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1

Instability in Rotating Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

1985-01-01

2

Troubleshooting rotating machinery vibration problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration problems in rotating machinery are a major contributor of forced or unplanned maintenance outages in fossil fuel fired power plants. Many turbine blade failures, the leading cause of steam turbine outages for large fossil fuel plants in the United States, are caused by vibration-related fatigue stresses. Such failures cost utilities more than $235 million annually. However, conversion of large

McCloskey

1990-01-01

3

Vibrational Diagnostics of Rotating Machinery Malfunctions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunction, using vibration data in correlation with operational process data is outlined. The advantages of vibration monitoring systems as a part of preventive/predictive maintenance programs are emphasized. The ba...

A. Muszynska

1992-01-01

4

Vibrational diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunction, using vibration data in correlation with operational process data is outlined. The advantages of vibration monitoring systems as a part of preventive/predictive maintenance programs are emphasized. The basic principles of machinery diagnostics, and several specific malfunction symptoms supported by simple mathematical models are given. These malfunctions include unbalance, excessive radial preload, rotor to stator rubbing, fluid induced vibrations, loose stationary and rotating parts, coupled torsional/lateral vibration excitation, and rotor cracking. The experimental results and actual field data illustrate the rotor vibration responses for individual malfunctions. Application of synchronous and nonsynchronous perturbation testing used for identification of basic dynamic characteristics of machinery is presented. Future advancements in vibration monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery health are discussed. The basic instrumentation for machine monitoring is outlined.

Muszynska, A.

5

Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

1994-01-01

6

Vibration Problems of Rotating Machinery Due to Coupling Misalignments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrational analysis of rotating machinery is able to identify a large number of system ills. Shaft bow, shaft unbalance and coupling misalignments make up the major portion of the observed vibrational frequency spectra of rotating machinery. These vibrat...

F. L. Barber

1988-01-01

7

Use of Mechatronic Components in Rotating Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechatronic components are getting more and more common in mechanical systems. As an example Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) are often used in Rotating Machinery. Besides their function of an oil-, contact- and frictionless levitation of the rotor, they are best suited to be used as an exciter and measurement instrument to extract more information from the system under observation. In this paper it is shown, how Active Magnetic Bearings can be used for identification, diagnosis and optimization purposes.

Nordmann, Rainer

8

Active Balancing and Vibration Control of Rotating Machinery: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration suppression of rotating machinery is an important engineering problem. In this paper, a review of the research work performed in real-time active balanc- ing and active vibration control for rotating machinery, as well as the research work on dynamic modeling and analy- sis techniques of rotor systems, is presented. The basic methodology and a brief assessment of major difficulties

Shiyu Zhou; Jianjun Shi

2001-01-01

9

Rub failure signature analysis for large rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cases rub failure in large rotating machinery may produce noise in certain bandwidths known as coloured noise. It is difficult to diagnose rub failure between rotating and stationary parts using only ordinary FFT spectra or autoregressive spectra. In this paper, a new technique combining principal components analysis and autoregressive spectra (PCAT) is introduced. This technique can reasonably estimate the spectra and determine the chief characteristic parameter of the coloured noise. A successful example of rub failure analysis given in this paper shows that PCAT is an efficient method for use with large rotating machinery.

Zhengjia, He; Yudi, Sheng; Liangsheng, Qu

1990-09-01

10

APPLICATION OF WAVELET TRANSFORM TO DETECT FAULTS IN ROTATING MACHINERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of fault diagnostic in rotating machinery is vast, including the diagnosis of items such as rotating shafts, rolling element bearings, couplings, gears and so on. The different types of faults that are observed in these areas and the methods of their diagnosis are accordingly great, including vibration analysis, model-based techniques, statistical analysis and artificial intelligence techniques. However, they

Robson Pederiva

11

Precision optical angular position marker system for rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system is described which generates one or more markers of the angular shaft position of rotating machinery. The system consists of a light source, an optical cable, a machinery mounted lens assembly, a light detector, and a signal conditioner. Light reflected by targets on the rotor is converted to a digital output signal. The system is highly immune to extreme environments of vibration and temperature and achieved a 0.002 percent precision under operational test conditions.

Barranger, J. P.

1983-01-01

12

Magnetic Actuator Modelling for Rotating Machinery Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating machines have a wide range of application such as airplanes, factories, laboratories and power plants. Lately, with computer aid design, shafts finite element models including bearings, discs, seals and couplings have been developed, allowing the prediction of the machine behavior. In order to keep confidence during operation, it is necessary to monitor these systems, trying to predict future failures. One of the most applied technique for this purpose is the modal analysis. It consists of applying a perturbation force into the system and then to measure its response. However, there is a difficulty that brings limitations to the excitation of systems with rotating shafts when using impact hammers or shakers, once due to friction, undesired tangential forces and noise can be present in the measurements. Therefore, the study of a non-contact technique of external excitation becomes of high interest. In this sense, the present work deals with the study and development of a finite element model for rotating machines using a magnetic actuator as an external excitation source. This work also brings numerical simulations where the magnetic actuator was used to obtain the frequency response function of the rotating system.

Mendes, Ricardo Ugliara; de Castro, Hélio Fiori; Cavalca, Kátia Lucchesi; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio Saraiva

13

Development of vibration diagnosis systems for rotational machineries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The versatile capabilities and applications of several vibration diagnosis (VD) systems described, including the VD8815 for diagnosing rotational machinery, VD8855 for vibration data collection, and SP MANAGER for machine life forecasts. These systems enable early machine failure detection, the analysis of the failure cause, and the reduction of maintenance cost without help of experts.

Yamauchi, Shingo; Fujii, Shungo; Sakamoto, Yasuyuki; Terashita, Kazuichi

1992-09-01

14

Including foundation effects on the vibration behaviour of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Including foundation effects on rotating machinery vibrations is normally difficult and very approximate owing to the complicated foundation configuration and its interaction with the surrounding environment, necessitating experimental identification of the foundation parameters. This paper presents and evaluates numerically a promising technique for identifying mass, damping and stiffness parameters of a field foundation supporting unbalanced rotating machinery. All necessary measurements can be taken during a single run-down. Moreover, only a knowledge of the bearing characteristics and measurements of rotor and foundation motions at selected co-ordinates (including the connections) and at selected speeds are needed. In particular, the method does not require an accurate rotor model, nor a knowledge of the actual unbalance distribution.

Feng, N. S.; Hahn, E. J.

1995-05-01

15

Vibration Analysis of Rotating Machinery Using the Spectral Distribution Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral distribution function is used to characterize the vibration signal of rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is demonstrated with a model of a defective bearing. The spectral distribution function is applied to practical problems involving seeded helicopter transmission faults and the vibration signal from a ground-based vacuum compressor system.

Davis, S. S.

1998-07-01

16

Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

Ulbrich, Heinz

1990-05-01

17

Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

Provenza, Andy J.

2000-01-01

18

Development of acoustic emission and vibration monitoring instrument for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation instrument was developed for condition monitoring of rotating machinery. By detecting four channels of acoustic emission (AE) signal and four channels of vibration signal, the instrument can monitor the vibration and rubbing conditions of rotating machinery on-line and locate the rubbing fault approximately. It contributes to a correct diagnosis for fault reasons by analyzing the vibration and AE signals.

Shao, Yongbo; Zhang, Aiping; Ye, Rongxue; Cui, Naidong

1995-08-01

19

Development of a Comprehensive Method for Time-Frequency Analysis of Rotating Machinery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was concerned with stochastic and statistical characterizations of quasi-periodic random processes, such as those associated with rotating machinery. The value of such characterizations includes enhanced abilities in condition monitoring for...

P. J. Sherman

1998-01-01

20

Fault diagnosis of partial rub and looseness in rotating machinery using Hilbert-Huang transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial rub and looseness are common faults in rotating machinery because of the clearance between the rotor and the stator.\\u000a These problems cause malfunctions in rotating machinery and create strange vibrations coming from impact and friction. However,\\u000a non-linear and non-stationary signals due to impact and friction are difficult to identify. Therefore, exact time and frequency\\u000a information is needed for identifying

Seung-Mock Lee; Yeon-Sun Choi

2008-01-01

21

Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery  

DOEpatents

A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

Post, R.F.

1994-02-15

22

ROTATING MACHINERY FAULT DIAGNOSIS USING TIME-FREQUENCY METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-frequency analysis has been found to be effective in monitoring the transient or time-varying characteristics of machinery vibration signals, and therefore its use in machine condition monitoring is increasing. This paper proposes the application of time-frequency methods, which can provide more information about a signal in time and in frequency and gives a better representation of the signal than the

A. A. LAKIS

2007-01-01

23

Vibration measurements on rotating machinery using laser Doppler velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of laser vibrometry for vibration measurement directly from a rotating component. The presence of a surface velocity component due to the rotation itself is shown to create a strong measurement dependency on vibration perpendicular to the intended measurement direction. Particular ambiguity results at synchronous frequencies. A mathematical means to resolve the genuine vibration components from

S. J. Rothberg; N. A. Halliwell

1994-01-01

24

Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

25

Bivariate analysis of complex vibration data: An application to condition monitoring of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the robust definition of the acceptance regions in condition monitoring of the vibrations of rotating machinery is related to the more wide field of the analysis of bivariate data. Traditional parametric techniques and innovative nonparametric methods based on the statistical concept of the data depth are presented and critically examined in the paper. The performances with respect to the robustness in the estimation of the acceptance regions are analysed by means of experimental cases of real rotating machinery of a power plant.

Pennacchi, P.; Vania, A.; Bachschmid, N.

2006-11-01

26

Vibration measurements on rotating machinery using laser Doppler velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the use of laser vibrometry for vibration measurement directly from a rotating component. The presence of a surface velocity component due to the rotation itself is shown to create a strong measurement dependency on vibration perpendicular to the intended measurement direction. Particular ambiguity results at synchronous frequencies. A mathematical means to resolve the genuine vibration components from two simultaneous laser vibrometer measurements is presented and shown to be effective in the study of nonsynchronous rotor vibrations.

Rothberg, S. J.; Halliwell, N. A.

1994-07-01

27

Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Early detection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

Alguindigue, I. E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R. E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

28

Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

1991-01-01

29

Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

1991-12-31

30

Vibration Control in Rotating Machinery Using Variable Dynamic Stiffness Squeeze-Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work carried out with the aim of developing a combined hydrostatic and squeeze-film bearing, for rotating machinery, whose dynamic characteristics may be tuned during operation of the machine. The purpose of this is to enable the ope...

M. J. Goodwin M. P. Roach

1988-01-01

31

Vibration Control in Rotating Machinery Using Variable Dynamic Stiffness Squeeze-Films. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the current status of a research project whose aim is to develop a hydrostatic bearing, for rotating machinery, whose dynamic characteristics may be tuned during operation of the machine. The purpose of this is to enable the operator...

M. P. Roach M. J . Goodwin

1986-01-01

32

Effects of coupling misalignment on vibrations of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improper aligning of shafts through couplings often leads to severe vibration problems in many rotating machines. The rotor-bearing system is modelled using higher order finite elements by considering deflection, slope, shear force, bending moment with eight degrees of freedom per node. The reaction forces, moments developed due to flexible coupling misalignment are derived and introduced in the model. The imbalance response in two harmonics is evaluated. The increase in harmonics with misalignment can easily be modelled by using FEM analysis. The location of the coupling with respect to the bending mode shape has a strong influence on the vibrations.

Sekhar, A. S.; Prabhu, B. S.

1995-08-01

33

Active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hydraulic actuator capable of applying forces to rotating shafts via the bearings is presented. Servo valves are used to produce forces, and the regulating distance is caused by elastic deformations of membranes. The actuator works as a spring (membrane stiffness) and damper (hydraulic effects in the servo valve), and in addition to the passive forces, a control force is acting proportional to the input voltage at the servo valve. The theoretical and experimental results are found to be in very good agreement.

Althaus, Josef; Ulbrich, Heinz

34

Continuous wavelet grey moment approach for vibration analysis of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical characteristics of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of vibration signal are explored, and two features, wavelet grey moment (WGM) and first-order wavelet grey moment vector (WGMV), are proposed for condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Faulty signals from a rotor test rig are studied using the first-order WGM. The analysis indicates that first-order WGM can reveal the time-frequency features of vibration signals well and that it could be used to diagnose faults quantitatively. The effectiveness of the first-order WGMV is also demonstrated by experimental data. Results show that the first-order WGMV is suitable to reflect the local information of scalogram, and would be an effective method of vibration signal analysis for fault diagnostics of rotating machinery. The result by FFT analysis is also given. Compared with the conventional FFT method, the two features presented in this paper are more suitable to extract characters of faults quantitatively.

YanPing, Zhang; ShuHong, Huang; JingHong, Hou; Tao, Shen; Wei, Liu

2006-07-01

35

Non-stationary vibration signal analysis of rotating machinery via time-frequency and wavelet techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an efficient and powerful approach to fault detection in rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis based on both Fourier and wavelet transforms of the monitored vibration signal. Time-frequency techniques are powerful tools for analyzing transient information in vibration signature for both condition monitoring and fault detection purposes. Our work on fault detection reported in this paper is two-fold:

F. Al-Badour; L. Cheded; M. Sunar

2010-01-01

36

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery using an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a time-frequency technique and has been widely applied to analyzing vibration signals in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. It analyzes the vibration signals using intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) extracted using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). However, EMD sometimes cannot reveal the signal characteristics accurately because of the problem of mode mixing. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was developed recently to alleviate this problem. The IMFs generated by EEMD have different sensitivity to faults. Some IMFs are sensitive and closely related to the faults but others are irrelevant. To enhance the accuracy of the HHT in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs is proposed in this paper. Simulated signals demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved HHT in diagnosing the faults of rotating machinery. Finally, the improved HHT is applied to diagnosing an early rub-impact fault of a heavy oil catalytic cracking machine set, and the application results prove that the improved HHT is superior to the HHT based on all IMFs of EMD.

Lei, Yaguo; Zuo, Ming J.

2009-12-01

37

Application of the EEMD method to rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a self-adaptive analysis method for nonlinear and non-stationary signals. It may decompose a complicated signal into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) based on the local characteristic time scale of the signal. The EMD method has attracted considerable attention and been widely applied to fault diagnosis of rotating machinery recently. However, it cannot reveal the signal characteristic information accurately because of the problem of mode mixing. To alleviate the mode mixing problem occurring in EMD, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is presented. With EEMD, the components with truly physical meaning can be extracted from the signal. Utilizing the advantage of EEMD, this paper proposes a new EEMD-based method for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. First, a simulation signal is used to test the performance of the method based on EEMD. Then, the proposed method is applied to rub-impact fault diagnosis of a power generator and early rub-impact fault diagnosis of a heavy oil catalytic cracking machine set. Finally, by comparing its application results with those of the EMD method, the superiority of the proposed method based on EEMD is demonstrated in extracting fault characteristic information of rotating machinery.

Lei, Yaguo; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang

2009-05-01

38

An improved EEMD with multiwavelet packet for rotating machinery multi-fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-fault identification is a challenge for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. The vibration signals measured from rotating machinery usually are complex, non-stationary and nonlinear. Especially, the useful multi-fault features are too weak to be identified at the early stage. In this paper, a novel method called improved EEMD with multiwavelet packet for rotating machinery multi-fault diagnosis is proposed. Using multiwavelet packet as the pre-filter to improve EEMD decomposition results, multiwavelet packet decomposes the vibration signal into a series of narrow frequency bands and enhances the weak multi-fault characteristic components in the different narrow frequency bands. By selecting the proper added noise amplitude according to the vibration characteristics, EEMD is further improved to increase the accuracy and effectiveness of its decomposition results. The proposed method is applied to analyze the multi-fault of a blade rotor experimental setup and an industrial machine set, and the results confirm the advantage of the proposed method over EEMD, EEMD with multiwavelet packet, Hilbert-Huang transform and multiwavelet packet transform for multi-fault diagnosis.

Jiang, Hongkai; Li, Chengliang; Li, Huaxing

2013-04-01

39

Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery Based on an Adaptive Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition  

PubMed Central

The vibration based signal processing technique is one of the principal tools for diagnosing faults of rotating machinery. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as a time-frequency analysis technique, has been widely used to process vibration signals of rotating machinery. But it has the shortcoming of mode mixing in decomposing signals. To overcome this shortcoming, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed accordingly. EEMD is able to reduce the mode mixing to some extent. The performance of EEMD, however, depends on the parameters adopted in the EEMD algorithms. In most of the studies on EEMD, the parameters were selected artificially and subjectively. To solve the problem, a new adaptive ensemble empirical mode decomposition method is proposed in this paper. In the method, the sifting number is adaptively selected, and the amplitude of the added noise changes with the signal frequency components during the decomposition process. The simulation, the experimental and the application results demonstrate that the adaptive EEMD provides the improved results compared with the original EEMD in diagnosing rotating machinery.

Lei, Yaguo; Li, Naipeng; Lin, Jing; Wang, Sizhe

2013-01-01

40

Comparison of vibration amplitude supression vs. dynamic bearing load suppression in active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two optimal control methods for attenuating steady-state vibrations in rotating machinery. One method minimizes shaft displacements while the other minimizes dynamic bearing reaction forces. The two methods are applied to a model of a typical rotating machinery system, and their results are compared. It is found that displacement minimization can increase bearing loads, while bearing load minimization, on the other hand, decreases bearing loads without significant change in shaft displacements.

Clark, William W.; Kim, J. H.; Marangoni, Roy D.

1993-04-01

41

The order tracking of rotating machinery based on instantaneous frequency estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of order tracking of rotating machinery based on instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) is proposed in this paper. Compared with traditional methods of order tracking, this method has some outstanding advantages, such as hardware simplified, which is required by order analysis, and only software depended for order tracking. The simulations and actual tests testify the validity of the method. The algorithms of the tracking and estimation about the instantaneous speed of reference shaft are programmed. This method is an effective supplement to traditional order tracking methods and specially satisfies the requirement of Virtual Instruments (VI).

Qin, Shuren; Wei, Rongxi; Guo, Yu; Tang, Baoping

2002-05-01

42

Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data.

Adams, Maurice L.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

1996-06-01

43

Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

1989-01-01

44

A novel torsional exciter for modal vibration testing of large rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel exciter for applying a dynamic torsional force to a rotating structure is presented in this paper. It has been developed at IPP in order to perform vibration tests with shaft assemblies of large flywheel generators (synchronous machines). The electromagnetic exciter (shaker) needs no fixture to the rotating shaft because the torque is applied by means of the stator winding of an electrical machine. Therefore, the exciter can most easily be applied in cases where a three-phase electrical machine (a motor or generator) is part of the shaft assembly. The oscillating power for the shaker is generated in a separate current-controlled DC circuit with an inductor acting as a buffer storage of magnetic energy. An AC component with adjustable frequency is superimposed on the inductor current in order to generate pulsating torques acting on the rotating shaft with the desired waveform and frequency. Since this torsional exciter does not require an external power source, can easily be installed (without contact to the rotating structure) and provides dynamic torsional forces which are sufficient for multi-megawatt applications, it is best suited for on-site tests of large rotating machinery.

Sihler, Christof

2006-10-01

45

Misalignment diagnosis of rotating machinery through vibration analysis via the hybrid EEMD and EMD approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the hybrid method of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and pure empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to efficiently decompose the complicated vibration signals of rotating machinery into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), so that the fault characteristics of the misaligned shaft can be examined in the time-frequency Hilbert spectrum as well as the marginal Hilbert spectrum. The intrawave frequency modulation (FM) phenomenon, which indicates the nonlinear vibration behavior of a misaligned shaft, can be observed in the time-frequency Hilbert spectrum through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) technique. The fault characteristic of shaft misalignment is also featured in terms of the amplitude modulation (AM) phenomenon in the information-containing IMF components that are extracted by the significance test. Through performing the envelope analysis on the information-containing IMF, the marginal Hilbert spectrum of the envelope signal of this IMF component exhibits that the level of shaft misalignment is presented by the level of AM in the IMF. A test bed of a rotor-bearing system is performed experimentally to illustrate both the parallel and angular shaft misalignment conditions as well as the healthy condition. The analysis results show that the proposed approach is capable of diagnosing the misaligned fault of the shaft in rotating machinery and providing a more meaningful physical insight compared with the conventional methods.

Wu, T. Y.; Chung, Y. L.

2009-09-01

46

Intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization.  

PubMed

Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called "relative ratio symptom parameters" are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks. PMID:22163833

Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

2011-01-01

47

Intelligent Method for Diagnosing Structural Faults of Rotating Machinery Using Ant Colony Optimization  

PubMed Central

Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called “relative ratio symptom parameters” are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks.

Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

2011-01-01

48

Adaptive multiwavelets via two-scale similarity transforms for rotating machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is very important and critical to avoid serious accidents. However, the complex and non-stationary vibration signals with a large amount of noise make the fault detection to be challenging, especially at the early stage. Based on the inner product principle, fault detection using wavelet transforms is to match fault features most correlative to basis functions, and its effectiveness is determined by the construction and choice of wavelet basis function. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive multiwavelets via two-scale similarity transforms (TSTs) is proposed. Multiwavelets can offer multiple wavelet basis functions and so have the possibility of matching various fault features preferably. TSTs are simple and straightforward methods to design a series of new biorthogonal multiwavelets with some desirable properties. Using TSTs, a changeable and adaptive multiwavelet library is established so as to provide various ascendant multiple basis functions for inner product operation. By the rule of kurtosis maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets most similar to the fault features of a given signal are searched for. The applications to a rolling bearing of outer-race fault and a flue gas turbine unit of rub-impact fault show that the proposed method is an effective approach to detecting the impulse feature components hidden in vibration signals and performs well for rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

Yuan, Jing; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang; Lei, Yaguo; Li, Zhen

2009-07-01

49

Hidden Markov model-based fault diagnostics method in speed-up and speed-down process for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to ensure that the large rotating machinery operates safely and reliably. The behaviour characteristics of the speed-up and speed-down process in a rotating machinery possess the distinct diagnostic value. The abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility in the speed-up and speed-down process lead to the necessity to find the corresponding approach of feature extraction and fault recognition. The Hidden Markov model (HMM) is very suitable for modelling the dynamic time series, and has a strong capability of pattern classification, especially for a signal with abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility. At the same time, HMM can process the random long sequences in theory. Based on these features, HMM is very suitable for the signal from the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. As a result, HMM is introduced to the fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, and a new HMM-based approach of the fault diagnosis for the speed-up and speed-down process is proposed. The main idea of the proposed approach is that the feature vectors, which are obtained by the FFT, wavelet transform, bispectrum, etc., are used as fault features, respectively, and the HMMs as the classifiers to recognise the faults of the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

Li, Zhinong; Wu, Zhaotong; He, Yongyong; Fulei, Chu

2005-03-01

50

Multidimensional Decomposition of Time-Varying Vibration Response Signals in Rotating Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for decomposition of speed-dependent vibration signals measured on rotating machinery is presented. The method uses a number of measured signals from an array of sensors to decompose the vibration response into: (1) the direction of the progression of motion; (2) its frequency content; (3) the various wavelengths; and (4) speed of rotation (or time). For the simple case of shaft vibration, two sensors spaced at 90° are required to separate the vibration pattern into forward- and backward-travelling components. For the case of a rotating disc, more sensors are required to decompose the response further into different spatial wavelengths and their directions of progression. This decomposition of the response allows monitoring and identification of potentially dangerous vibration patterns which exhibit large backward- or forward-progressing components. The new method is shown to provide better resolution in the time-frequency (speed-frequency) representation where usually overlapping patterns are separated. Several analytical and experimental results that demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method are shown.

Bucher, I.; Ewins, D. J.

1997-07-01

51

Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures  

SciTech Connect

Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Adams, M.L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Loparo, K.A. [Department of Systems Engineering, The Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

1996-06-01

52

Theory and design of electrical rotating machinery. Annual report No. 5, 1 Nov 76--31 Oct 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to contribute toward new and improved rotating machines for Naval applications, with emphasis on superconduting machinery. Work has been performed on the theory of ac losses in multifilament superconductors and experiments were made to check the theory. A list of publications and abstracts of scientific papers published under the contract is given. Some work

W. J. Jr

1977-01-01

53

Evaluating Manufacturing and Assembly Errors in Rotating Machinery to Enhance Component Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manufacturing and assembly phases play a crucial role in providing products that meet the strict functional specifications associated with rotating machinery components. The errors resulting during the manufacturing and assembly of such components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system during its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such as helicopters, resulting in premature component degradation and an unsafe flying environment. In such applications, individual components often are subject to 100% inspection prior to assembly, as well as during operation through rigorous maintenance, resulting in increased product development cycles and high production and operation costs. In this work, we focus on providing designers and manufacturing engineers with a technique to evaluate vibration modes and levels for each component or subsystem prior to putting them into operation. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the correlation between vibrations and manufacturing and assembly errors using an experimental test rig, which simulates a simple bearing and shaft arrangement. A factorial design is used to study the effects of: 1) different manufacturing instances; 2) different assembly instances; and, 3) varying shaft speeds. The results indicate a correlation between manufacturing or assembly errors and vibrations measured from accelerometers. Challenges in developing a tool for DFM are identified, followed by a discussion of future work, including a real-world application to helicopter transmission vibrations.

Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

54

Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a

J. H. Kim; W.-J. Yang

1992-01-01

55

A new procedure for extracting fault feature of multi-frequency signal from rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern rotating machinery is built as a multi-rotor and multi-bearing system, and complex factors from rub or misalignment fault, etc., can lead to high nonlinearity of the system and non-stationarity of vibration signals. As a wide spectrum of frequency components is likely generated due to these complex factors, feature extraction becomes very important for fault diagnosis of a rotor system, e.g., rotor-to-stator rub and rotor misalignment. In recent years, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), combining the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm with the Hilbert transform (HT) is commonly used in vibration signal analysis and also turns out to be very effective in dealing with non-stationary signals. Nevertheless, most intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from the EMD are multi-frequency, and the extracted instantaneous frequency (IF) curves usually show irregularities, which raises difficulty in interpreting these features of the signal by the HHT spectrogram. In this study, a new procedure, combining the customary HHT with a fourth-order spectral analysis tool named Kurtogram, is developed to extract high-frequency features from several kinds of faulty signals, where the Kurtogram is applied to locate the non-stationary intra- and inter-wave modulation components in the original signals and produce more monochromatic IMFs. It is shown that the newly developed feature extraction procedure can accurately detect and characterize the fault feature information hidden in a multi-frequency signal, which is validated by a rub test from a rotor-bearing assembly and a misalignment signal test from a turbo-compressor machine set.

