Sample records for sodium pentosan polysulfate

  1. Pentosan Polysulfate: A Novel Therapy for the Mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Schuchman, Edward H.; Ge, Yi; Lai, Alon; Borisov, Yury; Faillace, Meghan; Eliyahu, Efrat; He, Xingxuan; Iatridis, James; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Simonaro, Calogera M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an FDA-approved, oral medication with anti-inflammatory and pro-chondrogenic properties. We have previously shown that animal models of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) exhibit significant inflammatory disease, contributing to cartilage degeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only partly reduced inflammation, and anti-TNF-alpha antibody therapy significantly enhanced clinical and pathological outcomes. Here we describe the use of PPS for the treatment of MPS type VI rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment began during prenatal development and at 1 and 6 months of age. All animals were treated until they were 9 months old. Significant reductions in the serum and tissue levels of several inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha and RANTES/CCL5) were observed, as was reduced expression of inflammatory markers in cultured articular chondrocytes. ADAMTS-5/aggrecanase-2 levels also were reduced in chondrocytes, consistent with an elevation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Marked improvements in motility and grooming behavior occurred, along with a reduction in eye and nasal secretions and a lessening of the tracheal deformities. MicroCT and radiographic analyses further revealed that the treated MPS skulls were longer and thinner, and that the teeth malocclusions, misalignments and mineral densities were improved. MicroCT analysis of the femurs and vertebrae revealed improvements in trabecular bone mineral densities, number and spacing in a subset of treated MPS animals. Biomechanical assessments of PPS-treated spines showed partially restored torsional behaviors, suggesting increased spinal stability. No improvements were observed in cortical bone or femur length. The positive changes in the PPS-treated MPS VI rats occurred despite glycosaminoglycan accumulation in their tissues. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that PPS could be a simple and effective therapy for MPS that might provide significant clinical benefits alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:23365668

  2. Decreasing symptoms in interstitial cystitis patients: pentosan polysulfate vs. sacral neuromodulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katy D. Price; Audrey Griffin

    Objective: Oral pentosan polysulfate is the only FDA-approved drug for interstitial cystitis. Several studies have been conducted that show PPS will reduce IC symptoms. Sacral neuromodulation is a newer therapy for IC that has been FDA- approved in incontinent patients. Both therapies have studies documenting a reduction in IC symptoms, but no studies have compared these therapies to see which

  3. [The quantitative study of inhibitory effect of pentosan polysulfate and chlorophyllin on the experimental calcium oxalate stone].

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) on the formation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in vivo, and to measure the number and the volume of crystals formed in the rat kidney, quantitatively, with a Coulter counter TA-II. The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the rat kidney was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 g per Kg of body weight of hydroxy-L-proline and administration of 0.4% ethylene glycol as the drinking fluid ad libitum for 7 days. Daily excretions of urinary oxalate, calcium (ratio to urinary creatinine) and urinary volume were measured. Both kidneys were removed after protocol. The kidneys were homogenized with 0.2 M Tris-buffer (pH 8.0) and subsequently digested in soluene-100. After calcium oxalate crystals were collected, they were suspended in saline saturated with calcium oxalate. The crystal size distribution was measured with a Coulter counter TA-II. In addition, the renal calcium content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the kidneys were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The crystals formed in the rats' kidneys were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: 1. There was no deposition of crystals in the kidney of the rats which were not treated. There was intratubular deposition of crystals in the kidneys of the rats injected with hydroxy-L-proline and administered 0.4% ethylene glycol. They consisted of calcium oxalate monohydrate. 2. Renal calcium content was significantly higher in the groups with induced crystals than the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2477580

  4. Pentosan polysulfate treatment preserves renal autoregulation in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats via normalization of P2X1 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhengrong; Fuller, Barry S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Cook, Anthony K.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory factors are elevated in animal and human subjects with hypertension and renal injury. We hypothesized that inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced renal injury by impairing autoregulation and microvascular reactivity to P2X1 receptor activation. Studies were conducted in vitro using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Rats receiving ANG II (60 ng/min) infusion were treated with the anti-inflammatory agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) for 14 days. The magnitude and progression of hypertension were similar in ANG II and ANG II+PPS-treated rats (169 ± 5 vs. 172 ± 2 mmHg). Afferent arterioles from control rats exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior with diameter decreasing from 18.4 ± 1.6 to 11.4 ± 1.7 ?m when perfusion pressure was increased from 70 to 160 mmHg. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was markedly attenuated in ANG II-treated rats, and diameter remained essentially unchanged over the range of perfusion pressures. However, ANG II-treated rats receiving PPS exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior compared with ANG II alone rats. Arteriolar reactivity to ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP was significantly reduced in ANG II hypertensive rats compared with controls. Interestingly, PPS treatment preserved normal reactivity to P2 and P2X1 receptor agonists despite the persistent hypertension. The maximal vasoconstriction was 79 ± 3 and 81 ± 2% of the control diameter for ATP and ?,?-methylene ATP, respectively, similar to responses in control rats. PPS treatment significantly reduced ?-smooth muscle actin staining in afferent arterioles and plasma transforming growth factor-?1 concentration in ANG II-treated rats. In conclusion, PPS normalizes autoregulation without altering ANG II-induced hypertension, suggesting that inflammatory processes reduce P2X1 receptor reactivity and thereby impair autoregulatory behavior in ANG II hypertensive rats. PMID:20200092

  5. Endogenous Release of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Topical Application of an Ointment Containing Mucopolysaccharide Polysulfate to Nonhuman Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra A. Hoppensteadt; Jawed Fareed; Phillip Raake; Wolfram Raake

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have shown that tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is released after the intravenous and subcutaneous administration of heparin and heparin-related drugs. Mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) is a preparation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) derived from mammalian cartilage, which has several structural and functional properties similar to heparin. Previous reports have shown that MPS is capable of releasing TFPI after intravenous administration.

  6. Relation between weighted average molecular mass of water extractive pentosans of winter rye and processing and baking properties of grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Goncharenko; A. S. Timoshchenko; N. S. Berkutova; E. N. Lazareva

    2008-01-01

    A comparative assessment of 20 winter rye varieties is made on the basis of the weighted average molecular mass of water extractive\\u000a pentosans (WAMM of WEPs). A double-dispersed state of water extracts containing water extractive pentosans, which is expressed\\u000a more strongly in rye than in wheat and triticale, is established. A linear relation between WAMM of WEPs and viscosity of

  7. Digestibility of the Sugars, Starches, Pentosans, and Protein of Some Feeding Stuffs. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    , pentosans, and otlier ingredients of feecling stuffs, is impor- t for several reasons. It shoulcl throw some light upon the raria- .---ls in the feeding values of different feeding stuffs. It may aid in / solving the question why the digestible nitrogen-free... extract of hays allrl ioclders is less ~aluahle to animals than the same quantity of ( digestible nitrogen-free extract in concentrates. It may throw some / light upon the prelerence slronrn by animals for one feed over another. A knowledge...

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Dextran Sulfate as Microbicides against Herpes Simplex and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOCELYNE PIRET; JULIE LAMONTAGNE; JULIE BESTMAN-SMITH; SYLVIE ROY; PIERRETTE GOURDE; RABEEA F. OMAR; JULIANNA JUHASZ; MICHEL G. BERGERON

    The efficacy of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a sulfated anionic chaotropic surfactant, and dextran sulfate (DS), a polysulfated carbohydrate, against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was evaluated in cultured cells and in different murine models of HSV infection. Results showed that both SLS and DS were potent inhibitors of the infectivities of various HSV-1 and

  9. Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Yang, L. Q.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. PMID:25049914

  10. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P?

  11. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine. Your doctor may have you take an oral medicine called pentosan polysulfate. This medicine helps protect the ... wall from the toxic parts of urine. Another oral medicine used to treat interstitial cystitis is an antihistamine ...

  12. Effects of AGM-1470 and pentosan polysulphate on tumorigenicity and metastasis of FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    McLeskey, S. W.; Zhang, L.; Trock, B. J.; Kharbanda, S.; Liu, Y.; Gottardis, M. M.; Lippman, M. E.; Kern, F. G.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we described FGF-1- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells which are tumorigenic and metastatic in untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised nude mice. In this study, we have assessed the effects of AGM-1470, an antiangiogenic agent, and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), an agent that abrogates the effects of FGFs, on tumour growth and metastasis produced by these FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells. Untreated or tamoxifen-treated ovariectomised mice were injected with FGF-transfected cells, treated with AGM-1470 or PPS, and tumour growth and metastasis analysed. The sensitivity of FGF-transfected and parental MCF-7 cells to AGM-1470 or PPS was also determined in vitro. Both AGM-1470 and PPS inhibited tumour growth in otherwise untreated or tamoxifen-treated mice injected with either FGF- or FGF-4-transfected MCF-7 cells. This effect was more reliably seen in tamoxifen-treated animals. AGM-1470 was about 10(5) times less potent in inhibiting the anchorage-dependent growth of parental MCF-7 or FGF-transfected MCF-7 cells than in inhibiting the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PPS did not affect the in vitro growth of the transfectants or parental cells. Thus, the growth-inhibitory effect on tumours was in excess of the effect of either drug on the same cells in tissue culture, implying that stromal elements are important determinants of the effects of these drugs. There was a positive correlation between tumour size and the extent of proximal lymph node metastasis. However, neither drug had a significant effect on the extent of metastasis to proximal or distal lymph nodes or lungs. AGM-1470 or PPS may be helpful in cases of breast carcinoma in which angiogenesis is due to expression of FGFs by the tumour cells and may be more effective when combined with tamoxifen. PMID:8624263

  13. Dietary Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  14. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications. PMID:11585001

  15. Comparative activity of selected antiviral compounds against clinical isolates of human cytomegalovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Andrei; R. Snoeck; D. Schols; P. Goubau; J. Desmyter; E. De Clercq

    1991-01-01

    Seventeen fresh clinical isolates of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were examined for their in vitro susceptibility to different potential anti-HCMV drugs, including a series of acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues as well as the reference compounds ganciclovir, foscarnet and acyclovir. Three sulfated polysaccharides (heparin, dextran sulfate and pentosan polysulfate) known for their ability to inhibit adsorption of enveloped viruses to the cells

  16. Technology Transfer Office (TTO) Promote and facilitate the transfer of UC San Diego innovations for the benefit of the University community and the public.

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    and international trade treaties is an essential endeavor un- dertaken by the university to promote the successful cancer · Faculty Inventors: John Mendelson & Gor- don Sato/ Medicine ELMIRON® (pentosan polysulfate Source Electro-Magnetics (CSEM) · Sea floor magnetic sensor for oil exploration · Faculty Inventor

  17. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  18. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - sodium (salt) ... salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium. Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg ...

  19. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and ... than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  20. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  1. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat increased amounts of potassium in the body. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be used as a ...

  2. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  3. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

  4. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of prion-infected neuronal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wibke Wagner; Paul Ajuh; Johannes Löwer; Silja Wessler

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal diseases associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc). Since the molecular mechanisms in pathogenesis are widely unclear, we analyzed the global phospho-proteome and detected a differential pattern of tyrosine- and threonine phosphorylated proteins in PrPSc-replicating and pentosan polysulfate (PPS)-rescued N2a cells in

  5. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et al. (2002, Meteor. Planet. Sci. 8, 3357-3374) successfully explaining their velocity and column density profiles vs. heliocentric distance. Comparison with this data allows us to constrain the supply rate of new sodium atoms to the surface. We also discuss the possible origins of the strong high latitude emissions (Potter and Morgan, 1990, Science 248, 835-838; 1997a, Adv. Space Res. 19, 1571-1576; 1997b, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 95-100; Sprague et al., 1998, Icarus 135, 60-68) and the strong variations of the total content of the sodium exosphere on short (Potter et al., 1999, Planet. Space Sci. 47, 1441-1449) and long time scales (Sprague et al., 1997, Icarus 129, 506-527).

  6. [Sodium and hypertension].

    PubMed

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a number of functional abnormalities most of which are capable of impairing sodium excretion. Essential hypertension would appear to be as much a renal disturbance related to the intake of sodium as hypertension secondary to renal disease. PMID:8952809

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  8. Sodium Phosphate Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... widening of the intestine), dehydration, low levels of calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium in your blood, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  13. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Peru; P. B. Lorenz

    1987-01-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate

  14. Sodium sulfur storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, H.; Matsui, K.

    1985-04-09

    The present invention discloses a sodium-sulfur storage battery utilizing an inside of a sodium-ion conductive solid electrolyte tube as a negative chamber, comprising an a-alumina ring jointed with solder glass to an open end of said electrolyte tube, a flange aluminum housing having a fine hole at its bottom incorporated in said solid electrolyte tube, a negative auxiliary cover thermo-compressively jointed through a flange of said aluminum housing to an upper surface of said a-aluminum ring, and a negative cover provided with a negative current collector terminal welded to said negative auxiliary cover.

  15. Sodium satellite structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fred Moore; David K. Olsen; Bill Hodge; P. Richard

    1972-01-01

    A sample of sodium was bombarded by proton, helium, and oxygen beams and the subsequentK X-ray spectra measured. The spectra exhibit a preponderance of structure which is speculated upon in light of HFS calculations. The strongest lines are ascertained to be the normalKa satellite spectra produced by multiple electron vacancies in single ion-atom collisions.

