Science.gov

Sample records for sodium rotating machinery

  1. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  2. Pressure measurement on rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemberton, Addison; Harris, Louis R.

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of pressure scanners for measuring multiple unknown pressures in rotating machinery. Pressure scanners consist of stepper driven selector valves, which sequentially connect unknown pressures and apply these pressures to a single pressure transducer. This generates analog voltage signals which can be computerized and plotted while a pressure test is in progress. When an electrical selector switch on the same stepper driven shaft is added, thermocouple signals can be brought out of a rotating machine synchronously with pressure data.

  3. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  4. Rub failure signature analysis for large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengjia, He; Yudi, Sheng; Liangsheng, Qu

    1990-09-01

    In many cases rub failure in large rotating machinery may produce noise in certain bandwidths known as coloured noise. It is difficult to diagnose rub failure between rotating and stationary parts using only ordinary FFT spectra or autoregressive spectra. In this paper, a new technique combining principal components analysis and autoregressive spectra (PCAT) is introduced. This technique can reasonably estimate the spectra and determine the chief characteristic parameter of the coloured noise. A successful example of rub failure analysis given in this paper shows that PCAT is an efficient method for use with large rotating machinery.

  5. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  6. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  7. Sensors for noncontact vibration diagnostics in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with electromagnetic sensors for noncontact vibration diagnostics in rotating machinery. The sensors were designed for operational measurements in turbomachinery by means of the tip-timing method. The main properties of eddy-current, Hall effect, induction and magnetoresistive sensors are described and compared. Possible arrangements of the experimental systems for static and dynamic calibration of the sensors are suggested and discussed.

  8. Rotating machinery prognostics: State of the art, challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Aiwina; Zhang, Sheng; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Machinery prognosis is the forecast of the remaining operational life, future condition, or probability of reliable operation of an equipment based on the acquired condition monitoring data. This approach to modern maintenance practice promises to reduce downtime, spares inventory, maintenance costs, and safety hazards. Given the significance of prognostics capabilities and the maturity of condition monitoring technology, there have been an increasing number of publications on rotating machinery prognostics in the past few years. These publications covered a wide spectrum of prognostics techniques. This review article first synthesises and places these individual pieces of information in context, while identifying their merits and weaknesses. It then discusses the identified challenges, and in doing so, alerts researchers to opportunities for conducting advanced research in the field. Current methods for predicting rotating machinery failures are summarised and classified as conventional reliability models, condition-based prognostics models and models integrating reliability and prognostics. Areas in need of development or improvement include the integration of condition monitoring and reliability, utilisation of incomplete trending data, consideration of effects from maintenance actions and variable operating conditions, derivation of the non-linear relationship between measured data and actual asset health, consideration of failure interactions, practicability of requirements and assumptions, as well as development of performance evaluation frameworks.

  9. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  10. Stationary wavelet transform for fault detection in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, Serhat; Karatoprak, Erinc; Kayran, A. H.; Senguler, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    This research presents a different fault diagnostic approach using the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) as an alternative method to Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this sense, it is aimed to find potential defects, which exist in healthy motor bearings as manufacturing defects as compared to the faulty case. This approach extracts the origin of the bearing damage that develops during the aging process. In this manner, the advantage of the SWT over the DWT is emphasized. Hence, it can be introduced as a new approach for condition monitoring studies in rotating machineries like the induction motors.

  11. Thermal image based fault diagnosis for rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, Olivier; Schulz, Raiko; Slavkovikj, Viktor; Stockman, Kurt; Loccufier, Mia; Van de Walle, Rik; Van Hoecke, Sofie

    2015-11-01

    Infrared imaging is crucial for condition monitoring as the thermographic patterns will differ depending on the fault or machine condition. Currently, a limited number of machine faults have been studied using thermal imaging. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel automatic fault detection system using infrared imaging, focussing on bearings of rotating machinery. The set of bearing faults monitored contain faults for which state-of-the-art techniques have no general solutions such as bearing-lubricant starvation. For each fault, several recordings are made using different bearings to ensure generalization of the fault-detection system. The system contains two image-processing pipelines, each with their own respective purposes. The first pipeline focusses on detecting rotor imbalance, regardless of the bearing faults. The second pipeline focusses on the bearing faults, regardless of whether the machine is balanced or not. Within the first pipeline, imbalance is detected by differencing the consecutive image frames which are subsequently summarized by their distribution along the image axes. For the second pipeline, three features are introduced which are the standard deviation of the temperature, the Gini coefficient, and the Moment of Light. The final system is able to distinguish between all eight different conditions with an accuracy of 88.25%.

  12. Low Power Magnetic Bearing Design for High Speed Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Maslen, E. H.; Humphris, R. R.; Sortore, C. K.; Studer, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension technology has advanced to the point of being able to offer a number of advantages to a variety of applications in the rotating machinery and aerospace fields. One strong advantage is the decrease in power consumption. The design and construction of a set of permanent magnet biased, actively controlled magnetic bearing for a flexible rotor are presented. Both permanent magnets and electromagnets are used in a configuration which effectively provides the necessary fluxes in the appropriate air gaps, while simultaneously keeping the undesirable destabilizing forces to a minimum. The design includes two radial bearings and a thrust bearing. The theoretical development behind the design is briefly discussed. Experimental performance results for a set of operating prototype bearings is presented. The results include measurements of load capacity, bearing stiffness and damping, and the dynamic response of the rotor. With few exceptions, the experimental results matched very well with the predicted performance. The power consumption of these bearings was found to be significantly reduced from that for a comparable set of all electromagnetic bearings.

  13. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  14. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  15. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  16. Rotating machinery heat and mass transfer research in the People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.-H.; Ko, S.-Y.; Liu, D.; Shen, J.; Xu, J.-Z.

    A survey of research on rotating machinery heat and mass transfer in the People's Republic of China has been made. Since the later part of 1950's, considerable research and development work has been conducted in this field in China in order to improve the performance and prolong the life of rotating machinery. The emphasis of gas turbine heat transfer has been made in this survey. The water cooling of generator and the heat transfer of rotary piston engine are also included. Researches on the measuring technique of rotating machinery such as the temperature measurement, heat flux gauge, turbulence measurement, optical measurement and flow field visualization are discussed. The following topics of gas turbine heat and mass transfer are included: numerical analysis of air cooling of turbine blades, internal cooling passage heat transfer, impingment cooling, film cooling, transpiration cooling of turbine blades, cooling of blade root tenon, cooling of rotor disc, film cooling of flame tube and cooling of afterburner.

  17. Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

  18. Segmented infrared image analysis for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lixiang; Yao, Mingchao; Wang, Jinjiang; Bai, Tangbo; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-07-01

    As a noncontact and non-intrusive technique, infrared image analysis becomes promising for machinery defect diagnosis. However, the insignificant information and strong noise in infrared image limit its performance. To address this issue, this paper presents an image segmentation approach to enhance the feature extraction in infrared image analysis. A region selection criterion named dispersion degree is also formulated to discriminate fault representative regions from unrelated background information. Feature extraction and fusion methods are then applied to obtain features from selected regions for further diagnosis. Experimental studies on a rotor fault simulator demonstrate that the presented segmented feature enhancement approach outperforms the one from the original image using both Naïve Bayes classifier and support vector machine.

  19. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  20. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM). The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults. PMID:27322273

  1. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM). The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults. PMID:27322273

  2. A review on empirical mode decomposition in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Lin, Jing; He, Zhengjia; Zuo, Ming J.

    2013-02-01

    Rotating machinery covers a broad range of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. It generally operates under tough working environment and is therefore subject to faults, which could be detected and diagnosed by using signal processing techniques. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is one of the most powerful signal processing techniques and has been extensively studied and widely applied in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Numerous publications on the use of EMD for fault diagnosis have appeared in academic journals, conference proceedings and technical reports. This paper attempts to survey and summarize the recent research and development of EMD in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, providing comprehensive references for researchers concerning with this topic and helping them identify further research topics. First, the EMD method is briefly introduced, the usefulness of the method is illustrated and the problems and the corresponding solutions are listed. Then, recent applications of EMD to fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are summarized in terms of the key components, such as rolling element bearings, gears and rotors. Finally, the outstanding open problems of EMD in fault diagnosis are discussed and potential future research directions are identified. It is expected that this review will serve as an introduction of EMD for those new to the concepts, as well as a summary of the current frontiers of its applications to fault diagnosis for experienced researchers.

  3. Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery with a novel statistical feature extraction and evaluation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhencai; Jiang, Fan; Zhou, Gongbo; Chen, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is receiving more and more attentions. Vibration signals of rotating machinery are commonly analyzed to extract features of faults, and the features are identified with classifiers, e.g. artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs). Due to nonlinear behaviors and unknown noises in machinery, the extracted features are varying from sample to sample, which may result in false classifications. It is also difficult to analytically ensure the accuracy of fault diagnosis. In this paper, a feature extraction and evaluation method is proposed for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Based on the central limit theory, an extraction procedure is given to obtain the statistical features with the help of existing signal processing tools. The obtained statistical features approximately obey normal distributions. They can significantly improve the performance of fault classification, and it is verified by taking ANN and SVM classifiers as examples. Then the statistical features are evaluated with a decoupling technique and compared with thresholds to make the decision on fault classification. The proposed evaluation method only requires simple algebraic computation, and the accuracy of fault classification can be analytically guaranteed in terms of the so-called false classification rate (FCR). An experiment is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, where the unbalanced fault of rotor, inner race fault, outer race fault and ball fault of bearings are considered.

  4. Convolutional Neural Network Based Fault Detection for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, Olivier; Slavkovikj, Viktor; Vervisch, Bram; Stockman, Kurt; Loccufier, Mia; Verstockt, Steven; Van de Walle, Rik; Van Hoecke, Sofie

    2016-09-01

    Vibration analysis is a well-established technique for condition monitoring of rotating machines as the vibration patterns differ depending on the fault or machine condition. Currently, mainly manually-engineered features, such as the ball pass frequencies of the raceway, RMS, kurtosis an crest, are used for automatic fault detection. Unfortunately, engineering and interpreting such features requires a significant level of human expertise. To enable non-experts in vibration analysis to perform condition monitoring, the overhead of feature engineering for specific faults needs to be reduced as much as possible. Therefore, in this article we propose a feature learning model for condition monitoring based on convolutional neural networks. The goal of this approach is to autonomously learn useful features for bearing fault detection from the data itself. Several types of bearing faults such as outer-raceway faults and lubrication degradation are considered, but also healthy bearings and rotor imbalance are included. For each condition, several bearings are tested to ensure generalization of the fault-detection system. Furthermore, the feature-learning based approach is compared to a feature-engineering based approach using the same data to objectively quantify their performance. The results indicate that the feature-learning system, based on convolutional neural networks, significantly outperforms the classical feature-engineering based approach which uses manually engineered features and a random forest classifier. The former achieves an accuracy of 93.61 percent and the latter an accuracy of 87.25 percent.

  5. Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

  6. Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Yang, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

  7. Extracting repetitive transients for rotating machinery diagnosis using multiscale clustered grey infogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Cabrera, Diego; de Oliveira, José Valente; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover

    2016-08-01

    Local faults of rotating machinery usually result in repetitive transients whose impulsiveness or cyclostationarity can be employed as faulty signatures. However, to simultaneously accommodate the impulsiveness and the cyclostationarity is a challenging task for rotating machinery diagnostics. Inspired by recently-reported infogram that is sensitive to either the impulsiveness or the cyclostationarity using spectral negentropy defined in time domain or frequency domain, a multiscale clustering grey infogram (MCGI) is proposed by combining both negentropies in a grey fashion using multiscale clustering. Fourier spectrum of the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple scales with different initial resolutions. In each scale, fine segments are grouped using hierarchical clustering. Meanwhile, both time-domain and frequency-domain spectral negentropies are taken into account to guide the clustering through grey evaluation of both negentropies. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carried out for validating the proposed MCGI. For comparison, peer methods are applied to challenge different noises and interferences. The results show that, thanks to the multiscale clustering of the spectrum and the grey evaluation of both negentropies, the present MCGI is robust in extracting the repetitive transients for the rotating machinery diagnosis.

  8. Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery using an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Zuo, Ming J.

    2009-12-01

    A Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a time-frequency technique and has been widely applied to analyzing vibration signals in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. It analyzes the vibration signals using intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) extracted using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). However, EMD sometimes cannot reveal the signal characteristics accurately because of the problem of mode mixing. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was developed recently to alleviate this problem. The IMFs generated by EEMD have different sensitivity to faults. Some IMFs are sensitive and closely related to the faults but others are irrelevant. To enhance the accuracy of the HHT in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs is proposed in this paper. Simulated signals demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved HHT in diagnosing the faults of rotating machinery. Finally, the improved HHT is applied to diagnosing an early rub-impact fault of a heavy oil catalytic cracking machine set, and the application results prove that the improved HHT is superior to the HHT based on all IMFs of EMD.