Xiong, Xin; Yang, Shixi; Gan, Chunbiao

2012-10-01

56

Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of

J. H. Kim; W.-J. Yang

1992-01-01

57

Periodic and continuous vibration monitoring for Preventive/Predictive Maintenance of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of vibration monitoring as part of Preventive/Predictive Maintenance programs is discussed. Several alternative methods, including periodic and continuous monitoring techniques, are described. Emphasis is given to the importance of selecting vibration transducers with due regard for the specific machinery type. The equally important need to install monitoring systems which are cost effective and provide genuinely useful information for maintenance engineers and vibration analysis is also highlighted. It is argued that critical machinery should be monitored continuously, and in cases when more detailed investigation is required that high-quality Predictive Maintenance vibration analysis techniques be applied. The need is also emphasized for specialist interpretation of vibration data in order to identify specific machinery malfunctions, of which several examples are given.

Laws, W. C.; Muszynska, A.

1987-04-01

58

Vibration Study of Rotating Machinery to Aid in Shipboard Vibration Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model was made of a piece of rotating equipment to determine the vibration characteristics of the actual machine and to determine how such vibrations might be controlled, thus leading to quiet operation on shipboard. A 64 KW. Allis-Chalmers...

1967-01-01

59

The Enhancement of Impulsive Noise and Vibration Signals for Fault Detection in Rotating and Reciprocating Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impulsive sound and vibration signals in machinery are often caused by the impacting of components and are commonly associated with faults. It has long been recognized that these signals can be gainfully used for fault detection. However, it tends to be difficult to make objective measurements of impulsive signals because of the high levels of background noise. This paper presents an enhancement scheme to aid the measurement and characterization of such impulsive sounds, called a two-stage Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE), which exploits two adaptive filter structures in series. The resulting enhancer signals are analyzed in the time-frequency domain to obtain simultaneous spectral and temporal information. In order to apply the two-stage ALE successfully, the filter parameters and adaptive algorithms should be chosen carefully. Conditions for the choice of these parameters are presented and suggestions are made for suitable adaptive algorithms. Finally, the techniques developed are applied to the diagnosis of faults within an internal combustion engine and to data from an industrial gearbox.

Lee, S. K.; White, P. R.

1998-10-01

60

Some in-field experiences of non-synchronous vibrations in large rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some problems associated with non-synchronous vibrations are analyzed by describing three cases experienced with fairly large rotating machines in operating conditions. In each case, a brief description is first given of the machine and of the instrumentation used. The experimental results are then presented, with reference to time or frequency domain recordings. The lines followed in diagnosis are then discussed and, lastly, the corrective action undertaken is presented.

Colnago, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Claudio; Vallini, Andrea; Zanetta, Gian Antonio

1989-01-01

61

A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control.

Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

2014-01-01

62

Modeling of multi-rotor torsional vibrations in rotating machinery using substructuring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of FEM modeling techniques to the analysis of torsional vibrations in complex rotating systems is described and demonstrated, summarizing results reported by Soares (1985). A substructuring approach is used for determination of torsional natural frequencies and resonant-mode shapes, steady-state frequency-sweep analysis, identification of dynamically unstable speed ranges, and characterization of transient linear and nonlinear systems. Results for several sample problems are presented in diagrams, graphs, and tables. STORV, a computer code based on this approach, is in use as a preliminary design tool for drive-train torsional analysis in the High Altitude Wind Tunnel at NASA Lewis.

Soares, Fola R.

1986-01-01

63

Numerical modeling of multidimensional flow in seals and bearings used in rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rotordynamic behavior of turbomachinery is critically dependent on fluid dynamic rotor forces developed by various types of seals and bearings. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations often depends on the rotor speed and load. Misalignment and rotor wobbling motion associated with differential clearance were often attributed to stability problems. In general, the rotative character of the flowfield is a complex three dimensional system with secondary flow patterns that significantly alter the average fluid circumferential velocity. A multidimensional, nonorthogonal, body-fitted-grid fluid flow model is presented that describes the fluid dynamic forces and the secondary flow pattern development in seals and bearings. Several numerical experiments were carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of this complex flowfield. Analyses were performed by solving a conservation form of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations transformed to those for a rotating observer and using the general-purpose computer code PHOENICS with the assumptions that the rotor orbit is circular and that static eccentricity is zero. These assumptions have enabled a precise steady-state analysis to be used. Fluid injection from ports near the seal or bearing center increased fluid-film direct dynamic stiffness and, in some cases, significantly increased quadrature dynamic stiffness. Injection angle and velocity could be used for active rotordynamic control; for example, injection, when compared with no injection, increased direct dynamic stiffness, which is an important factor for hydrostatic bearings.

Hendricks, R. C.; Tam, L. T.; Przekwas, A.; Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.

1988-01-01

64

Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric-actuator-based active vibration control (AVC) are presented. The evolution of this technology starts with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model where the pushers force the squirrel cage ball bearing supports of a rotating shaft. The piezoelectric pushers consist of a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks that are arranged on top of one another and connected in parallel electrically. This model consists of a prescribed displacement that is proportional to the input voltage and a spring that represents the stiffness of the stack of piezoelectric disks. System tests were carried out to stabilize the AVC system, verify its effectiveness in controlling vibration, and confirm the theory presented.

Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

1990-01-01

65

Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration signals, which describe the transient shaft vibration more vividly and precisely, reducing misinterpretation of the machine running condition. The approach is validated by two practical examples: Part-loosening incident on a large centrifugal compressor. Fluid excitation incident on a centrifugal compressor. Calculations of the mathematical criteria for seven different running conditions of these large rotating machines are also presented. It is demonstrated that the proposed technique provides a feasible and reliable way to interpret shaft vibration, by which means the machine condition can be diagnosed correctly.

Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

2009-04-01

66

Applicability of acoustic emissions to monitoring the mechanical integrity of bolted structures in low speed rotating machinery: case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the integrity of equipment rotating at low rotational speeds presents an increased difficulty to the diagnostician. The most successful monitoring technique, vibration analysis, is not capable of measuring the fundamental frequency of operation at rotational speeds below 300rpm. Typically, low speed machines are massive in size and consequently when mechanical defects begin to occur the resulting vibration is often

2002-01-01

67

Some requirements for automated data-reduction systems suitable for processing vibration measurements taken on high-speed rotating machinery for the support of operational and maintenance decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present, highly portable vibration measurement/real time analysis system possesses an integral computer which, in conjunction with a resident expert system, can diagnose the operational health of high speed rotating machinery. The system encompasses an automated vibration data acquisition-and-reduction system, a machine-specific data base of vibration knowledge, and an expert-system computer code which identifies, compares, trends, and estimates the mechanical health of a system on the basis of past trends and expert-system rules. The embedded expert rules include diagnostic rules common to all rotating machines and a machine-specific knowledge base of vibration-response data that is subject to constant expansion and refinement.

Muster, G. L., II; Muster, D.

68

CHLORIDE AND SODIUM UPTAKE POTENTIAL OVER AN ENTIRE ROTATION OF POPULUS IRRIGATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our

Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr

2009-01-01

69

Clinical evaluation of sodium hyaluronate for the treatment of patients with rotator cuff tear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized study of two types of conservative treatment of 78 shoulders in 78 patients with rotator cuff tears was performed. Twenty-five milligrams of sodium hyaluronate (SH) was injected into shoulders in one group (SH group) and 2 mg of dexamethasone was injected in the other group (steroid group). Injection of each drug was planned for once per week for

Yozo Shibata; Koji Midorikawa; Gen Emoto; Masatoshi Naito

2001-01-01

70

Fault Detection in Process Machinery by Vibration Analysis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the methods of malfunction diagnosis of rotating machinery by vibration analysis. The frequency analysis of vibration signals is a very effective tool for diagnosing mechanical problems in rotating machinery and the use of this techni...

S. A. Ansari S. K. Ayazuddin

1984-01-01

71

Control of hysteretic instability in rotating machinery by elastic suspension systems subject to dry and viscous friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the undesired whirling motions of rotating machines can be efficiently reduced by supporting journal boxes elastically and controlling their movement by viscous dampers or by dry friction surfaces normal to the shaft axis, which rub against the frame. In the case of dry dampers, resonance ranges of the floating support configuration can be easily cut off by planning a motionless adhesive state of the friction surfaces. On the contrary, the dry friction contact must change automatically into sliding conditions when the fixed support resonances are to be feared. Moreover, the whirl amplitude can be restrained throughout the speed range by a proper choice of the suspension-to-shaft stiffness ratio and of the support-to-rotor mass ratio. This theoretical research deals firstly with the natural precession speeds and looks for Campbell plots in dependence on the shaft angular speed, for several rotor-suspension systems. Then, the steady response to unbalance is investigated, in terms of rotor and support orbits and of conical path of the rotor axis. In this search, the ranges of adhesive or sliding contact are identified in particular for system with dry friction damping. At last, the destabilizing influence of the shaft hysteresis in the supercritical regime is focalized and the counterbalancing effect of the other dissipative sources is verified. In the nonlinear case of dry friction dampers, the control of linear stability is fulfilled by a perturbation procedure, checking the magnitude of Floquet characteristic multipliers on the complex plane. Moreover, the nonlinear stability far from steady motion is tested by the direct numerical solution of the full motion equations. The comparison configuration of suspension systems with viscous dampers and no dry friction is examined through an analytical first approximation approach and closed-form results for stability thresholds are derived in particular for the symmetric case.

Sorge, Francesco; Cammalleri, Marco

2010-05-01

72

[Sodium-enhanced limestone wet FGD in rotating-stream tray scrubber].  

PubMed

Adding sodium sulfate to limestone slurry can increase SO2 removal efficiency. In this paper, sodium-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization(FGD) tests were conducted in rotating-stream tray scrubber. Changes of SO2 removal efficiency and pH value with time were experimentally studied and, at different pH range, the dissolution rates of limestone etc. were analyzed. The effects of plate number on SO2 removal efficiency and pressure drop were investigated at temperature approximated to industrial operating value. The average plate efficiencies were calculated. According to the experimental results, increasing plate number could increase SO2 removal efficiency, but the average plate efficiency decreased. Under the experimental conditions, when the plate number was increased from 1 to 4, the removal efficiency was increased from 25.5% to 48.6% at the liquid-to-gas ratio of 4 L/m3, but the average plate efficiency was decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. The equation of the relation between the average plate efficiency and plate number was obtained. PMID:12533938

Sun, Wenshou; Wu, Zhongbiao; Li, Yue; Tan, Tianen

2002-09-01

73

Heat transfer and fluid flow in rotating machinery; Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, Honolulu, HI, Apr. 28May 3, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present conference considers topics in the fields of turbine blade cooling, flow visualization and measurement, rotating tubes and heat pipes, rotating surfaces and enclosures, and turbine and compressor blades. Attention is given to film cooling in a plane turbine cascade, mist-cooling of high temperature turbines, a flow visualization of the effects of injection hole geometry, LDA measurements within a

Wen-Jei Yang

1987-01-01

74

Putative channel components for the fast-rotating sodium-driven flagellar motor of a marine bacterium.  

PubMed Central

The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus rotates remarkably fast (up to 1,700 revolutions per second) by using a motor driven by sodium ions. Two genes, motX and motY, for the sodium-driven flagellar motor have been identified in marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus. They have no similarity to the genes for proton-driven motors, motA and motB, whose products constitute a proton channel. MotX was proposed to be a component of a sodium channel. Here we identified additional sodium motor genes, pomA and pomB, in V. alginolyticus. Unexpectedly, PomA and PomB have similarities to MotA and MotB, respectively, especially in the predicted transmembrane regions. These results suggest that PomA and PomB may be sodium-conducting channel components of the sodium-driven motor and that the motor part consists of the products of at least four genes, pomA, pomB, motX, and motY. Furthermore, swimming speed was controlled by the expression level of the pomA gene, suggesting that newly synthesized PomA proteins, which are components of a force-generating unit, were successively integrated into the defective motor complexes. These findings imply that Na+-driven flagellar motors may have similar structure and function as proton-driven motors, but with some interesting differences as well, and it is possible to compare and study the coupling mechanisms of the sodium and proton ion flux for the force generation.

Asai, Y; Kojima, S; Kato, H; Nishioka, N; Kawagishi, I; Homma, M

1997-01-01

75

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

76

23Na double-rotation NMR of sodium nucleotides leads to the discovery of a new dCMP hendecahydrate.  

PubMed

Obtaining definitive information concerning the coordination environment of sodium ions which balance the negative charges found in nucleotides is a challenging task. We show that high resolution 1D and 2D (23)Na NMR spectra of sodium nucleotides obtained in the solid state with the use of double-rotation (DOR) provide valuable structural information. Sensitive spin diffusion homonuclear correlation experiments are used to establish the relative proximities of various pairs of crystallographically distinct Na sites and to assign the spectral resonances. Additionally, the DOR sidebands are simulated to obtain coordination information which is complementary to that obtained using multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectra. These experiments led us to discover a new hendecahydrate of deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), the structure of which is confirmed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This hydrate crystallizes reproducibly when deuterated water is used exclusively in the preparation process. PMID:22389051

Perras, Frédéric A; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L

2012-04-14

77

High-temperature high-precision casing-mounted optical sensors for in-situ measurement of blade vibration in rotating turbo machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study first describes the construction of casing- mounted single core fiber optic sensors for in-situ vibration measurement by blade tip timing. The design enables efficient use of light flux in a stand-off configuration, suitable for application in high temperature turbines. A description of laboratory experiments then follows showing how very high precision timing can be achieved by cross correlation of repeating speckle signatures from the blade tips. This has enabled the relative position of blade tips to be determined to better than +/- 2 micrometers when the maximum rotational speed was 4000 rpm. The requirements of an optoelectronic system for use at higher speeds and with the same precise timing is evaluated.

Ross, Michael M.; Crommentuijn-Marsh, Dennis

1999-10-01

78

Translational and rotational diffusion of flexible PEG and rigid dendrimer probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels.  

PubMed

The dynamics of rigid dendrimer and flexible PEG probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels, including both translational diffusion and rotational diffusion, were studied by NMR. Above the onset of the close-packing limit (C ? 10 g/100 g H2 O), translational diffusion of the probe depended on its flexibility and on the fluctuations of the matrix chains. The PEG probe diffused more rapidly than the spherical dendrimer probe of corresponding hydrodynamic radius. The greater conformational flexibility of PEG facilitated its motion through the crowded casein matrix. Rotational diffusion was, however, substantially less hindered than the translational diffusion and depended on the local protein-probe friction which became high when the casein concentration increased. The coagulation of the matrix led to the formation of large voids, which resulted in an increase in the translational diffusion of the probes, whereas the rotational diffusion of the probes was retarded in the gel, which could be attributed to the immobilized environment surrounding the probe. Quantitative information from PFG-NMR and SEM micrographs have been combined for characterizing microstructural details in SC acid gels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 959-965, 2014. PMID:24706473

Salami, Souad; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Barhoum, Myriam; van Duynhoven, John; Mariette, François

2014-09-01

79

Electrical Propulsion Machinery Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the design analysis of electrical propulsion machinery suitable for naval propulsion applications. The primary objectives of this study were to identify the technical problem areas in the machines analyzed, and to develop methods of solv...

C. J. Mole

1973-01-01

80

Detecting of transient vibration signatures using an improved fast spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis kurtogram and its applications to mechanical signature analysis of short duration data from rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting transient vibration signatures is of vital importance for vibration-based condition monitoring and fault detection of the rotating machinery. However, raw mechanical signals collected by vibration sensors are generally mixtures of physical vibrations of the multiple mechanical components installed in the examined machinery. Fault-generated incipient vibration signatures masked by interfering contents are difficult to be identified. The fast kurtogram (FK) is a concise and smart gadget for characterizing these vibration features. The multi-rate filter-bank (MRFB) and the spectral kurtosis (SK) indicator of the FK are less powerful when strong interfering vibration contents exist, especially when the FK are applied to vibration signals of short duration. It is encountered that the impulsive interfering contents not authentically induced by mechanical faults complicate the optimal analyzing process and lead to incorrect choosing of the optimal analysis subband, therefore the original FK may leave out the essential fault signatures. To enhance the analyzing performance of FK for industrial applications, an improved version of fast kurtogram, named as "fast spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis kurtogram", is presented. In the proposed technique, discrete quasi-analytic wavelet tight frame (QAWTF) expansion methods are incorporated as the detection filters. The QAWTF, constructed based on dual tree complex wavelet transform, possesses better vibration transient signature extracting ability and enhanced time-frequency localizability compared with conventional wavelet packet transforms (WPTs). Moreover, in the constructed QAWTF, a non-dyadic ensemble wavelet subband generating strategy is put forward to produce extra wavelet subbands that are capable of identifying fault features located in transition-band of WPT. On the other hand, an enhanced signal impulsiveness evaluating indicator, named "spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis" (SSEK), is put forward and utilized as the quantitative measure to select optimal analyzing parameters. The SSEK indicator is robuster in evaluating the impulsiveness intensity of vibration signals due to its better suppressing ability of Gaussian noise, harmonics and sporadic impulsive shocks. Numerical validations, an experimental test and two engineering applications were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The analyzing results of the numerical validations, experimental tests and engineering applications demonstrate that the proposed technique possesses robuster transient vibration content detecting performance in comparison with the original FK and the WPT-based FK method, especially when they are applied to the processing of vibration signals of relative limited duration.

Chen, BinQiang; Zhang, ZhouSuo; Zi, YanYang; He, ZhengJia; Sun, Chuang

2013-10-01

81

Rotationally Inelastic Collisions of Helium with the Sodium-Potassium Molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross sections for rotationally inelastic collisions of He with the NaK molecule in the ground (X1 ? +) and first excited (A1 ? + ) electronic states have been calculated. Electronic structure calculations were performed with the GAMESS code to determine potential surfaces. For most of the calculations, the NaK bond length was fixed at the equilibrium value. The coupled channel scattering formalism developed by Arthurs and Dalgarno was used with the potential surfaces to calculate cross sections for rotational energy transfer. The computer code was modified to calculate also the collisional transfer of orientation and alignment. These theoretical results have been compared with available experimental measurements of the A 1 ?+ state collisional rate constants. Experimental data for the (A1 ?+ v = 16, j = 14) state show a strong propensity for transitions with even values of ?j. The theoretical calculations using the potential calculated with the equilibrium bond length of NaK do not show this propensity, but these calculations correspond to an initial state of v = 0. Recent calculations have determined the potential surface for several different values of the NaK bond length r v. Preliminary scattering results using a potential averaged over the range of values of rv appropriate for v = 15 show a much greater propensity for even values of ? j. In addition, the magnitudes of estimated rate constants for several transitions are in good agreement with experiment. These results suggest that the propensity for even ?j rotational transitions of NaK (A1 ?+) may depend strongly on the vibrational level. In a separate study, the time-dependent MCTDH wavepacket method and the time-independent coupled channel method were compared. Rotationally inelastic cross sections using the same model potential were calculated using both methods, and excellent agreement was obtained.

Malenda, Ruth Fraser

82

Hindered rotation of the borohydride ion in potassium and sodium borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hindered rotational energy levels of the borohydride ion in the high temperature phases of NaBH4 and KBH4 have been computed. The Hamiltonian which describes the motion of the borohydride ion in NaBH4 is invariant under the direct product group O × O, while the Hamiltonian for the borohydride ion in KBH4 is invariant under the direct product group T

David Smith

1974-01-01

83

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

84

Textile Machinery for Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey examines the domestic textile production and forecasts the imports of spinning and weaving machinery up to 1977. The total investment in the replacement, new, and extensions to be carried out comes to the total of U.S. $185.7 million. 63.7 mill...

1974-01-01

85

Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

86

Rotational level structure of sodium isotopes inside the "island of inversion"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron-rich nuclei {}^{33,34,35}Na were studied via in-beam ? -ray spectroscopy following nucleon removal reactions from a {}^{36}Mg secondary beam at ˜ 220 MeV/u. Excited states of {}^{34,35}Na are reported for the first time. A third transition was observed for {}^{33}Na in addition to the known 7/2+_1 rArr 5/2+_1 rArr 3/2+_{g.s.} cascade and is suggested to be the 9/2+_1 rArr 7/2+_1 transition. Similarly, a 7/2+_1 rArr 5/2+_1 rArr 3/2+_{g.s.} cascade is proposed for the decay pattern observed for {}^{35}Na. The transition energy ratios are close to expectation values for K = 3/2 rotational bands in the strong coupling limit. Comparisons to large-scale shell model calculations in the sd-pf model space support the spin-parity assignments.

Doornenbal, P.; Scheit, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Utsuno, Y.; Aoi, N.; Li, K.; Matsushita, M.; Steppenbeck, D.; Wang, H.; Baba, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, J.; Michimasa, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsuka, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takechi, M.; Togano, Y.; Yoneda, K.

2014-05-01

87

Generalized Theory of Electrical Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following pages electrical machinery is analyzed from a new point of view. Analytical quantities like magnetizing current, armature reaction, leakage flux, transient reactance are not introduced; only such quantities are used as actually exist in the machine at one particular load. Thereby the theory of electrical machinery is expressed in terms of the minimum possible number of quantities.

Gabriel Kron

1930-01-01

88

Similarity based modeling of time synchronous averaged vibration signals for machinery health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring rotating machinery is often accomplished with the aid of vibration sensors. The vibration sensor signals contain a wealth of complex information that characterizes the dynamic behavior of the machinery. Transforming this information into useful knowledge about the health of the machine can be challenging due to the presence of extraneous noise sources and variations in the vibration signal itself.

Stephan W. Wegerich

2004-01-01

89

Improving Cooperative Farm Machinery Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an analysis of six operating cooperatives handling farm machinery, to determine how these cooperatives can improve operations. The analysis covers sales, service, facility use, as well as capital needed and management practices. Resul...

L. C. Biser

1978-01-01

90

Machinery Safety on the Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Machinery Safety on the Farm is an online publication designed for Virginia Tech students and instructors that provides an overview of various aspects of maintaining safety in a farm setting. The document highlights common hazards in machinery, complete with diagrams and descriptions for each type; then delves into the various precautions necessary to avoid accidents involving the aforementioned problem areas. The article is available as the html page, or as an optional pdf at the bottom of the page.

Grisso, Robert

2006-12-31

91

Simulation of Symmetrical Induction Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of an analog computer in studying the performance of induction machinery is demonstrated with computer results which show the dynamic behavior of 2-phase and 3-phase machines during balanced and unbalanced operation. The computer simulation for these various modes of operation is conveniently obtained from the equations which describe the symmetrical induction machine in an arbitrary reference frame. Of

P. C. Krause; C. H. Thomas

1965-01-01

92

Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

93

Mercury's sodium exosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

2003-01-01

94

Safety-Critical Software in Machinery Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents some important factors related to safety-critical software in machinery. The following subjects are considered in the text, bearing in mind the subject: the role of safety-critical software in machinery, statistics of software faults,...

H. Virtanen J. Koskinen J. Rauhamaki J. Seppala M. Hietikko M. Katara M. Vuori T. Malm T. Vepsalainen

2011-01-01

95

Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ?? dynamo experiment.  

PubMed

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ??-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number R(m) ~ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the ??-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade. PMID:24182136

Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

2013-10-01

96

Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

1989-07-01

97

The response of rotating machinery to external random vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed turbogenerator employing gas-lubricated hydrodynamic journal and thrust bearings was subjected to external random vibrations for the purpose of assessing bearing performance in a dynamic environment. The pivoted-pad type journal bearings and the step-sector thrust bearing supported a turbine-driven rotor weighing approximately twenty-one pounds at a nominal operating speed of 36,000 rpm. The response amplitudes of both the rigid-supported and flexible-supported bearing pads, the gimballed thrust bearing, and the rotor relative to the machine casing were measured with capacitance type displacement probes. Random vibrations were applied by means of a large electrodynamic shaker at input levels ranging between 0.5 g (rms) and 1.5 g (rms). Vibrations were applied both along and perpendicular to the rotor axis. Response measurements were analyzed for amplitude distribution and power spectral density. Experimental results compare well with calculations of amplitude power spectral density made for the case where the vibrations were applied along the rotor axis. In this case, the rotor-bearing system was treated as a linear, three-mass model.

Tessarzik, J. M.; Chiang, T.; Badgley, R. H.

1974-01-01

98

Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

1988-05-01

99

Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

1988-01-01

100

Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers was discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Analyses are contained which extend quadratic regulator, pole placement and derivative feedback control methods to the prescribed displacement character of piezoelectric pushers. The structural stiffness of the pusher is also included in the theory. Tests are currently being conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results performed on the NASA test rig as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Lin, R. R.; Montague, J.; Alexander, R. M.

1989-01-01

101

Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

1989-01-01

102

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

1995-01-01

103

SUGGESTED PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING FARM MACHINERY COSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Central Farm Machinery Task Force is a group of extension economists who evaluated alternative methods for estimating farm machinery costs and made recommendations for the development of extension materials. This paper describes the procedures agreed upon, and explains the rationale for the procedures chosen. The focus is on \\

William F. Lazarus; Roger A. Selley

2002-01-01

104

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...machinery space means any space that contains machinery and...including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery...electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration, stabilizing...conditioning machinery, and similar spaces and trunks to such...

2013-10-01

105

Measurement Procedures and Uncertainty Evaluation for Electromagnetic Radiated Emissions From Large-Power Electrical Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of measurement and data analysis are considered for the electromagnetic (EM) emissions from large-power rotating machinery (in this paper, a synchronous generator is considered as a working example). The data recorded during two measurement campaigns are used to prove the analysis methods and to better describe the measurement procedures. The following important factors are considered: (1) the reactive behavior

Andrea Mariscotti

2007-01-01

106

Stochastic noise in splicing machinery  

PubMed Central

The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.

Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John

2009-01-01

107

Competitive Assessment of the U.S.: Textile Machinery Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are some 500 firms in the textile machinery industry, manufacturing machinery, parts and accessories used in the production of textile mill products for apparel, home furnishing and industrial applications. Competition from imported machinery has si...

1987-01-01

108

Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

Stempfhuber, Werner

2008-09-01

109

Guide to the EU Machinery Directive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide (prepared under contract by Helen Delaney and Rene van de Zande, DVZ Joint Ventures) is an easy-to-use introductory reference for industry and government officials on the requirements of the European Union's (EU) Machinery Directive (Directive ...

H. Delaney R. van de Zande

2001-01-01

110

Productivity Growth Average in Farm Machinery Manufacturing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Productivity in farm machinery manufacturing is examined. The authors discuss how the national economy affects productivity, how the growth of agriculture and technology has changed the industry, and how future trends may cause change in the industry. (CT)

Herman, Arthur S.; Ferris, John W.