  16. Lab Procedure Sodium Borate Crystals

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    Lab Procedure Sodium Borate Crystals Materials: Plastic cup, marked for 50 mL Styrofoam cup 50 m a styrofoam cup, Sodium Borate solution. 2. Place 2 teaspoons of sodium borate in the Styrofoam cup. 3. Place hydrate Plastic cup, marked for 50 mL Styrofoam cup 50 mL of deionized water Plastic spoon String

  17. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  18. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  19. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed in the escaping atmosphere. I conclude that the exosphere is sustained by a combination of micro-meteorite impact vaporization and photo-desorption that is locally enhanced by precipitating ions.

  20. Sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump: the roles of ATP and ADP.

    PubMed Central

    Cavieres, J D; Glynn, I M

    1979-01-01

    1. We have developed a procedure for preparing resealed red cell ghosts that contain ADP but very little ATP. 2. The procedure involves (i) lysis of the cells in a very large volume of lysing solution, (ii) resuspension of the ghosts in a small volume, (iii) the incorporation into the ghosts, before they are resealed, of the adenylate kinase inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5'-)pentaphosphate (AP5A) and of hexokinase, and (iv) the removal of traces of ATP, formed by residual adenylate kinase activity, by the addition of glucose. 3. Measurements of sodium efflux from ghosts prepared in this way show that sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump does not occur in the absence of ATP even if ADP is present. 4. The beta:gamma imido analogue of ATP (AMP.PNP), which is incapable of phosphorylating sodium, potassium-ATPase, cannot replace ATP in supporting sodium-sodium exchange. 5. These findings support the hypothesis that the outward movement of sodium ions through the sodium pump is associated with the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to the enzyme, and that the inward movement of sodium ions through the pump is associated with the return of a phosphoryl group from the phosphoenzyme to ADP. PMID:536926

  1. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  3. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  4. The Sodium Content of Your Food. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01

    - 8873 ~ 0 . 1 4 0 0 ' sodium - * - Content of Contents Page .............................................. Introduction Sodium Content of Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverages and fruit juices 4... .................................... Condiments, fats and oils 2t ........ Sodium Content of Selected Non-prescription Drugs 2t The Sodium Content of Your Food Extension food and nutrition specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Introduction Sodium is a mineral element necessary...

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  6. Pure pseudoboehmite from sodium aluminate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ozimek; J. Grzechowiak; B. Radomyski

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Na2O\\/Al2O3 mole ratio in sodium aluminate, the pH and the temperature of precipitation upon physicochemical properties of pseudoboehmite obtained from sodium aluminate has been studied. A mole ratio of 1?1 and low pH are favorable for the preparation of pure alumina.

  7. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  8. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  9. Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

    1995-01-01

    We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

  10. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  15. Dietary Sodium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Khmer (Khmer) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Lowering Sodium ... Sodium Khmer (Khmer) Bilingual PDF Harborview Medical Center Somali (af Soomaali) Lowering Sodium in Your Diet Yareenta ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphos- phate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 582.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 582.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182...Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182...Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have different sodium ... can: Develop and implement efforts that: Increase public awareness about the amount of sodium added to processed ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless...an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate. (b) The ingredient...

  3. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  4. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  5. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  17. Early secondary sodium drain assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    The FFTF secondary HTS loops can be drained about two years before the planned Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) is available if part of the sodium is stored in the primary sodium drain tank and the reactor overflow tank and the balance is stored in the normal secondary sodium drain tank. This report documents the results of a study to determine the technical and programmatic viability o such and early secondary sodium drain. The drain sequence that would be used is to drain secondary loops 1 and 2, sequentially to T-44 with intermediate transfers to T-42 and T-43 until sufficient capacity is available in T-44 to accommodate the sodium from loop 3. Draining the secondary sodium loops about two years earlier than now planned by utilizing installed tank storage capacity is clearly technically viable and offers significant programmatic advantages. $1,642,000 in electrical power and manpower costs can be avoided and applied to other plant shutdown activities. It is recommended that the drain sequence described herein be implemented.

  18. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-print Network

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  19. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  20. The Sodium-Restricted Diet 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    collected for possession of salt. Even the word "salary" is connected with salt. Salt remains valuable to us as a source of sodium, an essential nutrient needed by our body to function properly. The body needs sodium to form tissue - to aid a child...'s growth, to heal a wound or to develop the fetus during pregnancy. Sodium is found mostly in body fluids surrounding the cells. Its chief purpose is to regulate the amount of fluid in the body and the location of that fluid. The body stores extra...

  1. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

  2. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Y Mulkidjanian; M. Y. Galperin; Kira S Makarova; Yuri I Wolf; Eugene V Koonin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent

  3. Formation of sporadic sodium layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Clemesha; P. P. Batista; D. M. Simonich

    1996-01-01

    A study of sporadic sodium (Ns) layers observed at So Jos6 dos Campos (23øS, 46øW) shows that during their occurrence the form of the background sodium layer is differ- ent from that which it normally takes when Ns layers are absent. During Ns events, peak so- dium in the background layer typically occurs below 90 km, whereas the peak of

  4. Mercury's sodium exosphere: new insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    We describe the formation of Mercury's sodium exosphere using a 3D Monte Carlo model in which we follow sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by photo desorption, meteoritic vaporization and solar wind sputtering. Comparisons of our results with observations (Potter A.E., Killen R.M. and Morgan T.H., Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 37, 2002) are provided. Averaging over one Mercury year, the

  5. Sodium nitroprusside treatment in erythromelalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Özsoylu; T. Coskun

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms of two children with erythromelalgia were relieved promptly by the intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside (1–5 µg\\/kg\\/min). The elevated blood pressure of one of them was also easily controlled with this drug and did not recur during the follow-up period. Taken together with our previous experience, we believe sodium nitroprusside administration to be a treatment of choice for

  6. Sodium heat engine\\/AMTEC system experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Hunt; J. V. Lasecki; R. F. Novak; J. R. McBride; J. T. Brockway

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a high efficiency device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. The SHE system operates as a thermally regenerative concentration cell using sodium as the working fluid. Its operation relies on the high sodium ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity of sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte. The SHE\\/AMTEC

  7. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shangyou Zeng; Peter Jung

    2008-01-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10\\/mum2 . The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results

  8. Solubilities and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Emanuel Manzurola

    2003-01-01

    Solubilities and vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions were determined and compared with the literature data. These results permitted the evaluation of osmotic and activity coefficients and molar enthalpies of vaporization.

  9. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention. PMID:25983308

  10. Europa's sodium atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.

    2007-08-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is exposed to intense ion and electron flux that erodes the surface, launching atoms and molecules into ballistic trajectories to form a tenuous atmosphere (e.g., Johnson et al., "Jupiter," book, 2004). One component of that atmosphere is neutral atomic sodium, which has been observed many times by Earth-based telescopes (e.g., Leblanc et al., Icarus, 2005). When the Cassini spacecraft viewed Europa during an eclipse by Jupiter its visible camera revealed spatially nonuniform emission (Porco et al., Science, 2003, Supporting Online Material). The Cassini eclipse observations were performed with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and clear filters (Porco et al., 2003). Clear filters provide sensitivity to the wavelength range 200-1050 nm, with maximum sensitivity at 611 nm (Porco et al., 2004). Within that wavelength range there are a number of lines that might contribute to the observed glow. These include the electron impact-induced excitation of Na (Kim, Phys. Rev. A, 2001), O (Fig. 4 Smyth and Marconi, Icarus, 2006), K, and SO2 (Ajello et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1992). Ions may also make a small contribution to these same processes (e.g., Allen et al., Phys. Rev. A, 1988). Of these, electron excitation of Na D line emission is likely the dominant emission in eclipse. Using an atmospheric model described by Cassidy et al. (2007), we successfully model those emissions by assuming that the Na atoms are ejected preferentially from Europa's trailing hemisphere dark terrain, which may be rich in Na-containing salt hydrates. We will discuss those results and, if available, discuss similar observations by the recent New Horizons Jupiter flyby.

  11. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  12. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  13. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.F.; Fewell, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator has been modeled. The computer code SOLTES (Simulator of Large Thermal Energy Systems), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was used to model this system. Based on data provided to Sandia by the IEA-SSPS/CRS project, the results from SOLTES are compared to measured data. The comparison between measured data and predictions from SOLTES is very good for the day evaluated.

  14. Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate 

    E-print Network

    Grones, Kelly Leann

    2000-01-01

    cooked beef/brothy, cooked beef/fat and soda flavor and decreased cardboard and soured flavors. Sodium diacetate increased soured flavor, sour basic taste and decreased the positive effects of sodium lactate on cardboard flavor. The addition...

  15. Distribution and Digestibility of the Pentosans of Feeds. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S.

    1915-01-01

    ASSISTANTS STATION C. A. CASE, Stenographer MATTIE THOMAS, Stenographer F. R. McMAHON, Steno.qrapher C. L. DuRST, Mailing Clerk FEED CONTROL SERVICE DAISY LEE, R egistration Clerk vVILLIE JoHNSON, Tag Clerk *In Cooperation with the Unitd States D... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Quanti ties Digested .......... : ...................... .' . . . . . . . 11 Destruction of P entosans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Furaloid .......................................... .... .... ? 14...

  16. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Migliori; G. W. Swift

    1988-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance has been constructed. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency,

  17. PILOT TESTING OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of pilot plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO2 was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of...

  18. Quadrupole splitting in sodium ferrocyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Evans; P. J. Black

    1970-01-01

    Mossbauer spectra from a single crystal of hydrated sodium ferrocyanide indicate a shift in line position with crystal orientation which is consistent with a quadrupole splitting of 0.56 gamma o. Voigt profile analysis of spectra from powders indicates a smaller broadening of the Lorentz component, 0.27 Gamma o; the inconsistency is explained by preferred orientation in the absorber samples.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  8. Sodium recycling at Europa: what do we learn from the sodium cloud variability?

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    035061. 1. Introduction [2] A thin sodium atmosphere with a column density of 1010 cmÀ2 was firstSodium recycling at Europa: what do we learn from the sodium cloud variability? F. Cipriani,1 F August 2008; published 7 October 2008. [1] We study the ejection of sodium atoms from Europa's surface

  9. Conversion of elemental sodium to sodium carbonate at Argonne National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Herrmann; H. W. Bushman; R. A. Washburn

    1995-01-01

    An integral part of the liquid-metal reactor program is to provide the safe and effective disposition of elemental sodium, previously used as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plants. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has constructed a sodium process facility (SPF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to convert elemental sodium into 50 wt% sodium hydroxide solution. The SPF will treat

  10. Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Punitha; A. Jasmin Sudha; N. Kasinathan; M. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results

  11. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Norton; M. M. Caldwell; S. G. Richardson

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in

  12. Does a glycine sodium nitrite crystal exist?

    E-print Network

    Dhavskar, Kiran T

    2015-01-01

    The glycine sodium nitrite crystal reported by Khandpekar and Pati in the paper entitled, Synthesis and characterisation of glycine sodium nitrite crystals having non linear optical behaviour, Opt Commun 285, 2012 288-293 is actually gamma-glycine. In addition, we show that glycine barium ammonium nitrate, glycine sodium zinc sulfate, glycine barium calcium nitrate, glycine acetamide and glycine dimer are dubious crystals.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4 H7 O4 Na·xH2 O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and...

  14. Altered Erythrocyte Sodium Efflux following Renal Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Cole; R. Steinberg; R. Guttmann

    1978-01-01

    Abnormalities of membrane sodium transport are one of the manifestations of chronic renal failure. Following correction of the renal failure by renal transplantation erythrocyte membrane NaK ATPase activity increases to supranormal values. In the present study, direct measurements of erythrocyte sodium efflux were performed in 21 renal transplant patients. The mean rate constant for total sodium efflux was increased from

  15. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Magnetospheric Ion recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; D. Delcourt; R. E. Johnson; M. Liu

    2003-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variability in 3D of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere and its correlation with the sodium density in Mercury's surface was described for Mercury's motion around the Sun (Leblanc and Johnson 2003). Four processes for ejection of sodium were taken into account: thermal and photon stimulated desorptions, solar wind sputtering and micro-meteoroid vaporization. A model of ion circulation

  16. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  18. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  6. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...FDA-2011-N-0428] Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries per...Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection,...

