl7 compounds with unusual bonding and electronic properties. The bandgap is closed for the majority of these materials. Guided by these predictions, we h...

Zhang, Weiwei; Goncharov, Alexander F; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B

2012-01-01

460

Background sodium current underlying respiratory rhythm regularity.  

PubMed

Rhythm-generating neural circuits underlying diverse behaviors such as locomotion, sleep states, digestion and respiration play critical roles in our lives. Irregularities in these rhythmic behaviors characterize disease states--thus, it is essential that we identify the ionic and/or cellular mechanisms that are necessary for triggering these rhythmic behaviors on a regular basis. Here, we examine which ionic conductances underlie regular or 'stable' respiratory activities, which are proposed to underlie eupnea, or normal quiet breathing. We used a mouse in vitro medullary slice preparation containing the rhythmogenic respiratory neural circuit, called the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), that underlies inspiratory respiratory activity. We varied either [K(+)](o) or [Na(+)](o), or blocked voltage-gated calcium channels, while recording from synaptically isolated respiratory pacemakers, and examined which of these manipulations resulted in their endogenous bursting becoming more irregular. Of these, lowering [Na(+)](o) increased the irregularity of endogenous bursting by synaptically isolated pacemakers. Lowering [Na(+)](o) also decreased the regularity of fictive eupneic activity generated by the ventral respiratory group (VRG) population and hypoglossal motor output. Voltage clamp data indicate that lowering [Na(+)](o), in a range that results in irregular population rhythm generation, decreased persistent sodium currents, but not transient sodium currents underlying action potentials. Our data suggest that background sodium currents play a major role in determining the regularity of the fictive eupneic respiratory rhythm. PMID:19032590

Chevalier, Marc; Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza; Tryba, Andrew K

2008-12-01

461

Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications  

SciTech Connect

Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

Posthumus, K.J.C.M. [Royal Netherlands Navy, The Hague (Netherlands). Directorate Material; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-11-01

462

Sweat Rates, Sweat Sodium Concentrations, and Sodium Losses in 3 Groups of Professional Football Players  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Sweat sodium losses have never been reported in a large cohort of American football players. Objective: To compare sweat rates (SwtRs), sweat sodium concentrations (SwtNa+), and sodium losses in 3 groups of players (backs and receivers [BK], linebackers and quarterbacks [LB/QB], and linemen [LM]) to determine if positional differences and, therefore, size differences exist. Design: Observational study. Setting: Data were collected during practices in the second week of 2 consecutive training camps. The wet bulb globe temperature was 78.5°F ± 3.5°F (25.9°C ± 1.9°C). Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen BK, 12 LB/QB, and 14 LM volunteered. Intervention(s): Sterile sweat patches were applied to the right forearm after the skin was appropriately cleaned. The patches were removed during practice, placed in sterile tubes, centrifuged, frozen, and later analyzed by flame photometry. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sweat rate, SwtNa+, and sodium loss. We calculated SwtR by change in mass adjusted for urine produced and fluids consumed divided by practice time in hours. Results: Other than age, physical characteristics were different among groups (P < .001). The SwtR was different among groups (F2,41 ?=? 7.3, P ?=? .002). It was lower in BK (1.42 ± 0.45 L/h) than in LB/QB (1.98 ± 0.49 L/h) (P < .05) and LM (2.16 ± 0.75 L/h) (P < .01), but we found no differences between SwtRs for LB/QB and LM. The SwtNa+ was not different among groups (BK ?=? 50 ± 16 mEq/L, LB/QB ?=? 48.2 ± 23 mEq/L, and LM ?=? 52.8 ± 25 mEq/L) and ranged from 15 to 99 mEq/L. Sweat sodium losses ranged from 642 mg/h to 6.7 g/h, and findings for group comparisons approached significance (P ?=? .06). On days when players practiced 4.5 hours, calculated sodium losses ranged from 2.3 to 30 g/d. Conclusions: The BK sweated at lower rates than did the midsized LB/QB and large LM, but LB/QB sweated similarly to LM. Sweat sodium concentration and daily sodium losses ranged considerably. Heavy, salty sweaters require increased dietary consumption of sodium during preseason. PMID:20617911

Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Peduzzi, Chris; Burkholder, Richard; Condon, Steve; Dorshimer, Gary; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.