1982-01-01

111

Particle size analysis for machinery health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

MONITORING the health, or condition, of machinery is a universally accepted way of achieving economy of use and preventing catastrophic failure. Wear debris analysis is a powerful method of monitoring oil-lubricated machinery and many techniques are used, such as spectroscopic oil-analysis1, magnetic plug and filter inspection2, ferrography3, and particle size analysis. Although this last technique is frequently used for monitoring

G. Pocock

1977-01-01

112

ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

113

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY ASSEMBLY AND LUBRICATION. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, SKILL IN THEIR SELECTION, AND UNDERSTANDING OF…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

114

Inside the 40S Ribosome Assembly Machinery  

PubMed Central

Ribosome assembly involves rRNA transcription, modification, folding and cleavage from precursor transcripts, and association of ribosomal proteins (Rps). In bacteria, this complex process requires only a handful of proteins in addition to those needed for rRNA transcription, modification and cleavage, while in eukaryotes a large machinery comprising ~ 200 proteins in the yeast S. cerevisiae has been identified. Furthermore, while the bacterial assembly factors generally produce only cold-sensitive phenotypes upon deletion, most of the eukaryotic assembly factors are essential, comprising ~ 20% of essential yeast proteins. This review explores recent rapid progress in the structural and functional dissection of the 40S assembly machinery.

Karbstein, Katrin

2011-01-01

115

Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+ in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF4 mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+, the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole.

Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

2013-02-01

116

Cyclostationarity in Rotating Machine Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations in rotating machinery are produced by a combination of periodic and random processes due to the machine's rotation cycle and interaction with the real world. The combination of such components can give rise to signals which have periodically time-varying ensemble statistics and are best considered as cyclostationary. In this paper, second-order cyclic statistical methods are described and several applications of these to machine vibration analysis are introduced. The second-order techniques are compared with traditional (purely stationary) spectral analysis and synchronous averaging (first-order cyclic analysis). This comparison is made for data collected from a rotating machine subjected to bearing faults and the applications are demonstrated.

McCormick, A. C.; Nandi, A. K.

1998-03-01

117

Practical machinery management for process plants. Volume 2: Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting  

SciTech Connect

This book offers methods for analyzing and troubleshooting machinery component distress. It is a systematic approach to machinery failures involving gears, rolling-element bearing, sliding bearings, bolting, couplings, mechanical seals, pumps, compressors, electric motors, steam turbines, and similar equipment. It treats formal failure-analysis reporting techniques in depth, showing organizational and procedural requirements for the successful definition of root-cause problems. the text devotes coverage to vibration analysis, emphasizing spectrum analysis and pattern recognition, and the meaning of definable differences in good vs. detective machinery vibration signature spectra. It also covers the application of sneak analysis.

Bloch, H.P.; Geitner, F.K.

1983-01-01

118

Noise Control in Tubular Wire Stranding Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is an investigation of noise control options in tubular wire stranding operations. A primary target noise level of 90 dBA, and a secondary target noise level of 85 dBA are identified, based on government regulations, current Worker's Compensation trends, and labor union activities. An examination of rope mills and the sound fields around stranding machinery demonstrates that several

James Frederick Yerges

1980-01-01

119

Dendritic and Postsynaptic Protein Synthetic Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of evidence that local protein synthesis beneath synapses may provide a novel mechanism underlying plastic phenomena. In vivo and in vitro biochemical data show that dendrites can perform translation and glycosylation. Using antibodies directed against the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery, we sought to identify the structures implicated in nonperinuclear translation, namely dendritic and postsynaptic protein

Alejandra Gardiol; Claudia Racca; Antoine Triller

1991-01-01

120

Analysis of LSD-41 Machinery Room Layout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tentative layouts for the LSD-41 machinery rooms no. 1 and no. 2 have been developed by NAVSEA and by the J. J. Henry Company. Figures 1 and 2 provide approximate sketches of the NAVSEA layouts; and Figures 3 and 4, of the J. J. Henry layouts. A key facto...

H. L. Williams

1980-01-01

121

EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

BAUER, FREDERICK L.

122

Two Generation Farming: Transferring Machinery and Livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once the younger party has made a long-term commitment to farming, the parties should consider how to transfer control and owner-ship of farm assets. This publication discusses considerations for transferring the use and ownership of personal property such as farm machinery, breeding livestock, and crop and livestock inventories.

William M. Edwards; Donald Hofstrand

1998-01-01

123

Machinery Management: Acquiring Farm Machinery Services--Ownership, Custiom Hire, Rental Leasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today farmers can easily invest more than $100,000 in a single tractor or combine. Although most farmers own their own machinery, options such as custom hiring, renting, and leasing also are popular alternatives.

William M. Edwards; Vernon M. Meyer

2001-01-01

124

46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating...control device located outside the compartment. (c) All refrigeration compressor spaces shall be effectively ventilated and...

2010-10-01

125

46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating...control device located outside the compartment. (c) All refrigeration compressor spaces shall be effectively ventilated and...

2011-10-01

126

46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating...control device located outside the compartment. (c) All refrigeration compressor spaces shall be effectively ventilated and...

2013-10-01

127

L'Entretien des Machines Agricoles (Farm Machinery Care).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The translation of an English publication titled 'Machinery Care Project D Units' covers the following: Knowledge of parts used in machinery; The importance of screws and bolts, nuts, wrenches, their size, the different size of nails, their different shap...

1979-01-01

128

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust...ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460...starting gasoline engines for the time sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space...

2013-10-01

129

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sodium and Salt Updated:Jun 23,2014 About Sodium Frequently Asked ... Dining Out • Cookbooks and Health Guides Reduce Your Sodium Intake Receive Healthy Living news every month! First ...

130

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section...Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer...charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

2013-10-01

131

PER UNIT COSTS TO OWN AND OPERATE FARM MACHINERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy and jackknife estimation procedures were used to find that custom rates are 20.3% lower than the true cost to own and operate machinery for an average size Kansas farm. A method was then developed to estimate a farms total machinery costs with which to benchmark machinery costs.

Aaron J. Beaton; Kevin C. Dhuyvetter; Terry L. Kastens

2003-01-01

132

The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Piotr Kazmierczak (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Wei Xiong (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Martin Schwander (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Anna Reynolds (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Hirofumi Sakaguchi (National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders;Laboratory of Cell Structure and Dynamics REV)

2009-08-25

133

Exploring the ESCRTing machinery in eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

The profile of protein sorting into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) has risen recently with the identification of three heteromeric complexes known as ESCRT-I,-II,-III (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport). Genetic analyses in yeast have identified up to 15 soluble class E VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) proteins that have been assigned to the ESCRT machinery and function in cargo recognition and sorting, complex assembly, vesicle formation and dissociation. Despite their functional importance in yeast and mammalian cells, little is known about their presence and function in other organisms including plants. We have made use of the fully sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the identity, structural characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of proteins assigned to the ESCRT machinery.

Winter, Verena; Hauser, Marie-Theres

2010-01-01

134

Flight machinery dimensions of honeybees, Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flight muscles of different honeybee subspecies are known to have different allozymes of malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) which\\u000a in turn are correlated with differences in mass-specific metabolic flight rate. Flight capacity is also affected by dimensional,\\u000a morphological relationships of mass and area which allow an estimation of an “excess power index”. The dimensions of the flight\\u000a machinery of honeybees (based

H. R. Hepburn; S. E. Radloff; S. Fuchs

1999-01-01

135

The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer. PMID:22983384

Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

2013-04-01

136

46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30...requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery plants include machinery plants and...

2013-10-01

137

Application of advanced materials to rotating machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

Triner, J. E.

1983-01-01

138

Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis.

Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

2014-01-01

139

Fiber bragg grating based rotating speed measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating speed is one of the most important control parameters of rotating machinery. To solve the electromagnetic interference and installation problems of existing speed sensors, a fiber bragg grating(FBG) strain sensing mechanism was applied in speed measurement. The relationship of strain and speed was derived. A FBG-based speed measurement system was established and its feasibility was verified by the testing

Li Wei; Zude Zhou; Yuegang Tan; Lei Yuan; Tingting Hu

2011-01-01

140

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE DEPARTMENT OPERATING PROCEDURES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, PARTS MEN, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF THE OPERATING PROCEDURES OF A SERVICE DEPARTMENT AND ABILITY TO CARRY OUT THE FUNCTIONS OF A SERVICE…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

141

Runway Rotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use small paper airplanes to model rotations required to turn onto a runway. Students will rotate planes 45, 90, 180, 270, and 360 degrees. Students will identify and describe the results of rotations using benchmark angles.

2012-11-16

142

Consider synthetic lubricants for process machinery  

SciTech Connect

Judicious application of properly formulated synthetic lubricants can benefit a wide spectrum of process machinery. This informed usage is very likely to drive down overall maintenance and downtime expenditures and can markedly improve plant efficiency. The paper describes the origin of synthetic lubricants, then explains the principal features and attributes of the six base fluids: synthetic hydrocarbon fluids; organic esters; polyglycols; phosphate esters; silicones; and blends of the synthetic lubricants. The paper discusses the properties and advantages and gives brief highlights of successful case histories of the use of synthetic lubricants. These include: circulating oil system for furnace air preheaters; Right angle gear drives for fin fan coolers; plant-wide oil mist systems; and pulverizing mills in coal-fired generating plant. In the last case, an economic analysis is done to point out the savings possible in lubricant consumption cost, reduced maintenance cost, lubricant disposal cost, and reduction in power consumption.

Bloch, H.P. (Bloch, (Heinz P.), Montgomery, TX (United States)); Pate, A.R. Jr. (Summit Industrial Products, Tyler, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

143

The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

2012-01-01

144

Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

1994-01-01

145

Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

146

4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

147

18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS, CIRCA 1910 'THE RACINE' RECIPROCATING HACK SAW, AND CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER NEAR CENTER OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE RIGHT ARE THREE WHEELED WORK STATIONS. THE LINE SHAFT WITH BELTS AND PULLEYS FOR OPERATING MACHINERY IS VISIBLE IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

148

46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles...and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions (rolling) at any angle of list up to and...

2013-10-01

149

SUGGESTED PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING FARM MACHINERY COSTS FOR EXTENSION AUDIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Central Farm Machinery Task Force is a group of extension economists who evaluated alternative methods for estimating farm machinery costs and made recommendations for the development of extension materials. This paper describes the procedures agreed upon, and explains the rationale for the procedures chosen. The focus is on \\

William F. Lazarus; Roger A. Selley

2001-01-01

150

Machinery Management. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is intended to provide a basic understanding of selecting, maintaining, and managing farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: dealing with typical problems in farm machinery management; measuring machine capacity; improving field efficiency; matching machine size and capacity; estimating power…

Bowers, Wendell

151

Selected US farm machinery market characteristics and their implications for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in farm machinery use suggest the US farm machinery market is a replacement market. Moreover, since 1960, the price of machinery has risen relative to prices for other production inputs. Econometric analysis suggests that higher relative machinery prices encourage input substitution. Thus, relative price trends should be a major concern to the machinery industry. The analysis also suggests that

Carl Zulauf; Gary D. Schnitkey

1989-01-01

152

Sodium, protons, and energy coupling in the methanogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, I focus on the bioenergetics of the methanogenic bacteria, with particular attention directed to the roles of transmembrane electrochemical gradients of sodium and proton. In addition, the mechanism of coupling ATP synthesis to methanogenic electron transfer is addressed. Evidence is reviewed which suggests that the methanogens possess great diversity in their bioenergetic machinery. In particular, in some

1989-01-01

153

The intraflagellar transport machinery of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

First discovered in the green alga, Chlamydomonas, intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bidirectional movement of protein particles along the length of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Composed of approximately 16 different proteins, IFT particles are moved out to the distal tip of the organelle by kinesin-II and are brought back to the cell body by cytoplasmic dynein 1b. Mutant analysis of the IFT motor and particle proteins using diverse organisms has revealed a conserved and essential role for IFT in the assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella. IFT is thought to mediate this assembly through the delivery of axonemal precursors out to the distal tip of the growing organelle. Consistent with this model, the IFT particle proteins are rich in protein-protein binding motifs, suggesting that the particles may act as scaffolds for the binding of multiple cargoes. With most of the IFT proteins now identified at the level of the gene, this review will briefly examine both the structure and function of the IFT machinery of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PMID:12795688

Cole, Douglas G

2003-07-01

154

Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

2000-01-01

155

Economic Census 1997: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Printing Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is about a U.S. industry consisting of establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing printing and bookbinding machinery and equipment, such as printing presses, typesetting machinery, and bindery machinery.

1999-01-01

156

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

157

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2013-10-01

158

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

159

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

160

49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? ...What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? ...apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery...

2010-10-01

161

49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? ...What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? ...apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery...

2009-10-01

162

Resolving problems of high vibration in hydroelectric machinery  

SciTech Connect

High vibrations in hydroelectric machinery often will necessitate derating of a unit's capacity so that it remains in acceptable operating condition. Such was the case at B.C. Hydro's 700-MW Peace Canyon Generating Station. At this station, a 175-MW turbine-generator experienced high stator split-phase currents on cold starts and high turbine bearing vibration at high loads. The vibration, measured at 24 mils (0.024 inch) peak to peak, exceeded the as-set turbine bearing clearance of 14 mils (0.014-inch) diametrical. Consequently, the utility derated the machine by 25 MW for a period of approximately seven months. B.C. Hydro contacted Powertech Labs Inc., the utility's applied technology subsidiary, and assigned the task of resolving the problem and restoring the unit to design capacity. Using vibration amplitude and phase vibrations as functions of the unit's rotational speed and load, Powertech investigators concluded that the problem of high vibrations on both the generator and turbine bearings were the result of mechanical unbalance on the generator, an enlarged turbine bearing clearance, and a hydraulic unbalance on the Francis turbine. The first step Powertech investigators took to improve the vibration readings on the generator and turbine was to [open quotes]compromise balance[close quotes] the generator. In this approach, the machine is mechanically unbalanced to counter magnetic unbalance. With the generator unbalance corrected, Powertech investigators recommended that the turbine bearing be inspected and reset to the design clearance of 14 mils (0.014 inch) diametrical. Resetting of the bearing resulted in significantly lower turbine vibration readings at high loads (less than 10 mils).

Franklin, D. (Powertech Labs, Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-08-01

163

Rotational Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive Java Sketchpad applet students use spatial reasoning and visualization to explore rotation of a quadrilateral. The vertices and the center of rotation can be moved. Also included are tasks that focus the learner's manipulations.

2011-01-01

164

Rotational geophone  

SciTech Connect

A combination velocity and rotational geophone apparatus is described for obtaining data for seismic records representing the direction of propagation of shear waves in a seismic wave, the apparatus comprising: a velocity geophone; and a rotational geophone, the rotational geophone being disposed in relation to the velocity geophone to respond to the rate of rotational waves in a plane including the sensitive axis of the velocity geophone.

Cowles, C.S.

1986-07-29

165

21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

166

5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING TEST MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND AND CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING TEST MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND AND CONTROL ROOM IN BACKGROUND. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 20, Propeller Laboratory, Northwest corner of Seventh & E Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

167

17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED SPAN - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

168

95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, 3/4' and 1 1/2' = 1' (CENTER CONE, RADIAL STRUT RING, TRACK, ROLLERS, PINION GEARS) - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

169

Industry Subsector Analysis, Venezuela: Plastic Machinery and Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Machinery imports by the Venezuelan plastics industry, although reduced compared to previous years, appear to have stabilized and to be making a modest comeback. Since the market opened to imports of finished plastic products in 1989, the industry has bee...

E. P. Simai

1993-01-01

170

Profiling the power usage of industrial machinery by ANN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks can provide an effective way for profiling a plant, if conditions are accurately sampled and data properly collected. In this paper we investigate such an approach, considering a textile finishing machinery named rameuse as experimental context.

Stefano Ierace; Pasquale Marinaro; Pasquale Tatavitto; Luigi Troiano

2010-01-01

171

7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

172

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

173

Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control tower on right. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Warehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

174

11. AUXILIARY MOTOR AT CENTER OF MACHINERY ROOM INSIDE DRUM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. AUXILIARY MOTOR AT CENTER OF MACHINERY ROOM INSIDE DRUM. OIL CUP TO MAIN CENTER BEARING BELOW. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

175

39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY LOCK. January 1932 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

176

20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

177

23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, DOWSTREAM GATES, UPSTREAM SIDE - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

178

46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equivalent covers, permanently attached in their proper positions. (b) Coamings of any fiddley, funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure deck shall be as high above the deck as is reasonable and...

2013-10-01

179

Impact of electric towers on farm machinery operations  

SciTech Connect

A special program has been prepared to evaluate land and time lost in the operation of farm machinery around electric towers. Various parameters involved in such a study are described. Applications to various farm productions are also shown. 10 refs.

Fortin, J.M.; Vigneault, C.

1981-01-01

180

Sodium Oxybate  

MedlinePLUS

... attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a short time) and ... go to sleep for the night. Sodium oxybate begins to work very quickly. Place your second dose ...

181

Sodium technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to conduct friction screening tests in an environment of high-temperature, high-purity liquid sodium or sodium vapor to: (1) develop backup materials, processes, and vendors for core component wear pads, (2) investigate material treatments and coatings for improvement of wear behavior of common LMFBR structural materials, (3) evaluate weld-deposited hardfacings and\\/or prefabricated bearing materials for

W. J. Kurzeka; R. M. Oliva; P. Horton

2011-01-01

182

Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction  

PubMed Central

Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se0), but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys) biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5?mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ?50% while 0.001 to 0.01?mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ?30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF) whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ?2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S) metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ?2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process.

Tetteh, Antonia Y.; Sun, Katherine H.; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Ibeanu, Gordon C.

2014-01-01

183

Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort

Gopinath R. Narasimhan; Yingwei Peng; Trever G. Crowe; Louise Hagel; James Dosman; William Pickett

2010-01-01

184

The Design of Farm Machinery Statistics Management System Based on Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, agricultural machinery statistics will provide the main basis for decision-making. With the development of computer technology, the use of advanced software technology and network technology can change the traditional agricultural machinery statistical methods. So, three tasks has done in this paper. First, the present situation of the

Li Hua; Yin Wenqing; Qi Xindan

2008-01-01

185

Mining Machinery/Equipment/Parts/Services. Oil and Gas Field Equipment/Machinery/Parts/Supplies (Brazil). Oil and Gas Field Machinery, November 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian market for oil and gasfield machinery reached approximately $938 million in 1989, of which about $86 million were supplied by imports. The market may reach $2.6 billion by 1993, if indeed the Government of Brazil approves an annual investmen...

1990-01-01

186

Rotating Supertubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the rotating tubular D2-brane as a time dependent supersymmetric solution of type-IIA string theory. We show that the Poynting angular momentum of the supertube can be replaced by the mechanical angular momentum without disturbing the 8 supersymmetries. Unlike the non-rotating supertube, whose cross section can take an arbitrary shape, the rotating supertube admits only the circular cross section.

Jin-Ho Cho; Phillial Oh

2003-01-01

187

Development of the Farm Machinery Statistical Management System Based on Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, the statistics of farm machinery in Jiangsu Province are very wide. Improving the working of statistical analyses by advanced computer technology, enhancing the efficiency, is a topic which the farm machinery superintendent and the scientific and technical worker explore continuously. The present situation of the farm machinery statistics management informationization was analyzed .Mainly, the status of the farm machinery statistics management in Jiangsu Province was investigated. Subsequently, the farm machinery statistics management system based on the Web database was developed and the introduction on main function of the system was made.

Qi, Xindan; Li, Hua; Yin, Wenqing

188

Optical vibration and deviation measurement of rotating machine parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of interest to get appropriate information about the dynamic behaviour of rotating machinery parts in service. This paper presents an approach of optical vibration and deviation measurement of such parts. Essential of this method is an image derotator combined with a high speed camera or a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV).

Reithmeier, Eduard; Mirzaei, Sahar; Kasyanenko, Natallia

2008-01-01

189

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FARM MACHINERY STATISTICAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, the statistics of farm machinery in Jiangsu\\u000a Province are very wide. Improving the working of statistical analyses by advanced computer technology, enhancing the efficiency,\\u000a is a topic which the farm machinery superintendent and the scientific and technical worker explore continuously. The present\\u000a situation of the farm machinery

Xindan Qi; Hua Li; Wenqing Yin

2009-01-01

190

Equivalent Circuit of the Primitive Rotating Machine With Asymmetrical Stator and Rotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations and equivalent circuits of all standard types of rotating electric machinery operating under arbitrary conditions may be derived as special cases of a single generalized rotating machine, the so-called primitive machine. This paper derives the steady-state equivalent circuit of the primitive machine having unbalanced rotor as well as stator. That is, the load or transmission line connected to

Gabriel Kron

1947-01-01

191

Using nonlinear springs to reduce the whirling of a rotating shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrations in rotating machinery cause many problems such as fatigue of the rotating components, excessive noise, or transmission of vibration to the supporting structure. A major source of this vibration is out-of-balance forces and this paper proposes that the rotor response is reduced by suspending the machine on nonlinear springs. In the field of vibration isolation, nonlinear mounts have been

A. Carrella; M. I. Friswell; A. Zotov; D. J. Ewins; A. Tichonov

2009-01-01

192

Structural analyses of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA splicing is a critical event in the gene expression pathway of all eukaryotes. The splicing reaction is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a huge protein-RNA complex that contains five snRNAs and hundreds of different protein factors. Understanding the structure of this large molecular machinery is critical for understanding its function. Although the highly dynamic nature of the spliceosome, in both composition and conformation, posed daunting challenges to structural studies, there has been significant recent progress on structural analyses of the splicing machinery, using electron microscopy, crystallography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. This review discusses key recent findings in the structural analyses of the spliceosome and its components and how these findings advance our understanding of the function of the splicing machinery.

Zhang, Lingdi; Li, Xueni; Zhao, Rui

2013-01-01

193

FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user, to the societies, and to improve societies u

Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

2012-11-01

194

39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 photograph of the steam engines and winding machinery at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. View towards west. United Railroads of San Francisco rebuilt the damaged engines and winders shown in CA-12-60 and CA-12-61. There are no cables strung over the winders in this photograph, indicating that the firm had yet to resume service. Note the rough shed erected over the engines to protect them from weather while work continued on the reconstruction of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

195

MicroRNA Machinery Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Cancer  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers.

Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei

2014-01-01

196

Low sodium diet (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or unsalted. Check all labels for how much ... labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or unsalted. Check all labels for how much ...

197

Rotational Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

Lockett, Keith

1988-01-01

198

Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutation plays the primary role in evolution that Weismann mistakenly attributed to sex. Homologous recombination, as in sex, is important for population genetics – shuffling of minor variants, but relatively insignificant for large-scale evolution. Major evolutionary innovations depend much more on illegitimate recombination, which makes novel genes by gene duplication and by gene chimaerisation – essentially mutational forces. The machinery

T Cavalier-smith

2002-01-01

199

33. EAST ABUTMENT, VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY SMALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. EAST ABUTMENT, VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY - SMALL GEAR IS IDENTIFIED AS 'C' - LARGE GEAR IS 'B' REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

200

Venezuela Market Survey for Construction and Mining Machinery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Venezuela for construction and mining machinery; to examine growth trends in Venezuelan end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific produ...

1978-01-01

201

26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

202

23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

203

COURSE OUTLINE FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE 16-MODULE COURSE OUTLINED IN THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE FORMER FARMERS, HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES, AND UNEMPLOYED, AND EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL ENTRY AS AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SETUP MEN, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, MECHANICS, PARTS MEN, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

204

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Machinery Service Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Illinois skill standards for agriculture machinery service technician are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

205

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

206

Frequent pathway mutations of splicing machinery in myelodysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelodysplastic syndromes and related disorders (myelodysplasia) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms showing deregulated blood cell production with evidence of myeloid dysplasia and a predisposition to acute myeloid leukaemia, whose pathogenesis is only incompletely understood. Here we report whole-exome sequencing of 29 myelodysplasia specimens, which unexpectedly revealed novel pathway mutations involving multiple components of the RNA splicing machinery, including

Kenichi Yoshida; Masashi Sanada; Yuichi Shiraishi; Daniel Nowak; Yasunobu Nagata; Ryo Yamamoto; Yusuke Sato; Aiko Sato-Otsubo; Ayana Kon; Masao Nagasaki; George Chalkidis; Yutaka Suzuki; Masashi Shiosaka; Ryoichiro Kawahata; Tomoyuki Yamaguchi; Makoto Otsu; Naoshi Obara; Mamiko Sakata-Yanagimoto; Ken Ishiyama; Hiraku Mori; Florian Nolte; Wolf-Karsten Hofmann; Shuichi Miyawaki; Sumio Sugano; Claudia Haferlach; H. Phillip Koeffler; Lee-Yung Shih; Torsten Haferlach; Shigeru Chiba; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Satoru Miyano; Seishi Ogawa

2011-01-01

207

3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ROOM. MOTOR #1 COMPARTMENT IN REAR, AUXILIARY MOTOR DRIVE SHAFT, POWER PANELS ON BACK OF AUXILIARY MOTOR HOUSE. BRIDGE DECK FRAMING ABOVE. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

208

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL PEDESTAL AREA, SHOWING CENTER RING, RADIALS TO EDGE ROLLERS, GEARS, AND ELECTRICAL BOXES (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

209

TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

210

Electrostatic charge generation associated with machinery component deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and monitoring increased levels of electrostatic charge, produced as a result of machinery component deterioration, have the potential for the basis of an oil system component condition monitoring system. As increases in electrostatic charge level may be associated with the earliest stages of oil film\\/contact breakdown and the onset of wear, then charge monitoring may be used to identify

H. Powrie; Robert Wood; Terry Harvey; Ling Wang; S. Morris

2002-01-01

211

11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

212

[Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].  

PubMed

The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

2006-01-01

213

49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIRCOMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIR-COMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. THIS SYSTEM WAS REPLACED BY ONE ON THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING AFTER 1945, BUT WAS NEVER REMOVED. LOCATED IN AIR COMPRESSOR ROOM BETWEEN MILL NO. 2 AND BOILER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

214

46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...permanently attached. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship mustâ (1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft...