  7. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  8. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  9. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  10. Ergogenic effects of sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason; Midgley, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Athletes use many different strategies to enhance their performance, including clothing and footwear, training regimes, diets, and ergogenic aids. The use of ergogenic aids is believed to be widespread, with a variety of legal as well as illegal substances being used previously and currently. Among the more popular ergogenic aids is the use of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate, collectively recognized as "buffers." These substances potentially provide the body with added resistance against fatigue caused by deleterious changes in acid-base balance brought about by a variety of exercise modes and durations. The popularity of buffering has generated a plethora of research dating back to the 1930s, which continues to date. The issues surrounding buffering revolve around the dosage size, timing of ingestion, and the type of exercise to benefit from the use of buffers. We hope this review addresses these pertinent issues. PMID:18607226

  11. Demonstration of inhibitory effect of oral shark cartilage on basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    González, R P; Soares, F S; Farias, R F; Pessoa, C; Leyva, A; de Barros Viana, G S; Moraes, M O

    2001-02-01

    Several angiogenic inhibitors have been obtained from shark cartilage, some of these are currently in clinical trials for assessment of safety and therapeutic efficacy in humans. Still, shark cartilage taken orally is commonly used in alternative and complimentary medicine for various ailments including serious diseases such as cancer. However, only few studies of oral shark cartilage have demonstrated pharmacological effects in experimental animals or patients, to indicate safe doses with sufficient bioavailability. In the present study we demonstrated the antiangiogenic properties of oral shark cartilage in the rabbit cornea model. Slow-release, polymethylmetacrylate pellets containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were surgically implanted in the rabbit cornea to stimulate neovascularization scored by stereo microscopy. Powdered shark cartilage (PSC; commercial product) was tested orally along with a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of this cartilage product which was tested by local application. Animals were treated with oral dosages of 100 mg/kg PSC or 200 mg/kg thalidomide as positive control. Pellets containing WSF (50, 100 or 200 microg/pellet) or bFGF-inhibitor pentosan polysulfate were implanted adjacent to the bFGF pellet. Oral shark cartilage inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis, as did oral thalidomide, in this in vivo model. WSF and pentosan polysulfate was shown to block neovascularization in the cornea when applied locally. This study demonstrates that in the rabbit, oral shark cartilage appears to produce systemic levels of angiogenesis inhibitors that can exert their effect at the cornea. PMID:11217082

  12. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  13. Sodium Sulfur Technology Program Nastec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highley, Bob; Somerville, W. Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and ground and flight test objectives are described in textual and graphic form.

  14. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p < 0.05). Base excess, pH and blood bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity. PMID:18004687

  15. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to be easily adapted to any other neutral cometary sodium tail observations available.

  16. Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and sodium orthosilicate for EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.H.

    1987-02-01

    Alkaline and alkali/polymer flooding are economical and versatile techniques proposed for application in EOR. Recently, the use of high-pH alkaline chemicals was emphasized to obtain low interfacial tensions (IFT's) with the crude oil and to counteract alkali loss by both reservoir rock and interstitial water reactions. This experimental study compares the utility of sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) buffer solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium orthosilicate (Na/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/) at equal Na/sub 2/O levels for alkaline and alkali/polymer flooding. The alkalis were found to be equally effective in reducing IFT and Wilmington Ranger zone crude, and eight other acid crude oils. Tertiary recovery results for 20 Berea corefloods with the Ranger zone crude and hard reservoir brine were equivalent (6 to 17%) for Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, NaOH, and Na/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/. Similar modest recoveries were obtained for polymer floods that used polyacrylamide or xanthan gum. However, polymer augmentation of alkaline floods dramatically increased tertiary oil yields to 73 to 95%. In addition, alkali improved the injectivity of polymer solutions. The alkali reactions with sandstone were much less severe with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ than with NaOH or Na/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/.

  17. Sodium content of potable water: dietary significance.

    PubMed

    Korch, G C

    1986-01-01

    Americans are consuming more sodium than required for physiologic functions. While the dietary sources of sodium generally are recognized and understood, the contribution of drinking water as a source of sodium may be overlooked. Because water may account for up to 10% of an individual's daily sodium consumption, dietitians should know the sodium content of the public water supply. Patients on severe sodium-restricted diets may not be able to consume the public water available in their area because 42% of the nation's water supplies provide sodium in excess of the optimal level. While the use of bottled waters may be the client's first choice, it may not be an acceptable alternative. Dietitians need to know the types and sodium contents of bottled water available in their area. A glossary of water descriptors and a table that lists the sodium content of bottled waters by brand name are provided. Another table lists sodium content by soft-drink types. Dietitians are reminded to consider the effect of the increased fluid requirements of individuals exercising in hot or humid conditions. PMID:3941232

  18. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10/microm2. The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results show that internodal sodium ion channels play an important role in action potential propagation. In this paper, based on the compartment model, we investigate the function of internodal sodium ion channels. We find that internodal sodium ion channels can promote action potential propagation, enlarge the maximal internodal distance guaranteeing stable action potential propagation, and increase the propagation speed of action potentials. In this paper, we find an optimal conductance of internodal sodium ion channels (4-5 mS/cm2), which accords with the active internodal sodium ion conductance in a real myelinated axon. With the optimal conductance, the average sodium ion channel conductance of the axon is minimal, and the metabolic energy consumption due to ion channels is also minimal. PMID:19256877

  19. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10/?m2 . The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results show that internodal sodium ion channels play an important role in action potential propagation. In this paper, based on the compartment model, we investigate the function of internodal sodium ion channels. We find that internodal sodium ion channels can promote action potential propagation, enlarge the maximal internodal distance guaranteeing stable action potential propagation, and increase the propagation speed of action potentials. In this paper, we find an optimal conductance of internodal sodium ion channels (4-5mS/cm2) , which accords with the active internodal sodium ion conductance in a real myelinated axon. With the optimal conductance, the average sodium ion channel conductance of the axon is minimal, and the metabolic energy consumption due to ion channels is also minimal.

  20. A comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate products.

    PubMed

    Coates, D

    1985-03-01

    A comparison of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) products was made. Solutions of NaOCl and NaDCC containing the same levels of available chlorine (av.Cl) exhibited very similar bactericidal activities, despite significant differences in pH. A level of 12.5 ppm av. Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 min. A level of 5 ppm av.Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 min whilst approximately 100 ppm av.Cl achieved the same reduction in the presence of 1% horse serum, and approximately 200 ppm av.Cl in the presence of 2% horse serum, indicating inactivation levels of around 95 and 97.5% respectively. Tablets of NaDCC were stable but solutions were unstable and decomposed much faster than NaOCl solutions of the same strength. Batch-to-batch variability of different NaOCl and NaDCC products was investigated; whilst NaDCC products always contained the minimum level of av.Cl specified, concentrated NaOCl products sometimes did not due to inherent instability. PMID:2859320

  1. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  2. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  3. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G. W.

    1988-08-01

    A thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance has been constructed. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus this type of engine is expected to be of practical, economic importance.

  4. Density of molten sodium aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, D.J.; Stebbins, J.F.; Carmichael, I.S.E.

    1986-05-01

    In order to address controversial discrepancies among earlier measurements, the densities of eight sodium aluminosilicate melts were measured at 1100/sup 0/ to 1550/sup 0/C. The double-bob Archimedean method was used; it is the most accurate available technique and one not used in previous density measurements in this system. The results of a regression of molar volume with temperature and composition in terms of oxides are presented. The variation of molar volume with composition is linear within the range of the data. The standard error of the fit is <0.2%.

  5. Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Laurival A; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Vendramini, Regina C; David, Richard B; Menani, José V

    2010-07-14

    A water deprived animal that ingests only water efficiently corrects its intracellular dehydration, but remains hypovolemic, in negative sodium balance, and with high plasma renin activity and angiotensin II. Therefore, it is not surprising that it also ingests sodium. However, separation between thirst and sodium appetite is necessary to use water deprivation as a method to understand the mechanisms subserving sodium appetite. For this purpose, we may use the water deprivation-partial repletion protocol, or WD-PR. This protocol allows performing a sodium appetite test after the rat has quenched its thirst; thus, the sodium intake during this test cannot be confounded with a response to thirst. This is confirmed by hedonic shift and selective ingestion of sodium solutions in the sodium appetite test that follows a WD-PR. The separation between thirst and sodium appetite induced by water deprivation permits the identification of brain states associated with sodium intake in the appetite test. One of these states relates to the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptors. Other states relate to cell activity in key areas, e.g. subfornical organ and central amygdala, as revealed by immediate early gene c-Fos immunoreactivity or focal lesions. Angiotensin II apparently sensitizes the brain of the water deprived rat to produce an enhanced sodium intake, as that expressed by spontaneously hypertensive and by young normotensive rat. The enhancement in sodium intake produced by history of water deprivation is perhaps a clue to understand the putative salt addiction in humans. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20226201

  6. Investigation of sodium in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yegingil; H. Ogelman; N. Kiziloglu

    1980-01-01

    Upper atmospheric atomic sodium abundances have been measured near Ankara (39.9 deg N, 32.6 deg E), Turkey, from February 1976 to April 1977. The daytime absorption measurements were made with a Pepsios spectrometer using the solar radiation near the D2 line of sodium at 5890 A. Seasonal and daily variations of the sodium abundance were examined. A seasonal variation appears

  7. A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries

    E-print Network

    Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

  8. [Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

    1989-01-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form for its activity. It is interesting to note that well known bacteria, that are resistant to the common antimicrobial agents, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were inhibited by sodium dichloroisocyanurate in a rapid bactericidal action. Our data demonstrates that no significant adverse influence on the activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was shown by pH and by temperature even if in some experimental conditions increased activity was noticed at pH = 6.6. The sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated good activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. This fact extends the broad-spectrum activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate to the protozoa. In conclusion, sodium dichloroisocyanurate has demonstrated a good activity against all tested strains, furthermore its activity did not decrease in the presence of 1% of organic substance (serum etc.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2484478

  9. Double sodium layers observation over Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jihong; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Guotao; Song, Shalei; Gong, Shunsheng

    2012-08-01

    The altitude of the sodium layer in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is usually from 80 km to 105 km. In this paper, we report a set of double sodium layer (DSL) events observed by sodium lidar over Beijing, China. In these DSL events, the normal sodium layer and secondary sodium layer (SeSL) present separately. There were about 17 DSL events occurred in 319 observation nights during 2009˜2011. All DSL events were observed in spring and summer. The SeSL appeared independently within the altitude range from 105 km to 130 km. The density of the SeSL is very high. The maximum ratio of peak density and the ratio of column density for the SeSL to the normal sodium layer are up to ˜60% and ˜47%, respectively. The SeSL lasted several hours, and then merged into the normal sodium layer. After the SeSL, a sporadic sodium layer occurred in the normal sodium layer.

  10. Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    This grant supported an investigation of lunar sodium by our coronagraph and spectrograph on nearby Mount Lemmon. We report successful operation and data analysis during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, September 15 - 22, 1995, and submittal of a paper to Icarus. The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx.1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg., and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with IRAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

  11. SODIUM BENTONITE OR SODIUM BICARBONATE AS AIDS IN FEEDING HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS TO LAMBS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Huntington; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies were conducted to compare bento- nite and sodium bicarbonate as dietary aids in adaptation and subsequent performance of lambs fed high-concentrate diets under various conditions of protein supplementation. Three protein variations, including no supplemental protein (NSP), soybean meal (SBM) or urea, were factored with a control, 2% or 4% sodium bentonite, and 2% or 4% sodium bicarbonate in

  12. Mesosphere Sodium Column Density and the Sodium Laser Guide Star Brightness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Ge; J. R. P. Angel; B. D. Jacobsen; T. Roberts; T. Martinez; W. Livingston; B. McLeod; M. Lloyd-Hart; R. Noyes

    1997-01-01

    The first time simultaneous measurements of sodium column density and the absolute flux from a sodium laser guide star, created by a monochromatic 3 W cw laser, tuned to the peak of the sodium D2 hyperfine structure, were conducted at the MMT and CFA 60 inch telescope in 1997. The results show that linearly and circularly polarized laser returns are

  13. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Sesquicarbonate on Lactating Holsteins Fed a High Grain Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Solorzano; L. E. Armentano; R. R. Grummer; M. R. Dentine

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Ortho- gonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium

  14. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  15. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  16. Sodium channels amplify spine potentials Roberto Araya*

    E-print Network

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Sodium channels amplify spine potentials Roberto Araya* , Volodymyr Nikolenko* , Kenneth B for review January 25, 2007) Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory synapses in the brain. Past theoretical work and recent experimental evidence have suggested that spines could contain sodium channels. We

  17. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals...ii) Indications for use. For growth promotion...arsenic. (2) Arsanilate sodium may be used in...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Sodium tartrate (C4 H4 Na2 O6 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 868-18-8) is the disodium salt of l ?(+)?tartaric acid. It...

  19. Drive system of centrifugal sodium pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hunjan

    1973-01-01

    The important featumes on which the drive system of the sodium pump in ; the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam is based are described. They ; include large inertia emengency drive, -fast acceleration and deceleration, speed ; control and capability to smoothen the undesirable transients in sodium system. ; The process and equipment safety requirements that led to

  20. Photon Excitation of Sodium Emission in Comets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Baranovsky; V. P. Tarashchuk

    2004-01-01

    We consider the possibility of the excitation of sodium resonance emission in cometary matter under solar radiation at a heliocentric distance of 5 AU, as was observed when a fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 plunged into Jupiter. When the sodium emission is calculated, the multiple scattering in the cometary cloud is taken into account. We use a non-LTE radiative transfer

  1. [Cerebral oedema caused by sodium valproate].