2010-01-01

463

A promising cathode material of sodium iron-nickel hexacyanoferrate for sodium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium ion batteries are attracting great attention due to the naturally alternative energy storage for large-scale applications. The reliable and high performance cathode materials are urgently needed for their practical applications. Here, we report sodium iron-nickel hexacyanoferrate (FeNiHCF) with Prussian blue structure by substitution of a portion of iron ions with nickel ions, and characterize it as cathode material of sodium ion battery for the first time. The low-spin Fe2+/Fe3+ couple in FeNiHCF is sufficiently activated for sodium storage, which leads to higher capacity contribution at larger potential and better stability on redox energy comparing with the single metal hexacyanoferrate of FeHCF or NiHCF. The FeNiHCF cathode presents synergistic advantages of high capacity, remarkable cycling stability, superior rate capability and good Coulombic efficiency. Significant improvement on electrochemical performance have been achieved with a discharge capacity of 106 mAh g-1, a Coulombic efficiency of ?97% and excellent capacity retention of 96% over 100 cycles. Impressively, the FeNiHCF cathode present a good and stable cycling at high current densities, e.g. a capacity of 71 mAh g-1 and 100% capacity retention at a current density as high as 500 mA g-1. The intercalation chemistry manner for improving the sodium storage of material may shed light on improving the Na-storage performance of Prussian blue analogues.

Yu, Shenglan; Li, Yong; Lu, Yunhao; Xu, Ben; Wang, Qiuting; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

2015-02-01

464

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15

465

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst  

PubMed Central

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

466

Mechanism of action of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) on insect sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) are a relatively new class of insecticides, with a mechanism of action different from those of other classes of insecticides that target voltage-gated sodium channels. These compounds have no effect at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, but cause a voltage-dependent, nearly irreversible block as the membrane potential is depolarized. The mechanism of action of SCBIs is similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs), class I anticonvulsants and class I antiarrhythmics. In this article, we review the physiological actions of these compounds on the whole animal, the nervous system and sodium channels, and also present the results from recent studies that elucidate the receptor site of SCBIs. PMID:24013950

Silver, Kristopher S.; Song, Weizhong; Nomura, Yoshiko; Salgado, Vincent L.; Dong, Ke

2013-01-01

467

Sodium vanadium oxide: a new material for high-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have the potential to become the technology of choice for large-scale electrochemical energy storage because of the high sodium abundance and low costs. However, not many materials meet the performance requirements for practical applications. Here, we report a novel sodium-ion battery electrode material, Na(2.55)V(6)O(16)?0.6?H(2)O, that shows significant capacities and stabilities at high current rates up to 800 mA?g(-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are carried out to better understand the underlying reactions. Moreover, due to the different oxidation states of vanadium, this material can also be employed in a symmetric full cell, which would decrease production costs even further. For these full cells, capacity and stability tests are conducted using various cathode:anode mass ratios. PMID:25044526

Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Nair, Vivek Sahadevan; Ling, Cheah Yan; Wang, Yuxi; Hoster, Harry E; Srinivasan, Madhavi

2014-07-21

468

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09

469

Epithelial sodium channel is a key mediator of growth hormone-induced sodium retention in acromegaly.  

PubMed

Acromegalic patients present with volume expansion and arterial hypertension, but the renal sites and molecular mechanisms of direct antinatriuretic action of GH remain unclear. Here, we show that acromegalic GC rats, which are chronically exposed to very high levels of GH, exhibited a decrease of furosemide-induced natriuresis and an increase of amiloride-stimulated natriuresis compared with controls. Enhanced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and altered proteolytic maturation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in the cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) of GC rats provided additional evidence for an increased sodium reabsorption in the late distal nephron under chronic GH excess. In vitro experiments on KC3AC1 cells, a murine CCD cell model, revealed the expression of functional GH receptors and IGF-I receptors coupled to activation of Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, ERK, and AKT signaling pathways. That GH directly controls sodium reabsorption in CCD cells is supported by: 1) stimulation of transepithelial sodium transport inhibited by GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant; 2) induction of alpha-ENaC mRNA expression; and 3) identification of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 binding to a response element located in the alpha-ENaC promoter, indicative of the transcriptional regulation of alpha-ENaC by GH. Our findings provide the first evidence that GH, in concert with IGF-I, stimulates ENaC-mediated sodium transport in the late distal nephron, accounting for the pathogenesis of sodium retention in acromegaly. PMID:18388193

Kamenicky, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Blanchard, Anne; Meduri, Geri; Zizzari, Philippe; Imbert-Teboul, Martine; Doucet, Alain; Chanson, Philippe; Lombès, Marc