2013-10-01

215

A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING FARM MACHINERY PURCHASE DECISIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of the farm management process. The model suggests that certain socioeconomic characteristics of farm managers will influence their decision-making process. Several characteristics are hypothesized an tested using multivariate techniques (multivariate analysis of variance, range tests, and multiple comparisons). The analysis indicates that the soil zone, value of machinery inventory, operator's age, and operator's education influence

Thomas G. Johnson; William J. Brown; Kevin OGrady

1985-01-01

216

Feasibility Study of Inspection of Farm Machinery Safety Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture continues to be a very hazardous industry. One of the possible risk factors injuries may be the absence of safety features on farm machinery. A feasibility study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of obtaining information on deficiencies or absence of safety devices. Tractors and Power take-off (PTO) driven machines on 36 dairy farms were inspected. The pilot study

Mark A. Purschwitz; Dean T. Stueland; Barbara C. Lee

1994-01-01

217

32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH, EMERGENCY BRAKE ON THE PEDESTAL TO THE LEFT OF CENTER - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

218

Advanced Computer Control and Testing of Remote Rotating Machinery Using Dependable Wireless Conduit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct computer control of industrial processes over wireless conduit is just beginning to get momentum among the manufacturing industries. Historically, it was restricted to space industry. Manufacturing industries preferred distributed control over direct computer control partly for the fact that the computer were not so reliable and reliable ones were quite expensive to be cost effective. As the computers are

A. Hossain; M. Fathizadeh

2005-01-01

219

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery based on improved wavelet package transform and SVMs ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method for fault diagnosis based on an improved wavelet package transform (IWPT), a distance evaluation technique and the support vector machines (SVMs) ensemble. The method consists of three stages. Firstly, with investigating the feature of impact fault in vibration signals, a biorthogonal wavelet with impact property is constructed via lifting scheme, and the IWPT is carried out to extract salient frequency-band features from raw vibration signals. Then, the faulty features can be detected by envelope spectrum analysis of wavelet package coefficients of the most salient frequency band. Secondly, with the distance evaluation technique, the optimal features are selected from the statistical characteristics of raw signals and wavelet package coefficients, and the energy characteristics of decomposition frequency band. Finally, the optimal features are input into the SVMs ensemble with AdaBoost algorithm to identify the different abnormal cases. The proposed method is applied to the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings, and testing results show that the SVMs ensemble can reliably separate different fault conditions and identify the severity of incipient faults, which has a better classification performance compared to the single SVMs.

Hu, Qiao; He, Zhengjia; Zhang, Zhousuo; Zi, Yanyang

2007-02-01

220

Decision tree and PCA-based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After analysing the flaws of conventional fault diagnosis methods, data mining technology is introduced to fault diagnosis field, and a new method based on C4.5 decision tree and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. In this method, PCA is used to reduce features after data collection, preprocessing and feature extraction. Then, C4.5 is trained by using the samples to generate a decision tree model with diagnosis knowledge. At last the tree model is used to make diagnosis analysis. To validate the method proposed, six kinds of running states (normal or without any defect, unbalance, rotor radial rub, oil whirl, shaft crack and a simultaneous state of unbalance and radial rub), are simulated on Bently Rotor Kit RK4 to test C4.5 and PCA-based method and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The result shows that C4.5 and PCA-based diagnosis method has higher accuracy and needs less training time than BPNN.

Sun, Weixiang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jiaqing

2007-04-01

221

Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

1991-01-01

222

Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric actuator based - active vibration control (AVC). The evolution of this new technology begins with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model.

Lin, Reng R.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

1990-10-01

223

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery based on multiple ANFIS combination with GAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for fault diagnosis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), an improved distance evaluation technique and the combination of multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs). The method consists of three stages. First, prior to feature extraction, some preprocessing techniques, like filtration, demodulation and EMD are performed on vibration signals to acquire more fault characteristic information.

Yaguo Lei; Zhengjia He; Yanyang Zi; Qiao Hu

2007-01-01

224

On the application of non-destructive testing techniques on rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of artificial defects in a single stage gearbox using two non-destructive techniques (vibration and AE) and advanced signal processing techniques to discriminate between different load and defect states is the scope of the present study. Wavelet based techniques were developed and utilised in order to evaluate the vibration signals and extract diagnostic information out of them. A new

T. H. Loutas; J. Kalaitzoglou; G. Sotiriades; V. Kostopoulos

225

Finite Element Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Machine with Two Contra-rotating Rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical machines with contra-rotating rotors find applications in direct-drive energy conversion systems and in ship propulsion systems that employ hydraulic machinery with two contra-rotating stages. In this article, the operating characteristics of permanent magnet machines with two contra-rotating rotors moving on opposite sides of a common stator core are studied via two-dimensional finite element analysis. Particular attention is devoted to

Martin Ranlöf; Urban Lundin

2009-01-01

226

ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

227

77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing and Services, International Trade Administration...trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing industries, with emphasis on tariff...

2012-10-22

228

Accounting for Tillage Equipment and Other Machinery in Agricultural Energy Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy value tillage equipment and farm machinery, based on use industry sources, is presented. Discounting, scrappage, and use are discussed. Comparisons are made between the disaggregated data and initial attempts to determine farm machinery's embod...

O. C. Doering T. J. Considine C. E. Harling

1977-01-01

229

Pravastatin sodium.  

PubMed

Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

2014-01-01

230

30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. 57.3460 Section 57.3460 Mineral...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and ribs unless the area has been tested and,...

2009-07-01

231

30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. 57.3460 Section 57.3460 Mineral...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and ribs unless the area has been tested and,...

2013-07-01

232

30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. 57.3460 Section 57.3460 Mineral...Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and ribs unless the area has been tested and,...

2010-07-01

233

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors A Appendix... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Appendix A to Part 438âTypical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors...

2010-07-01

234

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors A Appendix... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Appendix A to Part 438âTypical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors...

2009-01-01

235

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2013-10-01

236

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machineryâTB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2013-10-01

237

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2013-10-01

238

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2013-10-01

239

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2013-10-01

240

COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

241

Highly Accurate Molecular Constants for Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen-Fluoride Hydrogen-Chloride Hydroxyl, Sodium-Hydride Magnesium-Hydride and Oxygen: Rotational Transition Frequencies Measured with Tunable Far Infrared Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tunable far infrared (FIR) radiation, accurate rotational transition frequencies have been measured for several stable and transient diatomic molecules. The tunable FIR radiation is generated by nonlinear mixing of radiation from two CO(,2) lasers in a metal-insulator-metal diode. The FIR difference-frequency is radiated from the diode's antenna: a typical FIR power level is 10('-7) Watts. The combination of lines

Lyndon Robert Zink

1986-01-01

242

Rotation Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University of California, Berkeley, provides a description of the study of stellar motion around the center of a galaxy, and includes a graph of rotational speed versus distance from the center. The site relates this study to the prediction of dark matter. The page also gives explanations of other lines of evidence for dark matter. ____________________________________

White, Martin

2008-08-04

243

Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, a cellular catabolic pathway, is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Central to this process is the formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicles responsible for delivering long-lived proteins and excess or damaged organelle into the lysosome for degradation and reuse of the resulting macromolecules. In addition to the hallmark discovery of core molecular machinery components involved in autophagosome formation, complex signaling cascades controlling autophagy have also begun to emerge, with mTOR as a central but far from exclusive player. Malfunction of autophagy has been linked to a wide range of human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration and pathogen infection. Here we highlight recent advances in identifying and understanding the core molecular machinery and signaling pathways that are involved in mammalian autophagy.

Yang, Zhifen; Klionsky, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

244

The Architectural Organization of Human Stem Cell Cycle Regulatory Machinery  

PubMed Central

Two striking features of human embryonic stem cells that support biological activity are an abbreviated cell cycle and reduced complexity to nuclear organization. The potential implications for rapid proliferation of human embryonic stem cells within the context of sustaining pluripotency, suppressing phenotypic gene expression and linkage to simplicity in the architectural compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is explored. Characterization of the molecular and architectural commitment steps that license human embryonic stem cells to initiate histone gene expression is providing understanding of the principal regulatory mechanisms that control the G1/S phase transition in primitive pluripotent cells. From both fundamental regulatory and clinical perspectives, further understanding of the pluripotent cell cycle in relation to compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is relevant to applications of stem cells for regenerative medicine and new dimensions to therapy where traditional drug discovery strategies have been minimally effective.

Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Wijnen, Andre van J; Lian, Jane B.; Montecino, Martin; Medina, Ricardo; Kapinas, Kristie; Ghule, Prachi; Grandy, Rodrigo; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Becker, Klaus A.

2013-01-01

245

Machinery and China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an interpretation of China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth that centres around technological development. Evidence, mainly related to the performance of the machinery sector, is presented indicating that the phenomenal export expansion is not reducible to a market-centred trade regime, and that the standard thesis of export-led growth would not apply-the contribution of trade to

Dic Lo; Thomas M. H. Chan

1998-01-01

246

CAI - multimedia approach to farm tractor and machinery safety certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted at Purdue University with the primary goal to compare a newly developed self-instructional CAI\\/multimedia computer program with traditional instructional methods for use by youth enrolled in a farm tractor and machinery safety program. Seventy-two subjects selected from three 8th and 9th grade agricultural education classes and one group of middle school-aged youth (grades 6–19) involved in a

Roger L. Tormoehlen; Ernest J. Sheldon; William E. Field

1999-01-01

247

The research of dynamic agricultural machinery working area measure system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method of area-measurement system of farm machineries was proposed through the study of field test data, and a dynamic vehicle field area-measurement system based on GPS-OEM was built. In the test, the system represented (presented) high speed of information collection and high area measure accuracy with the error rate lower than 2%. The portability and convenience of this

Zhuo Wei; Fang Yang; Li Zhang

2011-01-01

248

Resolving problems of high vibration in hydroelectric machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vibrations in hydroelectric machinery often will necessitate derating of a unit's capacity so that it remains in acceptable operating condition. Such was the case at B.C. Hydro's 700-MW Peace Canyon Generating Station. At this station, a 175-MW turbine-generator experienced high stator split-phase currents on cold starts and high turbine bearing vibration at high loads. The vibration, measured at 24

1993-01-01

249

Molecular Dissection of the Clathrin-Endocytosis Machinery in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the endocytic vesicular uptake in plant cells has gained increasing significance\\u000a in several physiological processes. Therefore, an insight into plant clathrin endocytosis at the\\u000a molecular level is essential. Plants do contain homologs to several key proteins of the mammalian\\u000a clathrin-dependent endocytosis machinery, but so far only very few have been functionally characterized.\\u000a Thus, this chapter

Susanne E. H. Holstein

250

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

251

Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

2014-06-01

252

Rotation Matrices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to introduce the concept of using matrix multiplication to rotate vectors in two-dimensional space; to provide motivation for the definition of matrix multiplication; to lay the groundwork for using matrices to work with graphics. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Smith, David

2010-05-24

253

Rotational Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of rotational equilibrium. Learners work in teams to estimate and determine the force within a mobile design. Learners solve algebraic equations, apply graphing techniques, compare results and discuss findings. Designing the mobile requires learners to solve a set of two linear algebraic equations. Learners solve the equations using three different methods: by substitution, by graphing the equations and finding the intersection, and by using determinants.

Ieee

2013-07-08

254

Rotating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these problems, two people ride on a merry-go-round (radius fixed at 10 m..it's big!). One rider tosses a ball toward the other. The period of motion can be varied as can the initial velocity of the ball, relative to rider. One of the problems is to select the initial velocity of the ball so that it passes through center of the merry-go-round. Another is for the rider who throws the ball to catch it him/herself after exactly half a rotation.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

255

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium in my drinking water? How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy ... health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? A Food and Drug Administration publication, " Scouting for ...

256

Optical control and diagnostics sensors for gas turbine machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a vast range of optical techniques that have been under development for solving complex measurement problems related to gas-turbine machinery and phenomena. For instance, several optical techniques are ideally suited for studying fundamental combustion phenomena in laboratory environments. Yet other techniques hold significant promise for use as either on-line gas turbine control sensors, or as health monitoring diagnostics sensors. In this paper, we briefly summarize these and discuss, in more detail, some of the latter class of techniques, including phosphor thermometry, hyperspectral imaging and low coherence interferometry, which are particularly suited for control and diagnostics sensing on hot section components with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

Trolinger, James D.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Heeg, Bauke

2012-10-01

257

Validation of vibration measurements for heavy duty machinery diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latest development of distributed condition monitoring for heavy duty machinery has revealed a major challenge concerning reliable data acquisition. Due to frequent failures of diagnostic algorithms caused by incorrectly registered data, validation of vibration signals became a very attractive field of research. The paper shows how classical data acquisition procedures might be enhanced by implementation of signal validation methods based on both machine process parameters signals and machine vibration signals. Presented validation covers analysis of process parameters, data stability constrains and also independent and comparative validation of vibration signals. Benefits of applied techniques are illustrated on real data from a wind turbine.

Jablonski, A.; Barszcz, T.

2013-07-01

258

Impact of the Autophagy Machinery on Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a cellular process that catabolizes cytoplasmic components and maintains energy homeostasis. As a stress response, the autophagy machinery interconnects a wide range of cellular pathways, enhancing the spread of certain pathogens while limiting others, and has become a highly active research area over the past several years. Independent laboratories have recently reported that autophagy vesicles accumulate in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected cells and that autophagy proteins can function as proviral factors required for HCV replication. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the interplay between autophagy and HCV and the possible mechanisms whereby autophagy proteins might favor HCV propagation.

Dreux, Marlene; Chisari, Francis V.

2011-01-01

259

Noise-enhanced energy transduction of molecular machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically investigated the enhance effect of noise on the energy transduction of molecular machinery. The energy transduction is enhanced with the increase of relative amplitude of the limit-cycle oscillation in polymer chain. And noise can enlarge the relative amplitude through a mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR). In the simulation, two different types of SR, internal signal SR (ISSR) and explicit ISSR (EISSR) are studied, respectively. And the similarity as well as difference between them was presented. The potential application of the enhance effect of energy transduction is then discussed.

Wang, Zhiwei; Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

2002-08-01

260

Solubilities of Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite, and Sodium Aluminate in Simulated Nuclear Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate...

D. A. Reynolds D. L. Herting

1984-01-01

261

The rotating rake fan mode measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental measurement system was developed and implemented by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the 1990s. The system is a continuously rotating radial rake immersed into the duct. This rotating rake provides a complete map of the acoustic duct modes present in a ducted fan and has been used on a variety of test articles: from a low-speed, concept test rig to a full-scale production turbofan engine. The rotating rake has been critical in developing and evaluating a number of noise reduction concepts as well as providing experimental databases for verification of several aero-acoustic codes. This paper will describe the physical theory (Sofrin) and the analytical techniques (Moore) upon which the rotating rake is based will be described. Data processing and analysis as well as implementation issues will be discussed. Several Rotating Rake systems have been custom built for 3 facilities. In order of complexity of the turbo machinery test article, these are (1) the Advanced Noise Control Fan, (2) various 22-inch fan rigs in the NASA Glenn 9×15 wind tunnel, and (3) a full scale turbofan, the Honeywell TFE-731-60. Descriptions and measurement achievements of these systems will be provided (Heidelberg, Sutliff).

Sutliff, Daniel

2003-10-01

262

Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

2014-01-01

263

The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs' mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

Villicaña, Claudia; Cruz, Grisel; Zurita, Mario

2014-01-01

264

Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

2004-12-01

265

Abnormalities in the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

We have recently described the progressive and selective loss of the presynaptic protein complexin II in brains of mice (R6/2) transgenic for the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation. Here we have determined the expression of components of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery in the striatum and hippocampus from post-mortem brains of HD cases and neurologically normal controls. As in the brains of R6/2 mice, complexin II was markedly depleted in the HD striatum; the depletion was compartmentally organized, with complexin II-poor regions corresponding with areas of low immunoreactivity toward the matrix marker calbindin D(28K). Decreases in the levels of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein synaptobrevin 2 and of rab3A were also seen, but none of the other proteins tested was significantly affected. In the hippocampus, levels of complexin II, synaptobrevin 2, rab3A, and also of alpha-SNAP, were markedly elevated in HD brains. We suggest that the observed abnormalities in the expression of proteins known to be involved in the control of neurotransmitter release, including both modulators and core components of the vesicle fusion machinery, might account for at least some of the functional abnormalities seen in HD. PMID:11704347

Morton, A J; Faull, R L; Edwardson, J M

2001-09-15

266

LTP requires a unique postsynaptic SNARE fusion machinery.  

PubMed

Membrane fusion during exocytosis is mediated by assemblies of SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins. The SNARE/SM proteins involved in vesicle fusion during neurotransmitter release are well understood, whereas little is known about the protein machinery that mediates activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) exocytosis during long-term potentiation (LTP). Using direct measurements of LTP in acute hippocampal slices and an in vitro LTP model of stimulated AMPAR exocytosis, we demonstrate that the Q-SNARE proteins syntaxin-3 and SNAP-47 are required for regulated AMPAR exocytosis during LTP but not for constitutive basal AMPAR exocytosis. In contrast, the R-SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 contributes to both regulated and constitutive AMPAR exocytosis. Both the central complexin-binding and the N-terminal Munc18-binding sites of syntaxin-3 are essential for its postsynaptic role in LTP. Thus, postsynaptic exocytosis of AMPARs during LTP is mediated by a unique fusion machinery that is distinct from that used during presynaptic neurotransmitter release. PMID:23395379

Jurado, Sandra; Goswami, Debanjan; Zhang, Yingsha; Molina, Alfredo J Miñano; Südhof, Thomas C; Malenka, Robert C

2013-02-01

267

LTP Requires a Unique Postsynaptic SNARE Fusion Machinery  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Membrane fusion during exocytosis is mediated by assemblies of SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins. The SNARE/SM proteins involved in vesicle fusion during neurotransmitter release are well understood, whereas little is known about the protein machinery that mediates activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) exocytosis during long-term potentiation (LTP). Using direct measurements of LTP in acute hippocampal slices and an in vitro LTP model of stimulated AMPAR exocytosis, we demonstrate that the Q-SNARE proteins syntaxin-3 and SNAP-47 are required for regulated AMPAR exocytosis during LTP but not for constitutive basal AMPAR exocytosis. In contrast, the R-SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 contributes to both regulated and constitutive AMPAR exocytosis. Both the central complexin-binding and N-terminal Munc18-binding sites of syntaxin-3 are essential for its postsynaptic role in LTP. Thus, postsynaptic exocytosis of AMPARs during LTP is mediated by a unique fusion machinery that is distinct from that used during presynaptic neurotransmitter release.

Jurado, Sandra; Goswami, Debanjan; Zhang, Yingsha; Minano Molina, Alfredo J.; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Malenka, Robert C.

2012-01-01

268

Regulation of alternative splicing by the core spliceosomal machinery  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein SmB/B? self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B? in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of additional alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA-binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors.

Saltzman, Arneet L.; Pan, Qun; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

2011-01-01

269

Molecular Genetics of the RNA Polymerase II General Transcriptional Machinery  

PubMed Central

Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) requires interaction between cis-acting promoter elements and trans-acting factors. The eukaryotic promoter consists of core elements, which include the TATA box and other DNA sequences that define transcription start sites, and regulatory elements, which either enhance or repress transcription in a gene-specific manner. The core promoter is the site for assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex, which includes RNA pol II and the general transcription fctors TBP, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH. Regulatory elements bind gene-specific factors, which affect the rate of transcription by interacting, either directly or indirectly, with components of the general transcriptional machinery. A third class of transcription factors, termed coactivators, is not required for basal transcription in vitro but often mediates activation by a broad spectrum of activators. Accordingly, coactivators are neither gene-specific nor general transcription factors, although gene-specific coactivators have been described in metazoan systems. Transcriptional repressors include both gene-specific and general factors. Similar to coactivators, general transcriptional repressors affect the expression of a broad spectrum of genes yet do not repress all genes. General repressors either act through the core transcriptional machinery or are histone related and presumably affect chromatin function. This review focuses on the global effectors of RNA polymerase II transcription in yeast, including the general transcription factors, the coactivators, and the general repressors. Emphasis is placed on the role that yeast genetics has played in identifying these factors and their associated functions.

Hampsey, Michael

1998-01-01

270

Hospital costs associated with agricultural machinery injuries in Ontario.  

PubMed

To assist those responsible for agricultural safety, we: (1) piloted an approach to costing hospitalized farm injuries; and, (2) described ambulance and inpatient costs associated with these injuries in Ontario. Hospital discharge records (hospital separations) for farm machinery injuries in Ontario (n = 1,610) were identified by ICD9-CM E-codes for 1985-1993. Ambulance costs were estimated by the Ontario Ministry of Health. For each case, the hospital costs were calculated by multiplying the case-specific resource intensity weight by the average inpatient cost per weighted case. The costs (1993 Canadian dollars) ranged from $768 to $62,643 and totaled $6.9 million over the study period. Males accounted for 89.8% of the total costs. Tractor injuries accounted for a large proportion of costs (34.3%). The median costs per case varied by type of machinery, ranging from $2,043 for ploughs/disks to $3,366 for augers. Entanglement injuries were responsible for the largest proportion of costs (40.7%), while tractor rollovers accounted for the highest median cost ($3,065). Although these figures represent a fraction of the total costs associated with farm injuries, the results provide one basis from which to justify and target preventive initiatives. This approach to costing may also be widely applicable to other health issues. PMID:9327074

Hartling, L; Pickett, W; Dorland, J; Brison, R J

1997-11-01

271

A task-based analysis of machinery entanglement injuries among Western Canadian farmers.  

PubMed

Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts. PMID:21958400

Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

2011-10-01

272

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

273

Geluid van Elektrische Machines (Noise from Electrical Machinery),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of a study of the literature on noise emissions from rotating electric machines and energy transformers. Noise-abatement possibilities are also inventarized. National and international noise emission limits are given for bo...

I. J. C. Tukker

1987-01-01

274

Regulation of Host Translational Machinery by African Swine Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2?, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV protein production in infected cells.

Castello, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sanchez, Elena G.; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

2009-01-01

275

Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.  

PubMed

African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV protein production in infected cells. PMID:19714237

Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

2009-08-01

276

Programmable genetic switches to control transcriptional machinery of pluripotency.  

PubMed

Transcriptional activators play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and have the ability to manipulate the specification of cell fate. Pluripotency is a transient state where a cell has the potential to develop into more than one type of mature cell. The induction of pluripotency in differentiated cells requires extensive chromatin reorganization regulated by core transcriptional machinery. Several small molecules have been shown to enhance the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotent stem cells. However, entirely chemical-based reprogramming remains elusive. Recently, we reported that selective DNA-binding hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides conjugated with histone deacetylase inhibitor could mimic natural transcription factors and epigenetically activate certain pluripotency-associated genes. Here, we review the need to develop selective chromatin-modifying transcriptional activators for somatic genome reprogramming. PMID:22588775

Pandian, Ganesh N; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2012-06-01

277

The synapse and cytolytic machinery of cytotoxic T cells  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rapidly kill target cells via the release of lytic granules into the immunological synapse, a process directed by the docking of the centrosome at the plasma membrane. New evidence highlights how signal strength and avidity influence the recruitment of cytolytic machinery to the synapse, and the role of each synaptic compartment. Release of cytolytic effector proteins, including perforin and FasL, is controlled at multiple levels and is also influenced by the avidity of the interaction. New imaging technologies and the use of photoactivatable peptides have allowed the dissection of signalling molecules involved in each step of the cytolytic process. This review highlights the important role of avidity in controlling how a T cell kills its target.

Jenkins, Misty R; Griffiths, Gillian M

2014-01-01

278

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

279

Ketamine regulates the presynaptic release machinery in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr286-phosphorylated ?CaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine.

Muller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A.; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina

2013-01-01

280

Membrane fusion in cells: molecular machinery and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Membrane fusion is a sine qua non process for cell physiology. It is critical for membrane biogenesis, intracellular traffic, and cell secretion. Although investigated for over a century, only in the last 15 years, the molecular machinery and mechanism of membrane fusion has been deciphered. The membrane fusion event elicits essentially three actors on stage: anionic phospholipids - phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidyl serines, specific membrane proteins, and the calcium ions, all participating in a well orchestrated symphony. Three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)-attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) have been implicated in membrane fusion. Target membrane proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin (t- SNARE) and secretory vesicle-associated membrane protein (v-SNARE) or VAMPwere discovered in the 1990's and suggested to be the minimal fusion machinery. Subsequently, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion was discovered. It was demonstrated that when t-SNARE-associated lipid membrane is exposed to v-SNARE-associated vesicles in the presence of Ca(2+), the SNARE proteins interact in a circular array to form conducting channels, thus establishing continuity between the opposing bilayers. Further it was proved that SNAREs bring opposing bilayers close to within a distance of 2-3 Angstroms, allowing Ca(2+) to bridge them. The bridging of bilayers by Ca(2+) then leads to the expulsion of water between the bilayers at the contact site, allowing lipid mixing and membrane fusion. Calcium bridging of opposing bilayers leads to the release of water, both from the water shell of hydrated Ca(2+) ions, as well as the displacement of loosely coordinated water at the phosphate head groups in the lipid membrane. These discoveries provided for the first time, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion in cells. Some of the seminal discoveries are briefly discussed in this minireview. PMID:16796809

Leabu, M

2006-01-01

281

Why are there so many diverse replication machineries?  

PubMed

The replicon model has initiated a major research line in molecular biology: the study of DNA replication mechanisms. Until now, the majority of studies have focused on a limited set of model organisms, mainly from Bacteria or Opisthokont eukaryotes (human, yeasts) and a few viral systems. However, molecular evolutionists have shown that the living world is more complex and diverse than believed when the operon model was proposed. Comparison of DNA replication proteins in the three domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, have surprisingly revealed the existence of two distinct sets of non-homologous cellular DNA replication proteins, one in Bacteria and the other in Archaea and Eukarya, suggesting that the last universal common ancestor possibly still had an RNA genome. A major puzzle is the presence in eukaryotes of the unfaithful DNA polymerase alpha (Pol ?) to prime Okazaki fragments. Interestingly, Pol ? is specifically involved in telomere biosynthesis, and its absence in Archaea correlates with the absence of telomeres. The recent discovery of telomere-like GC quartets in eukaryotic replication origins suggests a link between Pol ? and the overall organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. As previously proposed by Takemura, Pol ? might have originated from a mobile element of viral origin that played a critical role in the emergence of the complex eukaryotic genomes. Notably, most large DNA viruses encode DNA replication proteins very divergent from their cellular counterparts. The diversity of viral replication machineries compared to cellular ones suggests that DNA and DNA replication mechanisms first originated and diversified in the ancient virosphere, possibly explaining why they are so many different types of replication machinerie. PMID:24075868

Forterre, Patrick

2013-11-29

282

Ketamine regulates the presynaptic release machinery in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr(286)-phosphorylated ?CaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. PMID:23548331

Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina

2013-07-01

283

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat increased amounts of potassium in the body. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be used as ...