    PubMed

    Hurri, Lauri; Posti, Jussi; Seppä, Juha Matti; Rauhala, Esa; Puustinen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Sodium valproate is widely used as an antiepileptic drug. It has potential side effects and its overdosage is toxic. We present a case where a sodium valproate intoxication with severe cerebral oedema was managed in the intensive care unit with hemodialysis, levocarnitine and supportive care. PMID:25558630

  2. Sodium Aluminosilicate Solid Phase Specific Fouling Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Addai-Mensah; Jun Li; Marek Zbik; Scott Rosencrance

    2004-01-01

    Process heat transfer equipment fouling due to sodium aluminosilicate precipitation is a serious problem that confronts high-level nuclear waste liquor and Bayer process alumina processing plants. The fouling of 316 stainless steel substrate by thermodynamically stable and unstable sodium aluminosilicate polytypes: amorphous solid, zeolite A, sodalite and cancrinite crystals, been has studied in an isothermal, batch precipitation system at 65

  3. The cardiac sodium pump: structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia A. McDonough; Jeffrey B. Velotta; Robert H. G. Schwinger; Kenneth D. Philipson; Robert A. Farley

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac sodium pumps (Na,K-ATPase) influence cell calcium and contractility by generating the Na + gradient driving Ca ++ extrusion via the Na +\\/Ca ++ exchanger (NCX), and are the receptors for cardiac glycosides such as digitalis which increases cardiac contractility by decreasing the Na + gradient driving Ca ++ extrusion. There are multiple isoforms of the sodium pump expressed in

  4. Sodium D Line Data Daniel Adam Steck

    E-print Network

    Steck, Daniel A.

    Sodium D Line Data Daniel Adam Steck Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon #12;Copyright c 2000, by Daniel Adam Steck. All rights reserved. This material may be distributed 2000. This is revision 2.1.4, 23 December 2010. Cite this document as: Daniel A. Steck, "Sodium D Line

  5. Sodium D Line Data Daniel A. Steck

    E-print Network

    Steck, Daniel A.

    version of this document is available at http://steck.us/alkalidata, along with "Cesium D Line DataSodium D Line Data Daniel A. Steck Theoretical Division (T-8), MS B285 Los Alamos National" and "Rubidium 87 D Line Data." Please send comments and corrections to dsteck@lanl.gov. 2 Sodium Physical

  6. Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; D. Delcourt; R. E. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used to describe correlation between the observed variations in the exospheric density and the variations in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four processes of ejection were taken into account: thermal and photon stimulated desorptions, solar wind sputtering, and micrometeoroid

  7. Reactions of alkynylselenonium salts with sodium benzenesulfinate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Kataoka; Yoshihiro Banno; Shin-ichi Watanabe; Tatunori Iwamura; Hiroshi Shimizu

    1997-01-01

    Alkynylselenonium salts 2 and 5 were synthesized and treated with benzenesulfinic acid or its sodium salt in an alcohol. The reactions with sodium benzenesulfinate gave (Z)-?-alkoxyvinylsulfones 6 as main products, while the reactions with benzenesulfinic acid afforded the ?-sulfonylvinylselenonium salts 11 and 12 in good yields.

  8. Sodium monolayers on thermionic cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanstötter, Jürgen; Eberhard, Bernd; Günther, Klaus; Hartmann, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    Under certain conditions alkali vapours form dipole monolayers on metallic electrodes that can lower the work function of the bulk material. In this case, the power balance of the electrode, the electrode fall voltage and the electrode loss power can change considerably. To verify this effect a pyrometric technique was adapted and optimized for the diagnostics of tungsten electrodes in high pressure sodium discharges. Using an already verified model of thermally emitting cathodes the effect was observed in a Na DC discharge and the range of existence was investigated. An interpretation of the results is given using a Langmuir description of forming the Na monolayers and first-principles electronic structure calculations using a pseudopotential plane wave method to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory.

  9. Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx. 1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg, and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with ERAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

  10. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  11. Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

  12. 40 CFR 180.487 - Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...487 Pyrithiobac sodium; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium, (sodium 2-chloro-6-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)thio]benzoate),...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153...Cargo Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment...

  14. Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, M.D.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes.

  15. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 ...Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a...substances identified generically as sodium salts of dodecylphenol (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721.5450 Section 721.5450 ...5450 ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN P-88-2210) is subject...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  20. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  1. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

  2. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

  3. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

  4. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

  5. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087...Food Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 ...Supplements 1 § 582.5306 Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087...Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6789 - Tetra sodium pyrophos- phate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Tetra sodium pyrophos- phate. 182.6789...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6789 Tetra sodium pyrophos- phate. (a) Product. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087...Food Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087...Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphos- phate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphos- phate. 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphos- phate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphos- phate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087...Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 ...Supplements 1 § 582.5306 Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781...Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087...Food Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 ...Supplements 1 § 582.5306 Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087...Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087...Food Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065 ...Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment system that...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

  15. How to Follow a Low-Sodium Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... plain frozen vegetables. Dried beans, peas, rice, and lentils are also excellent low-sodium foods, but make ... sodium content. Low-Sodium Foods Beans, peas, rice, lentils, or pasta (dried and fresh, cooked without salt) ...

  16. The role of angiotensin II on sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet.

    PubMed

    Mecawi, A S; Vilhena-Franco, T; Fonseca, F V; Reis, L C; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) on sodium appetite in rats subjected to a normal or a low-sodium diet (1% or > 0.1% NaCl) for 4 days. During sodium restriction, a reduction in water intake, urinary volume and sodium excretion was observed. After a low-sodium diet, we observed decreased plasma protein concentrations and haematocrit associated with a slight reduction in arterial pressure, without any significant changes in heart rate, natraemia, corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone levels. After providing hypertonic saline, there was an increase in saline intake followed by a small increase in water intake, resulting in an enhanced saline intake ratio and the recovery of arterial pressure. Sodium deprivation increased plasma but not brain Ang I and II concentrations. A low-sodium diet increased kidney renin and liver angiotensinogen mRNA levels but not lung angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression. Moreover, Ang II type 1a receptor mRNA expression was increased in the subfornical organ and the dorsal raphe nucleus and decreased in the medial preoptic nuclei, without changes in the paraventricular nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract after a low-sodium diet. Blockade of AT(1) receptors or brain Ang II synthesis led to a reduction in sodium intake after a low-sodium diet. Intracerebroventricular injection of Ang II led to a similar increase in sodium and water intake in the control and low-sodium diet groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Ang II is involved in the increased sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet. PMID:23002791

  17. 40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances... ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5450 - ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances... ?-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...as ?-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt (PMN...

  19. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, K.Y.

    1982-05-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments (SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test section with the pressure-velocity boundary condition and subsequently extended to the whole loop. For the test section simulation, a steady-state and transient calculations are performed and compared with experimental data. For the loop simulation, two methods are used, a simulated 1-D loop and an actual 1-D loop. In the simulated 1-D loop analysis, the vapor density is increased by one hundred and two hundred times to avoid the code failure and the results still showed some of the important characteristics of the two-phase flow oscillation in a loop. A mathematical model is suggested for the two-phase flow oscillation. In the actual 1-D loop, only the single phase calculation was performed and turned out to be nearly the same as the simulated 1-D loop single phase results.

  20. Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs. PMID:22580974

  1. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  2. Filling and sealing sodium heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Stelman, D.; Newcomb, J.C. (Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    This paper describes facilities for filling and sealing high purity sodium heat pipes. The purpose of the work is to define a process for filling heat pipes with sodium that contains less than 10 ppm of oxygen. Small, cylindrical heat pipes were used to define the process. The work was performed for the NASA Lewis Research Stirling Space Power Converter program and was conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). Once the low-oxygen filling process is defined, a large, complex heat pipe for a Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC) will be loaded with sodium. The heat pipes were processed at a fill station on a High Temperature Sodium Loop circulating 180 kg (400 lb) of liquid sodium. The oxygen content of the sodium in the loop was below the detection limit of the analytical technique (the detection limit is about 6 ppm). The heat pipes were baked out and subjected to multiple flushes and extended soaks with liquid sodium before the final filling operation. A final purity of 8 ppm of oxygen was achieved. A process for performing the final closure of the fill tube was developed which maintained vacuum tight conditions in the heat pipe.

  3. Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Delcourt, D.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used to describe correlation between the observed variations in the exospheric density and the variations in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four processes of ejection were taken into account: thermal and photon stimulated desorptions, solar wind sputtering, and micrometeoroid vaporization. Here a model of ion circulation in Mercury's magnetosphere developed by Delcourt et al. [2002, 2003] is used to examine the contribution from sodium magnetospheric ion recycling. The model is coupled to the exospheric model to track newly ionized sodium formed in Mercury's exosphere. The coupled Na and Na+ model is used to examine the sputtering by and implantation of the reimpacting ions. The magnetospheric ion sputtering does not contribute significantly to the total amount of Na atoms ejected into Mercury's exosphere because of its rather small flux; however, magnetospheric ion implantation in Mercury's surface is sufficiently concentrated inside narrow latitude bands to enhance the local surface concentration of sodium. This enhancement is seen to contribute to the peaks in Mercury's exospheric sodium emission observed at high latitudes when the implanted sodium is exposed to the solar flux near the dayside terminator.

  4. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  5. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    SciTech Connect

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until {approximately}64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s).

  6. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  7. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, J J

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000/sup 0/F (427 and 538/sup 0/C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators.

  8. Sodium heat engine system: Space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Bryan H.; Sungu, Sabri; Vu, Hung V.

    1994-08-01

    This paper explores the possibility of utilizing the Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or known as AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter), for electrical power generation in ``near earth'' geosynchronous orbit. The Sodium Heat Engine principle is very flexible and adapts well to a variety of physical geometries. The proposed system can be easily folded and then deployed into orbit without the need for on site assembly in space. Electric power generated from SHE engine can be used in communication satellites, in space station, and other applications such as electrical recharging of vehicles in space is one of the applications the Sodium Heat Engine could be adapted to serve.

  9. Sodium Inactivation in Nerve Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Rosalie C.

    1968-01-01

    A number of models proposed to account for the sodium conductance changes are shown to fall into two classes. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model falls into a class (I) in which the conductance depends on two or more independent variables controlled by independent processes. The Mullins, Hoyt, and Goldman models fall into class II in which conductance depends directly on one variable only, a variable which is controlled by two or more coupled processes. The HH and Hoyt models are used as specific examples of the two classes. It is shown that, contrary to a recently published report, the results from double experiments can be equally well accounted for by both models. It is also shown that steady-state conditioning, or “inactivation,” curves, obtained at more than one test potential, can be used to distinguish the two models. The HH equations predict that such curves should be shifted, by very small amounts, in the hyperpolarizing direction when more depolarizing test potentials are used, while the Hoyt model predicts that they should be shifted in the depolarizing direction, by quite appreciable amounts. Several pieces of published experimental information are used as tests of these predictions, and give tentative support to the class II model. Further experiments are necessary before a definite conclusion can be reached. PMID:5679390

  10. Sodium-sulfur batteries for satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanczyk, Stephan M.; Vukson, Stephen P.

    1990-04-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the USAF's various efforts to advance sodium-sulfur battery technology as a basis for GEO and LEO satellite energy storage systems. These efforts encompass the High Energy Density Rechargeable Battery program, the LEO Sodium-Sulfur Cell Development program, the Improved Sodium-Sulfur Electrolyte program, and the Lightweight Aerospace Battery (LAB) program. An especially taxing requirement for batteries of this type is the substantial number of charge/discharge cycles typical of LEO satellite applications. The LAB program, which will extend to 1993, is intended to develop a bipolar, flat-plate sodium-sulfur satellite battery with 7-10 year service life in LEO and 15 years in GEO.

  11. Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.

    PubMed

    Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

    2007-04-20

    The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow. PMID:17501423

  12. PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a performance evaluation, conducted with a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP), studying the effects of injecting anhydrous sodium carbonate into the exhaust of a utility boiler burning Western coal. In situ resistivity measurements, ESP operating conditio...

  13. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ? ­ Smaller planet mass? ­ Lightweight gases? #12;Venus and the Runaway GreenhouseTerrestrial Planet Atmospheres. II. #12;The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere #12;Mercury for a Planet · Equator heated more than poles · Hadley cell transport heat poleward

  14. Allosteric sodium in class A GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Fenalti, Gustavo; Abola, Enrique E.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their functional and structural diversity, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common mechanism of signal transduction via conformational changes in the seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain. New major insights into this mechanism come from the recent crystallographic discoveries of a partially hydrated sodium ion that is specifically bound in the middle of the 7TM bundle of multiple class A GPCRs. This review discusses the remarkable structural conservation and distinct features of the Na+ pocket in this most populous GPCR class, as well as the conformational collapse of the pocket on receptor activation. New insights help to explain allosteric effects of sodium on GPCR agonist binding and activation, and sodium’s role as a potential co-factor in class A GPCR function. PMID:24767681

  15. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foust

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories

  16. Effects of Chronic Sodium Depletion on Renal Tubular Sodium and Water Reabsorption in Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent A. DiScala; Richard M. Stein

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of sodium depletion on tubular Na and H2O transport in man, renal clearance studies were performed under control conditions and after sodium depletion in 7 normal subjects. The control diet contained 250 mEq of Na daily. Sodium depletion was induced by placing subjects on a 20-mEq\\/day Na diet and administering furosemide (40 mg) daily

  17. Sodium transport modes in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Homer, M.L.; Lara, L.; Cortez, R.H.; Miller, J.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M.L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Shields, V.B.; Manatt, K.S.; Ryan, M.A.