2008-07-01

470

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01

471

Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

2010-08-01

472

Volcanic Control of Io's Atmospheric Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Io's volcanoes are the ultimate source of Io's atmosphere, its extended neutral clouds, and the heavy ions of sulfur and oxygen in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Groundbased and spacebased infrared observations have shown that the level of volcanic activity on Io is highly variable. Images of the sodium "nebula" around Jupiter have shown that the escape of neutrals from Io's atmosphere is also variable, both in the rate of escape and the means of escape. We have now merged a large infrared data set with a decade of nebula observations, and we find that the escape of material from Io's atmosphere varies systematically with volcanic activity. Our results indicate that a molecular form of sodium, probably NaCl (1), is more abundant in Io's atmosphere during volcanically active periods than during volcanically quiet periods. It is likely that the abundances of the more dominant species (SO2, S, O, etc.) are also controlled by volcanoes. Since the neutral clouds are indirectly indicative of mass input into the plasma torus, it follows that Io's dynamic volcanism may be a primary cause of long-term variability in Jupiter's plasma torus and overall magnetosphere. At B.U., this work was supported in part by grants from the Magnetospheric Physics Program at NASA, and by seed research funds provided to the Center for Space Physics. Work at Lowell is supported by grants NAG5-9004 and NAG5-10497 from the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs. (1) Lellouch, E., G. Paubert, J. I. Moses, N. M. Schneider, D. F. Strobel, Volcanically emitted sodium chloride as a source for Io's neutral clouds and plasma torus, Nature, 421, 45-47, 2003.

Wilson, J. K.; Mendillo, M.; Spencer, J.; Stansberry, J.

2003-05-01

473

Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

2010-04-01

474

Crystal structures of bile salts: Sodium taurocholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystals of sodium taurocholate (NaC26H44NO7S · 2.5 H2O) belonging to the triclinic space groupP1 have unit cell parametersa = 12.731 (2),b = 16.104 (2),c = 7.628 (1) ?A, a =83.40 (1),ß = 101.20 (1), ? = 105.35 (1)°, and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The refinement, carried out on 4424 observed reflections, gaveR = 0.059 andRw = 0.066. The

Anna Rita Campanelli; Sofia Candeloro De Sanctis; Angelo Antonio D'Archivio; Edoardo Giglio; Lucid Scaramuzza

1991-01-01

475

Partial Ionic Bonding in Homogeneous Sodium Clusters  

E-print Network

In this work, we report an interesting observation of partial ionic bonding due to charge transfer in homogeneous sodium clusters. The charge transfer causes the electronic charge to accumulate on the surface, and the resulting charges on atoms range between +0.4 to -1.0 |e^-|. We also demonstrate that this disparity among effective charges on atoms is geometry dependent, such that atoms experiencing similar surrounding, have equal effective charge. It is speculated that this phenomenon will occur among other homogeneous clusters as well, and its extent will be defined by the valence electron delocalization.

Kaware, Vaibhav

2015-01-01

476

Psoriasiform Drug Eruption Associated with Sodium Valproate  

PubMed Central

As psoriasis is a common skin disorder, knowledge of the factors that may induce, trigger, or exacerbate the disease is of primary importance in clinical practice. Drug intake is a major concern in this respect, as new drugs are constantly being added to the list of factors that may influence the course of the disease. We report a patient with a psoriasiform drug eruption associated with the use of sodium valproate. Physicians should be aware of this type of reaction. Early detection of these cases has practical importance since the identification and elimination of the causative drug are essential for therapy success. PMID:24324909

Gul Mert, Gulen; Incecik, Faruk; Gunasti, Suhan; Herguner, Ozlem; Altunbasak, Sakir

2013-01-01

477

Sodium penta­fluoro­phenyl­borate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound, Na[(C6F5)BH3], is composed of discrete anions and cations. The sodium cations are surrounded by four anions with three short Na?B [2.848?(8), 2.842?(7) and 2.868?(8)?Å] and two short Na?F contacts [2.348?(5) and 2.392?(5)?Å], forming a three-dimensional network. The anion is the first structural example of a pentafluorophenyl ring carrying a BH3 group. PMID:23284350

Vitze, Hannes; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Bolte, Michael

2012-01-01

478

Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate  

E-print Network

of this material is recycled internally. Some Is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste In landfills, or discharged to deep-wells, or bodies of water. Electrolytic regeneration of by-product sodium sulfate can prof~ably exploij...-s~e costs can be Inslgn~lcant but outside and fill expense is rising exponentially as our landfills run out of room. Even "no-eost" disposal represems a waste of purchased resources. Current chemical costs (caustic soda and sulfuric acid) to make...

Niksa, M. J.