284

Sodium blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and ... than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

285

Residents Manual - Extramural Rotation  

Cancer.gov

Residents perform autopsy service at Suburban Hospital while concurrently rotating through the NIH Autopsy rotation. Residents also perform neonatal autopsies at Children's National Medical Center, during the Pediatric Pathology rotation (see below).

286

Fuel use and emissions for non road machinery in Denmark 1985- 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the new Danish 1985-2020 emission inventory for non road machinery. Stock and operational data are from different statistical sources, research institutes, relevant professional bodies and machinery manufacturers. Updated fuel use and emission factors originate from various measurement programmes. Future factors are tailored to the current EU emission legislation. Beyond the basic calculation approach, the emission computations take

Morten WINTHER; Ole-Kenneth Nielsen

287

Modulation of an Early Step in the Secretory Machinery in Hippocampal Nerve Terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hippocampal neurons, neurotransmitter release can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) through a direct action on the secretory machinery. To identify the site of PKA modulation, we have taken advantage of the ability of the neurotoxin Botulinum A to cleave the synaptic protein SNAP-25. Cleavage of this protein decreases the Ca2+ responsiveness of the secretory machinery by partially

Louis-Eric Trudeau; Yu Fang; Philip G. Haydon

1998-01-01

288

46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL. 32.56-30 Section 32.56-30 Shipping COAST...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decksâT/ALL. (a) Bulkheads and decks that separate category A...

2013-10-01

289

Machinery Repairman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Rate Training Manual (textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Machinery Repairman Third Class and Second Class. The 15 chapters in the textbook are (1) Scope of the Machinery Repairman Rating; (2) Toolrooms and Tools; (3) Layout and…

Bynum, Michael H.; Taylor, Edward A.

290

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineerâT/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2013-10-01

291

An Analysis of the Skills Required of Agricultural Mechanics at Retail Farm Machinery Dealerships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine needs for teaching various competencies in agricultural mechanics courses, a study was conducted to determine the types and frequencies of service/repair operations performed by an Arizona agricultural machinery company from January 1 to June 30, 1981. Data were obtained from 1,232 service orders at the Arizona Machinery

Jacobs, Clinton O.; Mulcahy, John V.

292

The Negro in the Farm Equipment and Construction Machinery Industries. The Racial Policies of American Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study covers two related industries in which Negro employment has historical roots, the farm machinery and construction machinery industries. As in several other studies in this series, emphasis is on the major companies in the industries. This emphasis may reflect a more favorable picture of black employment progress than the average, due to…

Ozanne, Robert; Klemp, Elsa

293

Opportunities and Requirements for Entry into the Agricultural Machinery Mechanics Trade. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data about the farm machinery mechanics trade were obtained from 51 managers of farm machinery dealerships in Texas to determine the content that should be included in courses of study designed to train persons to enter the occupation, and to obtain information about the occupation that would be useful to persons considering the trade as an…

Webb, Earl S.

294

HYDRAULIC POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING BASIC HYDRAULICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

295

Assessment of machinery energy ratio in potato production by means of artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single hidden layer Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to estimate a machinery energy ratio (MER) indicator, used to characterize and assess mechanization status of potato farms in Iran with a view point of energy expenditure in farm machinery. A wide range of variables of farming activities were examined. Initially, 90 attributes were used as input variables to

M. Zangeneh; M. Omid; A. Akram

2010-01-01

296

On the rotational operators in protein structure simulations.  

PubMed

The reduction of the computational complexity of the algorithms dealing with protein structure analysis and conformation predictions is of prime importance. One common element in most of these algorithms is the process of transforming geometrical information between dihedral angles and Cartesian coordinates of the atoms in the protein using rotational operators. In the literature, the operators used in protein structures are rotation matrices, quaternions in vector and matrix forms and the Rodrigues-Gibbs formula. In the protein structure-related literature, the most widely promoted rotational operator is the quaternions operator. In this work, we studied the computational efficiency of the mathematical operations of the above rotational operators applied to protein structures. A similar study applied to protein structures has not been reported previously. We concluded that the computational efficiency of these rotational operators applied to protein chains is different from those reported for other applications (such as mechanical machinery) and the conclusions are not analogous. Rotation matrices are the most efficient mathematical operators in the protein chains. We examined our findings in two protein molecules: Ab1 tyrosine kinase and heparin-binding growth factor 2. We found that the rotation matrix operator has between 2 and 187% fewer mathematical operations than the other rotational operators. PMID:14600200

Alvarado, Carlos; Kazerounian, Kazem

2003-10-01

297

Genome-Scale Modeling of the Protein Secretory Machinery in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.

Feizi, Amir; Osterlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

298

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of liothyronine sodium and levothyroxine sodium in tablet formulations: preliminary studies on dissolution and content uniformity.  

PubMed

Levothyroxine sodium was estimated from tablet formulations of levothyroxine sodium and liotrix (liothyronine sodium-levothyroxine sodium combination tablet). The procedures consisted of the addition of 3,3-,5-triiodothyronine as the internal standard to the pulverized sample, followed by an acidic butanol extraction, evaporation, and injection onto a muBondapak reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic column. The eluent was methanol-water-phosphoric acid (50:50:0.1), and the effluent was monitored by UV detection at 254 nm. A standard linear calibration curve was obtained for direct standard solutions equivalent to 18-225 micrograms of levothyroxine sodium/tablet. The procedure is sensitive enough for single-tablet analysis. Using this procedure, content uniformity studies were performed on liothyronine sodium tablets, levothyroxine sodium tablets, and liotrix tablets. The procedure also was adapted for conducting dissolution studies on levothyroxine sodium tablets in deionized water using the rotating-paddle method. PMID:7205213

Rapaka, R S; Knight, P W; Prasad, V K

1981-02-01

299

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. 167...Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a boiler of a nautical school ship the...

2013-10-01

300

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-12-01

301

Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders  

PubMed Central

Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.

2012-01-01

302

Single molecule studies of the neuronal SNARE fusion machinery  

PubMed Central

SNAREs are essential components of the machinery for Ca2+-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in neurotransmitter release into the synaptic cleft. While much is known about their biophysical and structural properties and their interactions with accessory proteins such as the Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin, their precise role in membrane fusion remains an enigma. Ensemble studies of liposomes with reconstituted SNAREs have demonstrated that SNAREs and accessory proteins can trigger lipid mixing/fusion, but the inability to study individual fusion events has precluded molecular insights into the fusion process. Thus, this field is ripe for studies with single molecule methodology. In this review we discuss first applications of single-molecule approaches to observe reconstituted SNAREs, their complexes, associated proteins, and their effect on biological membranes. Some of the findings are provocative, such the possibility of parallel and anti-parallel SNARE complexes, or vesicle docking with only syntaxin and synaptobrevin, but have been confirmed by other experiments.

Brunger, Axel T.; Weninger, Keith; Bowen, Mark; Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

303

Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis  

SciTech Connect

Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs.

Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

1989-01-01

304

Mental Rotation, Pictured Rotation, and Tandem Rotation in Depth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mental rotation effect in depth is qualitatively different from mental rotation in the picture plane. The magnitude of angular difference in depth that is depicted between two static shapes has been thought to predict mean response time for same-diffe...

K. K. Niall

1997-01-01

305

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

LYNN, FRANK

306

Numerical analysis of free vibrations of damped rotating structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the efficient numerical solution of damped and undamped free vibration problems of rotating structures. While structural discretization is achieved by the finite element method, the associated eigenproblem solution is effected by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that enables the computation of a few required roots only without having to compute any other. For structures of complex configurations, a modal synthesis technique is also presented, which is based on appropriate combinations of eigenproblem solution of various structural components. Such numerical procedures are general in nature, which fully exploit matrix sparsity inherent in finite element discretizations, and prove to be most efficient for the vibration analysis of any damped rotating structure, such as rotating machineries, helicopter and turbine blades, spinning space stations, among others.

Gupta, K. K.

1977-01-01

307

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

308

Damping lateral vibrations in rotary machinery using motor speed modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines a new principle for damping lateral vibrations of rotary systems. According to this principle, no changes in the visco-elastic properties of the system to be damped are required. The method is based on the generation of a harmonic additive to the constant speed of rotation that provides significant damping of lateral vibrations at critical speeds of rotation. This concept is validated analytically using the method of averaging and additionally with the help of direct numerical integration. The solution is shown to represent Fourier series containing Bessel functions. Consequently, proper choice of the parameters of the additional harmonic component ensuring that the Bessel functions have minimum values results from a minimization of the solution itself. Thus, the analytical solution and numerical results prove this concept by showing an essential decrease of the amplitudes of lateral vibrations of the damped system compared with those of the undamped system. The physical explanation of this effect is presented.

Verichev, Nikolai N.; Verichev, Stanislav N.; Erofeyev, Vladimir I.

2010-01-01

309

Sodium fill of FFTF  

SciTech Connect

With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective.

Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

1980-02-01

310

Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex.  

PubMed

Mutation plays the primary role in evolution that Weismann mistakenly attributed to sex. Homologous recombination, as in sex, is important for population genetics--shuffling of minor variants, but relatively insignificant for large-scale evolution. Major evolutionary innovations depend much more on illegitimate recombination, which makes novel genes by gene duplication and by gene chimaerisation--essentially mutational forces. The machinery of recombination and sex evolved in two distinct bouts of quantum evolution separated by nearly 3 Gy of stasis; I discuss their nature and causes. The dominant selective force in the evolution of recombination and sex has been selection for replicational fidelity and viability; without the recombination machinery, accurate reproduction, stasis, resistance to radical deleterious evolutionary change and preservation of evolutionary innovations would be impossible. Recombination proteins betray in their phylogeny and domain structure a key role for gene duplication and chimaerisation in their own origin. They arose about 3.8 Gy ago to enable faithful replication and segregation of the first circular DNA genomes in precellular ancestors of Gram-negative eubacteria. Then they were recruited and modified by selfish genetic parasites (viruses; transposons) to help them spread from host to host. Bacteria differ fundamentally from eukaryotes in that gene transfer between cells, whether incidental to their absorptive feeding on DNA and virus infection or directly by plasmids, involves only genomic fragments. This was radically changed by the neomuran revolution about 850 million years ago when a posibacterium evolved into the thermophilic cenancestor of eukaryotes and archaebacteria (jointly called neomurans), radically modifying or substituting its DNA-handling enzymes (those responsible for transcription as well as for replication, repair and recombination) as a coadaptive consequence of the origin of core histones to stabilise its chromosome. Substitution of glycoprotein for peptidoglycan walls in the neomuran ancestor and the evolution of an endoskeleton and endomembrane system in eukaryotes alone required the origin of nuclei, mitosis and novel cell cycle controls and enabled them to evolve cell fusion and thereby the combination of whole genomes from different cells. Meiosis evolved because of resulting selection for periodic ploidy reduction, with incidental consequences for intrapopulation genetic exchange. Little modification was needed to recombination enzymes or to the ancient bacterial catalysts of homology search by spontaneous base pairing to mediate chromosome pairing. The key innovation was the origin of meiotic cohesins delaying centromere splitting to allow two successive divisions before reversion to vegetative growth and replication, necessarily yielding two-step meiosis. Also significant was the evolution of synaptonemal complexes to stabilise bivalents and of monopolins to orient sister centromeres to one spindle pole. The primary significance of sex was not to promote evolutionary change but to limit it by facilitating ploidy cycles to balance the conflicting selective forces acting on rapidly growing phagotrophic protozoa and starved dormant cysts subject to radiation and other damage. PMID:11932771

Cavalier-Smith, T

2002-02-01

311

An oxygen-regulated switch in the protein synthesis machinery.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis involves the translation of ribonucleic acid information into proteins, the building blocks of life. The initial step of protein synthesis is the binding of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the 7-methylguanosine (m(7)-GpppG) 5'?cap of messenger RNAs. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) represses cap-mediated translation by sequestering eIF4E through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the internal ribosome entry site is an alternative translation initiation mechanism, this pathway alone cannot account for the translational capacity of hypoxic cells. This raises a fundamental question in biology as to how proteins are synthesized in periods of oxygen scarcity and eIF4E inhibition. Here we describe an oxygen-regulated translation initiation complex that mediates selective cap-dependent protein synthesis. We show that hypoxia stimulates the formation of a complex that includes the oxygen-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?), the RNA-binding protein RBM4 and the cap-binding eIF4E2, an eIF4E homologue. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis identified an RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE) that recruits this complex to a wide array of mRNAs, including that encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor. Once assembled at the rHRE, the HIF-2?-RBM4-eIF4E2 complex captures the 5'?cap and targets mRNAs to polysomes for active translation, thereby evading hypoxia-induced repression of protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that cells have evolved a program by which oxygen tension switches the basic translation initiation machinery. PMID:22678294

Uniacke, James; Holterman, Chet E; Lachance, Gabriel; Franovic, Aleksandra; Jacob, Mathieu D; Fabian, Marc R; Payette, Josianne; Holcik, Martin; Pause, Arnim; Lee, Stephen

2012-06-01

312

Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins. PMID:23603359

da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

2013-04-01

313

Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.  

PubMed

The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more detailed mathematical models. PMID:24244124

Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

2013-11-01

314

The Unconventional Xer Recombination Machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination between circular sister chromosomes during DNA replication in bacteria can generate chromosome dimers that must be resolved into monomers prior to cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif) located at the junction of the two replication arms. Xer recombination is tightly controlled by the septal protein FtsK. XerCD recombinases and FtsK are found on most sequenced eubacterial genomes, suggesting that the Xer recombination system as described in E. coli is highly conserved among prokaryotes. We show here that Streptococci and Lactococci carry an alternative Xer recombination machinery, organized in a single recombination module. This corresponds to an atypical 31-bp recombination site (difSL) associated with a dedicated tyrosine recombinase (XerS). In contrast to the E. coli Xer system, only a single recombinase is required to recombine difSL, suggesting a different mechanism in the recombination process. Despite this important difference, XerS can only perform efficient recombination when difSL sites are located on chromosome dimers. Moreover, the XerS/difSL recombination requires the streptococcal protein FtsKSL, probably without the need for direct protein-protein interaction, which we demonstrated to be located at the division septum of Lactococcus lactis. Acquisition of the XerS recombination module can be considered as a landmark of the separation of Streptococci/Lactococci from other firmicutes and support the view that Xer recombination is a conserved cellular function in bacteria, but that can be achieved by functional analogs.

Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Bugarel, Marie; Campo, Nathalie; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Labonte, Jessica; Lanfranchi, Daniel; Lautier, Thomas; Pages, Carine; Ritzenthaler, Paul

2007-01-01

315

Control apparatus for textile dyeing and tufting machinery  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Apparatus for developing multi-colored complex patterns in textile carpets formed by a yarn tufting operation, employing a scanner to scan and record color data from replicas or artists' renditions of the patterns to be tufted, a programmable read only memory to store the color data descriptive of the scanned patterns after electronic digitizing of the data, and a microprocessor and logic circuits to select a desired pattern from the memory and provide the color data for the selected pattern to individual yarn control assemblies at spaced dyeing stations of different colors. Individual yarn ends passing through the spaced dye stations are selectively dyed along their length at predetermined positions according to the color data provided to the yarn control assemblies at the spaced dye stations, the yarn ends then being delivered to a tufting machine to produce the selected multi-colored complex pattern. Delivery of color data from memory is controlled by the displacement of the backing applied to the carpet, by means of clocks generated by the backing linear displacement. Delivery of color data to the yarn control assemblies at each dye station, for dyeing of each yarn end at predetermined positions along its length, is controlled by the displacement of the yarn. Clocks are generated by the yarn linear displacement and control logic circuits to delay delivery of color information to the yarn control assemblies at each dye station depending upon the physical displacement of that station in relation to the other dye stations. Logic circuits are provided to eliminate vibrational and reverse motion effects on the backing and yarn clocks, and to compensate for low yarn speed on starting and/or stopping of the machinery. Logic circuits also are provided to interchange the colors in the pattern of a tufted carpet produced from a given selected pattern that has been scanned.

1978-08-15

316

DNA-uptake machinery of naturally competent Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Natural competence for transformation is a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is commonly used by bacteria to take up DNA from their environment. As part of this developmental program, so-called competence genes, which encode the components of a DNA-uptake machinery, are expressed. Several models have been proposed for the DNA-uptake complexes of competent bacteria, and most include a type IV (pseudo)pilus as a core component. However, cell-biology–based approaches to visualizing competence proteins have so far been restricted to Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the visualization of a competence-induced pilus in the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We show that piliated cells mostly contain a single pilus that is not biased toward a polar localization and that this pilus colocalizes with the outer membrane secretin PilQ. PilQ, on the other hand, forms several foci around the cell and occasionally colocalizes with the dynamic cytoplasmic-traffic ATPase PilB, which is required for pilus extension. We also determined the minimum competence regulon of V. cholerae, which includes at least 19 genes. Bacteria with mutations in those genes were characterized with respect to the presence of surface-exposed pili, DNA uptake, and natural transformability. Based on these phenotypes, we propose that DNA uptake in naturally competent V. cholerae cells occurs in at least two steps: a pilus-dependent translocation of the incoming DNA across the outer membrane and a pilus-independent shuttling of the DNA through the periplasm and into the cytoplasm.

Seitz, Patrick; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-01-01

317

Blastocyst implantation failure relates to impaired translational machinery gene expression.  

PubMed

Oocyte quality is a well-established determinant of embryonic fate. However, the molecular participants and biological markers that affect and may predict adequate embryonic development are largely elusive. Our aim was to identify the components of the oocyte molecular machinery that part take in the production of a healthy embryo. For this purpose, we used an animal model, generated by us previously, the oocytes of which do not express Cx43 (Cx43(del/del)). In these mice, oogenesis appears normal, fertilisation does occur, early embryonic development is successful but implantation fails. We used magnetic resonance imaging analysis combined with histological examination to characterise the embryonic developmental incompetence. Reciprocal embryo transfer confirmed that the blastocyst evolved from the Cx43(del/del) oocyte is responsible for the implantation disorder. In order to unveil the genes, the impaired expression of which brings about the development of defective embryos, we carried out a genomic screening of both the oocytes and the resulting blastocysts. This microarray analysis revealed a low expression of Egr1, Rpl21 and Eif4a1 in Cx43(del/del) oocytes and downregulation of Rpl15 and Eif4g2 in the resulting blastocysts. We propose that global deficiencies in genes related to the expression of ribosomal proteins and translation initiation factors in apparently normal oocytes bring about accumulation of defects, which significantly compromise their developmental capacity. The blastocysts resulting from such oocytes, which grow within a confined space until implantation, may be unable to generate enough biological mass to allow their expansion. This information could be implicated to diagnosis and treatment of infertility, particularly to IVF. PMID:24700326

Plaks, Vicki; Gershon, Eran; Zeisel, Amit; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Neeman, Michal; Winterhager, Elke; Rechavi, Gideon; Domany, Eytan; Dekel, Nava

2014-07-01

318

Kinetic modeling of sodium in the exosphere of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovered more that 20 years ago Mercury's sodium exosphere is characterized by rapid variations determined by planet's orbital motion and rotation. Because collisions are rare, the sodium atom velocity distribution is determined by a unique combination of radiation pressure, source and loss processes, and the interaction with the surface. Neutral sodium atoms injected into the exosphere can be photo-ionized by solar radiation. These ions have been recently observed by FIPS instrument onboard of MESSENGER, and can help in a better understanding of the nature of the source processes as well as the structure of the neutral exosphere itself. A detailed theoretical study of the sodium distribution in the exosphere requires numerical modeling. Having kinetic theory as a physical basis, our exospheric Monte Carlo model preserves the kinetic nature of these exospheric processes. The distinctive features of the model include accounting for the planet's rotation and motion along its orbit, the realistic distribution of the sources, an accurate calculation of the g-factor, and simulation of the photolytic reactions in the exosphere and tail. Here we describe the results of our numerical study of the neutral sodium environment around Mercury. The primary goal of this work was to combine, in a self-consistent manner, models of different surface processes, the planet's orbital motion and rotation, and time-dependent dynamics of sodium atoms in the exosphere. Using ground based and in situ observations obtained at different times to constrain our model allows us to get a more comprehensive picture of Mercury's exosphere including the source and loss rates of sodium. We discuss relative importance of the source processes in the sodium exosphere, the effect of solar radiation pressure on the structure of the tail, and the effect of the surface sticking as well as of the planetary rotation and orbital motion on the sodium surface abundance. Presented simulations cover a domain that extends up to 200 planetary radii in the anti-sunward direction. This approach combines the inner exosphere and the tail in a single model, and makes no unnecessary simplifying assumptions on the velocity distribution of the escaping particles when simulating the formation of the sodium tail. The model results can be used for calculation of the sodium ions' source in simulations of Mercury's ionosphere to support the interpretation of in situ observations obtained by MESSENGER. Model results are presented for a set of true anomaly angles accompanied by comparisons with ground-based observations. This work is supported by grant NNX11AD68G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres program.

Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.

2012-12-01

319

The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.  

PubMed

This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

2014-03-01

320

1. General view of the L.F. Fales Machinery Company complex, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. General view of the L.F. Fales Machinery Company complex, showing the older portion of the facility to the right of the photograph. - L. F. Fales Machine Company, East & Elm Streets, Walpole, Norfolk County, MA

321

66 FR 7510 - Binns Machinery Products, Cincinnati, Ohio; Notice of Termination of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on behalf of its workers at Binns Machinery Products, Cincinnati, Ohio. The workers produce heavy duty lathes used in steelmaking. The petitioner has requested that the petition be withdrawn. Consequently further investigation in this case would...

2001-01-23

322

46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel...

2013-10-01

323

Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo  

PubMed Central

Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.

Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Regine; Kuras, Laurent

2013-01-01

324

R&D Spillovers: Evidence from U.S. Food Processing, Farm Machinery and Agricultural Sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper computes private and social rates of return to R&D capital in the three vertically linked sectors, primary agriculture, food processing, and the farm machinery in the United States. Using a cost function approach, the private rates of return to R&D ranged from an average of 21.5% per annum for farm machinery to 87.5% for agriculture. The social rates

Munisamy Gopinath; Terry L. Roe

2000-01-01

325

In Vitro Reconstitution of the Initial Stages of the Bacterial Cell Division Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission of many prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotic organelles depends on the self-assembly of the FtsZ protein into a\\u000a membrane-associated ring structure early in the division process. Different components of the machinery are then sequentially\\u000a recruited. Although the assembly order has been established, the molecular interactions and the understanding of the force-generating\\u000a mechanism of this dividing machinery have remained

Pilar López Navajas; Germán Rivas; Jesús Mingorance; Pablo Mateos-Gil; Ines Hörger; Enrique Velasco; Pedro Tarazona; Marisela Vélez

2008-01-01

326

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail around high activity comets. We present a brief overview of neutral sodium tail observations to date and discuss the importance of theoretical modelling in understanding these data. We have developed a new, 3D Monte-Carlo model of cometary sodium that incorporates several advancements over previous models. It includes weightings due to solar flux variation with heliocentric distance, and comprehensive handling of the Swings and Greenstein effects on the neutral sodium tail, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets. Some preliminary results from this model are presented, including predictions of the structure of the eagerly anticipated neutral sodium tail at Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-09-01

327

Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.  

PubMed

Compared with the Stone Age diet, the modern human diet is both excessive in NaCl and deficient in fruits and vegetables which are rich in K+ and HCO3- -yielding organates like citrate. With the modern diet, the K+/Na+ ratio and the HCO3-/Cl- ratio have both become reversed. Yet, the biologic machinery that evolved to process these dietary electrolytes remains largely unchanged, genetically fixed in Paleolithic time. Thus, the electrolytic mix of the modern diet is profoundly mismatched to its processing machinery. Dietary potassium modulates both the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of the modern dietary excess of NaCl. A marginally deficient dietary intake of potassium amplifies both of these effects, and both effects are dose-dependently attenuated and may be abolished either with dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3. The pathogenic effects of a dietary deficiency of potassium amplify, and are amplified by, those of a dietary excess of NaCl and in some instances a dietary deficiency of bicarbonate precursors. Thus, in those ingesting the modern diet, it may not be possible to discern which of these dietary electrolytic dislocations is most determining of salt-sensitive blood pressure and hypercalciuria, and the hypertension, kidney stones, and osteoporosis they may engender. Obviously abnormal plasma electrolyte concentrations rarely characterize these dietary electrolytic dislocations, and when either dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3 corrects the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of these dislocations, the plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride change little and remain well within the normal range. PMID:16772638

Morris, R Curtis; Schmidlin, Olga; Frassetto, Lynda A; Sebastian, Anthony

2006-06-01

328

Rotator cuff exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

329

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rotator Cuff Pathology Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ranges from a normal, asymptomatic aging process to ...

330

Optical Rotational Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for detecting defective components of machines is discussed. Emphasis is placed on detecting defects in bearing assemblies used for supporting a rotating shaft in a machine. The system includes an optical sensor which detects the rotation of the ...

J. R. Jamieson J. D. Stigberg

1973-01-01

331

Power Harvesting from Rotation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

2008-01-01

332

Subdwarf B Star Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transfer of angular momentum from the core to envelope is understood to occur in red giants as evolution up the Red Giant Branch proceeds. As a consequence, any subdwarf-B star which had a red giant progenitor may be expected to be a slow rotator; KIC 010139564 could be an object of this kind as it is known to have a long rotation period of 25.6±1.8 days, determined from the rotation splitting of nonradial modes. As rotation splitting of nonradial modes will not be resolved in every case, it is proposed in the present paper that subdwarf-B star rotation periods might be determined from the pulsation amplitude variations of these modes, caused by beating between closely spaced but unresolved rotation splitting. Any successful determination of a substantial number of subdwarf-B star rotation rates could, when linked to progenitor red giant core rotation rates, provide a further constraint on binary population synthesis models.

Lynas-Gray, A.

2014-04-01

333

Physclips: Rotation, torques, precession  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a multimedia introduction to rotation. It includes topics such as rotational kinetic energy, rotational kinematics, moment of inertia, torques, Newton's laws for rotation, and angular momentum. Short video clips, still images, graphs, and diagrams are integrated with text to promote understanding of important concepts. This tutorial is part of the PhysClip collection of web-based resources on introductory mechanics, electricity, and magnetism.

Wolfe, Joe

2009-06-19

334

Rotating stall suppression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotating stall in an axial-flow compressor is suppressed by the positioning of a fixed inlet flow divider in the annular inlet flow passage upstream of the compressor. The inlet flow divider is aligned with the flow of fluid through the duct and acts to block or interfere with any rotating wave in the inlet and thereby suppresses rotating stall in the compressor.

Moore, Franklin K. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

335

Mechanism of rotational relaxation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is presented which describes the characteristic pattern of relaxation of a nonthermal rotational distribution of hydrogen halide, peaked initially at high rotational quantum number J, to a thermal distribution without generating a peak at intermediate J. A method for correcting infrared chemiluminiscence data for modest rotational relaxation is also suggested.

Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

1972-01-01

336

Rotational acoustics in spherical Couette experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helioseismologists retrieve differential rotation profiles within the Sun by inverting the splitting of acoustic modes. We have explored the idea of using a similar technique in fluid dynamics Lab experiments. Spherical Couette experiments are particularly appealing because acoustic modes in a fluid spherical shell are readily computed. Two experimental set-ups have been used for the tests: DTS in Grenoble, and a 30-cm diameter experiment in Maryland. In DTS, liquid sodium is sheared between two concentric spheres in a dipolar magnetic field. The 30-cm experiment has the same geometry but is filled with air. The acoustic waves are generated by tapping the container, or with a loudspeaker, or from internal noise. They are recorded by pressure-sensors mounted flush on the outer sphere. In all cases, sharp spectral peaks are observed, with frequencies that match the expected values. In DTS, some 50 acoustic modes are observed in the 3kHz-50kHz-frequency range. Replacing sodium with argon permits to identify and remove modes that have a different origin. We have investigated the effect of differential rotation on the acoustic modes, by spinning the inner sphere up to 30Hz. Even for this large forcing, the highest frequency modes (>40kHz) show up above the turbulent spectrum. Some of these modes are very clearly split when differential rotation is present. We will present these novel observations, and discuss the potential of the rotational acoustic method in fluid mechanics experiments. This new technique will soon be implemented on the Maryland BigSister dynamo experiment, filled with 15000 litres of liquid sodium.

Triana, S. A.; Nataf, H.-C.; Zimmerman, D.; Adams, M.; Lathrop, D. P.; Schmitt, D.; Cardin, P.; Richard, A.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.-P.; Cabanes, S.; Roux, P.

2012-04-01

337

Activity of sodium pump in photosensitized cultured rat cardiomyocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium pump (Na+/K+-ATP-ase) utilizing energy accumulated in macroergic bonds of ATP, maintains physiological sodium and potassium gradients across plasma membrane. This, in turn, preserves cell volume and enables functioning of all Na+-gradient driven cotransporters and exchangers. Therefore, any impairment of Na+/K+-ATP-ase activity results in severe consequences to cell viability. Cardiac cells are equipped with efficient enzymatic machinery capable of coping with oxidative stress. This was the rationale for examining their sodium pump activity upon photosensitization. Cells were incubated with hematoporphyrin dihydrochloride for 1 hour and irradiated using HeNe low-energy laser light (ED: 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 J/cm2). It was found that Na+/K+-ATP-ase activity in 3-day-old cardiocytes is indirectly stimulated during photosensitization by rapid influx of sodium. The latter was determined by radiometric fluorescent probe SBFI/AM. Five-day-old cardiocytes turned out to be less resistant to photo-oxidative stress as the pump activity was inhibited by 50% in comparison to control cells.

Adamek, Mariusz; Shainberg, Asher; Schwartz, Fidi; Rochkind, Shimon

1997-12-01

338

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21

339

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

340

An investigation of angular stiffness and damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling in high-speed rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provided an opportunity to quantify the angular stiffness and equivalent viscous damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling used in high-speed turbomachinery. A unique test methodology and data reduction procedures were developed. The bending moments and angular deflections transmitted across an axial spline coupling were measured while a nonrotating shaft was excited by an external shaker. A rotor dynamics computer program was used to simulate the test conditions and to correlate the angular stiffness and damping coefficients. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to show that the accuracy of the dynamic coefficients do not rely on the accuracy of the data reduction procedures.

Ku, C.-P. Roger; Walton, James F., Jr.; Lund, Jorgen W.

1994-01-01

341

The Autocoherent Spectrum: a Useful Spectral Estimator for Vibration Analysis of Rotating Machinery Accurate Estimation and Cancellation of Pure Tones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new spectral estimator based on the Fourier transform, the autocoherent spectrum (ACS), which enables the extraction of the pure sinusoidal components with a greater sensitivity and an improved frequency resolution. It's statistical properties are studied, and it is shown how to remove pure tones in a spectrum, while keeping it's broadband components. After detection of lines, their exact frequencies are computed by means of the autocoherent spectrum phase. Then, the amplitude and phase associated to each pure tone are determined from the Fourier transform of each sequence according to the exact frequency calculated and the weighing window used. The removal of the pure tones is then achieved by correcting the Fourier channels containing them, and also some neighbouring channels which are effected by the side-effects of the window used.

Danthez, J. M.; Giroussens, C.; Aquilina, R.

1998-11-01

342

THE AUTOCOHERENT SPECTRUM: A USEFUL SPECTRAL ESTIMATOR FOR VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY ACCURATE ESTIMATION AND CANCELLATION OF PURE TONES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new spectral estimator based on the Fourier transform, the autocoherent spectrum (ACS), which enables the extraction of the pure sinusoidal components with a greater sensitivity and an improved frequency resolution. It's statistical properties are studied, and it is shown how to remove pure tones in a spectrum, while keeping it's broadband components. After detection of lines,

J. M. Danthez; C. Giroussens; R. Aquilina

1998-01-01

343

Econometric analysis of farm-machinery investment and simulations under alternative energy, price support, and export policies  

SciTech Connect

The historical trends in structure, extent, and intensity of agricultural mechanization are analyzed in this study. The number of tractors, grain combines, corn pickers and picker shellers, pickup balers, and field forage harvesters peaked during the early 1960s. The decline in this numbers after the '60s is brought about mainly by the qualitative changes in those machines. Based on the various investments theories, the alternative models of stock adjustment, expectations, and derived demand type are estimated for tractor and other machinery investments at the national and regional levels using 1950 to 1977 annual data. Investment demand functions for harvesting machinery are estimated at the national level. Statistical tests for structural change in the machinery investments are performed. The demand elasticities with respect to prices, income and other economic variables are calculated. Dynamic multipliers expressing the long-lasting effects of the interest rates, price of fuel and oil, and net farm income are calculated for selected machinery investments. The impact and long-term multipliers are also presented. Finally, a block recursive simulation model of the regional farm-machinery investments is developed. The relevant variables are selected from agriculture, industry, and the economy in general to complete the linkages specified in the model. The regional tractor and other machinery investments and national tractor, harvesting-machinery, other machinery, and all machinery investments are predicted up to 1990. The potential effects of six alternative policies of energy prices, support prices, and agricultural exports on future farm-machinery investments are also analyzed.

Gunjal, K.R.

1981-01-01

344

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

345

Information Profile: Sodium Azide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium-azide (26628228) (NA) was described in terms of general properties and uses, toxicity, and occupational exposures. NA has been used in preparation of explosives, herbicides, photosensitive polymers, antibacterials, antidepressants, propellants, den...

A. R. Gregory

1978-01-01

346

Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document des...

M. J. Barnes

1998-01-01

347

Sodium Phosphate Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

Fleet Enema® ... Fleet Enema EXTRA® ... Fleet Pedia-Lax Enema® ... Rectal sodium phosphate comes as an enema to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted when a bowel movement is desired. The enema usually causes a bowel movement ...

348

Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.  

PubMed

Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

2014-02-01

349

Cardiac sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

2010-01-01

350

Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals with end-stage kidney disease appear to have stable pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations over time, with lower values associating with increased mortality. Dialysate sodium concentrations have increased over many years in response to shorter treatments, but the relationship between serum sodium, dialysate sodium and outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients has not yet been systematically examined. Methods. We studied a cohort of 2272 individuals receiving thrice-weekly hemodialysis treatment. Available data included demographics, laboratory and clinical measures, details of the dialysis prescription and 30-month follow-up. We examined the distribution of serum and dialysate sodium among subjects and compared mortality according to dialysate and serum sodium concentrations using Cox regression models. Results. Dialysate sodium concentration varied within and among dialysis centers. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration (mean 136.1 mmol/L) did not differ across dialysate sodium concentrations. There was evidence for effect modification for mortality according to differing serum sodium and dialysate sodium concentrations (P = 0.05). For each 4 mmol/L increment in serum sodium, the hazard ratio for death was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.81] with lower dialysate sodium compared to 0.86 (95% CI 0.75–0.99) for higher dialysate sodium. Higher dialysate sodium concentration was associated with mortality at higher, but not lower, pre-dialysis serum sodium concentrations. Conclusions. The pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration appears to be unaffected by the dialysate sodium concentration. The relationship between serum and dialysate sodium and mortality appears to be variable. Further research is warranted to determine the biological mechanisms of these associations and to re-examine total body sodium handling in hemodialysis.

Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Brunelli, Steven M.

2012-01-01

351

Sodium Balance in Maintenance Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Sodium is the principal solute in the extracellular compartment and the major component of serum osmolality. In normal persons in the steady state, sodium homeostasis is achieved by a balance between the dietary intake and the urinary output of sodium, whereas in intermittent hemodialysis patients, sodium balance depends on dietary intake and sodium removal during hemodialysis. Thus, the main goal of hemodialysis is to remove precisely the amount of sodium that has accumulated during the interdialytic period. Sodium removal during hemodialysis occurs via convective (~78%) and diffusive losses (~22%) between dialysate and plasma sodium concentration. The latter (the sodium gradient) is an important factor in the 'fine tuning' of sodium balance during intermittent hemodialysis. Most use fixed dialysate sodium concentrations, but each patient has his/her own plasma sodium concentrations pre-hemodialysis, which are quite reproducible and stable in the long-term. Thus, in many patients, a fixed dialysate sodium concentration will cause a persistent positive sodium balance during dialysis, which could possibly cause increased thirst, interdialytic weight gain, and mortality. Several methods will be discussed to reduce positive sodium balance, including sodium alignment.

2012-01-01

352

Cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on sliding electrification for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion. The rotating TENG is based on a core-shell structure that is made of distinctly different triboelectric materials with alternative strip structures on the surface. The charge transfer is strengthened with the formation of polymer nanoparticles on surfaces. During coaxial rotation, a contact-induced electrification and the relative sliding between the contact surfaces of the core and the shell result in an "in-plane" lateral polarization, which drives the flow of electrons in the external load. A power density of 36.9 W/m(2) (short-circuit current of 90 ?A and open-circuit voltage of 410 V) has been achieved by a rotating TENG with 8 strip units at a linear rotational velocity of 1.33 m/s (a rotation rate of 1000 r/min). The output can be further enhanced by integrating more strip units and/or applying larger linear rotational velocity. This rotating TENG can be used as a direct power source to drive small electronics, such as LED bulbs. This study proves the possibility to harvest mechanical energy by TENGs from rotational motion, demonstrating its potential for harvesting the flow energy of air or water for applications such as self-powered environmental sensors and wildlife tracking devices. PMID:23799926

Bai, Peng; Zhu, Guang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jun; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Weiqing; Ma, Jusheng; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin

2013-07-23

353

Sodium-sulfur thermal battery  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

Ludwig, F.A.

1990-12-11

354

Adaptive fault diagnosis in rotating machines using indicators selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, condition monitoring and faults diagnosis in rotating machinery have been widely studied and reported. In the present paper an algorithm for fault diagnosis in industrial rotating machines facing new operating conditions emergence is developed on the basis of input indicators, extracted from vibrations spectrums. Indicators selection is used to improve diagnosis performances by the help of a hybrid approach using several selection criteria and different classifiers. To validate the performances of this algorithm, experimental tests were conducted on two industrial systems with various operating conditions. The results have proved the effectiveness of the developed algorithm compared to the "J48 decision tree" and also reveal the need to re-select the indicators for reliable monitoring of working conditions.

Khelf, Ilyes; Laouar, Lakhdar; Bouchelaghem, Abdelaziz M.; Rémond, Didier; Saad, Salah

2013-11-01

355

Cardiac sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies. PMID:20091048

Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

2010-07-01

356

Rotations with Rodrigues' vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

Piña, E.

2011-09-01

357

The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P63) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space

Kali Zheng; Andrea R. Gerson; Jonas Addai-Mensah; Roger St. C. Smart

1997-01-01

358

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01

359

Contribution of membrane lipids to the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to tolerate temperature stress.  

PubMed Central

The contribution of the unsaturation of membrane lipids to the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to tolerate temperature stress was studied in a transgenic cyanobacterium. Anacystis nidulans R2-SPc was transformed with the desA gene, which encodes the Delta12-desaturase that desaturates the fatty acids of membrane lipids in Synechocystis PCC6803. The transformant acquired the ability to introduce a second double bond into palmitoleic and oleic acids. The transformation enhanced the tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery to chilling stress but it had no detectable effect on the ability to tolerate heat stress. The transformation itself did not have any effect on photosynthetic activity. These results imply that an increase in the unsaturation of membrane lipids enhances the tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery toward chilling stress but not toward heat stress and that such an increase does not affect photosynthesis within the range of physiological temperatures.

Wada, H; Gombos, Z; Murata, N

1994-01-01

360

Divers solar rotations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of a particular variety of rotational properties in the photospheric and solar wind plasma and magnetic fields. In both the photosphere and in the interplanetary medium near the earth there is a tendency for the field patterns to rotate a few percent faster then the plasma patterns. The fields and plasmas show variability in their rotational properties on time scales of days or months, but averages over a few years tend to become much less variable, as shown by the results for long-lived sunspots, and by the rotating solar magnetic 'dipole.' The physical processes responsible for these phenomena are as yet little understood.

Wilcox, J. M.

1972-01-01

361

The spatial rotator.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient than the traditional local volume estimators. Furthermore, the spatial rotator can be seen as a further development of the Cavalieri estimator, which does not require randomization of sectioning or viewing direction. The tissue may thus be sectioned in any arbitrary direction, making it easy to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases where over- and underprojection phenomena are not negligible, they should therefore be corrected for if the spatial rotator is to be applied. If such a correction is not possible, it is needed to avoid these phenomena by using microscopy with increased resolution in the focal plane. PMID:23488880

Rasmusson, A; Hahn, U; Larsen, J O; Gundersen, H J G; Jensen, E B Vedel; Nyengaard, J R

2013-05-01

362

Rotating Sky Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses interactive simulations to introduce students to the horizon and celestial coordinate systems and the apparent rotation of objects in the sky (caused by the Earth's rotation). The simulations demonstrate the horizon plane, azimuth, and altitude; compare the advantages and disadvantages of the horizon and celestial coordinate systems, and show the paths of stars and other objects as they 'rotate' through the sky. The 'Rotating Star Explorer' lets users place stars, select the observer's position, and run an animation that shows the movements of the stars in both celestial and horizon views. The module includes a pretest, posttest, and a student guide.

363

Single-membrane-bounded peroxisome division revealed by isolation of dynamin-based machinery  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes (microbodies) are ubiquitous single-membrane–bounded organelles and fulfill essential roles in the cellular metabolism. They are found in virtually all eukaryotic cells and basically multiply by division. However, the mechanochemical machinery involved in peroxisome division remains elusive. Here, we first identified the peroxisome-dividing (POD) machinery. We isolated the POD machinery from Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga containing a single peroxisome. Peroxisomal division in C. merolae can be highly synchronized by light/dark cycles and the microtubule-disrupting agent oryzalin. By proteomic analysis based on the complete genome sequence of C. merolae, we identified a dynamin-related protein 3 (DRP3) ortholog, CmDnm1 (Dnm1), that predominantly accumulated with catalase in the dividing-peroxisome fraction. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Dnm1 formed a ring at the division site of the peroxisome. The outlines of the isolated dynamin rings were dimly observed by phase-contrast microscopy and clearly stained for Dnm1. Electron microscopy revealed that the POD machinery was formed at the cytoplasmic side of the equator. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the POD machinery consisted of an outer dynamin-based ring and an inner filamentous ring. Down-regulation of Dnm1 impaired peroxisomal division. Surprisingly, the same Dnm1 serially controlled peroxisomal division after mitochondrial division. Because genetic deficiencies of Dnm1 orthologs in multiperoxisomal organisms inhibited both mitochondrial and peroxisomal proliferation, it is thought that peroxisomal division by contraction of a dynamin-based machinery is universal among eukaryotes. These findings are useful for understanding the fundamental systems in eukaryotic cells.

Imoto, Yuuta; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Yoshida, Yamato; Ohnuma, Mio; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Yoshida, Masaki; Nishida, Keiji; Yagisawa, Fumi; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Misumi, Osami; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

2013-01-01

364

Feasibility of vibration monitoring of small rotating machines for the environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) of the NASA advanced space craft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery typical of ECLSS components in advanced NASA spacecraft was studied. It is found that the weighted summation of the accelerometer power spectrum is the most successful detection scheme for a majority of problem types. Other detection schemes studied included high-frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, and amplitude processing.

Milner, G. Martin; Black, Mike; Hovenga, Mike; Mcclure, Paul; Miller, Patrice

1988-01-01

365

Sodium Winds on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the Main Spectrograph at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at KPNO to measure the profile of sodium emission lines from Mercury with a spectral dispersion of 2.8 mA/pixel. An iodine vapor absorption cell and atmospheric absorption lines were used to define the wavelength scale. At the time of measurement (3 and 4 February 2000), Mercury was east of the Sun, with a phase of 20 degrees, so that most of the planetary surface seen from Earth was illuminated by sunlight. The spectrograph slit was oriented north-south on Mercury for one set of observations (3 February), and east-west for another (4 February). After subtraction of scattered sunlight and Mercury surface reflection backgrounds, the wavelength of the centroid for the emission line was measured as a function of position on the spectrograph slit. We found that the wavelength of the sodium centroid differed from the rest wavelength of sodium (taking into account the relative velocities of Earth and Mercury), and varied with position on the planet. Near the Mercury center, the radial velocity of sodium was in the range 0.3-0.4 km/sec towards the Earth. For the east-west transect, the radial velocity towards the Earth increased near the dawn terminator, and decreased towards the dusk terminator. This suggests that there was a flow of sodium vapor from the dawn to the dusk terminators. For the north-south transect, the radial velocity towards the Earth decreased above both poles, suggesting that radiation pressure was pushing sodium off the planet. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program

Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.

2000-10-01

366

Polymorphism of flucloxacillin sodium.  

PubMed

The polymorphism of flucloxacillin sodium has not been discussed sufficiently so far. Flucloxacillin sodium which was crystallized with different solvents, was found to exist in amorphism and three crystal forms (I, II, III). This results were confirmed by infra-red (IR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and equilibrium solubility. It is noticed that form III has very good solubility in phosphate buffer solution, with an average solubility of 0.86 g (20-40 degrees C). However, more efforts are needed to carry out and decide whether this form can be used for industrial production. PMID:22312697

Zhou, Xiao-Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Miao-Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Han, Guo-Cheng; Feng, Xiao-Zhen

2011-12-01

367

Robust Rotation Angle Estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional method of estimating the rotation angle of a pattern using the principal axes is not suitable for circular symmetric patterns since their eigenvalues are similar in both directions. In the paper, a robust method of estimating a rotation angle using the phase information of Zernike moments is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method estimates the

Whoi-yul Kim; Young-sung Kim

1999-01-01

368

Rotating relativistic superfluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic equation of state and velocity comparable with the speed of light are included in consideration of a superfluid rotating in a cylindrical container. Minimizing the free energy, we derive the equation of motion. It admits an analytic solution, the solid-body rotation inside and irrotational motion near the walls of the vessel, providing the vortex quantum is not extremely high

G. V. Vlasov

2000-01-01

369

Orthogonal rotation algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quartimax and varimax algorithms for orthogonal rotation attempt to maximize particular simplicity criteria by a sequence of two-factor rotations. Derivations of these algorithms have been fairly complex. A simple general theory for obtaining two factor at a time algorithms for any polynomial simplicity criteria satisfying a natural symmetry condition is presented. It is shown that the degree of any

Robert I. Jennrich

1970-01-01

370

The weighted oblimin rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cureton & Mulaik (1975) proposed the Weighted Varimax rotation so that Varimax (Kaiser, 1958) could reach simple solutions when the complexities of the variables in the solution are larger than one. In the present paper the weighting procedure proposed by Cureton & Mulaik (1975) is applied to Direct Oblimin (Clarkson & Jennrich, 1988), and the rotation method obtained is called

Urbano Lorenzo-Seva

2000-01-01

371

ConcepTest: Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It takes 24 hoursâone dayâfor one complete rotation of Earth. How long would it take for the Sun to strike every location on the equator if Earth did not rotate on its axis? a. never b. one season c. 24 hours ...

372

Rotation of a Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative is an interactive visual presentation of the rotation of a point around the origin of the coordinate system. The original point can be dragged to different positions and the angle of rotation can be changed with a 90° increment.

Geogebrawiki, Guy B.

2009-06-09

373

Rotating Raster Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A raster generator is described for producing a raster-type display on a random scan display terminal where the raster can be oriented at any selected angle of rotation. The rotating raster generator responds to a digital input signal representing the des...

E. W. Gennetten

1979-01-01

374

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

375

Sodium storage and injection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

Keeton, A. R. (inventor)

1979-01-01

376

General Earth's Rotation Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the three--axial solid Earth's rotation in Euler parameters are reduced to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution). Hence, the theory of the Earth's rotation is presented by means of the series in powers of the evolutionary variables with quasi-periodic coefficients. This form of the Earth's rotation problem is compatible with the general planetary theory involving the separation of the short-period and long-period variables and avoiding the appearance of the non-physical secular terms.

Brumberg, Victor A.; Ivanova, T. V.

2010-05-01

377

Critical slowing down and magnetically-induced self-pulsing in a sodium-filled Fabry-Perot resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of critical slowing down and of self pulsing in a Fabry-Perot resonator (FP) filled with sodium atoms under conditions of transverse optical pumping is discussed. The dye laser, optically isolated from the FP by means of a Faraday rotator is detuned from the Na D1 line by 10 to 20 GHz. The sodium sample is placed in a

J. Mlynek; F. Mitschke; W. Lange

1984-01-01

378

Effect of sodium nitrite–borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sodium nitrite–borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box–Wilson statistical method. The process

K. N. Mohana; A. M. Badiea

2008-01-01

379

Sodium-23 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of commercial sodium naproxen and its solvates.  

PubMed

We report on the investigation of sodium coordination environments with solid-state ²³Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of various hydrates and solvates of sodium naproxen (SN), a commercially available anti-inflammatory drug sold over the counter as Aleve®, among other names. The ²³Na quadrupolar coupling constant is found to change significantly depending on the hydration state, and subtle changes in oxygen coordination environment about the sodium cations were apparent in the NMR spectra. High-resolution double-rotation NMR experiments are also performed on powdered samples to obtain solution-like ²³Na NMR spectra. Our attempts at crystallizing various solvates of SN have led to the characterization of the first crystal structure for the heminonahydrated form. The composition of commercial SN is also investigated and it is shown that Aleve® is composed of approximately 80% monohydrate solvate. Density-functional theory calculations, using the gauge-including projector-augmented-wave formalism, allow for the assignment of ²³Na NMR peaks to specific sodium sites in the reported X-ray crystal structure. PMID:22619061

Burgess, Kevin M N; Perras, Frédéric A; Lebrun, Aurore; Messner-Henning, Elisabeth; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L

2012-08-01

380

Fault diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition by instantaneous power spectrum and genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a fault diagnosis method for plant machinery in an unsteady operating condition using instantaneous power spectrum (IPS) and genetic programming (GP). IPS is used to extract feature frequencies of each machine state from measured vibration signals for distinguishing faults by relative crossing information. Excellent symptom parameters for detecting faults are automatically generated by the GP. The excellent

Peng Chen; Masatoshi Taniguchi; Toshio Toyota; Zhengja He

2005-01-01

381

Failure diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition by instantaneous power spectrum and genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a failure diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition using instantaneous power spectrum (IPS) and genetic programming (GP). The IPS is used to extract feature frequency of each machine state from measured vibration signal for distinguishing failures by the Relative Crossing Information (RCI). Excellent symptom parameters for detecting failures are automatically generated by GP. The method

Peng Chen; Toshio Toyota; Masatoshi Taniguchi; Fang Feng; T. Hiho

2000-01-01

382

Summary of some selected underground coal-mine-face-machinery fatalities-1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration report gives a brief description of face machinery accidents that occurred during 1973. Accidents are grouped into 10 major categories as follows: (1) Pushing or Pulling mine equipment with other equipment; (2) performing tasks under unblocked elevated equipment; (3) operator of self-propelled equipment not facing direction of travel; (4) tramming self-propelled face equipment through

Wancheck

1975-01-01

383

Printing and Graphic Arts Equipment (Brazil). Offset Printing Machinery, August 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian market for offset printing machinery reached $150.3 million in 1990, of which $125.1 million were imports. This market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 11% for the next 3 years, reaching $210.0 million by 1994. Germany and the U.S. c...

1991-01-01

384

18. PWD Drawing 1123915 (814M7) (1945), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Bldg ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. PWD Drawing 11239-15 (814-M-7) (1945), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Bldg No. 814, Fire Protection Automatic CO2 and Tank Cover Control' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

385

Ruble Price Levels and Dollar-Ruble Ratios of Soviet Machinery in the 1960s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence from Soviet sources bearing on the movement of the wholesale prices of machinery is assessed with a view to inferring crude price indexes. Official indexes, constructed for the 1960s from a limited sample and weighted by 1961 output values, show ...

A. S. Becker

1973-01-01

386

31. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'C5' IS AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'C5' IS AT LOWER LEFT AND EMERGENCY BRAKE MECHANISM ON PEDESTAL AT CENTER. NOTE LOWER EQUALIZING LINKAGE FOR COUNTERWEIGHT AT LEFT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH - THIS WAS A KEY COMPONENT OF STRAUSS' PATENT PARALLOGRAM LINKAGE - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

387

CHL1 Is a Selective Organizer of the Presynaptic Machinery Chaperoning the SNARE Complex  

PubMed Central

Proteins constituting the presynaptic machinery of vesicle release undergo substantial conformational changes during the process of exocytosis. While changes in the conformation make proteins vulnerable to aggregation and degradation, little is known about synaptic chaperones which counteract these processes. We show that the cell adhesion molecule CHL1 directly interacts with and regulates the activity of the synaptic chaperones Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT. CHL1, Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT form predominantly CHL1/Hsc70/?SGT and CHL1/CSP complexes in synapses. Among the various complexes formed by CHL1, Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT, SNAP25 and VAMP2 induce chaperone activity only in CHL1/Hsc70/?SGT and CHL1/CSP complexes, respectively, indicating a remarkable selectivity of a presynaptic chaperone activity for proteins of the exocytotic machinery. In mice with genetic ablation of CHL1, chaperone activity in synapses is reduced and the machinery for synaptic vesicle exocytosis and, in particular, the SNARE complex is unable to sustain prolonged synaptic activity. Thus, we reveal a novel role for a cell adhesion molecule in selective activation of the presynaptic chaperone machinery.