    1998-07-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Sodium transport has been characterized in a variety of AMTEC electrodes and several different transport modes clearly exist. Free molecular flow is the dominant transport mechanism in clean porous molybdenum and tungsten electrodes, and contributes to sodium transport in all porous electrodes, including WPt{sub 2}, WRh{sub 3}, and TiN. Molybdenum and tungsten electrodes containing phases such as Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} exhibit very efficient sodium ion transport through the electrode in the ionic conducting phase. These electrodes also show reversible electrochemical reactions in which sodium ions and electrons are inserted or removed from into phases such as Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 6} which are present in the electrode WPt{sub 2} and WRh{sub 3} electrodes typically exhibit both free molecular flow transport as well as an enhanced thermally activated transport mode which is probably surface and/or grain boundary diffusion of sodium in the alloy electrode. Data for large area WPt{sub 2} electrodes within a cylindrical heat shield are reported in this paper. Sodium transport away from these electrodes is effected by both the electrode's properties and the exterior environment which inhibits sodium gas flow to the condenser. Liquid alloy electrodes have been examined and have fairly efficient transport properties by liquid phase diffusion, but have generally not been considered advantageous for development. Titanium nitride, TiN, electrodes used in AMTEC cells, and similar electronically conducting refractory compounds such as TiB{sub 2} and NbN are always physically porous to some degree as formed by sputter deposition or screen printing, and these compounds sinter quite slowly. Hence free molecular flow is always a significant sodium transport mode in these electrodes. However, the sodium transport rate computed from the physical morphology of the electrodes is not as efficient as actual sodium transport in TiN electrodes, implicating an enhanced transport mode, which remains operational at lower AMTEC operating temperatures. Some TiN electrodes also have been found to exhibit electrochemical reactions involving electrode phases which persist in sodium exposure test cells at 1223K, as reported in this paper.

  18. Sodium IonSelective Chalcogenide Glass Electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. G. Vlasov; E. A. Bychkov

    1989-01-01

    Analytical characteristics and sensing mechanism of sodium ion-selective electrodes based on NaCl-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses have been investigated. Chalcogenide glass electrodes containing 10 mol.% NaCl in the membrane showed near-Nernstian response in the concentration range from 10- to 1 M sodium nitrate solution. These sensors were superior to the conventional pNa oxide glass electrodes in selectivity in the presence of hydrogen ions

  19. Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer

    E-print Network

    D. S. Davis; P. Hickson; G. Herriot; C. Y. She

    2006-09-12

    The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fit by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 microhertz to 4 millhertz. The best fitting power law was found to be 10^\\beta \

  20. Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Rehbein, David (Ames, IA); Chiotti, Premo (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

  1. Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer

    E-print Network

    Davis, D S; Herriot, G; She, C Y

    2006-01-01

    The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fit by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 microhertz to 4 millhertz. The best fitting power law was found to be 10^\\beta \

  2. Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Saul Davis; Paul Hickson; Glen Herriot; Chiao-Yao She

    2006-01-01

    The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fitted by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 muHz to 4 mHz. The best-fitting power law was found

  3. Photon excitation of sodium emission in Comets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Baranovsky; V. P. Tarashchuk

    2004-01-01

    We consider the possibility of the excitation of sodium resonance emission in cometary matter under solar radiation at a heliocentric\\u000a distance of 5 AU, as was observed when a fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 plunged into Jupiter. When the sodium emission\\u000a is calculated, the multiple scattering in the cometary cloud is taken into account. We use a non-LTE radiative transfer

  4. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  5. Elastic constants of sodium from molecular dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahir Çagin; John R. Ray

    1988-01-01

    We have performed molecular-dynamics calculations of the adiabatic elastic constants of sodium at three different temperatures, T=198, 299, and 349 K. Our method uses fluctuation formulas appropriate for the microcanonical ensemble which contain the elastic constants. In the simulation we have used a first-principles potential to model the interaction between the sodium atoms. The results, including the shear modulus C44,

  6. Sodium retention and hypertension with short dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Sellars; V Robson; R Wilkinson

    1979-01-01

    Exchangeable sodium was measured in 26 patients undergoing dialysis with a modestly shortened schedule of 14.8 hours weekly and related to blood-pressure control. The group was compared with 27 patients studied in 1969 during twice-weekly dialysis totalling 22 hours, and with 18 patients studied in 1973 during dialysis of 18--21 hours weekly in three sessions. Exchangeable sodium was significantly increased

  7. Recycling of sodium metaborate to borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Hee Park; Seong Uk Jeong; Un Ho Jung; Sung Hyun Kim; Jaeyoung Lee; Suk Woo Nam; Tae Hoon Lim; Young Jun Park; Yong Ho Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated an electrochemical method for recycling sodium metaborate (NaBO2) to sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Palladium (Pd), boron-doped diamond (BDD), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) were used as electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to recycle the NaBO2 either to NaBH4 or to an intermediate material for making NaBH4. The electrochemical products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as

  8. Constraints on the kinetics of sodium channels A thesis presented

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    Constraints on the kinetics of sodium channels A thesis presented by Elaine L. Angelino to Applied differences among sodium (Na) channels, a type of voltage-gated ion channels. These are proteins The sodium channel 10 1.1 Structure of the sodium channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2 Kinetic

  9. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  10. Perturbations of the sodium layer: controlled by chemistry or dynamics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiyao Xu; A. K. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of the mesospheric sodium layer is calculated from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the sodium chemical system. This method determines a lifetime that is an excellent estimate of the relaxation time of the sodium chemical system. The lifetime is more than a day in the vicinity of the mesospheric sodium layer and is much longer than the

  11. Solar Radiation Acceleration Effects On Mercury Sodium Emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Potter; R. Killen; T. Morgan

    2006-01-01

    We examined the variation of average sodium emission from Mercury with true anomaly angle, using a data set collected from 1997 to 2003. To see how the average sodium content of the exosphere varied, we normalized all of the average sodium emissions to a constant true anomaly angle. The normalized emission should be proportional to the average sodium density of

  12. Dietary Chloride as a Determinant of ``Sodium-Dependent'' Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore W. Kurtz; R. Curtis Morris

    1983-01-01

    The uninephrectomized rat given desoxycorticosterone (DOC) provides a classic model of ``sodium-dependent'' hypertension. In such rats, the extent to which a given dietary intake of sodium induced an increase in blood pressure depended on whether or not the anionic component of the sdoium salt was chloride. With normal and high dietary intakes of sodium, sodium chloride induced increases in blood

  13. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  14. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  15. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  16. The low-pressure sodium lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.D. [GE Lighting, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    For many years before the introduction of the sodium vapor lamp, scientists had been aware of the remarkably high luminous efficacy of the sodium discharge. However, many technical problems had to be overcome before these lamps could be marketed. The first commercial low pressure sodium lamps were introduced in the early 1930s and to this day they remain the most efficient light sources available. The high efficacy is due partly to the fact that these lamps emit nearly monochromatic yellow light, which is very close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Sodium lamps have come a long way since their introduction, and efficacies are now approaching 200 lumens per watt. Despite increasing competition from other types of discharge lamp, low pressure sodium lamps of the SOX type find widespread use in road and security lighting, particularly in Great Britain and many other parts of Europe. This paper reviews the operation and development of the low pressure sodium lamp, and shows what makes it different from the many other types of discharge lamp available.

  17. Sodium sensing in the brain.

    PubMed

    Noda, Masaharu; Hiyama, Takeshi Y

    2015-03-01

    Sodium (Na) homeostasis is crucial for life, and the Na(+) level ([Na(+)]) of body fluids is strictly maintained at a range of 135-145 mM. However, the existence of a [Na(+)] sensor in the brain has long been controversial until Nax was identified as the molecular entity of the sensor. This review provides an overview of the [Na(+)]-sensing mechanism in the brain for the regulation of salt intake by summarizing a series of our studies on Nax. Nax is a Na channel expressed in the circumventricular organs (CVOs) in the brain. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the principal site for the control of salt intake behavior, where Nax populates the cellular processes of astrocytes and ependymal cells enveloping neurons. A local expression of endothelin-3 in the SFO modulates the [Na(+)] sensitivity for Nax activation, and thereby Nax is likely to be activated in the physiological [Na(+)] range. Nax stably interacts with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase whereby Na(+) influx via Nax is coupled with activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase associated with the consumption of ATP. The consequent activation of anaerobic glucose metabolism of Nax-positive glial cells upregulates the cellular release of lactate, and this lactate functions as a gliotransmitter to activate GABAergic neurons in the SFO. The GABAergic neurons presumably regulate hypothetic neurons involved in the control of salt intake behavior. Recently, a patient with essential hypernatremia caused by autoimmunity to Nax was found. In this case, the hypernatremia was considered to be induced by the complement-mediated cell death in the CVOs, where Nax specifically populates. PMID:25491503

  18. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  19. Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

  20. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  1. Modeling the Sodium Atmosphere of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal; Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-10-01

    Presented are preliminary results obtained using a 3D gas kinetic simulation of the Moon’s sodium atmosphere. We model the evolution of the atmosphere by considering the dynamics of the Moon-Earth-Sun system. To this end, the NASA SPICE toolkit is incorporated into the model to accurately calculate body orientations, velocities and rotation states. This information is used for calculation of source rates, solar radiation pressure and gravitational acceleration, and to account for collisions of sodium atoms with the Earth. In the model, micrometeoroids deliver sodium to the lunar surface, and the atmosphere is produced by thermal desorption (TD), solar wind sputtering (SWS), impact vaporization (IV) and photon simulated desorption (PSD). The recycling and loss of atmospheric sodium due to PSD and SWS redistribute the sodium content of the surface and atmosphere supplied by IV. Because PSD is the dominant source process, the maximum of the injection flux and surface density occurs at the sub-solar point. The model is used to simulate ground-based observations of the exosphere and tail, for comparison. We model the dynamics of the system to examine time variation of sodium production rates, surface density and exospheric morphology in relation to the Moon’s changing heliocentric distance. In addition, we study the effect of PSD from a regolith versus a smooth surface on exospheric morphology. Finally, the model is used to analyze the effect of Earth’s gravity on the extended sodium tail during new moon phase. This work was supported by grant NNX11AB24G from the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Program.

  2. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Magnetospheric Ion recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Delcourt, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Liu, M.

    2003-05-01

    The temporal and spatial variability in 3D of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere and its correlation with the sodium density in Mercury's surface was described for Mercury's motion around the Sun (Leblanc and Johnson 2003). Four processes for ejection of sodium were taken into account: thermal and photon stimulated desorptions, solar wind sputtering and micro-meteoroid vaporization. A model of ion circulation in Mercury's magnetosphere developed by Delcourt et al. (2002; 2003) is used here to follow the newly ionized particles produced by this model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere. The motion of Na+ and Na around Mercury are dynamically coupled. The contribution to sputtering and the local increase in the Na density in Mercury's surface by the reimpacting ions is discussed. Magnetospheric ion sputtering does not contribute significantly to the total amount of Na atoms ejected into Mercury's exosphere because of the rather small flux of magnetospheric ion reimpacting Mercury's surface. However magnetospheric ion reimplantation in Mercury's surface is sufficiently concentrated inside narrow latitude bands to enhance significantly the local concentration of sodium in Mercury's surface. As a consequence, certain peaks in Mercury's exospheric sodium emission observed at high latitudes could be due to the release on the dayside of these magnetospheric sodium ions reimplanted into Mercury's nightside surface at high latitudes (as previously suggested by Sprague 1992 and Ip 1993). Sprague, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18257, 1992; Ip, Astrophys. J., 418, 451, 1993; Leblanc and Johnson, Icarus, In press 2003; Delcourt et al. Geophys. Let. Res., 29, 2002; Delcourt et al., Ann. Geophysicae, In press 2003.

  3. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  4. Sodium, potassium and water metabolism in the rabbit: the effect of sodium depletion and repletion.