479

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues  

SciTech Connect

Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

2005-06-01

480

Physics of Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium is used as a functional ionic species in a variety of electrochemical energy storage devices. This talk will examine several manifestations of sodium ion use, and will focus deeply on a novel class of aqueous electrolyte sodium ion batteries that have been developed over the past 5 years. While these new systems are typically lower in energy density, they are very robust and low in cost, making them appealing for a number of stationary energy storage applications. Specific topics to be covered include: sodium ion intercalation compounds, sodium/carbon interaction at potentials below 0V vs NHE, the behavior of porous thick electrodes in different electrolyte solutions, and the future outlook for sodium ion battery research.

Whitacre, Jay

2012-02-01

481

Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. PMID:22961543

Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, François

2012-01-01

482

Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.  

PubMed

Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them. PMID:22254122

Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

2011-08-01

483

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio-LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970-Campinas, SP, Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

484

Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

2010-08-01

485

Some properties of alginate gels derived from algal sodium alginate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginic acid in soluble sodium alginate turns to insoluble gel after contact with divalent metal ions, such as calcium ions.\\u000a The sodium alginate character has an effect on the alginate gel properties. In order to prepare a suitable calcium alginate\\u000a gel for use in seawater, the effects of sodium alginate viscosity and M\\/G ratio (the ratio of D-mannuronate to L-guluronate)

H. Kakita; H. Kamishima

486

Some properties of alginate gels derived from algal sodium alginate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginic acid in soluble sodium alginate turns to insoluble gel after contact with divalent metal ions, such as calcium ions.\\u000a The sodium alginate character has an effect on the alginate gel properties. In order to prepare a suitable calcium alginate\\u000a gel for use in seawater, the effects of sodium alginate viscosity and M\\/G ratio (the ratio of D-mannuronate to L-guluronate)

H. Kakita; H. Kamishima

2008-01-01

487

Dysfunction of epithelial sodium transport: From human to mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction of epithelial sodium transport: From human to mouse. The highly amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is an apical membrane constituent of cells of many salt-absorbing epithelia. In the kidney, the functional relevance of ENaC expression has been well established. ENaC mediates the aldosterone-dependent sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron and is involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Mutations

Olivier Bonny; Edith Hummler

2000-01-01

488

Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

Michalowski, Tadeusz

1988-01-01

489

Sodium transport and mechanism(s) of sodium tolerance in Frankia strains.  

PubMed

The mechanism(s) underlying differential salt sensitivity/tolerance were investigated in the terms of altered morphological and physiological responses against salinity such as growth, electrolyte leakage, Na? uptake, efflux, accumulation and intracellular concentrations of macronutrients among the Frankia strains newly isolated from Hippöphae salicifolia D. Don. Growth was minimally reduced at 500 and 250?mM NaCl respectively in HsIi10 and rest of the strains (HsIi2, HsIi8, HsIi9) which proved that 500 and 250?mM NaCl are the critical concentrations for the respective strains. The differences in the sodium influx/efflux rate was responsible for the differential amount of remaining sodium among the frankial strains and might be one of the primary determinants for the reestablishment of macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) during salinity. Secondly, the interactive effect of sodium influx/efflux rate, remaining sodium and intracellular macronutrients (Mg²?, Ca²? and K?) concentration has been responsible for the extent of membrane damage and growth sustenance of the tolerant/sensitive frankial strains during salinity. HsIi10 showed better co-regulation of various factors and managed to tolerate salt stress up to considerable extent. Therefore, HsIi10 can serve as a potential biofertilizer in the saline soil. PMID:22733696

Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Satya Shila; Mishra, Arun Kumar

2013-02-01

490

Sodium-23 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of commercial sodium naproxen and its solvates.  

PubMed

We report on the investigation of sodium coordination environments with solid-state ²³Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of various hydrates and solvates of sodium naproxen (SN), a commercially available anti-inflammatory drug sold over the counter as Aleve®, among other names. The ²³Na quadrupolar coupling constant is found to change significantly depending on the hydration state, and subtle changes in oxygen coordination environment about the sodium cations were apparent in the NMR spectra. High-resolution double-rotation NMR experiments are also performed on powdered samples to obtain solution-like ²³Na NMR spectra. Our attempts at crystallizing various solvates of SN have led to the characterization of the first crystal structure for the heminonahydrated form. The composition of commercial SN is also investigated and it is shown that Aleve® is composed of approximately 80% monohydrate solvate. Density-functional theory calculations, using the gauge-including projector-augmented-wave formalism, allow for the assignment of ²³Na NMR peaks to specific sodium sites in the reported X-ray crystal structure. PMID:22619061

Burgess, Kevin M N; Perras, Frédéric A; Lebrun, Aurore; Messner-Henning, Elisabeth; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L

2012-08-01

491

Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

1985-01-01

492

Theoretical and experimental studies of the atmospheric sodium layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric atomic sodium was studied with a laser radar system. Photocount data were processed using a digital filter to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium concentration versus altitude. Wave-like structures in the sodium layer were observed, and there was evidence for the presence of a standing wave in the layer. The bottomside of the layer was observed to undulate with a period of about 2 1/2 hours, and the layer was observed to broaden through the night. A meteor ablation-cluster ion theory of sodium was developed. The theory shows good agreement with existing atmospheric observations as well as laboratory measurements of rate constants.