  9. An intelligent diagnosis method for rotating machinery using least squares mapping and a fuzzy neural network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Chen, Peng; Wang, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a new condition diagnosis method for rotating machinery developed using least squares mapping (LSM) and a fuzzy neural network. The non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs) in the time domain are defined to reflect the features of the vibration signals measured in each state. A sensitive evaluation method for selecting good symptom parameters using detection index (DI) is also proposed for detecting and distinguishing faults in rotating machinery. In order to raise the diagnosis sensitivity of the symptom parameters the synthetic symptom parameters (SSPs) are obtained by LSM. Moreover, possibility theory and the Dempster & Shafer theory (DST) are used to process the ambiguous relationship between symptoms and fault types. Finally, a sequential diagnosis method, using sequential inference and a fuzzy neural network realized by the partially-linearized neural network (PLNN), is also proposed, by which the conditions of rotating machinery can be identified sequentially. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a roller bearing are shown to verify that the method is effective. PMID:22778622

  10. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A; Couve, Andrés

    2016-02-16

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  11. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  12. A software-based controller for generation of synchronized pulses for use with rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurloye, Axel O.

    1989-08-01

    An IBM PC/AT based software package was developed to synchrotronize test equipment with rotating machinery. Up to eight outputs can be controlled independently. The pulse sequences can be as long as 254 shaft encoder revolutions and repeat until terminated. Unlike most purpose-built controllers, this software package is highly flexible. Complicated pulse sequences are easily generated and can quickly be modified using the built-in editor or a standard text editor. While the software requires a dedicated computer, implementation is easier and more cost effective than construction of a purpose-built controller.

  13. A novel torsional exciter for modal vibration testing of large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihler, Christof

    2006-10-01

    A novel exciter for applying a dynamic torsional force to a rotating structure is presented in this paper. It has been developed at IPP in order to perform vibration tests with shaft assemblies of large flywheel generators (synchronous machines). The electromagnetic exciter (shaker) needs no fixture to the rotating shaft because the torque is applied by means of the stator winding of an electrical machine. Therefore, the exciter can most easily be applied in cases where a three-phase electrical machine (a motor or generator) is part of the shaft assembly. The oscillating power for the shaker is generated in a separate current-controlled DC circuit with an inductor acting as a buffer storage of magnetic energy. An AC component with adjustable frequency is superimposed on the inductor current in order to generate pulsating torques acting on the rotating shaft with the desired waveform and frequency. Since this torsional exciter does not require an external power source, can easily be installed (without contact to the rotating structure) and provides dynamic torsional forces which are sufficient for multi-megawatt applications, it is best suited for on-site tests of large rotating machinery.

  14. Damage detection in rotating machinery by means of entropy-based parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocarciuc, Alexandru; Bereteu, Liviu; ǎgǎnescu, Gheorghe Eugen, Dr

    2014-11-01

    The paper is proposing two new entropy-based parameters, namely Renyi Entropy Index (REI) and Sharma-Mittal Entropy Index (SMEI), for detecting the presence of failures (or damages) in rotating machinery, namely: belt structural damage, belt wheels misalignment, failure of the fixing bolt of the machine to its baseplate and eccentricities (i.e.: due to detaching a small piece of material or bad mounting of the rotating components of the machine). The algorithms to obtain the proposed entropy-based parameters are described and test data is used in order to assess their sensitivity. A vibration test bench is used for measuring the levels of vibration while artificially inducing damage. The deviation of the two entropy-based parameters is compared in two states of the vibration test bench: not damaged and damaged. At the end of the study, their sensitivity is compared to Shannon Entropic Index.

  15. Weak fault signature extraction of rotating machinery using flexible analytic wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ChunLin; Li, Bing; Chen, BinQiang; Cao, HongRui; Zi, YanYang; He, ZhengJia

    2015-12-01

    Extracting and revealing the weak periodic fault vibration impulses is reasonable for damage detection of rotating machinery. However, the widely used dyadic WT suffers fixed frequency partition manner and low oscillating bases which would weaken its performance in weak fault detection. A new method based on flexible analytic wavelet transform (FAWT) is proposed in this article. Employing fractional and arbitrary scaling and translation factors, FAWT possesses attractive properties such as flexible time-frequency (TF) covering manner, better shift-invariance and tunable oscillatory nature of the bases, offering proper wavelet frame and bases shape to match the weak fault components. Moreover, FAWT is effective in revealing the amplitude modulation feature of the periodic fault impulses that occur in some damaged rotating components. The applications to a rolling bearing, a planetary gearbox of, and a flue gas turbine unit show that the proposed method is effective in extracting weak impulsive fault signature.

  16. Intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called "relative ratio symptom parameters" are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks. PMID:22163833

  17. Construction of customized redundant multiwavelet via increasing multiplicity for fault detection of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zuo, Ming J.; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia

    2014-01-01

    Fault detection from the vibration measurement data of rotating machinery is significant for avoiding serious accidents. However, non-stationary vibration signal with a large amount of noise makes this task challenging. Multiwavelet not only owns the advantage on multi-resolution analysis but also can offer multiple wavelet basis functions. So it has the possibility of detecting various fault features preferably. However, the fixed basis functions which are not related to the given signal may lower the accuracy of fault detection. Moreover, another major intrinsic deficiency of multiwavelet lies in its critically sampled filter-bank, which causes shift-variance and is harmful to extract the feature of periodical impulses. To overcome these deficiencies, a new method called customized redundant multiwavelet (CRM) is constructed via increasing multiplicity (IM). IM is a simple method to design a series of changeable multiwavelet which are available for the subsequent optimization process. By the rule of the envelope spectrum entropy minimum principle, optimal multiwavelet is searched for. Based on the customized multiwavelet filters, the filters of CRM can be calculated by inserting zeros. The proposed method is applied to analyze the simulation, gearbox and rolling element bearing vibration signals. Compared with some other conventional methods, the results demonstrate that the proposed method possesses robust performance in detecting fault features of rotating machinery.

  18. Applications of sweep frequency rotating force perturbation methodology in rotating machinery for dynamic stiffness identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.; Franklin, Wesley D.; Grant, John W.; Goldman, Paul

    1992-06-01

    This paper outlines the sweep frequency rotating force perturbation method for identifying the dynamic stiffness characteristics of rotor/bearing/seal systems. Emphasis is placed on nonsynchronous perturbation of rotating shafts in a sequence of constant rotative speeds. In particular, results of the identification of flexible rotor multi-mode parameters and identification of fluid forces in seals and bearings are given. These results, presented in the direct and quadrature dynamic stiffness formats, permit the separation of components for easy identification. Another example of the perturbation method application is the identification of the lateral-torsional coupling due to shaft anisotropy. Results of laboratory rig experiments, the identification algorithm, and data processing techniques are discussed.

  19. Experimental study on active structural acoustic control of rotating machinery using rotating piezo-based inertial actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Alujević, N.; Depraetere, B.; Pinte, G.; Swevers, J.; Sas, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, two Piezo-Based Rotating Inertial Actuators (PBRIAs) are considered for the suppression of the structure-borne noise radiated from rotating machinery. As add-on devices, they can be directly mounted on a rotational shaft, in order to intervene as early as possible in the transfer path between disturbance and the noise radiating surfaces. A MIMO (Multi-Input-Multi-Output) form of the FxLMS control algorithm is employed to generate the appropriate actuation signals, relying on a linear interpolation scheme to approximate time varying secondary plants. The proposed active vibration control approach is tested on an experimental test bed comprising a rotating shaft mounted in a frame to which a noise-radiating plate is attached. The disturbance force is introduced by an electro-dynamic shaker. The experimental results show that when the shaft spins below 180 rpm, more than a 7 dB reduction can be achieved in terms of plate vibrations, along with a reduction in the same order of magnitude in terms of noise radiation.

  20. Feature extraction using adaptive multiwavelets and synthetic detection index for rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Xiao, Zhihuai; Malik, O. P.

    2015-02-01

    State identification to diagnose the condition of rotating machinery is often converted to a classification problem of values of non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs). To improve the sensitivity of the NSPs to the changes in machine condition, a novel feature extraction method based on adaptive multiwavelets and the synthetic detection index (SDI) is proposed in this paper. Based on the SDI maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets are searched by genetic algorithms (GAs) from an adaptive multiwavelets library and used for extracting fault features from vibration signals. By the optimal multiwavelets, more sensitive NSPs can be extracted. To examine the effectiveness of the optimal multiwavelets, conventional methods are used for comparison study. The obtained NSPs are fed into K-means classifier to diagnose rotor faults. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the sensitivity of the NSPs and achieve a higher discrimination rate for rotor fault diagnosis than the conventional methods.

  1. Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Loparo, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. An approach to performance assessment and fault diagnosis for rotating machinery equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaochuang; Lu, Chen; Lu, Chuan; Wang, Zili

    2013-12-01

    Predict and prevent maintenance is routinely carried out. However, how to address the problem of performance assessment maximizing the use of available monitoring data, and how to build a framework that integrates performance assessment, fault detection, and diagnosis are still a significant challenge. For this purpose, this article introduces an approach to performance assessment and fault diagnosis for rotating machinery, including wavelet packet decomposition for extracting energy feature samples from vibration signals acquired during normal and faulty conditions; clustering analysis for demonstrating the separability of the samples; and Fisher discriminant analysis for providing an optimal lower-dimensional representation, in terms of maximizing the separability among different populations, by projecting the samples into a new space. In the new low-dimensional space, the Mahalanobis distance (MD) between the new measurement data and normal population can be calculated for performance assessment. Moreover, this model for performance assessment only requires data to be available in normal conditions and any one of all possible fault conditions, without the necessity for the full life cycle of condition monitoring data. In addition, if monitoring data under different fault conditions are available, the fault mode can be identified accurately by comparing the MDs between the new measurement data and each fault population. Finally, the proposed method was verified to be successful on performance assessment and fault diagnosis via a hydraulic pump test and a ball bearing test.

  3. Evaluating Manufacturing and Assembly Errors in Rotating Machinery to Enhance Component Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing and assembly phases play a crucial role in providing products that meet the strict functional specifications associated with rotating machinery components. The errors resulting during the manufacturing and assembly of such components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system during its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such as helicopters, resulting in premature component degradation and an unsafe flying environment. In such applications, individual components often are subject to 100% inspection prior to assembly, as well as during operation through rigorous maintenance, resulting in increased product development cycles and high production and operation costs. In this work, we focus on providing designers and manufacturing engineers with a technique to evaluate vibration modes and levels for each component or subsystem prior to putting them into operation. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the correlation between vibrations and manufacturing and assembly errors using an experimental test rig, which simulates a simple bearing and shaft arrangement. A factorial design is used to study the effects of: 1) different manufacturing instances; 2) different assembly instances; and, 3) varying shaft speeds. The results indicate a correlation between manufacturing or assembly errors and vibrations measured from accelerometers. Challenges in developing a tool for DFM are identified, followed by a discussion of future work, including a real-world application to helicopter transmission vibrations.

  4. Installation of rotating-machinery skids on offshore structures interface and structural aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Canacci, M.; Giusti, S.; Zucchi, O.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most important aspects, to be considered, in the offshore installation of turbomachinery and reciprocating compressors is the interface between the machine skid and the main structure. The whole structural design is to be such that under the most severe static and dynamic loads the machine alignment and the vibrations are maintained to acceptable levels either if the rotating machinery is installed in a module or directly on the platform deck. There are two structural solutions to achieve the above conditions and they are: the multipoint skid, typically used when the structure stiffness allows it, and the three point supported skid that is used whenever the main structure displacements are too high for the conventional baseplates. Both multipoint and three point skids have been studied to accommodate different types of driver and driven machines. To assure the suitability of the baseplates against the several operating conditions its design is carried out by applying a finite element analysis either in static or dynamic conditions considering the simulation of the machine effects and the stiffness characteristics of the main structure. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the Nuovo Pignone criteria and experiences of designing machine skids suitable for the most severe operating conditions, maintaining reliability, available and operability of the units.

  5. Exchanged ridge demodulation of time-scale manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo

    2014-05-01

    The vibration or acoustic signal from rotating machinery with localized fault usually behaves as the form of amplitude modulation (AM) and/or frequency modulation (FM). The demodulation techniques are conventional ways to reveal the fault characteristics from the analyzed signals. One of these techniques is the time-scale manifold (TSM) ridge demodulation method with the merits of good time-frequency localization and in-band noise suppression properties. However, due to the essential attribute of wavelet ridge, the survived in-band noise on the achieved TSM will still disturb the envelope extraction of fault-induced impulses. This paper presents an improved TSM ridge demodulation method, called exchanged ridge demodulation of TSM, by combining the benefits of the first two TSMs: the noise suppression of the first TSM and the noise separation of the second TSM. Specifically, the ridge on the second TSM can capture the fault-induced impulses precisely while avoiding the in-band noise smartly. By putting this ridge on the first TSM, the corresponding instantaneous amplitude (IA) waveform can represent the real envelope of pure faulty impulses. Moreover, an adaptive selection method for Morlet wavelet parameters is also proposed based on the smoothness index (SI) in the time-scale domain for an optimal time-scale representation of analyzed signal. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by means of a simulation study and applications to diagnosis of bearing defects and gear fault.