Knepper, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Redecke, Lars; Schachner, Melitta

2010-01-01

388

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable

D. J. Adams; J. S. Hsu; R. W. Young; F. Z. Peng

1997-01-01

389

Complexity in Regulation of microRNA Machinery Components in Invasive Breast Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Altered expression of microRNA (miRNA) machinery components may play an important role in breast cancer progression. The objective of the current study was to evaluate Drosha, the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), Dicer, and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) mRNA expression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) and to assess the value of clinical parameters on their expression. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we examined the expression of the four miRNA machinery components in 52 breast tumor tissues which are diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In the present study, decreased mRNA expression levels of major miRNA machinery components were observed in IBC. The altered mRNA expression levels of DGCR8 and AGO2 are positively correlated with to each other. This study revealed for the first time that expression alterations of DGCR8 are significantly associated with estrogen receptor and Ki-67 status in IBC. Moreover, AGO2 mRNA expression level was significantly correlated with N stage. These results provided evidences that down-regulated the four miRNA machinery components may play an important role in breast pathobiology and that DGCR8 and AGO2 might be associated with important clinical factors. PMID:24574065

Kwon, Sun Young; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Bora; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kang, Sun Hee; Kim, Shin

2014-07-01

390

MIX1: An Essential Component of the C. elegans Mitotic Machinery Executes X Chromosome Dosage Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a functional component of the C. elegans mitotic machinery regulates X chromosome gene expression. This protein, MIX-1, is a member of the dosage compensation complex that associates specifically with hermaphrodite X chromosomes to reduce their gene expression during interphase. MIX-1 also associates with all mitotic chromosomes to ensure their proper segregation. Both dosage compensation and mitosis are

Jason D Lieb; Michael R Albrecht; Pao-Tien Chuang; Barbara J Meyer

1998-01-01

391

Evolution of the genetic machinery of the visual cycle: a novelty of the vertebrate eye?  

PubMed

The discovery in invertebrates of ciliary photoreceptor cells and ciliary (c)-opsins established that at least two of the three elements that characterize the vertebrate photoreceptor system were already present before vertebrate evolution. However, the origin of the third element, a series of biochemical reactions known as the "retinoid cycle," remained uncertain. To understand the evolution of the retinoid cycle, I have searched for the genetic machinery of the cycle in invertebrate genomes, with special emphasis on the cephalochordate amphioxus. Amphioxus is closely related to vertebrates, has a fairly prototypical genome, and possesses ciliary photoreceptor cells and c-opsins. Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the amphioxus sequences related with the vertebrate machinery do not support a function of amphioxus proteins in chromophore regeneration but suggest that the genetic machinery of the retinoid cycle arose in vertebrates due to duplications of ancestral nonvisual genes. These results favor the hypothesis that the retinoid cycle machinery was a functional innovation of the primitive vertebrate eye. PMID:22319134

Albalat, Ricard

2012-05-01

392

Expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery: clues to regulation of spermatogenic development.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis is one example of a developmental process which requires tight control of gene expression to achieve normal growth and sustain function. This review is based on the principle that events in spermatogenesis are controlled by changes in the distribution of proteins between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Through analysis of the regulated production of nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery in mammalian spermatogenesis, this review addresses the concept that access to the nucleus is tightly controlled to enable and prevent differentiation. A broad review of nuclear transport components is presented, outlining the different categories of machinery required for import, export and non-nuclear functions. In addition, the complexity of nomenclature is addressed by the provision of a concise yet comprehensive listing of information that will aid in comparative studies of different transport proteins and the genes which encode them. We review a suite of existing transcriptional analyses which identify common and distinct patterns of transport machinery expression, showing how these can be linked with key events in spermatogenic development. The additional importance of this for human fertility is considered, in light of data that identify which importin and nuclear transport machinery components are present in testicular cancer specimens, while also providing an indication of how their presence (and absence) may be considered as potential mediators of oncogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Signaling and Cellular Fate through Modulation of Nuclear Protein Import. PMID:21420444

Major, Andrew T; Whiley, Penny A F; Loveland, Kate L

2011-09-01

393

Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.  

PubMed

Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories. PMID:11036725

Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

2000-10-01

394

Etomidate and propofol inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery at different sites.  

PubMed

The mechanism of general anaesthetic action is only partially understood. Facilitation of inhibitory GABAA receptors plays an important role in the action of most anaesthetics, but is thought to be especially relevant in the case of intravenous anaesthetics, like etomidate and propofol. Recent evidence suggests that anaesthetics also inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission via a presynaptic mechanism(s), but it has been difficult to determine whether these agents act on the neurotransmitter release machinery itself. In the present study we sought to determine whether the intravenous anaesthetics propofol and etomidate inhibit the release machinery. For these studies we used an experimental approach that directly regulated [Ca2+]i at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anaesthetic effects on channels and receptors in order to allow anaesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. The data show that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol and etomidate inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in neurosecretory cells and in cultured hippocampal neurons. md130A is a mutant form of syntaxin with a truncated C-terminus. Overexpressing md130A in PC12 cells completely eliminated the reduction in neurotransmitter release produced by propofol, without affecting release itself. In contrast, overexpressing md130A in PC12 cells had little or no effect on the response to etomidate. These results suggest that both propofol and etomidate inhibit neurotransmitter release by a direct interaction with SNAREs and/or SNARE-associated proteins but they do so at different sites. PMID:21173083

Herring, Bruce E; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Marks, Jeremy; Fox, Aaron P; Xie, Zheng

2011-03-01

395

DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

396

ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

397

MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

398

TRACTOR TUNE-UP AND MAINTENANCE. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE AND ABILITY TO PERFORM TUNEUPS AND MAINTENANCE TASKS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

399

METAL FUSION AND FABRICATION WELDING. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE, NUMBER 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE IN A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF WELDING EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES, AND ABILITY TO PERFORM SKILLS REQUIRED OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS. IT WAS…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

400

Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

401

Conservation of the RNA Transport Machineries and Their Coupling to Translation Control across Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Restriction of proteins to discrete subcellular regions is a common mechanism to establish cellular asymmetries and depends on a coordinated program of mRNA localization and translation control. Many processes from the budding of a yeast to the establishment of metazoan embryonic axes and the migration of human neurons, depend on this type of cell polarization. How factors controlling transport and translation assemble to regulate at the same time the movement and translation of transported mRNAs, and whether these mechanisms are conserved across kingdoms is not yet entirely understood. In this review we will focus on some of the best characterized examples of mRNA transport machineries, the “yeast locasome” as an example of RNA transport and translation control in unicellular eukaryotes, and on the Drosophila Bic-D/Egl/Dyn RNA localization machinery as an example of RNA transport in higher eukaryotes. This focus is motivated by the relatively advanced knowledge about the proteins that connect the localizing mRNAs to the transport motors and the many well studied proteins involved in translational control of specific transcripts that are moved by these machineries. We will also discuss whether the core of these RNA transport machineries and factors regulating mRNA localization and translation are conserved across eukaryotes.

Vazquez-Pianzola, Paula; Suter, Beat

2012-01-01

402

Electric machinery diagnostic\\/testing system and power hardware-in-the-loop studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an electric machinery diagnostics (EMDS) system that improves on the traditional methods of either using simulation of a power system and its component or scaled down physical models to diagnose faults in hardware under test (HUT). The EMDS couples actual power hardware to a virtual simulation of the power system through a sim-stim interface (SSI) which sources

Saffet Ayasun; Sean Vallieu; Robert Fischl; Tom Chmielewski

2003-01-01

403

Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

404

GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION, COMPONENTS, AND FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

405

Evaluating the life of the structures of farm machinery frames from the standpoint of crack resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the supporting frames of agricultural machinery which are the optimum with respect to strength and metal consumption assumes their functioning under extreme conditions of load in the presence of various stress raisers. In this case, as experience shows, the failure of a structure is related most frequently to the development of cracks in its ele- ments. An

T. I. Rybak; V. I. Samodala; A. I. Darchuk; V. A. Proniv

1983-01-01

406

Integration of Business and Manufacturing Processes through Industrial Machinery as a Service Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In manufacturing organizations is difficult to reach the requirements of the new business models (agile and dynamic adaptation to changes) due to technological and conceptual constraints between elements located at different levels of the organization, which prevents the integration of business and manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new industrial machinery model that achieves this integration has been proposed. This

Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias; Francisco Maci´-Pérez; Diego Marcos-Jorquera; Francisco J. Mora-Jimeno; Juan A. Gil-Martínez-Abarca

2011-01-01

407

Modelling compaction of agricultural subsoils by tracked heavy construction machinery under various moisture conditions in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, agricultural land in Switzerland has been increasingly used as temporary access ways for heavy machinery in road and pipeline construction operations. The Swiss soil protection law requires that measures are taken to prevent soil compaction in such operations, but gives no criteria to determine tolerable loads. We studied the compaction sensitivity of a loess soil (Haplic Luvisol)

M. Berli; J. M. Kirby; S. M. Springman; R. Schulin

2003-01-01

408

An application of industrial design in Large-scale Agricultural Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of agricultural modernization and mechanization, industrial design, as an important part of modern product, will play an important role in agricultural engineering and the design and product of agricultural machinery. At first the paper promotes the main three aspects of application of ID in agricultural engineering. Then based on the full design process of a self-propelled forage

Liu Sha

2008-01-01

409

The sodium zenocorona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent narrow-band-filtered CCD image by Mendillo et al. (1990) has shown that a sodium corona, produced near Io, extends at least 400 Jupiter radii in the planet's equatorial plane. Isophotes indicate that the polar to equatorial extents are in about 1 to 3 proportions. The image can be reproduced by a model which includes both a high- and an intermediate-speed distribution, with source rates of 2.2 and 1.1 x 10 exp 26 atoms/s, respectively. The high-speed distribution was ejected from Io with a velocity tangential to the satellite orbit of 57 km/s (about 74 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 25 km/s. This distribution likely corresponds to a charge exchange source of plasma torus sodium ions which are neutralized in the near-Io atmosphere and are ejected relative to Jupiter with a corotational velocity (74 km/s) plus a thermal ion (25 km/s) Maxwellian distribution. The intermediate speed distribution was ejected from Io with a tangential speed near 20 km/s (37 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 12 km/s. This distribution corresponds to the same nonthermal sodium atoms earlier identified near Io in the sodium directional features (Pilcher et al., 1984).

Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

1991-01-01

410

Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect

The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

Barnes, M.J.

1998-11-20

411

Sodium Perxenate Hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium perxenate hexahydrate (Na4XeO4\\\\cdot 6H2O) has been identified from study of its crystal structure by x-ray diffraction. The perxenate ion (XeO6{}-4) has the shape of a regular octahedron with the Xe-O bond distance 1.84 angstrom.

Allan Zalkin; J. D. Forrester; David H. Templeton; Stanley M. Williamson; Charles W. Koch

1963-01-01

412

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME II. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE APPENDIXES FOR "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, FINAL REPORT, VOLUME I" (VT 004 006) INCLUDE (1) TWO LETTERS FROM PLANT ENGINEERS STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, (2) A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAINTENANCE TRAINING SURVEY, A SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE,…

LYNN, FRANK

413

An Assessment of Selected Aspects of the Pre-Employment Program in Farm Machinery Service and Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to evaluate certain aspects of the pre-employment program in farm machinery service and repair, questionnaires were sent to 39 Texas teachers of the programs. Based on 30 responses (76.92%), the major conclusions were: a majority of the teachers felt they did not have adequate training in farm machinery mechanics; no uniform selection…

Webb, Earl S.; Kruse, Robert F.

414

Antisolvent Crystallisation of Sodium Carbonate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; The Growth of Sodium Nitrate from Mixtures of Water and Isopropoxyethanol; Molecular Dynamic Studies of Mixtures of Water and Isopropoxyethanol at the NANO (012) Interface; The High-Temperature Crystallization of Anhydrous Sodium C...

H. Oosterhof

1999-01-01

415

ROTATING GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

Internal rotation is thought to play a major role in the dynamics of some globular clusters. However, in only a few cases has internal rotation been studied by the quantitative application of realistic and physically justified global models. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of the photometry and three-dimensional kinematics of {omega} Cen, 47 Tuc, and M15, by means of a recently introduced family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating models. The three clusters, characterized by different relaxation conditions, show evidence of differential rotation and deviations from sphericity. The combination of line-of-sight velocities and proper motions allows us to determine their internal dynamics, predict their morphology, and estimate their dynamical distance. The well-relaxed cluster 47 Tuc is interpreted very well by our model; internal rotation is found to explain the observed morphology. For M15, we provide a global model in good agreement with the data, including the central behavior of the rotation profile and the shape of the ellipticity profile. For the partially relaxed cluster {omega} Cen, the selected model reproduces the complex three-dimensional kinematics; in particular, the observed anisotropy profile, characterized by a transition from isotropy to weakly radial anisotropy and then to tangential anisotropy in the outer parts. The discrepancy found for the steep central gradient in the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile and for the ellipticity profile is ascribed to the condition of only partial relaxation of this cluster and the interplay between rotation and radial anisotropy.

Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L. [Now at Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Swain West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Bertin, G.; Zocchi, A., E-mail: bianchini@mpia.de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

2013-07-20

416

Rotating reactor studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is thicker and extends all the way around the reactor.

Roberts, Glyn O.

1991-01-01

417

Complete sodium removal from equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proving that metallic sodium could be successfully removed from the complex internal and external geometries of equipment (such as breeder reactor components) was one goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sodium Waste Technology Program. A pilot-plant facility was designed and built for sodium removal at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. The pilot plant is called the Sodium

M. F. Huebner; C. S. Abrams

1986-01-01

418

Loss rates and time scales for sodium at Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scales and loss rates for sodium in the exosphere of Mercury are studied here. Sodium comes from release processes occurring at the planetary surface; the amount of surface sodium that is available for release (mostly through thermal- or photon-stimulated desorption) is limited. Loss processes deplete the surface concentration of sodium, which is continuously refilled by diffusion from the interior of regolith grains or by chemical sputtering. Ejected sodium particles may either escape the gravity, also aided by the radiation pressure acceleration, or be photoionized, or fall back onto the surface. Falling particles may either stick to the surface or bounce. A Monte Carlo model, simulating all these processes, is used to obtain the exosphere densities, the global loss rates at different true anomaly angles, and typical time scales for small-term variations, taking into account planet's orbit and rotation speed. Assuming an impulsive event, which causes the enhancement of sodium in the exosphere, the model gives the time scales for the exosphere to recover to a steady-state condition. It is found that time scales go from one or two hour (close to perihelion) to half day (close to aphelion). The escape probability ranges from 20% at perihelion and aphelion up to 40% at true anomaly angles of about 60° and 300°.

Mura, Alessandro

2012-04-01

419

Acoustic rotation control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is described for acoustically controlled rotation of a levitated object, which avoids deformation of a levitated liquid object. Acoustic waves of the same wavelength are directed along perpendicular directions across the object, and with the relative phases of the acoustic waves repeatedly switched so that one wave alternately leads and lags the other by 90 deg. The amount of torque for rotating the object, and the direction of rotation, are controlled by controlling the proportion of time one wave leads the other and selecting which wave leads the other most of the time.

Elleman, D. D.; Croonquist, A. P.; Wang, T. G. (inventors)

1983-01-01

420

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three companies produced natural sodium sulfate from a total of three plants in California, Texas, and Utah. The domestic natural sodium sulfate industry supplied about one-half of the total output of U.S. sodium sulfate. Because of the location of these ...

1993-01-01

421

What does physical rotation reveal about mental rotation?  

PubMed

In a classic psychological science experiment, Shepard and Metzler (1971) discovered that the time participants took to judge whether two rotated abstract block figures were identical increased monotonically with the figures' relative angular disparity. They posited that participants rotate mental images to achieve a match and that mental rotation recruits motor processes. This interpretation has become central in the literature, but until now, surprisingly few researchers have compared mental and physical rotation. We had participants rotate virtual Shepard and Metzler figures mentally and physically; response time, accuracy, and real-time rotation data were collected. Results suggest that mental and physical rotation processes overlap and also reveal novel conclusions about physical rotation that have implications for mental rotation. Notably, participants did not rotate figures to achieve a match, but rather until they reached an off-axis canonical difference, and rotational strategies markedly differed for judgments of whether the figures were the same or different. PMID:24311475

Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

2014-02-01

422

CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?  

MedlinePLUS

... initiatives to reduce sodium such as the National Salt Reduction Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them ... sodium foods. Asking food manufacturers to provide lower sodium foods. Make phased reductions in the amount of sodium they add to ...

423

Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... medications. Avoid products that contain sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is baking soda. Fresh fruits and vegetables are generally low in sodium. In addition, a diet rich in fruits and ...

424

Rotator Cuff Tears  

MedlinePLUS

... risk for overuse tears. Many jobs and routine chores can cause overuse tears, as well. • Lack of ... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Symptoms The most common symptoms of a rotator cu? tear include: • Pain ...

425

Synchronous Rotation of Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the moon's orbit around the Earth. This animation and accompanying text explain that the same side of the moon always faces Earth because of the moon's rotation. The animation begins with a demonstration of how the moon would appear if it did not rotate on its axis, and shows that all sides would be visible from Earth at some point in that orbit. The animation then shows the synchronous rotation of the moon and explains this rotation is the reason for our only seeing one side of the moon. The sun is shown at the right side of the diagram and the Earth and moon are shown with an illuminated side facing the sun and a dark side facing away from the sun. Colored "craters" on opposite sides of the moon are used as reference points for the animation.

426

The Earth's rotation problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.

2008-09-01

427

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

428

Rotator cuff injuries.  

PubMed

Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments. PMID:10893553

Crusher, R H

2000-07-01

429

Electromagnetic rotational actuation.  

SciTech Connect

There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

Hogan, Alexander Lee

2010-08-01

430

Robot Grasps Rotating Object  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

1991-01-01

431

The Physics of Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains media-illustrated articles on various physical phenomena related to the Coriolis effect. Almost all of the articles are illustrated with animations and java simulations. The main subjects covered include the Coriolis and Centrifugal effects, rotation-vibration coupling, the consequences of Earth's rotation on oceanography and weather, the Foucault pendulum, and angular momentum conservation. There are also articles on the Eötvös effect and special and general relativity.

Teunissen, Cleon

2009-01-12

432

Rotational rate sensor  

DOEpatents

A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

433

Rotating Biological Contactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rotating biological contactor (RBC) is an attached-growth biological process, which consists of a series of rotating plastic\\u000a media all coated with a layer of biofilm. The biofilm or slime on the media aerobically react with substances in a waste stream\\u000a for bio-oxidation and nitrification, or anaerobically react with the substances for denitri-fication. This chapter discusses\\u000a the theory, performance, design procedures,

Lawrence K. Wang; Zucheng Wu; Nazih K. Shammas

434

Residents Manual - Elective Rotations  

Cancer.gov

Residents spend 1 month rotating on the Clinical Flow Cytometry Service as an elective rotation. In the first week the residents spend the majority of their time reading literature provided and discussing antigens and antibodies. During this time they are introduced to interpretation of patient immunophenotypic data and are guided through analyses of classical flow cytometric cases. As the residents acquire greater knowledge, they are given cases to review on their own for presentation at sign out.

435

Complete sodium removal from equipment  

SciTech Connect

Proving that metallic sodium could be successfully removed from the complex internal and external geometries of equipment (such as breeder reactor components) was one goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sodium Waste Technology Program. A pilot-plant facility was designed and built for sodium removal at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. The pilot plant is called the Sodium Process Demonstration (SPD) Facility. It uses a combination of melt-drain-evaporate-calcine (MEDEC) processes to remove metallic sodium from large (up to 1.4-m-diam x 2.2-m-long) nonradioactive-sodium-bearing equipment. The sodium-free equipment can then be reused or disposed of using normal waste disposal methods. The sodium can be converted to storable sodium monoxide or disposed of by other means. Evaluating the effectiveness of this MEDEC process was the object of a methodical test program. After this test program proved successful, the MEDEC process was used on a production scale to remove metallic sodium from a variety of sodium-bearing items as described.

Huebner, M.F.; Abrams, C.S.

1986-01-01

436

Étude de l'organisation des ions sodium dans l'alumine ? par résonance magnétique nucléaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance study of sodium ion organization in beta-aluminaAn extensive study of the high-field (36 k-Oe) N.M.R. spectrum of Na (I = 3\\/2) has been performed in single crystals of sodium beta-alumina at 300, 100 and 4·2 K.Only the central transition (½, ?½) has been observed. Rotation spectra around c, a and a* axes have been performed and reveal

Par J. P. Boilot; L. Zuppiroli; G. Delplanque; L. Jerome

1975-01-01

437

Identification of distinct thiopeptide-antibiotic precursor lead compounds using translation machinery assays.  

PubMed

Most thiopeptide antibiotics target the translational machinery: thiostrepton (ThS) and nosiheptide (NoS) target the ribosome and inhibit translation factor function, whereas GE2270A/T binds to the elongation factor EF-Tu and prevents ternary complex formation. We have used several in vitro translational machinery assays to screen a library of thiopeptide antibiotic precursor compounds and identified four families of precursor compounds that are either themselves inhibitory or are able to relieve the inhibitory effects of ThS, NoS, or GE2270T. Some of these precursors represent distinct compounds with respect to their ability to bind to ribosomes. The results not only provide insight into the mechanism of action of thiopeptide compounds but also demonstrate the potential of such assays for identifying lead compounds that might be missed using conventional inhibitory screening protocols. PMID:19875082

Starosta, Agata L; Qin, Haiou; Mikolajka, Aleksandra; Leung, Gulice Y C; Schwinghammer, Kathrin; Nicolaou, Kyriacos C; Chen, David Y-K; Cooperman, Barry S; Wilson, Daniel N

2009-10-30

438

The Replication Fork: Understanding the Eukaryotic Replication Machinery and the Challenges to Genome Duplication  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells must accurately and efficiently duplicate their genomes during each round of the cell cycle. Multiple linear chromosomes, an abundance of regulatory elements, and chromosome packaging are all challenges that the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery must successfully overcome. The replication machinery, the “replisome” complex, is composed of many specialized proteins with functions in supporting replication by DNA polymerases. Efficient replisome progression relies on tight coordination between the various factors of the replisome. Further, replisome progression must occur on less than ideal templates at various genomic loci. Here, we describe the functions of the major replisome components, as well as some of the obstacles to efficient DNA replication that the replisome confronts. Together, this review summarizes current understanding of the vastly complicated task of replicating eukaryotic DNA.

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

2013-01-01

439

Exploitation of host clock gene machinery by hepatitis viruses B and C  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of cellular physiology display circadian (approximately 24-h) rhythms. Dysfunction of the circadian clock molecular circuitry is associated with human health derangements, including neurodegeneration, increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Viruses triggering hepatitis depend tightly on the host cell synthesis machinery for their own replication, survival and spreading. Recent evidences support a link between the circadian clock circuitry and viruses’ biological cycle within host cells. Currently, in vitro models for chronobiological studies of cells infected with viruses need to be implemented. The establishment of such in vitro models would be helpful to better understand the link between the clock gene machinery and viral replication/viral persistence in order to develop specifically targeted therapeutic regimens. Here we review the recent literature dealing with the interplay between hepatitis B and C viruses and clock genes.

Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Piccoli, Claudia; Tataranni, Tiziana; Andriulli, Angelo; Pazienza, Valerio

2013-01-01

440

Expression and Functional Analysis of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Antigen-Processing Machinery in Medulloblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in the expression and\\/or function of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-processing machinery (APM) components are found in many tumor types.These abnormalities may have a negative impact on the interactions of tumor cells with host's immune system and on the outcome of T cell-based immunotherapy.To the best of our knowledge, no information is available about APM component

Lizzia Raffaghello; Paolo Nozza; Fabio Morandi; Marta Camoriano; Xinhui Wang; Maria Luisa Garre; Armando Cama; Giuseppe Basso; Soldano Ferrone; Claudio Gambini; Vito Pistoia

441

Abnormalities in the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery in Huntington’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently described the progressive and selective loss of the presynaptic protein complexin II in brains of mice (R6\\/2) transgenic for the Huntington’s disease (HD) mutation. Here we have determined the expression of components of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery in the striatum and hippocampus from post-mortem brains of HD cases and neurologically normal controls. As in the brains

A. J. Morton; R. L. M. Faull; J. M. Edwardson

2001-01-01

442

The sabotage of the bacterial transcription machinery by a small bacteriophage protein  

PubMed Central

Many bacteriophages produce small proteins that specifically interfere with the bacterial host transcription machinery and thus contribute to the acquisition of the bacterial cell by the bacteriophage. We recently described how a small protein, called P7, produced by the Xp10 bacteriophage inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by causing the dissociation of the promoter specificity sigma factor subunit from the host RNA polymerase holoenzyme. In this addendum to the original publication, we present the highlights of that research.

Liu, Bing; Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Mekler, Vladimir; Xu, Yingqi; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

2014-01-01

443

The Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation machinery is recruited to X chromosome DNA attached to an autosome.  

PubMed Central

The dosage compensation machinery of Caenorhabditis elegans is targeted specifically to the X chromosomes of hermaphrodites (XX) to reduce gene expression by half. Many of the trans-acting factors that direct the dosage compensation machinery to X have been identified, but none of the proposed cis-acting X chromosome-recognition elements needed to recruit dosage compensation components have been found. To study X chromosome recognition, we explored whether portions of an X chromosome attached to an autosome are competent to bind the C. elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC). To do so, we devised a three-dimensional in situ approach that allowed us to compare the volume, position, and number of chromosomal and subchromosomal bodies bound by the dosage compensation machinery in wild-type XX nuclei and XX nuclei carrying an X duplication. The dosage compensation complex was found to associate with a duplication of the right 30% of X, but the complex did not spread onto adjacent autosomal sequences. This result indicates that all the information required to specify X chromosome identity resides on the duplication and that the dosage compensation machinery can localize to a site distinct from the full-length hermaphrodite X chromosome. In contrast, smaller duplications of other regions of X appeared to not support localization of the DCC. In a separate effort to identify cis-acting X recognition elements, we used a computational approach to analyze genomic DNA sequences for the presence of short motifs that were abundant and overrepresented on X relative to autosomes. Fourteen families of X-enriched motifs were discovered and mapped onto the X chromosome.