    PubMed Central

    Grace, S A; Munday, K A; Noble, A R

    1979-01-01

    1. Dietary sodium depletion and subsequent repletion was studied in rabbits. Potassium intake was maintained constant. 2. during sodium depletion and repletion blood pressure, packed cell volume, food consumption and body weight remained at control values. 3. Decreased sodium excretion was observed in both urine and faeces during sodium depletion and the physiological control of these changes is discussed in relation to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. 4. Potassium excretion during sodium depletion initially fell as a result of reduced urine volume and gradually returned to normal. Urine potassium concentration remained constant. 5. Faecal excretion of potassium rose by 63% during sodium depletion and there was a rise from a control value of 17-25% in the proportion of total potassium excretion accounted for by the faecal component. 6. Water consumption and urine volume both decreased in the initial phase of sodium depletion and then returned to control levels. 7. It is important to consider both urinary and faecal excretion of sodium and potassium when calculating balance status for either ion. Faecal excretion, as well as kidney function, shows important physiological adaptations. PMID:490371

  5. Role of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in sodium sensing and sodium appetite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dan; Wu, Yuehong; Li, Guangling; Song, Siyuan; Liu, Yuepeng; Liu, He; Wang, Xing; Fei, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Licai

    2015-08-01

    The brainstem plays an important role in controlling sodium and water homeostasis. It is a major regulatory site for autonomic and motor functions. Moreover, it integrates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals with neuronal and hormonal signals. Evidence suggests that the CSF-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) transmits and integrates CSF signals, but, the definitive role of CSF-CN in sodium homeostasis is poorly understood. In this study, we used c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity and causing colocalization of Nax channel and 5-HT. This proved that CSF-CN played a role in sensing the increase of CSF sodium level. Then, we determined the role of the CSF-contacting nucleus in increasing the sodium appetite of rats. So, we performed targeted lesion of the CSF-contacting nucleus in the brainstem using the cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to cholera toxin subunit B. The lesion of the CSF-CN showed decreased and degenerative neurons, while sodium appetite have increased and Fos immunocytochemistry detected neuronal activity in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). These results indicate that the CSF-CN plays an important role in sensing CSF sodium level and satiating sodium appetite by influencing the LPBN but not SFO and OVLT. The Nax channel and 5-HT might be the molecular mechanisms through which contribute to sodium homeostasis. PMID:25911266

  6. The Thermal Conductivities of Mercury, Sodium, and Sodium Amalgams in the Liquid State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne C. Hall

    1938-01-01

    A guard ring method for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of liquid metals in which the furnace automatically attains equilibrium is described. The design of the furnace permits frequent and easy replacement of specimens; a layer of paraffin over the liquid metal prevents oxidation by the air. The thermal conductivities of mercury, of sodium, and of sodium amalgams ranging

  7. Effects of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions on compressive and shear bond strengths of FA–GBFS geopolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanakorn Phoo-ngernkham; Akihiro Maegawa; Naoki Mishima; Shigemitsu Hatanaka; Prinya Chindaprasirt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article investigated the effects of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions on the properties of fly ash (FA)–granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) geopolymer. Three types of geopolymer pastes viz., \\\\{FA\\\\} paste, FAxa0;+xa0;GGBS paste and \\\\{GGBS\\\\} paste were tested. They were activated with three types of alkaline solutions viz., sodium hydroxide solution (NH), sodium silicate solution (NS), and sodium

  8. Source dependency of exospheric sodium on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to a large solar radiation effect, the sodium exosphere exhibits many interesting effects, including the formation of an extended corona and a tail-like structure. The current suite of observations allows us to study some physical properties of the sodium exosphere, such as the source rates and the interaction with the surface, both experimentally and theoretically. In order to quantify the complex variations in the sodium exosphere in more detail, we use an exospheric model with the Monte-Carlo method to examine the surface interactions of a sodium atom, including the surface thermal accommodation rate and the sticking coefficient. The source rates from different components, such as the photon stimulated desorption (PSD), the meteoroid impact vaporization (MIV), and the solar wind ion sputtering (IS), can be constrained by comparing our exospheric model calculations with the published observational data. The detected terminator to limb (TL) ratio on the disk and the tail production rate can be explained with no sticking effect and small thermal accommodation rates. We also examine the best fit of the MIV source evolution, through comparison with the disk-averaged emission. The resultant discrepancy between the observations and the model fit may reflect the surface variation in the sodium abundance. A comprehensive mapping of the surface geochemical composition of the surface by the MESSENGER and Bepi-Colombo missions should give us more information about the nature of this surface-bound exosphere.

  9. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. PMID:25297008

  10. Mesosphere Sodium Column Density and the Sodium Laser Guide Star Brightness

    E-print Network

    Jian Ge; J. R. P. Angel; B. D. Jacobsen; T. Roberts; T. Martinez; W. Livingston; B. McLeod; M. Lloyd-Hart; P. McGuire; R. Noyes

    1997-08-29

    The first time simultaneous measurements of sodium column density and the absolute flux from a sodium laser guide star, created by a monochromatic 3 W cw laser, tuned to the peak of the sodium D2 hyperfine structure, were conducted at the MMT and CFA 60 inch telescope in 1997. The results show that linearly and circularly polarized laser returns are proportional to the simultaneous sodium column density. Moreover, circularly polarized laser provides about 30% increase in fluorescent return over linearly polarized laser. A laser guide star with R = 10.3 mag. or absolute flux of 8.4x10^5 photons/s/m^2, could be formed from a 1 watt projected circularly polarized sodium laser beam when sodium layer abundance N(Na) = 3.7x10^9 /cm^2. Together with the distributed column density measurements (e.g. seasonal and diurnal variations), we can project laser power requirements for any specified guide star brightness. The mesosphere sodium column density variation was measured above Tucson sky throughout the year, through sodium absorption line measurements in stellar and solar spectra. Previous measurements, e.g. Papen et al, 1996, have not been made at this latitude (32 degrees). Further, our absorption method is more direct and may be more accurate than the lidar methods normally used. The seasonal variation amplitude is smaller than that at higher latitudes. While the annual mean sodium column density tends to be lower than at higher latitudes. Diurnal sodium column density tends to vary by as much as a factor of two within an hour.

  11. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  12. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  13. Sodium heat engine system: Space application

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, B.H. [Environmental Engineering, Douglas Aircraft, Long Beach California (United States); Sungu, S.; Vu, H.V. [Mechanical Engineering Department, California State University, Long Beach California (United States)

    1994-08-10

    This paper explores the possibility of utilizing the Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or known as AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter), for electrical power generation in ``near earth`` geosynchronous orbit. The Sodium Heat Engine principle is very flexible and adapts well to a variety of physical geometries. The proposed system can be easily folded and then deployed into orbit without the need for on site assembly in space. Electric power generated from SHE engine can be used in communication satellites, in space station, and other applications such as electrical recharging of vehicles in space is one of the applications the Sodium Heat Engine could be adapted to serve. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Electrochemical insertion of sodium into carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; Dejonghe, Lutgard C.

    1993-12-01

    Electrochemical insertion of sodium ions into carbon using solid polymer electrolytes or organic liquid electrolytes is described. Cells with the configuration Na P(EO)(sub *)NaCF3SO3 CP(EO) = polyethylene oxide or Na/liquid electrolyte/C were galvanostatically discharged, charged, and cycled. The extent of insertion into C (i.e., x in Na(+)C(sub x -)) was found to be a strong function of the type and particle size of the carbon used, and the reversibility of the process was highly dependent upon the type of electrolyte used. The possibility of designing sodium ion rocking chair cells is discussed, and a first-generation example, using a petroleum coke anode, polymer electrolyte, and sodium cobalt bronze cathode is described.

  15. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  16. Adsorption of Sodium Hexanoate on ?-Alumina

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seung Yeon; Welbourn, Rebecca; Clarke, Stuart; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Clifton, Luke; Zarbakhsh, Ali

    2013-06-27

    be expected to lead to significant changes in adsorption behaviour with some differences between powder and single crystal forms. Figure 1. Sodium hexanoate (2-column fitting) Adsorption Isotherm. An adsorption isotherm relates the concentration... ). Values of ?, of interest here are given in Table 1. Material Formula ? /10-6 Å-2 Sapphire Al2O3 5.75 Heavy water D2O 6.33 Water H2O -0.56 50 % D2O HDO 2.89 Sodium hexanoate C6H11O2Na 0.59 Table 1. Scattering length density of selected compounds...

  17. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by sodium nitroprusside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijan Bihari Lal

    1941-01-01

    Summary  The photochemical after-effect in the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitroprusside is due to the photo-formation\\u000a of sodium aquopentacyanoferrate. The formation of aquopentacyanoferrate in pre-insolated nitroprusside solution has been proved\\u000a by qualitative tests. Colloidal Prussian blue does not cause the after-effect.\\u000a \\u000a Pre-insolated nitroprusside continues to react in the dark in the manner indicated by the after-effect. Addition of ferrocyanide

  18. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  19. Mesosphere Sodium Column Density and the Sodium Laser Guide Star Brightness

    E-print Network

    Ge, J; Jacobsen, B D; Roberts, T; Martínez, T; Livingston, W; McLeod, B; Lloyd-Hart, M; McGuire, P; Noyes, R; Ge, Jian

    1997-01-01

    The first time simultaneous measurements of sodium column density and the absolute flux from a sodium laser guide star, created by a monochromatic 3 W cw laser, tuned to the peak of the sodium D2 hyperfine structure, were conducted at the MMT and CFA 60 inch telescope in 1997. The results show that linearly and circularly polarized laser returns are proportional to the simultaneous sodium column density. Moreover, circularly polarized laser provides about 30% increase in fluorescent return over linearly polarized laser. A laser guide star with R = 10.3 mag. or absolute flux of 8.4x10^5 photons/s/m^2, could be formed from a 1 watt projected circularly polarized sodium laser beam when sodium layer abundance N(Na) = 3.7x10^9 /cm^2. Together with the distributed column density measurements (e.g. seasonal and diurnal variations), we can project laser power requirements for any specified guide star brightness. The mesosphere sodium column density variation was measured above Tucson sky throughout the year, through ...

  20. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  1. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  2. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  3. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  4. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  5. Renal Sodium- and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase and Sodium Reabsorption in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adrian I.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between net tubular reabsorption of sodium and renal microsomal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) was evaluated in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Tubular sodium reabsorption per gram of kidney was lower in thyroidectomized rats than in controls (186±14 vs. 246±12 ?eq/min; P < 0.005) and was accompanied by a quantitatively similar reduction in Na-K-ATPase specific activity (49.4±2.4 vs. 65.8±2.3 ?mol inorganic phosphate (Pt)/mg protein per h; P < 0.001). This decrement was present in both cortex and outer medulla, and was limited to Na-K-ATPase since other representative enzymes not involved in sodium transport (magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase [Mg-ATPase], glucose-6-phosphatase, 5?-nucleotidase) remained unchanged or increased in the hypothyroid animals. Conversely, Na-K-ATPase rose when sodium reabsorption increased in euthyroid rats treated with triiodothyronine. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine to what extent the decrease in Na-K-ATPase is due to lack of thyroid hormone per se or to an adaptive response to decreased reabsorptive sodium load. Triiodothyronine in concentrations of 10-12 to 10-5 M had no effect in vitro on microsomal Na-K-ATPase of either thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats. When hypothyroid rats were uninephrectomized or treated with methylprednisolone, sodium reabsorption per gram kidney increased markedly and was similar to that of intact controls. Despite persistence of the hypothyroid state, Na-K-ATPase specific activity also increased to levels not significantly different from euthyroid animals. These data suggest that decreased tubular sodium transport is a major determinant of the reduction in renal Na-K-ATPase in thyroid deficiency since the latter can be reversed by increasing sodium reabsorption during continuing hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the modest sodium leak of hypothyroid animals does not appear to be due to decreased Na-K-ATPase since it was not corrected by uninephrectomy despite restoration of both cortical and medullary Na-K-ATPase activity to normal by this maneuver. The close correlation between net sodium reabsorption and Na-K-ATPase in all the experimental situations described here demonstrates that renal Na-K-ATPase changes adaptively in hyper- or hypothyroidism as it does in numerous situations in the normal animal, in accord with its postulated role in the active transport of sodium across the renal tubule. Images PMID:4348343

  6. A 3T Sodium and Proton Composite Array Breast Coil

    PubMed Central

    Kaggie, Joshua D.; Hadley, J. Rock; Badal, James; Campbell, John R.; Park, Daniel J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Morrell, Glen; Newbould, Rexford D.; Wood, Ali F.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether a sodium phased array would improve sodium breast MRI at 3T. The secondary objective was to create acceptable proton images with the sodium phased array in place. Methods A novel composite array for combined proton/sodium 3T breast MRI is compared to a coil with a single proton and sodium channel. The composite array consists of a 7-channel sodium receive array, a larger sodium transmit coil, and a 4-channel proton transceive array. The new composite array design utilizes smaller sodium receive loops than typically used in sodium imaging, uses novel decoupling methods between the receive loops and transmit loops, and uses a novel multi-channel proton transceive coil. The proton transceive coil reduces coupling between proton and sodium elements by intersecting the constituent loops to reduce their mutual inductance. The coil used for comparison consists of a concentric sodium and proton loop with passive decoupling traps. Results The composite array coil demonstrates a 2–5x improvement in SNR for sodium imaging and similar SNR for proton imaging when compared to a simple single-loop dual resonant design. Conclusion The improved SNR of the composite array gives breast sodium images of unprecedented quality in reasonable scan times. PMID:24105740

  7. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium-air and sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Adelhelm, Philipp; Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Research devoted to room temperature lithium-sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium-oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  8. Painful peripheral neuropathy and sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment. PMID:25556685

  9. CONTROL ELEMENTS FOR SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of three control element designs for sodium-graphite ; reactors is presented: the first design utilizes wire rope supporting a rod of ; neutron absorber material, permitting installation of the complete actuator in ; the upper end of a control rod thimble below the reactor loading face; the second ; concept uses overlapping fuel and absorber elements, enabling the

  10. SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

  11. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  12. Sudden sodium layers in polar latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hansen; U. von Zahn

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses sudden sodium layers (SSLs), which are observed with an Na lidar instrument at Andenes, Norway. There is an SSL if, in a narrow altitude range (typically less than 2 km), the Na density increases over the normal Na density by a factor of at least 2 within 5 min. Between December 1985 and November 1987, 42 such

  13. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS IN LASL LIQUID SODIUM SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Bowers; W. E. Ferguson

    1963-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the design, fabrication, and post-operative ; tests and inspections of the 2000 kw Sodium Test Facility which was constructed ; and operated at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Of special interest are ; (1) post-operative inspection of heat exchanger tubing, (2) the investigation of ; a rupture in a thermocouple well, and (3) the investigation

  14. Mutual Event Observations of Io's Sodium Corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Burger; N. M. Schneider; I. de Pater; M. E. Brown; A. H. Bouchez; L. M. Trafton; Y. Sheffer; E. S. Barker; A. Mallama

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the column density profile of Io's sodium corona using 10 mutual eclipses between the Galilean satellites. This approach circumvents the problem of spatially resolving Io's corona directly from Io's bright continuum in the presence of atmospheric seeing and telescopic scattering. The primary goal is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of Io's corona. Spectra from the

  15. Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McGrath; R. E. Johnson; L. J. Lanzerotti

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of a column density of neutral sodium vapour (?1011- 1012 atoms Na cm-2) associated with the solar-facing side of the planet Mercury has rekindled interest in the possible presence of atmospheric gases on that planet. Whereas the H and He can be explained primarily by capture from the solar wind the authors show that this is not so

  16. Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate 

    E-print Network

    Niksa, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Large amounts of sodium sulfate are produced as a by-product of many diverse industries. Some of this material is recycled internally. Some is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste in landfills, or discharged to deep...