  6. EEMD Independent Extraction for Mixing Features of Rotating Machinery Reconstructed in Phase Space

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zaichao; Wen, Guangrui; Jiang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), due to its adaptive decomposition property for the non-linear and non-stationary signals, has been widely used in vibration analyses for rotating machinery. However, EMD suffers from mode mixing, which is difficult to extract features independently. Although the improved EMD, well known as the ensemble EMD (EEMD), has been proposed, mode mixing is alleviated only to a certain degree. Moreover, EEMD needs to determine the amplitude of added noise. In this paper, we propose Phase Space Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (PSEEMD) integrating Phase Space Reconstruction (PSR) and Manifold Learning (ML) for modifying EEMD. We also provide the principle and detailed procedure of PSEEMD, and the analyses on a simulation signal and an actual vibration signal derived from a rubbing rotor are performed. The results show that PSEEMD is more efficient and convenient than EEMD in extracting the mixing features from the investigated signal and in optimizing the amplitude of the necessary added noise. Additionally PSEEMD can extract the weak features interfered with a certain amount of noise. PMID:25871723

  7. Wavelet transform based on inner product in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Li, Zipeng; Pan, Jun; Chen, Gaige; Zi, Yanyang; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Binqiang; He, Zhengjia

    2016-03-01

    As a significant role in industrial equipment, rotating machinery fault diagnosis (RMFD) always draws lots of attention for guaranteeing product quality and improving economic benefit. But non-stationary vibration signal with a large amount of noise on abnormal condition of weak fault or compound fault in many cases would lead to this task challenging. As one of the most powerful non-stationary signal processing techniques, wavelet transform (WT) has been extensively studied and widely applied in RMFD. Numerous publications about the study and applications of WT for RMFD have been presented to academic journals, technical reports and conference proceedings. Many previous publications admit that WT can be realized by means of inner product principle of signal and wavelet base. This paper verifies the essence on inner product operation of WT by simulation and field experiments. Then the development process of WT based on inner product is concluded and the applications of major developments in RMFD are also summarized. Finally, super wavelet transform as an important prospect of WT based on inner product are presented and discussed. It is expected that this paper can offer an in-depth and comprehensive references for researchers and help them with finding out further research topics.

  8. A comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.

    2008-05-01

    In order to describe the state-of-the-art on cracked rotor related problems, the current work presents the comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach adopted by EDF for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery. The work mainly focuses on the theoretical cracked beam model developed in the past years by S. Andrieux and C. Varé and associates both numerical and experimental aspects related to the crack detection problem in either turboset or turbo pump units. The theoretical part consists of the derivation of a lumped cracked beam model from the three-dimensional formulation of the general problem of elasticity with unilateral contact conditions on the crack lips, valid for any shape and number of cracks in the beam section and extended to cracks not located in a cross-section. This leads to the assessment of the cracked beam rigidity as a function of the rotation angle, in case of pure bending load or bending plus shear load. In this way the function can be implemented in a 1D rotordynamics code. An extension of the cracked beam model taking into account the torsion behaviour is also proposed. It is based on the assumption of full adherence between crack lips, when the crack closes, and on an incremental formulation of deformation energy. An experimental validation has been carried out using different cracked samples, both in static and dynamic configurations, considering one or three elliptic cracks in the same cross-section and helix-shaped cracks. Concerning the static configuration, a good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found. It is shown to be equal to 1% maximal gap of the beam deflection. Concerning the dynamical analysis, the main well-known indicator 2× rev. bending vibration component at half critical speed is approximated at maximum by 18% near the crack position. Our experiments also allowed for the observation of the bending and torsion resonance frequency shifts determined by the extra

  9. Compound fault diagnosis of rotating machinery based on OVMD and a 1.5-dimension envelope spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaoan; Jia, Minping; Xiang, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the character of diversity and complexity, the compound fault diagnosis of rotating machinery under non-stationary operation has turned into a challenging task. In this paper, a novel method based on the optimal variational mode decomposition (OVMD) and 1.5-dimension envelope spectrum is proposed for detecting the compound faults of rotating machinery. In this method, compound fault signals are first decomposed by using OVMD containing optimal decomposition parameters, and several intrinsic mode components are obtained. Then, an adaptive selection method based on the weight factor (WF) is presented to choose two intrinsic mode components that contain the principal fault characteristic information. Finally, the 1.5-dimension envelope spectrum of the selected intrinsic mode components is utilized to extract the compound fault characteristic information of vibration signals. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by using the simulation signal and the experimental vibration signals collected from a rolling bearing and a gearbox with compound faults. The analysis results suggest that the proposed method is not only capable of detecting compound faults of a bearing and a gearbox, but can separate the characteristic signatures of compound faults. The research offers a new means for the compound fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.

  10. Deep neural networks: A promising tool for fault characteristic mining and intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery with massive data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Feng; Lei, Yaguo; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Na

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to promptly process the massive fault data and automatically provide accurate diagnosis results, numerous studies have been conducted on intelligent fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Among these studies, the methods based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) are commonly used, which employ signal processing techniques for extracting features and further input the features to ANNs for classifying faults. Though these methods did work in intelligent fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, they still have two deficiencies. (1) The features are manually extracted depending on much prior knowledge about signal processing techniques and diagnostic expertise. In addition, these manual features are extracted according to a specific diagnosis issue and probably unsuitable for other issues. (2) The ANNs adopted in these methods have shallow architectures, which limits the capacity of ANNs to learn the complex non-linear relationships in fault diagnosis issues. As a breakthrough in artificial intelligence, deep learning holds the potential to overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. Through deep learning, deep neural networks (DNNs) with deep architectures, instead of shallow ones, could be established to mine the useful information from raw data and approximate complex non-linear functions. Based on DNNs, a novel intelligent method is proposed in this paper to overcome the deficiencies of the aforementioned intelligent diagnosis methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using datasets from rolling element bearings and planetary gearboxes. These datasets contain massive measured signals involving different health conditions under various operating conditions. The diagnosis results show that the proposed method is able to not only adaptively mine available fault characteristics from the measured signals, but also obtain superior diagnosis accuracy compared with the existing methods.

  11. Some in-field experiences of non-synchronous vibrations in large rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colnago, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Claudio; Vallini, Andrea; Zanetta, Gian Antonio

    1989-01-01

    Some problems associated with non-synchronous vibrations are analyzed by describing three cases experienced with fairly large rotating machines in operating conditions. In each case, a brief description is first given of the machine and of the instrumentation used. The experimental results are then presented, with reference to time or frequency domain recordings. The lines followed in diagnosis are then discussed and, lastly, the corrective action undertaken is presented.

  12. A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control. PMID:24517806

  13. A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control.

  14. Rotor Blade Pressure Measurement in a Rotating Machinery Using Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, S.; Liu, T.; Sullivan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure and temperature sensitive paints have been utilized for the measurement of blade surface pressure and temperature distributions in a high speed axial compressor and an Allied Signal F109 gas turbine engine. Alternate blades were painted with temperature sensitive paints and then pressure sensitive paint. This combination allows temperature distributions to be accounted for when determining the blade suction surface pressure distribution. Measurements were taken and pressure maps on the suction surface of a blade were obtained over a range of rotational speeds. Pressure maps of the suction surface show-strong shock waves at the higher speeds.

  15. A parametric approach for the estimation of the instantaneous speed of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodopoulos, Konstantinos; Yiakopoulos, Christos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2014-02-01

    A parametric method is proposed for the estimation of the instantaneous speed of rotating machines. The method belongs typically to the class of eigenvalue based parametric signal processing methods. The major advantage of parametric methods over frequency domain or time-frequency domain based methods, is their increased resolution and their reduced computational cost. Moreover, advantages of eigenvalue based methods over other parametric methods include their robustness to noise. Sensitivity analysis for the key parameters of the proposed method is performed, including the sampling frequency, the signal length and the robustness to noise. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated in vibration measurements from a test rig during start-up and run-down, as well as during variations of the speed of a motorcycle engine. Compared to the Hilbert Transform and to the Discrete Energy Separation Algorithm (DESA), the proposed approach exhibits a better behavior, while it simultaneously presents computational simplicity, being able to be implemented analytically, even online.

  16. Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration

  17. Development of a generic rotating machinery fault diagnosis approach insensitive to machine speed and support type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nembhard, Adrian D.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Yunusa-Kaltungo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Despite numerous difficulties that can be encountered when using trend monitoring of harmonic components from the simple amplitude spectra to aid diagnosis of rotor related faults on large multi-stage multi-bearing rotating machines, the technique continues to be the mainstay in industry. This is due in part to factors including a lack of adequate experimental validation of newly proposed techniques aimed at improving or replacing this traditional practice. Nevertheless, in recent studies, simple but robust Individual Speed Individual Foundation (ISIF) and Multi-Speed Individual Foundation (MSIF) fault diagnosis (FD) methods that both used a single vibration sensor per bearing without the use of phase information was applied with good results to fixed and variable speed machines respectively. A similar Individual Speed Multi-Foundation (ISMF) technique later enabled FD by direct comparison of vibration data between similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at the same steady-state speed. However, the efficacy of these techniques was questioned as they were all applied to experimental rigs with the same few rotor related faults. Thus, the objective of this study is to test the transferability of these said techniques on a wider range of rotor related faults on different machines. A new Multi-Speed Multi-Foundation (MSMF) method which facilitates FD by the direct comparison of vibration data from similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at different steady-state speeds is also proposed. It is observed that the previously proposed methods are indeed able to separate the range of conditions tested on machines with different dynamic characteristics. Analysis done with newly proposed MSMF approach gives improved isolation of fault conditions tested compared to the previously proposed techniques.

  18. A hybrid fault diagnosis method based on second generation wavelet de-noising and local mean decomposition for rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwen; He, Zhengjia; Guo, Wei; Tang, Zhangchun

    2016-03-01

    In order to extract fault features of large-scale power equipment from strong background noise, a hybrid fault diagnosis method based on the second generation wavelet de-noising (SGWD) and the local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed in this paper. In this method, a de-noising algorithm of second generation wavelet transform (SGWT) using neighboring coefficients was employed as the pretreatment to remove noise in rotating machinery vibration signals by virtue of its good effect in enhancing the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Then, the LMD method is used to decompose the de-noised signals into several product functions (PFs). The PF corresponding to the faulty feature signal is selected according to the correlation coefficients criterion. Finally, the frequency spectrum is analyzed by applying the FFT to the selected PF. The proposed method is applied to analyze the vibration signals collected from an experimental gearbox and a real locomotive rolling bearing. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has better performances such as high SNR and fast convergence speed than the normal LMD method. PMID:26753616

  19. Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van Tung; Yang, Bo-Suk; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a novel fault diagnosis system for rotating machinery using thermal imaging is proposed. This system consists of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) for image enhancement, a generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) for feature reduction, and a relevance vector machine (RVM) for fault classification. Firstly, the thermal image obtained from machine conditions is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using BEMD. At each decomposed level, the IMF is expanded and fused with the residue by gray-scale transformation and principal component analysis fusion technique, respectively. The enhanced image is then formed by the improved IMFs in reconstruction process. Subsequently, feature extraction is applied for the enhanced images to obtain histogram features which characterize the thermal image and contain useful information for diagnosis. The high dimensionality of the achieved feature set can be reduced by GDA implementation. Moreover, GDA also assists in the increase of the feature cluster separation. Finally, the diagnostic results are performed by RVM. The proposed system is applied and validated with the thermal images of a fault simulator. A comparative study of the classification results obtained from RVM, support vector machines, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is also performed to appraise the accuracy of these models. The results show that the proposed diagnosis system is capable of improving the classification accuracy and efficiently assisting in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  20. Output-only cyclo-stationary linear-parameter time-varying stochastic subspace identification method for rotating machinery and spinning structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Economical maintenance and operation are critical issues for rotating machinery and spinning structures containing blade elements, especially large slender dynamic beams (e.g., wind turbines). Structural health monitoring systems represent promising instruments to assure reliability and good performance from the dynamics of the mechanical systems. However, such devices have not been completely perfected for spinning structures. These sensing technologies are typically informed by both mechanistic models coupled with data-driven identification techniques in the time and/or frequency domain. Frequency response functions are popular but are difficult to realize autonomously for structures of higher order, especially when overlapping frequency content is present. Instead, time-domain techniques have shown to possess powerful advantages from a practical point of view (i.e. low-order computational effort suitable for real-time or embedded algorithms) and also are more suitable to differentiate closely-related modes. Customarily, time-varying effects are often neglected or dismissed to simplify this analysis, but such cannot be the case for sinusoidally loaded structures containing spinning multi-bodies. A more complex scenario is constituted when dealing with both periodic mechanisms responsible for the vibration shaft of the rotor-blade system and the interaction of the supporting substructure. Transformations of the cyclic effects on the vibrational data can be applied to isolate inertial quantities that are different from rotation-generated forces that are typically non-stationary in nature. After applying these transformations, structural identification can be carried out by stationary techniques via data-correlated eigensystem realizations. In this paper, an exploration of a periodic stationary or cyclo-stationary subspace identification technique is presented here for spinning multi-blade systems by means of a modified Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) via

  1. [Sodium-enhanced limestone wet FGD in rotating-stream tray scrubber].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenshou; Wu, Zhongbiao; Li, Yue; Tan, Tianen

    2002-09-01

    Adding sodium sulfate to limestone slurry can increase SO2 removal efficiency. In this paper, sodium-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization(FGD) tests were conducted in rotating-stream tray scrubber. Changes of SO2 removal efficiency and pH value with time were experimentally studied and, at different pH range, the dissolution rates of limestone etc. were analyzed. The effects of plate number on SO2 removal efficiency and pressure drop were investigated at temperature approximated to industrial operating value. The average plate efficiencies were calculated. According to the experimental results, increasing plate number could increase SO2 removal efficiency, but the average plate efficiency decreased. Under the experimental conditions, when the plate number was increased from 1 to 4, the removal efficiency was increased from 25.5% to 48.6% at the liquid-to-gas ratio of 4 L/m3, but the average plate efficiency was decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. The equation of the relation between the average plate efficiency and plate number was obtained. PMID:12533938

  2. Rotational diffusion of bovine serum albumin denaturated by sodium dodecylsulfate, According to data from tryptophan fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rotational diffusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules in solutions with different concentrations of the anionic detergent sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH values is investigated, yielding information on the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS. It is found from the increased degree of polarization in the tryptophan fluorescence of BSA and the registered parameters for the rotational diffusion of BSA molecules that the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS at pH values less than the isoelectric point (pI) of BSA (4-9) is a two-stage process. It is shown that the first stage of BSA denaturation common for all pH values is the decondensation of BSA globules, while the second stage of BSA denaturation at pH greater than the pI of BSA is the unfolding of the protein's amino acid chain. It is concluded that the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS proceeds more deeply at pH values greater than the pI of BSA.