Lieb, J D; de Solorzano, C O; Rodriguez, E G; Jones, A; Angelo, M; Lockett, S; Meyer, B J

2000-01-01

444

48. COILING MACHINERY AT THE END OF THE 84INCH CONTINUOUS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. COILING MACHINERY AT THE END OF THE 84-INCH CONTINUOUS HOT STRIP MILL. EACH STEEL SLAB BY THIS POINT HAS BECOME A SINGLE TRIP VARYING IN WIDTH AND THICKNESS ACCORDING TO THE CUSTOMER'S ORDER. THE STRIP IS AUTOMATICALLY COILED, COOLED BY WATER SPRAYS, AND TRANSFERRED BY MECHANICAL ARMS ONTO A CONVEYOR. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

445

Machinery malfunction diagnosis and correction: Vibration analysis and troubleshooting for process industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an up-to-date, hands-on single-source diagnostic guide for process machinery. It contains extensive illustrations, sample calculations, and explicit physical explanations; a 7-point problem solving methodology based on the authors` 40+ years of expertise; and 52 highly detailed field case histories describing problem definition, investigation, analytical and measurement techniques, and the final corrective solutions. It includes usable computations, analytical

Eisemann

1998-01-01

446

PBP1 Is a Component of the Bacillus subtilis Cell Division Machinery  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis penicillin-binding protein PBP1 has been implicated in cell division. We show here that a PBP1 knockout strain is affected in the formation of the asymmetric sporulation septum and that green fluorescent protein-PBP1 localizes to the sporulation septum. Localization of PBP1 to the vegetative septum is dependent on various cell division proteins. This study proves that PBP1 forms part of the B. subtilis cell division machinery.

Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Errington, Jeffery

2004-01-01

447

Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis of putative components of the Drosophila cell death machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the identification of numerous key players of the cell death machinery, little is known about their physiological role. Using RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo, we have studied the requirement of all Drosophila caspases and caspase-adaptors in different paradigms of apoptosis. Of the seven caspases, Dronc, drICE, Strica and Decay are rate limiting for apoptosis. Surprisingly, Hid-mediated apoptosis requires a

F Leulier; P S Ribeiro; E Palmer; T Tenev; K Takahashi; D Robertson; A Zachariou; F Pichaud; R Ueda; P Meier

2006-01-01

448

COMPARISON OF ENERGY CONSUPTION AND MACHINERY WORK WITH VARIOUS SOIL TILLAGE PRACTICES AT SOYBEAN PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual investigation of energy consumption and machinery work with three various soil tillage practices at soybean production, variety Tisa (Ist group) was conducted in east Croatia area (latitude 45O30? and longitude 18O07?). Conventional, conservation and no till were tillage practices applied. Energy comparison indicates a markedly energy consumption at the conventional soil tillage (ploughing, disking and seeding) with 56.86

R. Zimmer; S. Košuti?; M. Juriši?; V. Duvnjak

449

Silica-coated alginate beads for in vitro protein synthesis via transcription\\/translation machinery encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-coated alginate beads successfully encapsulate transcriptional and translational machinery for the prolonged cell-free synthesis of functional protein. The silica coating, identified by optical microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, made the beads more resistant–than bare or chitosan-coated beads–to an alginate-dissolving environment. The permeation of small molecules through the silica coat was confirmed by the efficient intake of small fluorescent molecules. Macromolecules such

Seong Yoon Lim; Kyeong-Ohn Kim; Dong-Myung Kim; Chan Beum Park

2009-01-01

450

Machinery-related injuries: regional rural injury study--I (RRIS--I).  

PubMed

Although it is known that farm machinery is a source of serious and catastrophic farm work-related injuries, little is known about the magnitude of, and potential risk factors for, this problem. The study population is from the five-state Regional Rural Injury Study--I (RRIS--I) that included 3,939 farm households and 13,144 persons who were interviewed about their injury experience and farming operation-related exposures during 1990. Rates were calculated for sociodemographic variables and various exposures pertinent to large farm machinery (excluding tractors). Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression, based on a model developed a priori and further confirmed using backward stepwise logistic regression. Among the total farming-related injury events (n = 764), 151 (20%) were related to large machinery use (1,127 injured persons per 100,000 persons per year). Through multivariate analyses, several variables were associated with elevated rate ratios that were important in both models: hours worked per week on the farm (40-59, 60-79, 80+); operation of an auger; field crops as the enterprise requiring the most time; and male gender. In addition, in the backward stepwise model, certain marital status categories (married; separated/widowed/divorced) were also associated with elevated rate ratios that were important. The majority of injury events occurred while persons were lifting, pushing, or pulling (21%), adjusting a machine (20%), or repairing a machine (17%). While only 5% of the cases were hospitalized, 79% required some type of health care. Among all injured persons, 34% were restricted from regular activities for 1 week or more and 19% were restricted for 1 month or more; 25% continued to have persistent problems. In summary, the RRIS-I permitted one of the most comprehensive studies of agricultural machinery-related injuries, to date. The findings indicate that these injuries represent a significant problem, based on the relevant rates, potential risk factors, and consequences from trauma. PMID:9805522

Gerberich, S G; Gibson, R W; French, L R; Lee, T Y; Carr, W P; Kochevar, L; Renier, C M; Shutske, J

1998-11-01

451

The Impact of Farm Machinery Management on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of proposed changes in field operations and land use on fossil fuel consumption on Canadian farms was analyzed using a computer model of the mechanics of farm machinery. The model predicted tractor\\/harvester power needs (kW), implement sizes and work required (kW-h) to complete each field operation on model farms in Canada's four farming regions. These predictions were integrated

J. A. Dyer; R. L. Desjardins

2003-01-01

452

The midbody ring scaffolds the abscission machinery in the absence of midbody microtubules.  

PubMed

Abscission completes cytokinesis to form the two daughter cells. Although abscission could be organized from the inside out by the microtubule-based midbody or from the outside in by the contractile ring-derived midbody ring, it is assumed that midbody microtubules scaffold the abscission machinery. In this paper, we assess the contribution of midbody microtubules versus the midbody ring in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We show that abscission occurs in two stages. First, the cytoplasm in the daughter cells becomes isolated, coincident with formation of the intercellular bridge; proper progression through this stage required the septins (a midbody ring component) but not the membrane-remodeling endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Second, the midbody and midbody ring are released into a specific daughter cell during the subsequent cell division; this stage required the septins and the ESCRT machinery. Surprisingly, midbody microtubules were dispensable for both stages. These results delineate distinct steps during abscission and highlight the central role of the midbody ring, rather than midbody microtubules, in their execution. PMID:24217623

Green, Rebecca A; Mayers, Jonathan R; Wang, Shaohe; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Desai, Arshad; Audhya, Anjon; Oegema, Karen

2013-11-11

453

Functional interplay between a virus and the ESCRT machinery in Archaea  

PubMed Central

Recently it has been discovered that a number of eukaryotic viruses, including HIV, coopt the cellular Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery to affect egress from infected cells. Strikingly, the ESCRT apparatus is conserved in a subset of Archaea, including members of the genus Sulfolobus where it plays a role in cytokinesis. In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National Park's acidic hot springs also exploits the host ESCRT machinery in its replication cycle. Moreover, perturbation of normal ESCRT function abrogates viral replication and, thus, prevents establishment of a productive Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus infection. We propose that the Sulfolobus ESCRT machinery is involved in viral assembly within the cytoplasm and in escape from the infected cell by using a unique lysis mechanism. Our results support an ancient origin for viruses “hijacking” ESCRT proteins to complete their replication cycle and thus identify a critical host–virus interaction conserved between two domains of life.

Snyder, Jamie C.; Samson, Rachel Y.; Brumfield, Susan K.; Bell, Stephen D.; Young, Mark J.

2013-01-01

454

Time-frequency manifold for nonlinear feature extraction in machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-frequency feature is beneficial to representation of non-stationary signals for effective machinery fault diagnosis. The time-frequency distribution (TFD) is a major tool to reveal the synthetic time-frequency pattern. However, the TFD will also face noise corruption and dimensionality reduction issues in engineering applications. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear time-frequency feature based on a time-frequency manifold (TFM) technique. The new TFM feature is generated by mainly addressing manifold learning on the TFDs in a reconstructed phase space. It combines the non-stationary information and the nonlinear information of analyzed signals, and hence exhibits valuable properties. Specifically, the new feature is a quantitative low-dimensional representation, and reveals the intrinsic time-frequency pattern related to machinery health, which can effectively overcome the effects of noise and condition variance issues in sampling signals. The effectiveness and the merits of the proposed TFM feature are confirmed by case study on gear wear diagnosis, bearing defect identification and defect severity evaluation. Results show the value and potential of the new feature in machinery fault pattern representation and classification.

He, Qingbo

2013-02-01

455

Vibration sensor data denoising using a time-frequency manifold for machinery fault diagnosis.  

PubMed

Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods. PMID:24379045

He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

456

The midbody ring scaffolds the abscission machinery in the absence of midbody microtubules  

PubMed Central

Abscission completes cytokinesis to form the two daughter cells. Although abscission could be organized from the inside out by the microtubule-based midbody or from the outside in by the contractile ring–derived midbody ring, it is assumed that midbody microtubules scaffold the abscission machinery. In this paper, we assess the contribution of midbody microtubules versus the midbody ring in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We show that abscission occurs in two stages. First, the cytoplasm in the daughter cells becomes isolated, coincident with formation of the intercellular bridge; proper progression through this stage required the septins (a midbody ring component) but not the membrane-remodeling endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Second, the midbody and midbody ring are released into a specific daughter cell during the subsequent cell division; this stage required the septins and the ESCRT machinery. Surprisingly, midbody microtubules were dispensable for both stages. These results delineate distinct steps during abscission and highlight the central role of the midbody ring, rather than midbody microtubules, in their execution.

Green, Rebecca A.; Mayers, Jonathan R.; Wang, Shaohe; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Desai, Arshad; Audhya, Anjon

2013-01-01

457

Modulation of an early step in the secretory machinery in hippocampal nerve terminals  

PubMed Central

In hippocampal neurons, neurotransmitter release can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) through a direct action on the secretory machinery. To identify the site of PKA modulation, we have taken advantage of the ability of the neurotoxin Botulinum A to cleave the synaptic protein SNAP-25. Cleavage of this protein decreases the Ca2+ responsiveness of the secretory machinery by partially uncoupling Ca2+-sensing from fusion per se. This is expressed as a shift toward higher Ca2+ levels of the Ca2+ to neurotransmitter release relationship and as a perturbation of synaptic delay under conditions where secretion induced by the Ca2+-independent secretagogue ruthenium red is unimpaired. We find that SNAP-25 cleavage also perturbs PKA-dependent modulation of secretion; facilitation of ruthenium red-evoked neurotransmitter release by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin is blocked completely after Botulinum toxin A action. Together with our observation that forskolin modifies the Ca2+ to neurotransmitter release relationship, our results suggest that SNAP-25 acts as a functional linker between Ca2+ detection and fusion and that PKA modulates an early step in the secretory machinery related to calcium sensing to facilitate synaptic transmission.

Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Fang, Yu; Haydon, Philip G.

1998-01-01

458

The organization of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells as a major factor in modeling exocytosis  

PubMed Central

The organization of cytoplasm in excitable cells was a largely ignored factor when mathematical models were developed to understand intracellular calcium and secretory behavior. Here we employed a combination of fluorescent evanescent and transmitted light microscopy to explore the F-actin cytoskeletal organization in the vicinity of secretory sites in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. This technique and confocal fluorescent microscopy show chromaffin granules associated with the borders of cortical cytoskeletal cages forming an intricate tridimensional network. Furthermore, the overexpression of SNAP-25 in these cells also reveals the association of secretory machinery clusters with the borders of these cytoskeletal cages. The importance of these F-actin cage borders is stressed when granules appear to interact and remain associated during exocytosis visualized in acridin orange loaded vesicles. These results will prompt us to propose a model of cytoskeletal cages, where the secretory machinery is associated with its borders. Both the calcium level and the secretory response are enhanced in this geometrical arrangement when compared with a random distribution of the secretory machinery that is not restricted to the borders of the cage.

Villanueva, Jose; Torregrosa-Hetland, Cristina J.; Gil, Amparo; Gonzalez-Velez, Virginia; Segura, Javier; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutierrez, Luis M.

2010-01-01

459

The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles.

Couturier, Jeremy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-Francois; Gaymard, Frederic; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

460

National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program: development and content evaluation.  

PubMed

Guidelines in the U.S. Department of Labor's Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (AgHO) regulations state that youth can receive tractor safety certification after participating in a 10-hour course, or receive tractor and machinery safety certification after participating in a 20-hour course. An additional four hours of orientation to on-farm hazards and general safety is required to receive full certification in a 24-hour course. Previous research has shown that traditional safety education certification programs were conducted with non-standardized methods and old curriculum materials. The objective of the National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program (NSTMOP) project was to design an effective, efficient, and accountable youth farm machinery certification program with national uniformity and a single set of economically producible instructional materials with demonstrated content validity. The format for the NSTMOP project was guided by focus groups, a national steering committee, and selected agricultural safety educators. Primary curriculum materials include a task sheet format, and new skills and driving evaluations. Data analysis indicates that the instructional materials, the instructional plan, and the evaluation of student participants satisfactorily met the objectives of the NSTMOP project and the AgHO regulations. PMID:18788334

Garvey, P M; Murphy, D J; Yoder, A M; Hilton, J W

2008-07-01

461

Protein-Protein Interaction Network and Subcellular Localization of the Arabidopsis Thaliana ESCRT Machinery.  

PubMed

The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) consists of several multi-protein subcomplexes which assemble sequentially at the endosomal surface and function in multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. While ESCRT has been relatively well characterized in yeasts and mammals, comparably little is known about ESCRT in plants. Here we explored the yeast two-hybrid protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery. We show that the Arabidopsis ESCRT interactome possesses a number of protein-protein interactions that are either conserved in yeasts and mammals or distinct to plants. We show also that most of the Arabidopsis ESCRT proteins examined at least partially localize to MVBs in plant cells when ectopically expressed on their own or co-expressed with other interacting ESCRT proteins, and some also induce abnormal MVB phenotypes, consistent with their proposed functional role(s) as part of the ESCRT machinery in Arabidopsis. Overall, our results help define the plant ESCRT machinery by highlighting both conserved and unique features when compared to ESCRT in other evolutionarily diverse organisms, providing a foundation for further exploration of ESCRT in plants. PMID:22639582

Richardson, Lynn G L; Howard, Alexander S M; Khuu, Nicholas; Gidda, Satinder K; McCartney, Andrew; Morphy, Brett J; Mullen, Robert T

2011-01-01

462

Protein-Protein Interaction Network and Subcellular Localization of the Arabidopsis Thaliana ESCRT Machinery  

PubMed Central

The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) consists of several multi-protein subcomplexes which assemble sequentially at the endosomal surface and function in multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. While ESCRT has been relatively well characterized in yeasts and mammals, comparably little is known about ESCRT in plants. Here we explored the yeast two-hybrid protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery. We show that the Arabidopsis ESCRT interactome possesses a number of protein–protein interactions that are either conserved in yeasts and mammals or distinct to plants. We show also that most of the Arabidopsis ESCRT proteins examined at least partially localize to MVBs in plant cells when ectopically expressed on their own or co-expressed with other interacting ESCRT proteins, and some also induce abnormal MVB phenotypes, consistent with their proposed functional role(s) as part of the ESCRT machinery in Arabidopsis. Overall, our results help define the plant ESCRT machinery by highlighting both conserved and unique features when compared to ESCRT in other evolutionarily diverse organisms, providing a foundation for further exploration of ESCRT in plants.

Richardson, Lynn G. L.; Howard, Alexander S. M.; Khuu, Nicholas; Gidda, Satinder K.; McCartney, Andrew; Morphy, Brett J.; Mullen, Robert T.

2011-01-01

463

The Rotator Cuff Functional Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite improvements in the clinical assessment of rotator cuff injuries, shortcomings exist in diagnosing rotator cuff tears.Purpose: To formulate a clinical rotator cuff functional index for predicting rotator cuff tears based on handheld dynamometer measurements for shoulder strength testing and to assess its ability to diagnose a rotator cuff tear.Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: Preoperative

Daryl C. Osbahr; George A. C. Murrell

2006-01-01

464

IO Rotation Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.

Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.

2000-01-01

465

Constraints on flagellar rotation.  

PubMed

The motion of tethered cells of Streptococcus was analyzed at low values of protonmotive force (delta p). Cells repeatedly energized and de-energized stopped at discrete angular positions, indicating a rotational symmetry of barriers to rotation of order 5 or 6. At values of delta p smaller than -30 mV, constraints imposed by these barriers were evident when cells were starved and gradually energized, but not when they were energized first and then gradually de-energized. At values of delta p larger than about -30 mV, the cells behaved as if there were no barriers. Cells spinning in this regime also executed rotational Brownian movement. At energy levels above threshold, the motor determines torque; it does not fix the position of the rotor relative to the stator. PMID:4046028

Khan, S; Meister, M; Berg, H C

1985-08-20

466

CCMR: Rotating Bose Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of cold atoms is currently an extremely exciting field. New technologies are allowing us to reach much lower temperatures experimentally. Although the Bose-Einstein condensate was predicted in 1925, it was not observed experimentally until recently. Using laser technology and evaporative cooling techniques, we can cool and trap the atoms. A small system of atoms at very low temperatures has many interesting properties. The effect of rotation on a Bose gas is different from what is seen in the macroscopic world, and it is thus interesting to study how angular momentum enters the system. In a macroscopic system, angular momentum is gained through frictional forces. Studying a rotating Bose gas allows us to look at friction at the atomic scale. We study two atoms in a rotating harmonic trap.

Ding, Fiona

2007-08-29

467

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics.

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlohner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

468

Rotating shielded crane system  

DOEpatents

A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

Commander, John C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

469

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOEpatents

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06

470

Rotating quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space-time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress-energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space-time geometries.

Ambru?, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

471

Waves in rotating fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse and axial wave motion for a rotating inviscid perfect gas with an impressed temperature gradient and an impressed non-solid body steady state velocity profile is studied. The equations for wave motion are derived using a method similar to that of Hultgren. The possible wave velocities, mode shapes, and pressure distributions are compared to those for the case of isothermal solid body rotation. Considerations of mean free path and wave motion are presented for both the impressed temperature distribution and the impressed velocity profile. The modifications on wave velocity, mode shape, and pressure due to the mean free path considerations are also given.

Morton, J. B.; Cooper, G. R.

1980-09-01

472

Asteroid Rotation Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During winter of 2012-2013, we measured the rotation periods of seven asteroids using the 0.9-m SARA North telescope located at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and at the 0.6-m SARA South telescope located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The asteroids that we carried out photometry studies include: 1614 Goldschmidt, 1727 Mette, 2207 Antenor, 2616 Lesya, 2972 Niilo, 4387 Tanaka, 34898 (2622 P-L). We will present their rotation periods, and compare with previous results where available.

Han, Xianming L.; Liu, W.; Sun, L.; Gao, S.; Shi, J.; Wang, S.; Pan, X.; Jiang, P.; Zhou, H.; Li, B.; Zhao, H.

2013-06-01

473

Infinitesimal machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the sacrificial-layer method of making silicon micromotors, the use of electrostatic actuation, and the importance of friction and contact sticking in such devices. The persistent problem of finding meaningful applications for these tiny machines is discussed, touching a range of topics along the way. The future of computation using a register made of atoms, and quantum-mechanical transitions

R. Feynman

1993-01-01

474

Handbook on Materials for Superconducting Machinery, Includes Data Sheets for First and Second Supplements, November 1975 and January 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objective of this second supplement, as for the first supplement and the Handbook, is to present data that could be used effectively in the development of new concepts in superconducting machinery. Information was collected on the mechanical, th...

H. J. Hucek J. K. Thompson K. E. Wilkes K. R. Hanby

1977-01-01

475

Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits. PMID:17587873

Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

2007-01-01

476

Effect of sodium salicylate, sodium oxalate, and sodium chloride on the micellization and adsorption of sodium deoxycholate in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The salicylate ion increases the rate of bile flow (choleretic effect) and bile salts are known to affect the colonic absorption of oxalate. Owing to this physiological relevance of salicylate and oxalate ions, critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were determined in aqueous sodium oxalate, sodium salicylate, and sodium chloride solutions by using surface tension, fluorescence, and EMF methods. The results indicate, besides a counterion effect, the influence of coanions on the cmc. In the range from 25 to 40 °C, cmc increases almost linearly with temperature. In the temperature range from 30 to 40 °C, the counterion binding constant ? of NaDC micelles has the same value (0.17±0.01) in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate. On the other hand, in sodium oxalate solution ?=0.05±0.02 when oxalate concentration is less than or equal to c* and ?=0.48±0.04 above c*, where c*?0.038 mol kg(-1). EMF measurements also supported this type of counterion binding to NaDC micelles in sodium oxalate solutions. In sodium oxalate solution, at c* a change in the shape of deoxycholate micelles is expected to take place. Salicylate, oxalate, and chloride coanions have a similar effect on the adsorption of NaDC. This study reveals that the choleretic effect of salicylate is not due to the influence of salicylate ions on the micellization of NaDC. PMID:21402381

Das, Sujit; Dey, Jahar; Mukhim, Teiborlang; Ismail, Kochi

2011-05-15

477

Novel two-stage piezoelectric-based electrical energy generators for low and variable speed rotary machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel class of two-stage piezoelectric-based electrical energy generators is presented for rotary machinery in which the input speed is low and varies significantly, even reversing. Applications include wind mills, turbo-machinery for harvesting tidal flows, etc. Current technology using magnet-and-coil rotary generators require gearing or similar mechanisms to increase the input speed and make the generation cycle efficient. Variable speed-control

J. Rastegar; R. Murray

2010-01-01

478

Dempster–Shafer regression for multi-step-ahead time-series prediction towards data-driven machinery prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting a sequence of future values of a time series using the descriptors observed in the past can be regarded as the stand-stone of data-driven machinery prognosis. The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel data-driven machinery prognosis strategy for industry application. First, the collected time-series degradation features are reconstructed based on the theorem of Takens, among which

Gang Niu; Bo-Suk Yang

2009-01-01

479

Rotating, hydromagnetic laboratory experiment modelling planetary cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a series of laboratory experiments motivated by planetary cores and the dynamo effect, the mechanism by which the flow of an electrically conductive fluid can give rise to a spontaneous magnetic field. Our experimental apparatus, meant to be a laboratory model of Earth's core, contains liquid sodium between an inner, solid sphere and an outer, spherical shell. The fluid is driven by the differential rotation of these two boundaries, each of which is connected to a motor. Applying an axial, DC magnetic field, we use a collection of Hall probes to measure the magnetic induction that results from interactions between the applied field and the flowing, conductive fluid. We have observed and identified inertial modes, which are bulk oscillations of the fluid restored by the Coriolis force. Over-reflection at a shear layer is one mechanism capable of exciting such modes, and we have developed predictions of both onset boundaries and mode selection from over-reflection theory which are consistent with our observations. Also, motivated by previous experimental devices that used ferromagnetic boundaries to achieve dynamo action, we have studied the effects of a soft iron (ferromagnetic) inner sphere on our apparatus, again finding inertial waves. We also find that all behaviors are more broadband and generally more nonlinear in the presence of a ferromagnetic boundary. Our results with a soft iron inner sphere have implications for other hydromagnetic experiments with ferromagnetic boundaries, and are appropriate for comparison to numerical simulations as well. From our observations we conclude that inertial modes almost certainly occur in planetary cores and will occur in future rotating experiments. In fact, the predominance of inertial modes in our experiments and in other recent work leads to a new paradigm for rotating turbulence, starkly different from turbulence theories based on assumptions of isotropy and homogeneity, starting instead with inertial modes, which are the linear eigenmodes of any rapidly rotating fluid.

Kelley, Douglas H.

2009-10-01

480

Rotational dynamics with Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia (I) of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction (b) for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive I for a cylindrical plate rotated around its central axis from the other two experiments based on the relation between torque and angular acceleration of rotational motion and conservation of energy. Movies of the rotating plate and hung masses are recorded. As a result, we have the deviation of I from its theoretical value of 0.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Our setup is completely constructed from locally available inexpensive materials and the experimental results indicate that the system is highly reliable. This work should pave the way for those who prefer to build a similar setup from scratch at relatively low cost compared to commercial units.

Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

2012-05-01

481

Rotator cuff problems  

MedlinePLUS

... often show a tear in the rotator cuff. MRI of the shoulder may show swelling or a tear in the ... Your doctor will inject contrast material into your shoulder joint. Then an x-ray, CT scan, or MRI scan are used to take a picture of ...

482

Diamond rotating bit  

SciTech Connect

An improved rotating diamond bit for earth boring is devised by incorporating generally triangular, prismatically shaped synthetic polycrystalline diamond elements in the teeth of the boring bit. The polycrystalline diamond elements are set on lands defined on the bit face such that two opposing triangular faces of the prismatic diamond element form a dihedral angle in the direction of travel of the element defined by the bit rotation. The polycrystalline diamond element is thus inclined with respect to the direction of linear travel of the element when the bit rotates. In other words, the normal to the parallel opposing triangular faces of the diamond element is acutely inclined with respect to the direction of travel of the element. A shoulder-to-gage transition pattern of the junk slot, waterway and collector is arranged to uniformly distribute the flow of fluid across the shoulder to guage transition. Further, the distribution of fluid from the central conduit within the longitudinal core of the bit to a plurality of nozzles which merge with corresponding waterways on the bit face is arranged such that fluid is preferentially delivered to a radially innermost nozzle and thereafter in a graduated series of steps in lesser amounts to a series of sequenced nozzles more radially disposed from the center of the rotating bit.

Link, H. D.

1985-11-05

483

Spin and rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical aspects of spin-rotation coupling are presented. The approach is based on the general covariance principle. It is shown that the gyrogravitational ratio of the bare spin-1/2 and the spin-1 particles is equal to unity. That is why spin couples with rotation as an ordinary angular momentum. This result is the rigorous substantiation of the cranking model in which spin-rotation coupling is introduced by means of a unitary rotation. To observe the phenomenon, the experiment with hydrogen-like ions in a storage ring is suggested. The degenerated magnetic sub-states of such ion are split if it circulates in a storage ring along a helical trajectory. It is found that the splitting of the 12 S 1/2, F = 1/2 hyperfine state of the 140Pr58+ and 142Pm60+ ions in the storage ring ESR in Darmstadt is about 4.5 MHz. We argue that such splitting can be experimentally determined by means of the laser-induced quantum beat spectroscopy or the ionic interferometry.

Pavlichenkov, I. M.

2009-07-01

484

Rotator Cuff Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

Connors, G. Patrick

485

Rotatable stem and lock  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

1981-10-27

486

Rotatable stem and lock  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

Deveney, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Sanderson, Stephen N. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1984-01-01