  17. Induction of sodium channel clustering by oligodendrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Kaplan; A. Meyer-Franke; S. Lambert; V. Bennett; I. D. Duncan; S. R. Levinson; B. A. Barres

    1997-01-01

    As oligodendrocytes wrap axons of the central nervous system (CNS) with insulating myelin sheaths, sodium channels that are initially continuously distributed along axons become segregated into regularly spaced gaps in the myelin called nodes of Ranvier1. It is not known whether the regular spacing of nodes results from regularly spaced glial contacts or is instead intrinsically specified by the axonal

  18. Potassium Substitution by Sodium in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Wakeel; Muhammad Farooq; Manzoor Qadir; Sven Schubert

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity is an ever-increasing constraint to crop productivity worldwide especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. In contrast to all the soil reclamation strategies to decrease salt concentrations in root zone, the use of sodium (Na) in plant nutrition may be an interesting tactic. The roles of potassium (K) and Na in plant nutrition suggest that K is the only

  19. Atmospheric Motions from Sodium Cloud Drifts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Kochanski

    1964-01-01

    Horizontal motions from 25 sodium cloud experiments are examined in the alti- tude range from 70 to 190 km. The outstanding characteristics of the apparent motion are pro- nounced velocity oscillations in the 70- to 130-km layer; they reach a maximum near 105 km and attenuate at greater heights. A quiescent zone appears from 140 to 190 km, where, despite

  20. The Circadian Clock Modulates Renal Sodium Handling

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Pradervand, Sylvain; Centeno, Gabriel; Zavadova, Vlasta; Tokonami, Natsuko; Maillard, Marc; Bonny, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock contributes to the control of BP, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed circadian rhythms in kidneys of wild-type mice and mice lacking the circadian transcriptional activator clock gene. Mice deficient in clock exhibited dramatic changes in the circadian rhythm of renal sodium excretion. In parallel, these mice lost the normal circadian rhythm of plasma aldosterone levels. Analysis of renal circadian transcriptomes demonstrated changes in multiple mechanisms involved in maintaining sodium balance. Pathway analysis revealed the strongest effect on the enzymatic system involved in the formation of 20-HETE, a powerful regulator of renal sodium excretion, renal vascular tone, and BP. This correlated with a significant decrease in the renal and urinary content of 20-HETE in clock-deficient mice. In summary, this study demonstrates that the circadian clock modulates renal function and identifies the 20-HETE synthesis pathway as one of its principal renal targets. It also suggests that the circadian clock affects BP, at least in part, by exerting dynamic control over renal sodium handling. PMID:22440902

  1. Toxicology and pharmacology of sodium ricinoleate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Burdock; Ioana G. Carabin; James C. Griffiths

    2006-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of the fatty acid content of castor oil. Castor oil is known for its purgative effects and can be used to induce labor. Both castor oil and ricinoleic acid are approved for use in food. The mechanistic basis for purgative actions likely includes the membrane-disruptive effects of detergent-like molecules, such as sodium ricinoleate (a ‘soap’).

  2. Clinical experience with sodium cellulose phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Y. C. Pak; Michael J. Nicar; Faye Britton

    1983-01-01

    There is currently no treatment program which is capable of correcting the basic abnormality of absorptive hypercalciuria, although several drugs are available which have been shown to restore normal calcium excretion. Sodium cellulose phosphate best meets the criteria for optimum therapy. When given orally, this non-absorbable ion exchange resin binds calcium and inhibits calcium absorption. However, this inhibition is caused

  3. Adaptive Optics with Sodium Laser Guide Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lloyd-Hart; J. R. P. Angel; B. Jacobsen; D. Wittman; D. McCarthy; T. Martinez

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive optics requires a reference source of light in the sky to measure wavefront aberration introduced by atmospheric turbulence. Natural stars are ideal for this purpose, but the density of bright stars is not sufficient to provide complete sky coverage. The problem can be overcome with an artificial beacon generated from resonant backscattering off mesospheric sodium atoms exited by a

  4. Thermal decomposition and kinetic analysis of sodium propoxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, K.; Kamruddin, M.; Ajikumar, P. K.; Gopalan, A.; Ganesan, V.

    2008-02-01

    Sodium n-propoxide and sodium iso-propoxides were synthesized and characterized. Thermal decomposition of these compounds was studied using thermogravimetric technique (TGA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. Various analytical techniques namely atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental and volumetric analyses were employed to characterize these compounds and their decomposition residues. Kinetic parameters, namely, the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were deduced from the dynamic TGA and MS data. The activation energies derived from isothermal runs for the thermal decomposition of sodium n-propoxide and sodium iso-propoxide were 151.45 ± 2.16 and 128.07 ± 3.44 kJ mol -1, respectively. Decomposition of sodium n-propoxide and sodium iso-propoxide results in the formation of gaseous products of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons leaving behind residue consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and free carbon.

  5. Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu ller

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu¨ ller Cells of the Rat ERIC A. NEWMANH; imaging; BCPCF; pH regulation ABSTRACT Sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in retinal glial cells was studied

  6. Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater 

    E-print Network

    Gardiner, Duane

    1996-01-01

    Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium salts of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium salts of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10672 - Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10672 Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative...substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium olefin sulfonate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium salts of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium bromide MDA complex...

  12. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium...a component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as sodium bromide MDA complex...

  14. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium...a component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing,...

  15. Measurements of Droplet Pinch-Off In Liquid Sodium

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Studies · 1) The optical constraints of measuring nanometer-length scales · 2) Geometry of pinch · THE SODIUM BRIDGE Liquid Sodium Cu probe Movable Cu probe Pinch-Off! #12;· THE VESSEL #12;· THE COPPER

  16. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...blood-pressure is a disease of public health concern for all population groups. Sodium intake, alcohol consumption, and obesity are identified risk factors for high blood pressure. (3) Sodium intakes exceed recommended levels in almost every...

  17. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.) [comps.

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  18. 21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Fluprostenol sodium injection. 522.995 Section 522.995 Food...DRUGS § 522.995 Fluprostenol sodium injection. (a) Specifications. Each...Limitations. Administer by intramuscular injection only. Warning: Not...

  19. 21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Fluprostenol sodium injection. 522.995 Section 522.995 Food...DRUGS § 522.995 Fluprostenol sodium injection. (a) Specifications. Each...Limitations. Administer by intramuscular injection only. Warning: Not...

  20. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134...Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide...Enforcement Action Dates AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  1. Disposition of fosinopril sodium in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, S M; Duchin, K L; Morrison, R A; Willard, D A; Everett, D W; Frantz, M

    1988-01-01

    1 Fosinopril sodium is the first phosphorus-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor to be studied clinically as an antihypertensive agent. It is an ester prodrug that is hydrolysed in vivo to the active diacid ACE inhibitor, SQ 27, 519. 2 In a three-way crossover study, nine healthy male subjects (age range 20-34 years) each received an intravenous 7.5 mg dose of SQ 27, 519-[14C] and two oral 10 mg doses of [14C]-fosinopril sodium, administered as a capsule and in solution. 3 After the intravenous dose of SQ 27, 519, the 0 to 96 h recovery of radioactivity averaged 44 and 46% of the dose in urine and faeces, respectively, indicating substantial biliary secretion. Only intact SQ 27, 519 was detected in the plasma, urine, and faeces following the intravenous dose of SQ 27, 519. 4 After oral doses of fosinopril sodium, about 75% of the radioactivity in plasma and urine was present as SQ 27, 519; the remainder corresponded mainly to a beta-glucuronide conjugate of SQ 27, 519 (15-20%), and a monohydroxylated analogue of SQ 27, 519 (about 5%). Negligible amounts of fosinopril sodium were present, indicating complete hydrolysis of the prodrug. 5 For the solution and capsule doses, respectively, the oral absorption of fosinopril sodium averaged 32% and 36% and the oral bioavailability of SQ 27, 519 averaged 25% and 29%. 6 The average values for clearance (39 ml min-1), renal clearance (17 ml min-1), Vss (10 1), and plasma protein binding (approximately 95%), indicated that SQ 27, 519 was slowly cleared from the body and not distributed extensively into extravascular sites. PMID:2967089

  2. Role of sodium bioenergetics in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Häse, C C; Barquera, B

    2001-05-01

    The ability of the bacterium to use sodium in bioenergetic processes appears to play a key role in both the environmental and pathogenic phases of Vibrio cholerae. Aquatic environments, including fresh, brackish, and coastal waters, are an important factor in the transmission of cholera and an autochthonous source. The organism is considered to be halophilic and has a strict requirement for Na(+) for growth. Furthermore, expression of motility and virulence factors of V. cholerae is intimately linked to sodium bioenergetics and to each other. Several lines of evidence indicated that the activity of the flagellum of V. cholerae might have an impact on virulence gene regulation. As the V. cholerae flagellum is sodium-driven and the Na(+)-NQR enzyme is known to create a sodium motive force across the bacterial membrane, it was recently suggested that the increased toxT expression observed in a nqr-negative strain is mediated by affecting flagella activity. It was suggested that the V. cholerae flagellum might respond to changes in membrane potential and the resulting changes in flagellar rotation might serve as a signal for virulence gene expression. However, we recently demonstrated that although the flagellum of V. cholerae is not required for the effects of ionophores on virulence gene expression, changes in the sodium chemical potential are sensed and thus alternative mechanisms, perhaps involving the TcpP/H proteins, for the detection of these conditions must exist. Analyzing the underlying mechanisms by which bacteria respond to changes in the environment, such as their ability to monitor the level of membrane potential, will probably reveal complex interplays between basic physiological processes and virulence factor expression in a variety of pathogenic species. PMID:11248198

  3. Texturization of monocrystalline silicon with tribasic sodium phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenqiang Xi; Deren Yang; Duanlin Que

    2003-01-01

    Tribasic sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·12H2O) was successfully introduced to texture monocrystalline silicon for the first time. A series of comparative experiments were made to indicate the dependence of hemispherical surface reflectance on the tribasic sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·12H2O) concentration, reaction temperature and etching time. Meanwhile, the effects of other agents, such as isopropyl alcohol (IPA), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and bi-sodium hydrogen phosphate

  4. Mesospheric sodium - Implications using a steady-state model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Swider

    1986-01-01

    The use of a steady-state model to analyze mesospheric sodium is described. The observed small diurnal variation of sodium supports the use of the steady-state model. Rate coefficient data and steady-state equations for the mesospheric sodium are presented. The slight diurnal variation of the sodium content observed by lidars is linked to the two photodissociation processes and\\/or the process NaO2

  5. Long-term Observations of Sodium on Mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Potter; R. M. Killen; T. H. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    We are re-processing Mercury sodium observations that were obtained during the past decade. The main products are planetary sodium images chosen for the best seeing conditions, and planetary-average sodium column densities derived from the D1 emission intensity to minimize errors from optical thickness of the sodium. Some image sequences are constant and stable, while others display day-to-day changes that may