Richter, E. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

1978-01-01

493

Fluoride coatings make effective lubricants in molten sodium environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating bearing surfaces with calcium fluoride-barium fluoride film provides effective lubrication against sliding friction in molten sodium and other severe environments at high and low temperatures.

1966-01-01

494

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.  

SciTech Connect

Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

2012-05-01

495

Discovery of sodium in the atmosphere of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectrum of Mercury at the Fraunhofer sodium D lines shows strong emission features that are attributed to resonant scattering of sunlight from sodium vapor in the atmosphere of the planet. The total column abundance of sodium was estimated to be 8.1 x 10 to the 11th atoms per square centimeter which corresponds to a surface density at the subsolar point of about 150,000 atoms per cubic centimeter. The most abundant atmospheric species found by the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury was helium, with a surface density of 4500 atoms per cubic centimeter. It now appears that sodium vapor is a major constituent of Mercury's atmosphere.

Potter, A.; Morgan, T.

1985-01-01

496

Sodium oxybate and sleep apnea: a clinical case.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (GHB, Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) is used to treat cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. We report the case of a middle aged, normo-ponderal narcoleptic woman without risk factors who developed reversible sleep apnea and objective sleepiness when treated by sodium oxybate, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 19.7 on sodium oxybate and AHI 4.8 without treatment. Despite a subjective improvement in vigilance, mean sleep latency on MWT decreased from 21 minutes to 8 minutes on sodium oxybate. PMID:22171208

Hartley, Sarah; Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Machou, Mourad

2011-12-15

497

Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction.  

PubMed

Purpose. This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design. A multiple case study design was used. Setting. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects. Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

2015-01-01

498

Working with grocers to reduce dietary sodium: lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities pilot project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe implementation of and lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities grocery store initiative. This pilot project was conducted in collaboration with a regional supermarket chain and endeavored to develop population-based strategies for reducing sodium intake. Key interventions included marketing strategies, taste test demonstrations, and a public media campaign. Project staff worked closely with corporate registered dietitian nutritionists, a nutrition specialist, and an advertising agency in its development and implementation. A social marketing approach was used to educate consumers about the hidden sources of dietary sodium, to raise awareness of the adverse health effects of excess sodium intake, to encourage consumers to read food labels, and to urge them to purchase food items lower in sodium. The lessons learned from this experience may be of assistance to other communities that seek to implement similar sodium-reduction strategies in the grocery store environment. PMID:24322816

Johnston, Yvonne A; McFadden, Mary; Lamphere, Marissa; Buch, Karen; Stark, Beth; Salton, Judith Lynn

2014-01-01

499

Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

Not Available

1993-09-01

500

Energetics of Sodium Transport in Frog Skin  

PubMed Central

Studies were made of the dependence of the rate of oxygen consumption, Jr, on the electrical potential difference, ??, across the frog skin. After the abolition of sodium transport by ouabain the basal oxygen consumption was independent of ??. In fresh skins Jr was a linear function of ?? over a range of at least ±70 mv. Treatment with aldosterone stimulated the short-circuit current, Io, and the associated rate of oxygen consumption, Jro, and increased their stability; linearity was then demonstrable over a range of ±160 mv. Brief perturbations of ?? (±30–200 mv) did not alter subsequent values of Io. Perturbations for 10 min or more produced a "memory" effect both with and without aldosterone: accelerating sodium transport by negative clamping lowered the subsequent value of Io; positive clamping induced the opposite effect. Changes in Jro were more readily detectable in the presence of aldosterone; these were in the same direction as the changes in Io. The linearity of Jr in ?? indicates the validity of analysis in terms of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics—brief perturbations of ?? appear to produce no significant effect on either the phenomenological coefficients or the free energy of the metabolic driving reaction. Hence it is possible to evaluate this free energy. PMID:4536631

Vieira, F. L.; Caplan, S. R.; Essig, A.

1972-01-01