  3. Putative channel components for the fast-rotating sodium-driven flagellar motor of a marine bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Y; Kojima, S; Kato, H; Nishioka, N; Kawagishi, I; Homma, M

    1997-01-01

    The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus rotates remarkably fast (up to 1,700 revolutions per second) by using a motor driven by sodium ions. Two genes, motX and motY, for the sodium-driven flagellar motor have been identified in marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus. They have no similarity to the genes for proton-driven motors, motA and motB, whose products constitute a proton channel. MotX was proposed to be a component of a sodium channel. Here we identified additional sodium motor genes, pomA and pomB, in V. alginolyticus. Unexpectedly, PomA and PomB have similarities to MotA and MotB, respectively, especially in the predicted transmembrane regions. These results suggest that PomA and PomB may be sodium-conducting channel components of the sodium-driven motor and that the motor part consists of the products of at least four genes, pomA, pomB, motX, and motY. Furthermore, swimming speed was controlled by the expression level of the pomA gene, suggesting that newly synthesized PomA proteins, which are components of a force-generating unit, were successively integrated into the defective motor complexes. These findings imply that Na+-driven flagellar motors may have similar structure and function as proton-driven motors, but with some interesting differences as well, and it is possible to compare and study the coupling mechanisms of the sodium and proton ion flux for the force generation. PMID:9260952

  4. An SVM-based classifier for estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery with a vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i) accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii) the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii) when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels. PMID:25372618

  5. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i) accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii) the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii) when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels. PMID:25372618

  6. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  7. Interaction of 6-methoxyquinoline with anionic sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Photophysics and rotational relaxation dynamics at different pH.

    PubMed

    Varma, Y Tej; Pant, Debi D

    2016-04-01

    Interactions of different species of 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ) with anionic micelles have been studied at different pre-micellar, micellar and post-micellar concentrations using steady state, time resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. The sensitivity of fluorescence of 6MQ to change in its local environment was used to probe sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles. At post-micellar concentrations of SDS, the observed blue shift in the fluorescence spectrum and increase in quantum yield are attributed to the incorporation of solute molecule to micelles. 6MQ has been found to bind to the surface of the anionic micelles instead of penetrating inside the core of micelles. The binding constant (Kb) calculated for 6MQ revealed that the electrostatic forces mediate charged probe-micelle association, whereas, hydrophobic interaction allowed neutral 6MQ to associate with SDS micelles. The charged 6MQ gets inserted deeper into the micelle surface than its neutral form. The fluorescence anisotropy decay of 6MQ in SDS micelles studied at different pH allowed determination of restriction of motion of the fluorophore. The location of the probe molecule in micellar systems is justified by a variety of spectral parameters such as refractive index, dielectric constant, ET(30), average fluorescence decay time, radiative and non-radiative rate constants, and rotational relaxation time. The micro-environment around the fluorophore reveals that the photophysics of 6MQ is very sensitive to the microenvironment of SDS and probe molecules reside at the water-micelle interface. PMID:26775098

  8. Interaction of 6-methoxyquinoline with anionic sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Photophysics and rotational relaxation dynamics at different pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Y. Tej; Pant, Debi D.

    2016-04-01

    Interactions of different species of 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ) with anionic micelles have been studied at different pre-micellar, micellar and post-micellar concentrations using steady state, time resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. The sensitivity of fluorescence of 6MQ to change in its local environment was used to probe sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles. At post-micellar concentrations of SDS, the observed blue shift in the fluorescence spectrum and increase in quantum yield are attributed to the incorporation of solute molecule to micelles. 6MQ has been found to bind to the surface of the anionic micelles instead of penetrating inside the core of micelles. The binding constant (Kb) calculated for 6MQ revealed that the electrostatic forces mediate charged probe-micelle association, whereas, hydrophobic interaction allowed neutral 6MQ to associate with SDS micelles. The charged 6MQ gets inserted deeper into the micelle surface than its neutral form. The fluorescence anisotropy decay of 6MQ in SDS micelles studied at different pH allowed determination of restriction of motion of the fluorophore. The location of the probe molecule in micellar systems is justified by a variety of spectral parameters such as refractive index, dielectric constant, ET(30), average fluorescence decay time, radiative and non-radiative rate constants, and rotational relaxation time. The micro-environment around the fluorophore reveals that the photophysics of 6MQ is very sensitive to the microenvironment of SDS and probe molecules reside at the water-micelle interface.

  9. Detecting of transient vibration signatures using an improved fast spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis kurtogram and its applications to mechanical signature analysis of short duration data from rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, BinQiang; Zhang, ZhouSuo; Zi, YanYang; He, ZhengJia; Sun, Chuang

    2013-10-01

    Detecting transient vibration signatures is of vital importance for vibration-based condition monitoring and fault detection of the rotating machinery. However, raw mechanical signals collected by vibration sensors are generally mixtures of physical vibrations of the multiple mechanical components installed in the examined machinery. Fault-generated incipient vibration signatures masked by interfering contents are difficult to be identified. The fast kurtogram (FK) is a concise and smart gadget for characterizing these vibration features. The multi-rate filter-bank (MRFB) and the spectral kurtosis (SK) indicator of the FK are less powerful when strong interfering vibration contents exist, especially when the FK are applied to vibration signals of short duration. It is encountered that the impulsive interfering contents not authentically induced by mechanical faults complicate the optimal analyzing process and lead to incorrect choosing of the optimal analysis subband, therefore the original FK may leave out the essential fault signatures. To enhance the analyzing performance of FK for industrial applications, an improved version of fast kurtogram, named as "fast spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis kurtogram", is presented. In the proposed technique, discrete quasi-analytic wavelet tight frame (QAWTF) expansion methods are incorporated as the detection filters. The QAWTF, constructed based on dual tree complex wavelet transform, possesses better vibration transient signature extracting ability and enhanced time-frequency localizability compared with conventional wavelet packet transforms (WPTs). Moreover, in the constructed QAWTF, a non-dyadic ensemble wavelet subband generating strategy is put forward to produce extra wavelet subbands that are capable of identifying fault features located in transition-band of WPT. On the other hand, an enhanced signal impulsiveness evaluating indicator, named "spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis" (SSEK), is put forward and utilized

  10. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  11. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  12. 49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms contain all motors, motor controllers, and gears for operating one span, in this case, the north span. Note bell with continuous operating clapper for use as fog signals. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

    2013-10-01

    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number Rm ˜ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the αω-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade.

  14. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis. PMID:27048809

  15. The machinery of macroautophagy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuchen; He, Ding; Yao, Zhiyuan; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a primarily degradative pathway that takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is used for recycling cytoplasm to generate macromolecular building blocks and energy under stress conditions, to remove superfluous and damaged organelles to adapt to changing nutrient conditions and to maintain cellular homeostasis. In addition, autophagy plays a critical role in cytoprotection by preventing the accumulation of toxic proteins and through its action in various aspects of immunity including the elimination of invasive microbes and its participation in antigen presentation. The most prevalent form of autophagy is macroautophagy, and during this process, the cell forms a double-membrane sequestering compartment termed the phagophore, which matures into an autophagosome. Following delivery to the vacuole or lysosome, the cargo is degraded and the resulting macromolecules are released back into the cytosol for reuse. The past two decades have resulted in a tremendous increase with regard to the molecular studies of autophagy being carried out in yeast and other eukaryotes. Part of the surge in interest in this topic is due to the connection of autophagy with a wide range of human pathophysiologies including cancer, myopathies, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. However, there are still many aspects of autophagy that remain unclear, including the process of phagophore formation, the regulatory mechanisms that control its induction and the function of most of the autophagy-related proteins. In this review, we focus on macroautophagy, briefly describing the discovery of this process in mammalian cells, discussing the current views concerning the donor membrane that forms the phagophore, and characterizing the autophagy machinery including the available structural information. PMID:24366339

  16. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  18. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  19. The bacterial gliding machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Abhishek

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium, glide over surfaces with speeds reaching up to 2 micrometer's. Gliding is powered by a protonmotive force. The adhesin SprB forms filaments about 160 nm long that move on the cell-surface along a looped track. Interaction of SprB filaments with a surface produces gliding. We tethered F. johnsoniae cells to glass by adding anti-SprB antibody. Tethered cells spun about fixed points, rotating at speeds of about 1 Hz. The torques required to sustain such speeds were large, comparable to those generated by the flagellar rotary motor. Using a flow cell apparatus, we changed load on the gliding motor by adding the viscous agent Ficoll to tethered cells. We found that a gliding motor runs at constant speed rather than constant torque. We attached gold nanoparticles to the SprB filament and tracked its motion. We fluorescently tagged a bacterial Type IX secretion system (T9SS) protein and imaged its dynamics. Fluorescently tagged T9SS protein localized near the point of tether, indicating that T9SS localizes with the gliding motor. Based on our results, we propose a model to explain bacterial gliding.

  20. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  3. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  4. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  5. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  6. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  7. Rotation sensor switch

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, John B.

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops comprises a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal.

  8. Magnetostrictive vibration damper and energy harvester for rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-04-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural dam- age. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron- dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum av- erage electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  9. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

    1988-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  10. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Lin, R. R.; Montague, J.; Alexander, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers was discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Analyses are contained which extend quadratic regulator, pole placement and derivative feedback control methods to the prescribed displacement character of piezoelectric pushers. The structural stiffness of the pusher is also included in the theory. Tests are currently being conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results performed on the NASA test rig as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  11. Surface indicator and smoke flow visualization techniques in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslyn, H. David; Dring, Robert P.

    The surface indicator (ammonia/Ozalid paper) flow visualization technique for turbomachine flow research is presently noted to be especially valuable in the specification of instrumentation arrays in film cooling studies. This method is also useful in interpreting quantitative aerodynamic measurements and in detecting the presence of such three-dimensional phenomena as relative eddies, end-wall secondary flows, tip leakage flows, corner stalls, boundary layer transition and separation, and radial fluid transport. The smoke flow visualization technique can lead to a better understanding of wake-airfoil interaction, thereby furnishing a basis for the assessment of analytical models.

  12. The effect of nonlinear traveling waves on rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui-Correa, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the housing stiffness on nonlinear traveling waves is presented in this work. It was found that the housing controls the synchronization of nonlinear elements and it allows nonlinear waves to travel through the structure. This phenomenon was observed in a gearbox with a soft housing, and the phenomenon was reproduced with a lump-mass dynamic model. The model included a pair of gears, the rolling bearings and the housing. The model considered all the nonlinear effects. Numerical and experimental results were analyzed with a time-frequency method using the Morlet wavelet function. A compound effect was observed when the nonlinear waves travel between the gears and the bearings: the waves increased the dynamic load amplitude and add another periodic load.

  13. The response of rotating machinery to external random vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessarzik, J. M.; Chiang, T.; Badgley, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-speed turbogenerator employing gas-lubricated hydrodynamic journal and thrust bearings was subjected to external random vibrations for the purpose of assessing bearing performance in a dynamic environment. The pivoted-pad type journal bearings and the step-sector thrust bearing supported a turbine-driven rotor weighing approximately twenty-one pounds at a nominal operating speed of 36,000 rpm. The response amplitudes of both the rigid-supported and flexible-supported bearing pads, the gimballed thrust bearing, and the rotor relative to the machine casing were measured with capacitance type displacement probes. Random vibrations were applied by means of a large electrodynamic shaker at input levels ranging between 0.5 g (rms) and 1.5 g (rms). Vibrations were applied both along and perpendicular to the rotor axis. Response measurements were analyzed for amplitude distribution and power spectral density. Experimental results compare well with calculations of amplitude power spectral density made for the case where the vibrations were applied along the rotor axis. In this case, the rotor-bearing system was treated as a linear, three-mass model.

  14. A novel procedure for diagnosing multiple faults in rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijian; Han, Zhennan; Gu, Fengshou; Gu, James Xi; Ning, Shaohui

    2015-03-01

    In analyzing signals from a wind turbine gearbox this paper suggests a new signal processing procedure named as CMF-EEMD method which is formed by applying conventional EEMD to a new type of combined mode function (CMF). This CMF consists of a low frequency CMF, denoted as CL, and a high frequency CMF, denoted as Ch. Then it optimizes the amplitude of the added noise in decomposing Ch and CL using EEMD. Finally, it calculates cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) for every characteristic IMF from EEMD. The proposed procedure is applied to analyze the multi-faults of a wind turbine gearbox and the results confirm better performances in resolving different signal components by the proposed method than that from the cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) of a direct EEMD analysis. PMID:25440946

  15. Magnetostrictive Vibration Damper and Energy Harvester for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural damage. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron-dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum average electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  16. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-01

    Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+ in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF4 mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+, the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole.

  18. Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-01

    Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+) in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF(4) mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+), the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole. PMID:23220680

  19. Managing Machinery in the Biological Farm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the time agricultural machinery came into common use on farms in the middle of the past century, Agricultural Engineers have been developing more efficient practices for using that equipment. In our profession, this has become known as agricultural machinery management. The key issue in machine...

  20. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  1. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  2. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  3. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  4. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  11. Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempfhuber, Werner

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

  12. Productivity Growth Average in Farm Machinery Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Arthur S.; Ferris, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Productivity in farm machinery manufacturing is examined. The authors discuss how the national economy affects productivity, how the growth of agriculture and technology has changed the industry, and how future trends may cause change in the industry. (CT)

  13. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  14. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  15. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  16. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  20. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  2. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  3. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  4. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  5. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  7. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  8. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  9. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a... wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  13. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  14. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  15. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  16. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  17. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY ASSEMBLY AND LUBRICATION. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, SKILL IN THEIR SELECTION, AND UNDERSTANDING OF…

  18. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  19. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--POWER. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, DURWIN; VENABLE, BENNY MAC

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OCCUPATIONS IN A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS, TRIED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A TEACHER.…

  20. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  1. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you use or have ever used street drugs, or if you have overused prescription medications. Sodium oxybate may be harmful when taken by people other than the person for whom it was prescribed. Do not sell or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ...

  2. Application of advanced materials to rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

  3. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of... refrigeration compressor spaces shall be effectively ventilated and drained and shall be separated from...

  4. 13. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  5. 12. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  6. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  7. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  8. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  12. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  13. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  14. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  16. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  17. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  18. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  20. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  1. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by... sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  3. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  11. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  12. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  13. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater...) Machinery control room—75 dB(A) (2) Manned machinery space—90 dB(A) (3) Unmanned machinery space—110...

  15. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  16. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  17. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  18. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  19. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  20. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  1. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by... sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  6. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  7. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  8. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery... attached to, or forming an integral part of any machinery shall be removed or made ineffective except...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  12. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  13. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  14. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  16. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  17. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  20. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  1. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  2. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  3. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  6. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  7. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jeffrey K. F.; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field. PMID:26828514

  8. Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

    2013-01-01

    Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

  9. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed.

  10. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  16. Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

  17. Industrial machinery noise impact modeling, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. H.; Kugler, B. A.

    1981-07-01

    The development of a machinery noise computer model which may be used to assess the effect of occupational noise on the health and welfare of industrial workers is discussed. The purpose of the model is to provide EPA with the methodology to evaluate the personnel noise problem, to identify the equipment types responsible for the exposure and to assess the potential benefits of a given noise control action. Due to its flexibility in design and application, the model and supportive computer program can be used by other federal agencies, state governments, labor and industry as an aid in the development of noise abatement programs.

  18. Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:19703392

  19. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  20. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  1. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  2. The Ubiquitination Machinery of the Ubiquitin System

    PubMed Central

    Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The protein ubiquitin is a covalent modifier of proteins, including itself. The ubiquitin system encompasses the enzymes required for catalysing attachment of ubiquitin to substrates as well as proteins that bind to ubiquitinated proteins leading them to their final fate. Also included are activities that remove ubiquitin independent of, or in concert with, proteolysis of the substrate, either by the proteasome or proteases in the vacuole. In addition to ubiquitin encoded by a family of fusion proteins, there are proteins with ubiquitin-like domains, likely forming ubiquitin's β-grasp fold, but incapable of covalent modification. However, they serve as protein-protein interaction platforms within the ubiquitin system. Multi-gene families encode all of these types of activities. Within the ubiquitination machinery “half” of the ubiquitin system are redundant, partially redundant, and unique components affecting diverse developmental and environmental responses in plants. Notably, multiple aspects of biotic and abiotic stress responses require, or are modulated by, ubiquitination. Finally, aspects of the ubiquitin system have broad utility: as components to enhance gene expression or to regulate protein abundance. This review focuses on the ubiquitination machinery: ubiquitin, unique aspects about the synthesis of ubiquitin and organization of its gene family, ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin ligases, or E3s. Given the large number of E3s in Arabidopsis this review covers the U box, HECT and RING type E3s, with the exception of the cullin-based E3s. PMID:25320573

  3. The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Hans Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery are genetic disorders that involve disruption of the various components of the epigenetic machinery (writers, erasers, readers, and remodelers) and are thus expected to have widespread downstream epigenetic consequences. Studying this group may offer a unique opportunity to learn about the role of epigenetics in health and disease. Among these patients, neurological dysfunction and, in particular, intellectual disability appears to be a common phenotype; however, this is often seen in association with other more specific features in respective disorders. The specificity of some of the clinical features raises the question whether specific cell types are particularly sensitive to the loss of these factors. Most of these disorders demonstrate dosage sensitivity as loss of a single allele appears to be sufficient to cause the observed phenotypes. Although the pathogenic sequence is unknown for most of these disorders, there are several examples where disrupted expression of downstream target genes accounts for a substantial portion of the phenotype; hence, it may be useful to systematically map such disease-relevant target genes. Finally, two of these disorders (Rubinstein-Taybi and Kabuki syndromes) have shown post-natal rescue of markers of the neurological dysfunction with drugs that lead to histone deacetylase inhibition, indicating that some of these disorders may be treatable causes of intellectual disability. PMID:26430157

  4. The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery.

    PubMed

    Bjornsson, Hans Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery are genetic disorders that involve disruption of the various components of the epigenetic machinery (writers, erasers, readers, and remodelers) and are thus expected to have widespread downstream epigenetic consequences. Studying this group may offer a unique opportunity to learn about the role of epigenetics in health and disease. Among these patients, neurological dysfunction and, in particular, intellectual disability appears to be a common phenotype; however, this is often seen in association with other more specific features in respective disorders. The specificity of some of the clinical features raises the question whether specific cell types are particularly sensitive to the loss of these factors. Most of these disorders demonstrate dosage sensitivity as loss of a single allele appears to be sufficient to cause the observed phenotypes. Although the pathogenic sequence is unknown for most of these disorders, there are several examples where disrupted expression of downstream target genes accounts for a substantial portion of the phenotype; hence, it may be useful to systematically map such disease-relevant target genes. Finally, two of these disorders (Rubinstein-Taybi and Kabuki syndromes) have shown post-natal rescue of markers of the neurological dysfunction with drugs that lead to histone deacetylase inhibition, indicating that some of these disorders may be treatable causes of intellectual disability. PMID:26430157

  5. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  6. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  7. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  9. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  10. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  11. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  12. Numerical noise prediction in fluid machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantle, Iris; Magagnato, Franco; Gabi, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However, as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  13. The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion. PMID:22679448

  14. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  15. Curved Casimir Operators and the BGG Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, Andreas; Soucek, Vladimír

    2007-11-01

    We prove that the Casimir operator acting on sections of a homogeneous vector bundle over a generalized flag manifold naturally extends to an invariant differential operator on arbitrary parabolic geometries. We study some properties of the resulting invariant operators and compute their action on various special types of natural bundles. As a first application, we give a very general construction of splitting operators for parabolic geometries. Then we discuss the curved Casimir operators on differential forms with values in a tractor bundle, which nicely relates to the machinery of BGG sequences. This also gives a nice interpretation of the resolution of a finite dimensional representation by (spaces of smooth vectors in) principal series representations provided by a BGG sequence.

  16. Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

    In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

  17. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery and operations. (a) (b) General...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery and operations. (a) (b) General...

  20. Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fistedis, S. H.

    1967-01-01

    Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.

  1. Machinery Management. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wendell

    This text is intended to provide a basic understanding of selecting, maintaining, and managing farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: dealing with typical problems in farm machinery management; measuring machine capacity; improving field efficiency; matching machine size and capacity; estimating power…

  2. Safety Guards for Machinery. Module SH-34. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety guards for machinery is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses how machinery can be made safer to use by the installation of safety guards. Following the introduction, seven objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g.,…

  3. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  4. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  5. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  6. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  7. 18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS, CIRCA 1910 'THE RACINE' RECIPROCATING HACK SAW, AND CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER NEAR CENTER OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE RIGHT ARE THREE WHEELED WORK STATIONS. THE LINE SHAFT WITH BELTS AND PULLEYS FOR OPERATING MACHINERY IS VISIBLE IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  8. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle. PMID:24125051

  9. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  10. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  13. 52. VIEW NORTHEAST ACROSS WINDING MACHINERY: Overall view towards northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW NORTHEAST ACROSS WINDING MACHINERY: Overall view towards northwest of the winding machinery on the first floor of the Washington and Mason Streets powerhouse and car barn. Photograph taken from museum mezzanine looking along the tension runs. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 54. VIEW TO SOUTH OF WINDING MACHINERY: General view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW TO SOUTH OF WINDING MACHINERY: General view towards the south showing the winding machinery on the first floor of the Washington and Mason Streets powerhouse and car barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). (a) All enclosed spaces within...

  16. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel,...

  17. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  18. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  19. 4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  1. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the time sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the American National Standard Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the American National Standard Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery....

  4. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  5. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  6. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  7. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  8. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  9. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  10. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  11. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  13. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  14. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  15. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  16. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  17. Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

  18. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  19. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  20. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  1. Rotational aerophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2002-03-01

    Free rotational aerophones such as the bullroarer, which consists of a wooden slat whirled around on the end of a string, and which emits a loud pulsating roar, have been used in many ancient and traditional societies for ceremonial purposes. This article presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of this instrument. The aerodynamics of rotational behavior is elucidated, and relates slat rotation frequency to slat width and velocity through the air. Analysis shows that sound production is due to generation of an oscillating-rotating dipole across the slat, the role of the vortices shed by the slat being relatively minor. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior of a bullroarer slat and a slat mounted on an axle in a wind tunnel are shown to be due to viscous friction in the bearings of the wind-tunnel experiment.

  2. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  3. 23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, DOWSTREAM GATES, UPSTREAM SIDE - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  4. 7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east wall of 1953 addition, view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Waste Water Treatment Plant, Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  5. Therapeutic Interventions to Disrupt the Protein Synthetic Machinery in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kardos, Gregory R.; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, in order to increase protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA Polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma. PMID:26139519

  6. 7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  7. 29. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE VALVE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE VALVE OPERATING MACHINERY HOUSING AND LOCKMAN'S SHELTER, LOOKING NORTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  8. 28. VIEW OF MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY, SHOWING MITER GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY, SHOWING MITER GATE, GATE STRUT, AND SECTOR ARM, LOOKING EAST - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  9. 49. VIEW OF OPERATING MACHINERY AND TAINTER VALVES IN COFFERDAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF OPERATING MACHINERY AND TAINTER VALVES IN COFFERDAM Photograph No. 1459. August 31, 1936 - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  10. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. Lambert Hoisting Engine Company Winder Powered by A Gray Marine Diesel. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  12. 14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  13. 39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY LOCK. January 1932 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY LOCATED IN INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  15. 17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED SPAN - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

  16. 62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 321, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 32-1, LOOKING WEST Photograph No. 8571. October 24, 1949 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  17. 95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, 3/4' and 1 1/2' = 1' (CENTER CONE, RADIAL STRUT RING, TRACK, ROLLERS, PINION GEARS) - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  18. 94. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY METHOD OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - METHOD OF ATTACHING LIFTING CHAINS TO DRUMS OF HOIST - LAKESIDE TYPE (ML-4&5-55/34-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 4, Alma, Buffalo County, WI

  19. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  2. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the Autophagy Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Krokowski, Sina; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process, is increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the autophagy machinery were first discovered in 2005. Since then, work has shown that multiple autophagy pathways are triggered by S. flexneri, and autophagic responses can have different roles during Shigella infection. Here, we review the interactions between S. flexneri and the autophagy machinery, highlighting that studies using Shigella can reveal the breadth of autophagic responses available to the host. PMID:26904515

  3. Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Tetteh, Antonia Y.; Sun, Katherine H.; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Ibeanu, Gordon C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se0), but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys) biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5 mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ∼50% while 0.001 to 0.01 mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ∼30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF) whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ≥2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S) metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ≥2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process. PMID:24839442

  4. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  5. Rotation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In aircraft turbine engine research, certain investigations require extremely precise measurement of the position of a rotating part, such as the rotor, a disc-like part of the engine's compressor which revolves around a shaft at extremely high speeds. For example, in studies of airflow velocity within a compressor, researchers need to know-for data correlation the instantaneous position of a given spot on the rotor each time a velocity measurement is made. Earlier methods of measuring rotor shaft angle required a physical connection to the shaft, which limited the velocity of the rotating object.

  6. Diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  7. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  8. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  9. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  10. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  11. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  12. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  13. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  14. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  15. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  16. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  17. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  18. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  20. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  2. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  3. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  4. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  5. A hybrid approach for nondestructive assessment and design optimisation and testing of in-service machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Noroozi, Siamak; Dupac, Mihai; Mahathir Syed Mohd Al-Attas, Syed; Vinney, John E.

    2013-03-01

    Complex rotating machinery requires regular condition monitoring inspections to assess their running conditions and their structural integrity to prevent catastrophic failures. Machine failures can be divided into two categories. First is the wear and tear during operation, they range from bearing defects, gear damage, misalignment, imbalance or mechanical looseness, for which simple condition-based maintenance techniques can easily detect the root cause and trigger remedial action process. The second factor in machine failure is caused by the inherent design faults that usually happened due to many reasons such as improper installation, poor servicing, bad workmanship and structural dynamics design deficiency. In fact, individual machines components are generally dynamically well designed and rigorously tested. However, when these machines are assembled on sight and linked together, their dynamic characteristics will change causing unexpected behaviour of the system. Since nondestructive evaluation provides an excellent alternative to the classical monitoring and proved attractive due to the possibility of performing reliable assessments of all types of machinery, the novel dynamic design verification procedure - based on the combination of in-service operation deflection shape measurement, experimental modal analysis and iterative inverse finite element analysis - proposed here allows quick identification of structural weakness, and helps to provide and verify the solutions.

  6. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  7. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  8. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  9. Selection of informative frequency band in local damage detection in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchowski, Jakub; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław

    2014-10-01

    Problem of informative frequency band (IFB) selection in vibration signal processing for local damage detection is discussed. It is proposed to extend the concept of automatic and objective IFB selection proposed by several authors. Till now, kurtosis was preferred as criterion for IFB search. Thus, it is offered to study set of statistics, namely Jarque-Bera, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer-von Mises, Anderson-Darling, quantile-quantile plot and a method based on the local maxima approach in order to verify their abilities of IFB selection. Also similarities between them are described. It has been proved by simulation and real data analysis that proposed selectors (because they allow us to “select” frequency band) might be equivalent to the spectral kurtosis (SK) in ordinary cases. Moreover, some of the novel selectors are better, because they are less sensitive to incidental spikes that might occur during the signal acquisition process. Proposed selectors might be (as SK) the basis for filter design for informative signal extraction.

  10. The Integration of YBACU3O6+X Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, G. A.; Barnes, P. N.

    2006-03-01

    The implementation of the 2nd generation high-Tc superconductors in power applications, such as electrical transformers, motors and generators requires superconducting wires that are superior to copper Litz wires at cryogenic temperatures in terms of losses in time-varying magnetic fields, as well as in engineering current density. Another problem is to find a way to make practical coils and armatures out of flat tape-like conductors with low bending strain tolerance. We discuss several novel approaches to the construction of coils and armatures based specifically on the properties of coated conductors manufactured today.

  11. Wide band fiber Bragg grating accelerometer for rotating AC machinery condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis-Rodriguez, Damian S.; Djurovic, Sinisa; Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.; Scepanovic, S.; Tshiloz, Kavul; Smith, Alexander C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometers for wide band vibration monitoring in a wound rotor induction generator. The sensor performance is assessed in a series of experiments on a laboratory test rig comprising a 30kW induction machine operating under steady state and variable speed regimes. Vibration measurements are investigated in the frequency domain for generator fault specific electromagnetically induced vibration components. The fiber optic sensor effectiveness in detection of wide band spectral effects (<1kHz) in the vibration signal is compared with that of a commercial piezoelectric based solution. The potential and limitations of the prototype wide band FBG accelerometer are evaluated for use in vibration monitoring applications.

  12. A modular, partitioned, discrete element framework for industrial grain distribution systems with rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Guillermo; Mukherjee, Debanjan; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Zohdi, Tarek I.; Onate, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    A modular discrete element framework is presented for large-scale simulations of industrial grain-handling systems. Our framework enables us to simulate a markedly larger number of particles than previous studies, thereby allowing for efficient and more realistic process simulations. This is achieved by partitioning the particle dynamics into distinct regimes based on their contact interactions, and integrating them using different time-steps, while exchanging phase-space data between them. The framework is illustrated using numerical experiments based on fertilizer spreader applications. The model predictions show very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with available experimental data. Valuable insights are developed regarding the role of lift vs drag forces on the particle trajectories in-flight, and on the role of geometric discretization errors for surface meshing in governing the emergent behavior of a system of particles.

  13. Rotating Machinery for LHC Cryogenics: First Analysis of Reliability and Origins of Downtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudet, S.; Brodzinski, K.; Duret-Bourgoz, E.; Ferlin, G.; Knoops, S.; Wagner, U.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is cooled by eight independent helium cryogenic plants. Each cryogenic plant combines an 18 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator and a 2.4 kW at 1.8 K refrigeration unit totaling 64 oil lubricated screw compressors, 74 expansion turbines and 28 cold hydrodynamic compressors. Since the first cool-down of LHC in 2007, the large number of running hours and start-stop sequences accumulated allow to draw some tendency for reliability of such key components for present refrigeration technology. Statistics and origins of downtime will be presented, with possible typical failure rates.

  14. Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1991-01-01

    A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

  15. Diagnosis and Prognosis of Bearing Failure in Rotating Machinery Using Acoustic Emission and Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamad, Abd Kadir; Hiyama, Takashi; Ghazali, Mohd Imran

    Bearing failure is well-known as a common problem in industries. Therefore, timely diagnosis and prognosis (DAP) of bearing fault is very crucial in order to prevent sudden damages. This paper proposes the practical method of bearing fault DAP using acoustic emission (AE) technique assisted with artificial neural network (ANN). The bearings failure data is measured based on the AE in terms of decibel (dB) and Distress levels, which are used as input for ANN of a bearing fault DAP. For this purpose, an experimental rig is setup to collect data from target bearing by using Machine Health Checker (MHC) Memo assisted with MHC Analysis software. In this work, Elman network with training algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt Back- propagation is used for ANN DAP. The obtained results indicates that the proposed methods are suitable to inform the remaining useful life time of a faulty bearing.

  16. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  17. Selection of operating machinery parameters for a bucket excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrichnyi, Y.F.; Baboshin, K.V.; Etinger, I.M.; Mekk, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    The mining industry uses extensively single-bucket excavators of the straight shovel type, like the EKG-4.6, as the most effective way of loading previously loosened hard and abrasive excavated rocks. Therefore, an increase in their working efficiency, mainly as regards increasing productivity, reducing load on the operating machinery, and reducing wear of the operating machinery elements, is of particular importance. Analysis shows that the possibilities for this lie in the correct selection of movement trajectory parameters for the excavator bucket, which for existing excavators are inadequate for loading excavated rock. The authors study here the effect of trajectory parameters on excavator bucket filling, and on their basis they select parameters for the operating machinery.

  18. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  19. 39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 photograph of the steam engines and winding machinery at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. View towards west. United Railroads of San Francisco rebuilt the damaged engines and winders shown in CA-12-60 and CA-12-61. There are no cables strung over the winders in this photograph, indicating that the firm had yet to resume service. Note the rough shed erected over the engines to protect them from weather while work continued on the reconstruction of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Estimating Vibrational Powers Of Parts In Fluid Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, S. A.; Kwok, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    In new method of estimating vibrational power associated with component of fluid-machinery system, physics of flow through (or in vicinity of) component regarded as governing vibrations. Devised to generate scaling estimates for design of new parts of rocket engines (e.g., pumps, combustors, nozzles) but applicable to terrestrial pumps, turbines, and other machinery in which turbulent flows and vibrations caused by such flows are significant. Validity of method depends on assumption that fluid flows quasi-steadily and that flow gives rise to uncorrelated acoustic powers in different parts of pump.

  1. Rotor instability due to loose rotating part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, A.

    1985-01-01

    Loosening of a rotating part from its fixed position on the shaft or a part of the stator which comes loose and begins to turn with the rotor very frequently represents machinery malfunction. The loose part becomes involved in rotative motion mostly due to dry or fluid friction, and thus its motion is very erratic. The loose part can also move axially along the shaft. Detachment of the rotating part causes changes in the rotor balance state. Most often this results in higher unbalance. During steady-state operation the effect of a loose rotating part can manifest itself through heat vibration. It can be diagnosed by observing periodic changes of amplitude and phase of the synchronous response. During start-up (or shutdown) a loose rotating part carrying some amount of unbalance may manifest its dynamic action in the form of subsynchronous vibrations, very similar to those of other instabilities. The objective of this demonstration is to observe the effect of a loose rotating part (fixed, however, in the axial direction) under both steady-state (rotor constant speed) and transient (rotor start-up or shutdown) operation. The dynamic response depends very much on the amount of damping in the system: lubrication of the loose part/shaft surfaces and addition/elimination of aerodynamic drag blades, mounted on the loose disk, significantly change the rotor response.

  2. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  3. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  4. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  7. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  8. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  9. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine. PMID:19405337

  10. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper... apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having a layer of abrasive on... and Type 27A cutting-off wheels. (g) Certain internal wheels. (h) Type 4 tapered wheels. (i)...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper... apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having a layer of abrasive on... and Type 27A cutting-off wheels. (g) Certain internal wheels. (h) Type 4 tapered wheels. (i)...

  12. 7. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing machinery, exterior windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing machinery, exterior windows and double doors, enclosed hinged double doors; northeast corner of building; view to southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Transmitter Standby Building, 200 yards east of County Road, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  13. [Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].

    PubMed

    Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

  14. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  15. The Machinery of Management: Leadership (MM2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on leadership--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

  16. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  17. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ROOM. MOTOR #1 COMPARTMENT IN REAR, AUXILIARY MOTOR DRIVE SHAFT, POWER PANELS ON BACK OF AUXILIARY MOTOR HOUSE. BRIDGE DECK FRAMING ABOVE. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. COURSE OUTLINE FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THE 16-MODULE COURSE OUTLINED IN THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE FORMER FARMERS, HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES, AND UNEMPLOYED, AND EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL ENTRY AS AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SETUP MEN, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, MECHANICS, PARTS MEN, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

  19. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  20. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... spaces). (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel must be properly ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided to close off all vents and ventilators....

  3. Agricultural Machinery Service. A Curriculum Guide for Agricultural Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Agricultural Education Program.

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist teachers, administrators, and supervisors in organizing and conducting vocational programs which meet the needs of high school students who desire vocational training in the off-farm agribusiness of agricultural machinery service. The three-year course for grades 10, 11, and 12 involves operation,…

  4. Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery house and hydro-electric power house, concrete pylon at upstream entrance to lock in foreground, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  5. Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, SF 109, and timber guide wall on left, exterior view of closed lower lock gates and hydro-electric power house and dam in background, view towards west - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  6. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  7. Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) firststage gearbox, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) first-stage gearbox, hoist drum, and second-stage bull gear. The electric motor, which has been removed, turned the gearbox flange. Lifting wire ropes have been cut and left slack. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  8. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... spaces). (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel must be properly ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided to close off all vents and ventilators....

  9. 49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIRCOMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIR-COMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. THIS SYSTEM WAS REPLACED BY ONE ON THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING AFTER 1945, BUT WAS NEVER REMOVED. LOCATED IN AIR COMPRESSOR ROOM BETWEEN MILL NO. 2 AND BOILER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  10. An Automated Control System for Machinery Parts Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreshin, D. I.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the problem of creating an automated system for controlling surface layer quality characteristics of machinery parts during machining. An automated system structure, its operation algorithm, mathematical support and work results are provided. The paper proves the necessity of using a self-learning mode in technological systems for providing set values of surface layer quality characteristics.

  11. ESCRT machinery: Damage control at the nuclear membrane.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Leandro N; Martin-Serrano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Rupture of the nuclear envelope (NE) during interphase is thought to be an infrequent event in healthy cells. Two papers recently published in Science describe the transient disruption of the NE continuity in cells migrating through confined spaces, and uncover an essential role for the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery in the resealing of these nuclear discontinuities. PMID:27151367

  12. Giardia mitosomal protein import machinery differentially recognizes mitochondrial targeting signals.

    PubMed

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components. PMID:25159305

  13. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  14. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  15. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Machinery Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for agriculture machinery service technician are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among…

  16. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  17. Rechargeable sodium alloy anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.

    1988-06-28

    A secondary battery is described comprising: (a) an anode which comprises an alloy of sodium and one or metals selected from the group consisting of tin, lead antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellerium, (b) an electrolyte comprising one or more organic solvents and one or more sodium salts dissolved therein forming dissolved sodium cations in solution; and (c) a cathode; the sodium cations from the electrolyte alloying with the one or more metals of the alloy in the anode during the charging of the battery and sodium in the alloy disoloving in the electrolyte during the discharging of the battery.

  18. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  20. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  1. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  2. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  3. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  9. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  10. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  11. 76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...

  12. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  13. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  14. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  15. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted...

  16. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted...

  17. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted...

  18. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  19. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  20. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  1. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  2. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  3. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  5. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  6. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  8. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  9. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  10. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  11. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  12. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  13. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  14. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  15. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as dripproof... approval. (c) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with at least two ducts to furnish natural... space protected by a fixed gas extinguishing system. All closure devices must be readily available...

  16. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with... OCMI for approval. (c) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with at least two ducts...

  17. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  18. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left unattended. Emphasis is placed on the centralized remote control and monitoring of the machinery plant and machinery... operator's activity to monitoring the plant, initiating programed control system sequences, and...

  19. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as dripproof... approval. (c) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with at least two ducts to furnish natural... space protected by a fixed gas extinguishing system. All closure devices must be readily available...

  20. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as dripproof... approval. (c) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with at least two ducts to furnish natural... space protected by a fixed gas extinguishing system. All closure devices must be readily available...

  1. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  2. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...

  3. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  5. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... machinery. Except as otherwise provided by law or regulations in this subpart, the following standards shall... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  6. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  7. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  8. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...

  9. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Machinery Sectors A Appendix A to Part 438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE...

  11. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  12. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  13. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  15. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  16. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...

  17. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  18. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  19. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....

  20. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  1. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  2. 46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....

  3. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  4. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  5. Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang

    2016-03-01

    Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.

  6. Machinery diagnostic application of the Morlet wavelet distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberson, Howard A.

    2001-07-01

    The Morlet wavelet distribution is a time frequency distribution that can be described as a convolution of the wavelet with a vibration signal for various scales or frequencies. The Morlet wavelet, which is a Gaussian windowed complex sine wave, analysis has several subtle programming implications that both relate to and differentiate it from the short time Fourier transform. These are described, discussed, and tested on machinery vibration signals with positive results. Traditional scale with its octave representation is discarded in favor of equally spaced frequencies. A window width factor is tested to emphasize precision in either time or frequency. A variable length exponential window is necessary as a function of frequency and the width factor. The analysis is coded in MATLAB efficiently using their `conv' algorithm, and results of applying it to machinery diagnostic vibration signals are presented.

  7. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection.

    PubMed

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  8. Manipulation of host membrane machinery by bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, Pascale; Roy, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Subversion of host membrane machinery is important for the uptake, survival, and replication of bacterial pathogens. Understanding how pathogens manipulate host membrane transport pathways provides mechanistic insight into how infection occurs and is also revealing new information on biochemical processes involved in the functioning of eukaryotic cells. In this review we discuss several of the canonical host pathways targeted by bacterial pathogens and emerging areas of investigation in this exciting field. PMID:20542678

  9. Activation of Lymphocyte Cytolytic Machinery: Where are We?

    PubMed Central

    Galandrini, Ricciarda; Capuano, Cristina; Santoni, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Target cell recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes implies the simultaneous engagement and clustering of adhesion and activating receptors followed by the activation of an array of signal transduction pathways. The cytotoxic immune synapse represents the highly specialized dynamic interface formed between the cytolytic effector and its target that allows temporal and spatial integration of signals responsible for a defined sequence of processes culminating with the polarized secretion of lytic granules. Over the last decades, much attention has been given to the molecular signals coupling receptor ligation to the activation of cytolytic machinery. Moreover, in the last 10 years the discovery of genetic defects affecting cytotoxic responses greatly boosted our knowledge on the molecular effectors involved in the regulation of discrete phases of cytotoxic process at post-receptor levels. More recently, the use of super resolution and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging technologies added new insights on the dynamic reorganization of receptor and signaling molecules at lytic synapse as well as on the relationship between granule dynamics and cytoskeleton remodeling. To date we have a solid knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing granule movement and secretion, being not yet fully unraveled the machinery that couples early receptor signaling to the late stage of synapse remodeling and granule dynamics. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms acting in the activation of cytolytic machinery, also discussing similarities and differences between Natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. PMID:24312097

  10. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  11. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  12. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  13. Rotator Cuff Tears

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctors because of a rotator cuff problem. A torn rotator cuff will weaken your shoulder. This means ... or more of the rotator cuff tendons is torn, the tendon no longer fully attaches to the ...

  14. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... others can be very painful. Treatment for a torn rotator cuff depends on age, health, how severe ... is, and how long you've had the torn rotator cuff. Treatment for torn rotator cuff includes: ...

  15. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... days, such as in painting and carpentry Poor posture over many years Aging Rotator cuff tears TEARS ... also help prevent rotator cuff problems. Practice good posture to keep your rotator cuff tendons and muscles ...

  16. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  17. Rotation invariant features for wear particle classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arof, Hamzah; Deravi, Farzin

    1997-09-01

    This paper investigates the ability of a set of rotation invariant features to classify images of wear particles found in used lubricating oil of machinery. The rotation invariant attribute of the features is derived from the property of the magnitudes of Fourier transform coefficients that do not change with spatial shift of the input elements. By analyzing individual circular neighborhoods centered at every pixel in an image, local and global texture characteristics of an image can be described. A number of input sequences are formed by the intensities of pixels on concentric rings of various radii measured from the center of each neighborhood. Fourier transforming the sequences would generate coefficients whose magnitudes are invariant to rotation. Rotation invariant features extracted from these coefficients were utilized to classify wear particle images that were obtained from a number of different particles captured at different orientations. In an experiment involving images of 6 classes, the circular neighborhood features obtained a 91% recognition rate which compares favorably to a 76% rate achieved by features of a 6 by 6 co-occurrence matrix.

  18. Kinetic modeling of sodium in the exosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Discovered more that 20 years ago Mercury's sodium exosphere is characterized by rapid variations determined by planet's orbital motion and rotation. Because collisions are rare, the sodium atom velocity distribution is determined by a unique combination of radiation pressure, source and loss processes, and the interaction with the surface. Neutral sodium atoms injected into the exosphere can be photo-ionized by solar radiation. These ions have been recently observed by FIPS instrument onboard of MESSENGER, and can help in a better understanding of the nature of the source processes as well as the structure of the neutral exosphere itself. A detailed theoretical study of the sodium distribution in the exosphere requires numerical modeling. Having kinetic theory as a physical basis, our exospheric Monte Carlo model preserves the kinetic nature of these exospheric processes. The distinctive features of the model include accounting for the planet's rotation and motion along its orbit, the realistic distribution of the sources, an accurate calculation of the g-factor, and simulation of the photolytic reactions in the exosphere and tail. Here we describe the results of our numerical study of the neutral sodium environment around Mercury. The primary goal of this work was to combine, in a self-consistent manner, models of different surface processes, the planet's orbital motion and rotation, and time-dependent dynamics of sodium atoms in the exosphere. Using ground based and in situ observations obtained at different times to constrain our model allows us to get a more comprehensive picture of Mercury's exosphere including the source and loss rates of sodium. We discuss relative importance of the source processes in the sodium exosphere, the effect of solar radiation pressure on the structure of the tail, and the effect of the surface sticking as well as of the planetary rotation and orbital motion on the sodium surface abundance. Presented simulations cover a domain

  19. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  20. Virus-Mediated Compartmentalization of the Host Translational Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Desmet, Emily A.; Anguish, Lynne J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses require the host translational apparatus to synthesize viral proteins. Host stress response mechanisms that suppress translation, therefore, represent a significant obstacle that viruses must overcome. Here, we report a strategy whereby the mammalian orthoreoviruses compartmentalize the translational machinery within virus-induced inclusions known as viral factories (VF). VF are the sites of reovirus replication and assembly but were thought not to contain ribosomes. It was assumed viral mRNAs exited the VF to undergo translation by the cellular machinery, and proteins reentered the factory to participate in assembly. Here, we used ribopuromycylation to visualize active translation in infected cells. These studies revealed that active translation occurs within VF and that ribosomal subunits and proteins required for translation initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling localize to the factory. Interestingly, we observed components of the 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) concentrating primarily at factory margins, suggesting a spatial and/or dynamic organization of translation within the VF. Similarly, the viral single-stranded RNA binding protein σNS localized to the factory margins and had a tubulovesicular staining pattern that extended a short distance from the margins of the factories and colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. Consistent with these colocalization studies, σNS was found to associate with both eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3A) and the ribosomal subunit pS6R. Together, these findings indicate that σNS functions to recruit 43S PIC machinery to the primary site of viral translation within the viral factory. Pathogen-mediated compartmentalization of the translational apparatus provides a novel mechanism by which viruses might avoid host translational suppression. PMID:25227463

  1. Lagrangian velocity, acceleration and vorticity autocorrelations in rotating turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clercx, Herman J. H.; Del Castello, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    The influence of the Earth background rotation on oceanic and atmospheric currents, as well as the effects of a rapid rotation on the flow inside industrial machineries like mixers, turbines, and compressors, are typical examples of fluid flows affected by rotation. Rotating turbulence has often been studied by means of numerical simulations and analytical models, but the experimental data available is scarce and purely of Eulerian nature. In the present study, experiments on continuously forced turbulence subjected to different background rotation rates are performed by means of 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The data collected is processed in the Lagrangian frame, as well as in the Eulerian one. The background rotation is confirmed to induce 2-dimensionalisation of the velocity field, and the large-scales are dominated by stable counter-rotating vertical tubes of vorticity. The auto- correlation coefficients along particle trajectories of velocity, acceleration and vorticity components have been explored, and in this talk the effects of rotation on the Lagrangian temporal scales of the flow will be discussed.

  2. 16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS WITH WOOD-BURNING HEATING STOVE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. BESIDE THE HEATING STOVE, POINTING TOWARD THE PUNCH PRESS, IS A JIG USED TO POSITION ANGLE STEEL COMPONENTS OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER LEGS FOR PUNCHING BOLT HOLES. THE SUPPORT FOR THE BRICK FLUE OF THE HEATING STOVE IS CONSTRUCTED FROM SALVAGED GALVANIZED ANGLE STEEL OF THE TYPE USED IN FABRICATING WINDMILL TOWERS MANUFACTURED IN THE FACTORY. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  3. The Centromere: Chromatin Foundation for the Kinetochore Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Since discovery of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, centromeres have come to be defined as chromatin structures that establish the assembly site for the complex kinetochore machinery. In most organisms, centromere activity is defined epigenetically, rather than by specific DNA sequences. In this review, we describe selected classic work and recent progress in studies of centromeric chromatin with a focus on vertebrates. We consider possible roles for repetitive DNA sequences found at most centromeres, chromatin factors and modifications that assemble and activate CENP-A chromatin for kinetochore assembly, plus the use of artificial chromosomes and kinetochores to study centromere function. PMID:25203206

  4. Optical control and diagnostics sensors for gas turbine machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Heeg, Bauke

    2012-10-01

    There exists a vast range of optical techniques that have been under development for solving complex measurement problems related to gas-turbine machinery and phenomena. For instance, several optical techniques are ideally suited for studying fundamental combustion phenomena in laboratory environments. Yet other techniques hold significant promise for use as either on-line gas turbine control sensors, or as health monitoring diagnostics sensors. In this paper, we briefly summarize these and discuss, in more detail, some of the latter class of techniques, including phosphor thermometry, hyperspectral imaging and low coherence interferometry, which are particularly suited for control and diagnostics sensing on hot section components with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

  5. The emerging molecular machinery and therapeutic targets of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yutong; Ma, Li

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a 100-year-old research topic. Technological advancements during the past few decades have led to significant progress in our understanding of metastatic disease. However, metastasis remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortalities. The lack of appropriate clinical trials for metastasis preventive drugs and incomplete understanding of the molecular machinery are major obstacles in metastasis prevention and treatment. A number of processes, factors, and signaling pathways are involved in regulating metastasis. Here, we discuss recent progress in metastasis research, including epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, cancer stem cells, emerging molecular determinants and therapeutic targets, and the link between metastasis and therapy resistance. PMID:25939811

  6. The centromere: chromatin foundation for the kinetochore machinery.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-09-01

    Since discovery of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, centromeres have come to be defined as chromatin structures that establish the assembly site for the complex kinetochore machinery. In most organisms, centromere activity is defined epigenetically, rather than by specific DNA sequences. In this review, we describe selected classic work and recent progress in studies of centromeric chromatin with a focus on vertebrates. We consider possible roles for repetitive DNA sequences found at most centromeres, chromatin factors and modifications that assemble and activate CENP-A chromatin for kinetochore assembly, plus the use of artificial chromosomes and kinetochores to study centromere function. PMID:25203206

  7. Validation of vibration measurements for heavy duty machinery diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.; Barszcz, T.

    2013-07-01

    Latest development of distributed condition monitoring for heavy duty machinery has revealed a major challenge concerning reliable data acquisition. Due to frequent failures of diagnostic algorithms caused by incorrectly registered data, validation of vibration signals became a very attractive field of research. The paper shows how classical data acquisition procedures might be enhanced by implementation of signal validation methods based on both machine process parameters signals and machine vibration signals. Presented validation covers analysis of process parameters, data stability constrains and also independent and comparative validation of vibration signals. Benefits of applied techniques are illustrated on real data from a wind turbine.

  8. 173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. Operation Analysis for Electrical Machinery Based on Reluctance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    In this paper, we describe the basis of a magnetic circuit method and introduce a reluctance network analysis (RNA) proposed by authors. The RNA, which is based on the magnetic circuit method, has some suitable merits for simulating electrical machineries such as a simple analytical model, ease of coupled analysis with electrical circuits, motion, and thermal fields. In addition to these merits, a general-purpose circuit simulator like “SPICE" can be utilized as a solver. We present some applications of the RNA to operation analysis for an orthogonal-core, a switched reluctance motor, and a permanent magnet generator.

  10. Surface hardening of cutting elements agricultural machinery vibro arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.; Adigamov, N. N.; Solovev, R. Y.; Arakcheeva, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    At present, the state technical policy aimed at the modernization of worn equipment, including agriculture, based on the use of high-performance technology called nanotechnology. By upgrading worn-out equipment meant restoring it with the achievement of the above parameters passport. The existing traditional technologies are not suitable for the repair of worn-out equipment modernization. This is especially true of imported equipment. Out here alone - is the use of high-performance technologies. In this paper, we consider the use of vibro arc plasma for surface hardening of cutting elements of agricultural machinery.

  11. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  12. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  13. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  14. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  15. A unique cell division machinery in the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Lindås, Ann-Christin; Karlsson, Erik A.; Lindgren, Maria T.; Ettema, Thijs J. G.; Bernander, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the cell division machineries of bacteria, euryarchaea, and eukaryotes, no division components have been identified in the second main archaeal phylum, Crenarchaeota. Here, we demonstrate that a three-gene operon, cdv, in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, forms part of a unique cell division machinery. The operon is induced at the onset of genome segregation and division, and the Cdv proteins then polymerize between segregating nucleoids and persist throughout cell division, forming a successively smaller structure during constriction. The cdv operon is dramatically down-regulated after UV irradiation, indicating division inhibition in response to DNA damage, reminiscent of eukaryotic checkpoint systems. The cdv genes exhibit a complementary phylogenetic range relative to FtsZ-based archaeal division systems such that, in most archaeal lineages, either one or the other system is present. Two of the Cdv proteins, CdvB and CdvC, display homology to components of the eukaryotic ESCRT-III sorting complex involved in budding of luminal vesicles and HIV-1 virion release, suggesting mechanistic similarities and a common evolutionary origin. PMID:18987308

  16. Molecular Genetics of the RNA Polymerase II General Transcriptional Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Hampsey, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) requires interaction between cis-acting promoter elements and trans-acting factors. The eukaryotic promoter consists of core elements, which include the TATA box and other DNA sequences that define transcription start sites, and regulatory elements, which either enhance or repress transcription in a gene-specific manner. The core promoter is the site for assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex, which includes RNA pol II and the general transcription fctors TBP, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH. Regulatory elements bind gene-specific factors, which affect the rate of transcription by interacting, either directly or indirectly, with components of the general transcriptional machinery. A third class of transcription factors, termed coactivators, is not required for basal transcription in vitro but often mediates activation by a broad spectrum of activators. Accordingly, coactivators are neither gene-specific nor general transcription factors, although gene-specific coactivators have been described in metazoan systems. Transcriptional repressors include both gene-specific and general factors. Similar to coactivators, general transcriptional repressors affect the expression of a broad spectrum of genes yet do not repress all genes. General repressors either act through the core transcriptional machinery or are histone related and presumably affect chromatin function. This review focuses on the global effectors of RNA polymerase II transcription in yeast, including the general transcription factors, the coactivators, and the general repressors. Emphasis is placed on the role that yeast genetics has played in identifying these factors and their associated functions. PMID:9618449

  17. Visualizing the functional architecture of the endocytic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Andrea; Mund, Markus; Ries, Jonas; Nédélec, François; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential process that forms vesicles from the plasma membrane. Although most of the protein components of the endocytic protein machinery have been thoroughly characterized, their organization at the endocytic site is poorly understood. We developed a fluorescence microscopy method to track the average positions of yeast endocytic proteins in relation to each other with a time precision below 1 s and with a spatial precision of ∼10 nm. With these data, integrated with shapes of endocytic membrane intermediates and with superresolution imaging, we could visualize the dynamic architecture of the endocytic machinery. We showed how different coat proteins are distributed within the coat structure and how the assembly dynamics of N-BAR proteins relate to membrane shape changes. Moreover, we found that the region of actin polymerization is located at the base of the endocytic invagination, with the growing ends of filaments pointing toward the plasma membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04535.001 PMID:25675087

  18. Coiled-coil networking shapes cell molecular machinery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xinlei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Yi; Huang, Haolong; Dong, Xiaoxi; Chen, Jinan; Dong, Jiuhong; Yang, Xiao; Hang, Haiying; Jiang, Taijiao

    2012-01-01

    The highly abundant α-helical coiled-coil motif not only mediates crucial protein–protein interactions in the cell but is also an attractive scaffold in synthetic biology and material science and a potential target for disease intervention. Therefore a systematic understanding of the coiled-coil interactions (CCIs) at the organismal level would help unravel the full spectrum of the biological function of this interaction motif and facilitate its application in therapeutics. We report the first identified genome-wide CCI network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which consists of 3495 pair-wise interactions among 598 predicted coiled-coil regions. Computational analysis revealed that the CCI network is specifically and functionally organized and extensively involved in the organization of cell machinery. We further show that CCIs play a critical role in the assembly of the kinetochore, and disruption of the CCI network leads to defects in kinetochore assembly and cell division. The CCI network identified in this study is a valuable resource for systematic characterization of coiled coils in the shaping and regulation of a host of cellular machineries and provides a basis for the utilization of coiled coils as domain-based probes for network perturbation and pharmacological applications. PMID:22875988

  19. Towards a comprehensive understanding of brain machinery by correlative microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-06-01

    Unraveling the complexity of brain structure and function is the biggest challenge of contemporary science. Due to their flexibility, optical techniques are the key to exploring this intricate network. However, a single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this machinery due to its inherent multilevel organization. To obtain a more comprehensive view of brain functionality, complementary approaches have been combined. For instance, brain activity was monitored simultaneously on different spatiotemporal scales with functional magnetic resonance imaging and calcium imaging. On the other hand, dynamic information on the structural plasticity of neuronal networks has been contextualized in a wider framework combining two-photon and light-sheet microscopy. Finally, synaptic features have been revealed on previously in vivo imaged samples by correlative light-electron microscopy. Although these approaches have revealed important features of brain machinery, they provided small bridges between specific spatiotemporal scales, lacking an omni-comprehensive view. In this perspective, we briefly review the state of the art of correlative techniques and propose a wider methodological framework fusing multiple levels of brain investigation.

  20. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  1. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  2. Vesicle formation and endocytosis: function, machinery, mechanisms, and modeling.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Nihal S; Akpa, Belinda S; Nitsche, Ludwig C; Wedgewood, Lewis E; Place, Aaron T; Sverdlov, Maria S; Chaga, Oleg; Minshall, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. PMID:19113823

  3. Vesicle Formation and Endocytosis: Function, Machinery, Mechanisms, and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Nihal S.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Wedgewood, Lewis E.; Place, Aaron T.; Sverdlov, Maria S.; Chaga, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1301–1312. PMID:19113823

  4. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  5. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase machinery

    PubMed Central

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Brodersen, Ditlev E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphorous is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use organic phosphonate compounds, which require specialised enzymatic machinery for breaking the stable carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolises phosphonate remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240 kDa Escherichia coli C-P lyase core complex (PhnGHIJ) and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that likely couple organic phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C-P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy and show that it binds to PhnJ via a conserved insertion domain. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown. PMID:26280334

  6. Viral interactions with components of the splicing machinery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage. This article gives an overview of the splicing process and provides examples of viral strategies that make use of various components of the splicing system to promote their replicative cycle. Representative virus families have been selected to illustrate the interaction with various regulatory proteins and ribonucleoproteins. The unifying theme is fine regulation through protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions with the spliceosome components and associated factors to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly on given splice sites, in addition to a strong influence from cis-regulatory sequences on viral transcripts. Because there is an intimate coupling of splicing with the processes that direct mRNA biogenesis, a description of how these viruses couple the regulation of splicing with the retention or stability of mRNAs is also included. It seems that a unique balance of suppression and activation of splicing and nuclear export works optimally for each family of viruses. PMID:27571697

  7. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    PubMed

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  8. End users "Feedback" to improve ergonomic design of machinery.

    PubMed

    Strambi, F; Bartalini, M; Boy, S; Gauthy, R; Landozzi, R; Novelli, D; Stanzani, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Feedback method designed to collect the contribution of users for the reconstruction and comprehension of the actual work and real activity for the improvement of the technical standards, design, manufacturing and use of machinery. The Feedback method has since now been applied successfully - in collaboration with public authorities, market surveillance bodies, social partners organization and technical institutes - to five different types of machines: woodworking machinery, forklift trucks, angle grinder and combine harvester. After ten years of experimentation in seven European countries Feedback has proved to be trans-nationally comparable and has attracted the interest of as much as 250 expert users - mostly workers, but also employers and technicians - who have shared their knowledge and experience by taking part in almost 30 working groups. The information collected with the Feedback method can be used by: -CEN and ISO standardization committees and working groups to become aware of the problems relating to the real use of specific machines in different work contexts, and thus to be able to draw up new or to revise existing standards accordingly; - Designers and manufacturers to produce better, more comfortable and safer machines and to provide precise instructions for use; - Employers, users and workers for training purposes and for defining appropriate work procedures; - Inspection bodies to enhance their knowledge and improve the efficiency of their interventions and advice. PMID:22316885

  9. Requirement of phosphatidylglycerol for maintenance of photosynthetic machinery.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Isamu; Hagio, Miki; Gombos, Zoltan; Tyystjarvi, Taina; Paakkarinen, Virpi; Aro, Eva-Mari; Wada, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is a ubiquitous component of thylakoid membranes. Experiments with the pgsA mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 defective in biosynthesis of PG have demonstrated an indispensable role of PG in photosynthesis. In the present study, we have investigated the light susceptibility of the pgsA mutant with regard to the maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery. Growth of the mutant cells without PG increased the light susceptibility of the cells and resulted in severe photoinhibition of photosynthesis upon a high-light treatment, whereas the growth in the presence of PG was protected against photoinhibition. Photoinhibition induced by PG deprivation was mainly caused by an impairment of the restoration process. The primary target of the light-induced damage in thylakoid membranes, the D1 protein of photosystem (PS) II was, however, synthesized and degraded with similar rates irrespective of whether the mutant cells were incubated with PG or not. Intriguingly, it was found that instead of the synthesis of the D1 protein, the dimerization of the PSII core monomers was impaired in the PG-deprived mutant cells. Addition of PG to photoinhibited cells restored the dimerization capacity of PSII core monomers. These results suggest that PG plays an important role in the maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery through the dimerization and reactivation of the PSII core complex. PMID:14551333

  10. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  11. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  12. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  13. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  14. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

  15. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  16. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Parts AIRCRAFT Aircraft Engines & Engine Parts Aircraft Frames Manufacturing Aircraft Parts & Equipment... Service Industry Machines Special Industry Machinery Speed Changers, High Speed Drivers & Gears Steam,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft Engines & Engine Parts Aircraft Frames Manufacturing Aircraft Parts & Equipment Airports, Flying... Service Industry Machines Special Industry Machinery Speed Changers, High Speed Drivers & Gears Steam,...

  19. Numerical analysis of free vibrations of damped rotating structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the efficient numerical solution of damped and undamped free vibration problems of rotating structures. While structural discretization is achieved by the finite element method, the associated eigenproblem solution is effected by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that enables the computation of a few required roots only without having to compute any other. For structures of complex configurations, a modal synthesis technique is also presented, which is based on appropriate combinations of eigenproblem solution of various structural components. Such numerical procedures are general in nature, which fully exploit matrix sparsity inherent in finite element discretizations, and prove to be most efficient for the vibration analysis of any damped rotating structure, such as rotating machineries, helicopter and turbine blades, spinning space stations, among others.

  20. Gravitational collapse with rotating thin shells and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2015-04-01

    The study of gravitational collapse is a subject of great importance, both from an astrophysical and a holographic point of view. In this respect, exact solutions can be very helpful but known solutions are very scarce, especially when considering dynamical processes with rotation. We describe a setup in which gravitational collapse of rotating matter shells can be addressed with analytic tools, at the expense of going to higher dimensions and considering equal angular momenta spacetimes. The framework for an exact treatment of the dynamics, relying on a thin shell approximation, is developed. Our analysis allows the inclusion of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss applications of this machinery to the construction of stationary solutions describing matter around rotating black holes and to the cosmic censorship conjecture.