  6. Effect of sex chromosome complement on sodium appetite and Fos-immunoreactivity induced by sodium depletion.

    PubMed

    Dadam, Florencia M; Caeiro, Ximena E; Cisternas, Carla D; Macchione, Ana F; Cambiasso, María J; Vivas, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies indicate a sex chromosome complement (SCC) effect on the angiotensin II-sexually dimorphic hypertensive and bradycardic baroreflex responses. We sought to evaluate whether SCC may differentially modulate sexually dimorphic-induced sodium appetite and specific brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the rennin angiotensin system. For this purpose, we used the "four core genotype" mouse model, in which the effect of gonadal sex and SCC is dissociated, allowing comparisons of sexually dimorphic traits between XX and XY females as well as in XX and XY males. Gonadectomized mice were sodium depleted by furosemide (50 mg/kg) and low-sodium diet treatment; control groups were administered with vehicle and maintained on normal sodium diet. Twenty-one hours later, the mice were divided into two groups: one group was submitted to the water-2% NaCl choice intake test, while the other group was perfused and their brains subjected to the Fos-immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) procedure. Sodium depletion, regardless of SCC (XX or XY), induced a significantly lower sodium and water intake in females than in males, confirming the existence in mice of sexual dimorphism in sodium appetite and the organizational involvement of gonadal steroids. Moreover, our results demonstrate a SCC effect on induced brain FOS-ir, showing increased brain activity in XX-SCC mice at the paraventricular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and lateral parabrachial nucleus, as well as an XX-SCC augmented effect on sodium depletion-induced brain activity at two circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and area postrema, nuclei closely involved in fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:24259464

  7. Observations of mesospheric sporadic sodium layers with the MU radar and sodium lidars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohisa Miyagawa; Takuji Nakamura; Toshitaka Tsuda; Makoto Abo; Chikao Nagasawa; T. D. Kawahara; Keiji Kobayashi; Tsukasa Kitahara; Akio Nomura

    1999-01-01

    The dynamical structure of the atmosphere around the sporadic sodium layer at mid-latitude (~35°N) below 100 km was studied by simultaneous observation with the MU radar at Shigaraki (34.9°N, 136.1°E), and two Na lidars at Shigaraki and in Hachioji (35.6°N, 139.4°E). In the lidar data, fifteen NAS (sporadic sodium layer) events were detected. Wind shear, temperature, and stability indices, at

  8. Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Simonich; Barclay Clemesha; Paulo Prado Batista

    2005-01-01

    We have used atmospheric sodium profiles obtained at São José dos Campos over the period 1993–2004 to study the influence of sporadic layers on the average sodium distribution. All the profiles for the time period 19–22h local standard time were individually classified as either normal or sporadic. Profiles were considered sporadic if they contained sharp increases above the background profile

  9. [Determination of target compounds in cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium for injection by capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruiyuan; Sun, Guoxiang

    2012-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in the injectable powder of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium with hydrochlorothiazide as the internal standard. The operation was carried out on a quartz capillary (75 cm x 75 microm i. d. , 63 cm effective length). The electrophoretic conditions were as follows: 40 mmol/L borax solution as the back ground electrolyte (BGE), 12. 0 kV applied voltage, 220 nm as the detection wavelength; the sample solution was injected by hydraulic pressure for 10 s at the height of 10 cm. The cefoperazone and tazobactam showed good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.25-3.96 g/L and 0.062-0.99 g/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 5 and 0.999 6, respectively. The relative standard deviations of relative peak areas were less than 3%. The preparation was stable in 208 min. The recovery results met the methodology requirements. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and suitable to control the quality of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injectable powder. PMID:22667102

  10. FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL J.-R. HUNT Canada Department of Agriculture (1) and HowEs (1967), that the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate in the diet of the hen results!RPO>&dquo; 1966) and would be unfavourable for sodium bicarbonate to exist in the ionic form. From the results

  11. Tide-induced oscillations in the atmospheric sodium layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R Clemesha; P. P Batista; D. M Simonich

    2002-01-01

    24-hour lidar observations of the vertical distribution of sodium in the upper atmosphere have been made at various locations. Early measurements at São José dos Campos (23°W,46°W) showed strong diurnal and semidiurnal components in the sodium profile, and Batista et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 90 (1985) 3881) interpreted these variations as being the result of tidal modulation of the sodium

  12. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Research to Clinical Use

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Research to Clinical Use Ronald Ouwerkerk, PhD INTRODUCTION. Sodium MRI is no longer a stand- alone modality with 1 H MRI used only as a scout image. Instead, 23 Na the properties of this nu- cleus and what imaging techniques can be used to observe it. SODIUM-MAGNETIC RESONANCE

  13. Effect of Particle Size on Hydrogen Release from Sodium Alanate

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    from sodium alanate nanoparticles, we have used density functional theory9 (DFT) calculations along theory and the cluster expansion method are used to model 2 10 nm sodium alanate (NaAlH4) nanoparticlesEffect of Particle Size on Hydrogen Release from Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles Tim Mueller

  14. PRECLINICAL STUDY Elevated tissue sodium concentration in malignant breast lesions

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Magnetic resonance imaging Á 23 Na magnetic resonance Á Sodium Á Quantification Introduction The use errors. Sodium (23 Na) MRI also yields useful information that reflects the physiological and biochemicalPRECLINICAL STUDY Elevated tissue sodium concentration in malignant breast lesions detected

  15. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4 H4 KNaO6 ·4H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l ?(+)?tartaric acid...

  16. METHOD FOR REDUCING THE IMPURITY RESISTIVITY OF SODIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Post; C. E. Taylor

    1963-01-01

    The inherent resistivity of sodium, at cryogenic temperatures, can be ; reduced by clustering the impurity atoms within the crystal latiice structure of ; the sodium, thereby reducing the effective electron collision cross section and ; thus reducing the number of collisions between the electrons and such lattice ; imperfections. The clustering is effected by heating the sodium to a

  17. Strategies to Reduce Sodium Consumption: A Food Industry Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariska Dötsch; Johanneke Busch; Max Batenburg; Gie Liem; Erwin Tareilus; Rudi Mueller; Gert Meijer

    2009-01-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products.

  18. Retrieval of global mesospheric sodium densities from the Odin satellite

    E-print Network

    column abundances and density profiles are validated against sodium resonance lidar measurements at midRetrieval of global mesospheric sodium densities from the Odin satellite J. Gumbel,1 Z. Y. Fan,2 T individual sodium density profiles with a typical accuracy of 20% and altitude resolution of 2 km. Retrieved

  19. Measurements of Mesospheric Sodium Abundance above the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis C. Roberts Jr.; L. William Bradford; Christopher R. Neyman; Alan Z. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Laser guide stars have increased the utility of adaptive optics systems by expanding the number of observable objects. The most common type of laser excites sodium in the mesosphere, and mesospheric sodium density is key to the performance of the laser. While a variety of observatories have conducted studies of the mesospheric sodium density, there are no published studies from

  20. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0934; FRL-9333-6] Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption...of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with...permissible level for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182... Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium...than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis, with maximum substitution...centipoises for 2 percent by weight aqueous solution at 25...

  2. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  3. A Quantitative Model for the Exchange Current of Porous Molybdenum Electrodes on Sodium Beta-Alumina in Sodium Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; LeDuc, H.; Cortez, R. H.; Saipetch, C.; Shields, V.; Manatt, K.; Homer, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the exchange current developed for porous molybdenum electrodes on sodium beta-alumina ceramics in low pressure sodium vapor, but which has general applicability to gas/porous metal electrodes on solid electrolytes.

  4. 40 CFR 180.383 - Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...Specific Tolerances § 180.383 Sodium salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues...combined residues of the herbicide sodium salt of acifluorfen, sodium...

  5. Sodium efflux from voltage clamped squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Landowne, D

    1977-03-01

    1. The efflux of radioactive sodium was measured from squid axons during simultaneous voltage clamp experiments such that it was possible to determine the efflux of sodium associated with a measured voltage clamp current. 2. The extra efflux of sodium associated with voltage clamp pulses increased linearly with the magnitude of the depolarization above 40 mV. A 100 mV pulse of sufficient duration to produce all of the sodium current increased the rate constant of efflux by about 10(-6). 3. Application of 100 nM tetrodotoxin eliminated the sodium current and the extra efflux of radioactive sodium. 4. Cooling the axon increased the extra efflux/voltage clamp pulse slightly with a Q10 of 1/1-1. On the same axons cooling increased the integral of the sodium current with a Q10 of 1/1-4. 5. Replacing external sodium with Tris, dextrose or Mg-mannitol reduced the extra efflux of sodium by about 50%. The inward sodium current was replaced with an outward current as expected. 6. Replacing external sodium with lithium also reduced the extra efflux by about 50% but the currents seen in lithium were slightly larger than those in sodium. 7. The effect of replacing external sodium was not voltage dependent. Cooling reduced the effect so that there was less reduction of efflux on switching to Tris ASW in the cold than in the warm. 8. The extra efflux of sodium into sodium-free ASW is approximately the same as the integral of the sodium current. Adding external sodium produces a deviation from the independence principle such that there is more exchange of sodium than predicted. Such a deviation from prediction was noted by Hodgkin & Huxley (1952c). 9. Using the equations of Hodgkin & Huxley (1952c) modified to include the deviation from independence reported in this paper and its temperature dependence, one can predict the temperature dependence of the sodium efflux associated with action potentials and obtain much better agreement than is possibly without these phenomena. 10. This deviation from independence in the sodium fluxes is the type expected from some kind of mixing and binding of sodium within the membrane phase. PMID:856999

  6. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

  7. Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

  8. Reversibility of sodium-induced aggregation of sonicated phosphatidylserine vesicles.

    PubMed

    Day, E P; Kwok, A Y; Hark, S K; Ho, J T; Vail, W J; Bentz, J; Nir, S

    1980-07-01

    The kinetics of sodium-induced aggregation of sonicated phosphatidylserine vesicles has been studied as a function of sodium concentration and temperature. The concentration threshold for aggregation induced by monovalent sodium has been found to be 550 mM sodium by stopped-flow rapid-mixing techniques. This aggregation is completely reversible to changes in sodium ion concentration and to changes in temperature. The aggregation rate decreases with increasing temperature, indicating that the backward reaction rate increases more rapidly with temperature than does the forward rate. PMID:6933449

  9. Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Characteristics of Electrogenic Sodium Pumping in Rat Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Grahame S.; Paton, David M.; Daniel, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Sodium-rich myometrium, obtained from the uteri of pregnant rats, rapidly hyperpolarized when 4.6–120 mM potassium was added to the bathing medium at 37°C. Hyperpolarization was due to sodium pumping since the process was markedly temperature dependent, was abolished by ouabain, and required both intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium. The observed membrane potential exceeded the calculated potassium equilibrium potential during hyperpolarization providing evidence that sodium pumping was electrogenic. Hyperpolarization was reduced in the presence of chloride. The rate of sodium pumping may influence potassium permeability since potassium apparently did not short-circuit the pump during hyperpolarization. PMID:4920320

  11. Io's fast sodium: Implications for molecular and atomic atmospheric escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jody K.; Schneider, Nicholas M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent observational evidence for sodium-bearing molecular ions in the Io plasma torus has strong implications for the nature of Io's atmosphere (Schneider et al. 1991). We use a Monte Carlo model offast-sodium production to analyze high-resolution ground-based images of sodium emission. We find the observations can be explained if a significant fraction of Io's exobase is molecular, possible including a sodium-bearing molecule, Total sodium loss rates from Io imply a collisionally thick atmosphere. Most of the images indicate significant slow-down of the corotating plasma near Io.

  12. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

  13. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  14. Visualizing sodium dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes using fluorescent nanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Dubach, J. Matthew; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Clark, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of sodium flux across the cell membrane plays a vital role in the generation of action potentials and regulation of membrane excitability in cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. Alteration of sodium channel function has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy, long QT syndrome, and heart failure. However, single cell imaging of sodium dynamics has been limited due to the narrow selection of fluorescent sodium indicators available to researchers. Here we report, the detection of spatially defined sodium activity during action potentials. Fluorescent nanosensors that measure sodium in real-time, are reversible and are completely selective over other cations such as potassium that were used to image sodium. The use of the nanosensors in vitro was validated by determining drug-induced activation in heterologous cells transfected with the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7. Spatial information of sodium concentrations during action potentials will provide insight at the cellular level on the role of sodium and how slight changes in sodium channel function can affect the entirety of an action potential. PMID:19805271

  15. The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

  16. Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, I. C.; Fesquet, V.; Marc, F.; Guillet de Chatellus, H.; Pique, J.-P.

    In the framework of Laser Guide Star projects and more particularly of VASAO project of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope, we have developed a modeless laser at 330 nm and we have carried out photometry experiments in laboratory, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the sodium atom excitation at 330 nm. Our modeless laser is a DCM dye laser frequency doubled by a BBO crystal. A high efficiency acousto-optical crystal assures the modeless property. We present the experimental results of sodium atom excitation of 3S{1/2} to 4P{3/2} transition at 330.24 nm and 3S{1/2} to 3P{3/2} transition at 589 nm. The rate equation model gives a good interpretation of the experimental results.

  17. Sodium fast reactor evaluation: Core materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Raison, J. P.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Carmack, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) Program the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. In this paper the status of available and developmental materials for SFR core cladding and duct applications is reviewed. To satisfy the Generation IV SFR fuel requirements, an advanced cladding needs to be developed. The candidate cladding materials are austenitic steels, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. A large amount of irradiation testing is required, and the compatibility of cladding with TRU-loaded fuel at high temperatures and high burnup must be investigated. The more promising F/M steels (compared to HT9) might be able to meet the dose requirements of over 200 dpa for ducts in the GEN-IV SFR systems.

  18. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited