Sample records for sodium rotating machinery

  1. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  2. Vibrational diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, A.

    The diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunction, using vibration data in correlation with operational process data is outlined. The advantages of vibration monitoring systems as a part of preventive/predictive maintenance programs are emphasized. The basic principles of machinery diagnostics, and several specific malfunction symptoms supported by simple mathematical models are given. These malfunctions include unbalance, excessive radial preload, rotor to stator rubbing, fluid induced vibrations, loose stationary and rotating parts, coupled torsional/lateral vibration excitation, and rotor cracking. The experimental results and actual field data illustrate the rotor vibration responses for individual malfunctions. Application of synchronous and nonsynchronous perturbation testing used for identification of basic dynamic characteristics of machinery is presented. Future advancements in vibration monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery health are discussed. The basic instrumentation for machine monitoring is outlined.

  3. Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on Support Vector Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajuan Liu; Tao Liu

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify the rotating machinery fault, a method based on support vector machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper. After the feature vectors from the fault signals by means of wavelet packet are extracted and the support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm to the classification of faults in rolling bearing is applied. By drawing a comparison between the

  4. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  5. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  6. Magnetic Actuator Modelling for Rotating Machinery Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Ricardo Ugliara; de Castro, Hélio Fiori; Cavalca, Kátia Lucchesi; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio Saraiva

    Rotating machines have a wide range of application such as airplanes, factories, laboratories and power plants. Lately, with computer aid design, shafts finite element models including bearings, discs, seals and couplings have been developed, allowing the prediction of the machine behavior. In order to keep confidence during operation, it is necessary to monitor these systems, trying to predict future failures. One of the most applied technique for this purpose is the modal analysis. It consists of applying a perturbation force into the system and then to measure its response. However, there is a difficulty that brings limitations to the excitation of systems with rotating shafts when using impact hammers or shakers, once due to friction, undesired tangential forces and noise can be present in the measurements. Therefore, the study of a non-contact technique of external excitation becomes of high interest. In this sense, the present work deals with the study and development of a finite element model for rotating machines using a magnetic actuator as an external excitation source. This work also brings numerical simulations where the magnetic actuator was used to obtain the frequency response function of the rotating system.

  7. Dynamic simulation of high speed rotating machinery 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Eddie Lee

    1977-01-01

    for the operation of high speed rotating ma- chinery is multiplane balancing of the rotor. Various methods of achieving balance in flexible rotors have been developed. The two most widely used methods today are balancing by the use of measured The citations... on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of En ineerin for Power. influence coefficients of the rotor-bearing system [3, 4] and balanc- ing by the consideration of the modal response of the rotor [5]. Models have been used to verify...

  8. Vibration Analysis of Rotating Machinery Using the Spectral Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. S.

    1998-07-01

    The spectral distribution function is used to characterize the vibration signal of rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is demonstrated with a model of a defective bearing. The spectral distribution function is applied to practical problems involving seeded helicopter transmission faults and the vibration signal from a ground-based vacuum compressor system.

  9. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  10. Adaptive time–frequency decomposition for transient vibration monitoring of rotating machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Shi; F. Tsung; P. J. Unsworth

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring the vibration behaviour of large rotating machinery is an effective way to reduce production losses and enhance safety, efficiency, reliability, availability and longevity in manufacturing processes. As large rotating machinery is increasingly employed in continuous operations at high speeds and with heavy loads, the vibration behaviour of the rotor systems is more and more complex. Focusing on the defects

  11. Low Power Magnetic Bearing Design for High Speed Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Maslen, E. H.; Humphris, R. R.; Sortore, C. K.; Studer, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension technology has advanced to the point of being able to offer a number of advantages to a variety of applications in the rotating machinery and aerospace fields. One strong advantage is the decrease in power consumption. The design and construction of a set of permanent magnet biased, actively controlled magnetic bearing for a flexible rotor are presented. Both permanent magnets and electromagnets are used in a configuration which effectively provides the necessary fluxes in the appropriate air gaps, while simultaneously keeping the undesirable destabilizing forces to a minimum. The design includes two radial bearings and a thrust bearing. The theoretical development behind the design is briefly discussed. Experimental performance results for a set of operating prototype bearings is presented. The results include measurements of load capacity, bearing stiffness and damping, and the dynamic response of the rotor. With few exceptions, the experimental results matched very well with the predicted performance. The power consumption of these bearings was found to be significantly reduced from that for a comparable set of all electromagnetic bearings.

  12. Fault diagnosis of partial rub and looseness in rotating machinery using Hilbert-Huang transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Mock Lee; Yeon-Sun Choi

    2008-01-01

    Partial rub and looseness are common faults in rotating machinery because of the clearance between the rotor and the stator.\\u000a These problems cause malfunctions in rotating machinery and create strange vibrations coming from impact and friction. However,\\u000a non-linear and non-stationary signals due to impact and friction are difficult to identify. Therefore, exact time and frequency\\u000a information is needed for identifying

  13. The 12th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    is then used to take into account the centrifugal-buoyancy effects. The thermal effects have been examined with rotating wafers and other rotating machineries like generator rotors or gas turbine engines. For example an unnecessary penalty on the engine cycle and leads to a loss of efficiency. At that time, most of the published

  14. Using bispectral distribution as a feature for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingli Jiang; Yilun Liu; Xuejun Li; Siwen Tang

    2011-01-01

    The vibration signals of rotating machinery present a strongly non-linear and non-Gaussian behavior, and bispectrum is well suitable to analyze this kind of signals. Due to modulation or smearing, it is hard to extract the accurate frequency-based features from the bispectrum. A bispectral distribution for machinery fault diagnosis is developed in this paper. The binary images extracted from the bispectra

  15. Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

  16. EVALUATING MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY ERRORS IN ROTATING MACHINERY TO ENHANCE COMPONENT PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irem Y. Tumer; Edward M. Huff

    Manufacturing and assembly phases play a crucial role in providing products that meet the strict functional specifications associated with rotating machinery components. The errors re- sulting during the production of such components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system dur- ing its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such

  17. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED FAULT DIAGNOSTICS OF ROTATING MACHINERY USING WAVELET TRANSFORMS AS A PREPROCESSOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Paya; I. I. Esat; M. N. M. Badi

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of condition monitoring and fault diagnostics are to detect and distinguish faults occurring in machinery, in order to provide a significant improvement in plant economy, reduce operational and maintenance costs and improve the level of safety. The condition of a model drive-line, consisting of various interconnected rotating parts, including an actual vehicle gearbox, two bearing housings, and an

  18. ISROMAC-11 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery,

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    of Rotating Machinery, Feb.26-March 2, 2006, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Aerodynamic Drag Characteristics and Shape 2 and Cengiz Camci 3 Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University. Significant aerodynamic drag reductions via careful shape design of the antenna are possible. Elongating

  19. Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors Make Acoustic Radiation Models Practical for Engines and Rotating Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin McCulloch; Michel Tournour; Pierre Guisset

    The paper presents Acoustic Transfer Vectors (ATVs) and Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors (MATVs) and their use in acoustic radiation prediction, particularly from the surfaces of engines and their components and from other rotating machinery. Acoustic Transfer Vectors are input-output relations between the normal structural velocity of the radiating surface and the sound pressure at a specific point in the field.

  20. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  1. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  2. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  3. On-line damage detection in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalifa, Tareq Jawad

    This work is concerned with a set of techniques to detect internal defects in uniform circular discs (rotors). An internal defect is intentionally manufactured in stereolithographic discs by a rapid prototyping process using cured resin SL 5170 material. The analysis and results presented here are limited to a uniform circular disc, with internal defects, mounted on a uniform flexible circular shaft. The setup is comprised of a Bently Nevada rotor kit connected to a data acquisition system. The rotor consists of a disc and shaft that is supported by journal bearings and is coupled to a motor by a rubber joint. Damage produces localized changes in the strain energy, which is quantified to characterize the damage. Based on previous research, the Strain Energy Damage Index (SEDI) is utilized to localize the damage due to strain energy differences between damaged and undamaged modes. To accomplish the objective, this work covers three types of analysis: finite element analysis, vibration analysis, and experimental modal analysis. Finite element analysis (using SDRC Ideas software) is performed to develop a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) rotor system with internal damage, and its dynamic characteristics are investigated. The analysis is performed for two different types damage cases: radial damage and circular damage. Parametric study for radial damage and random noise to undamaged disc have been investigated to predict the effect of noise in the damage detection. The developed on-line damage detection technique for rotating equipment incorporates and couples both vibration analysis and experimental modal analysis. The dynamic investigation of the rotating discs (with and without defect) is conducted by vibration signal analysis (using proximity sensors, data acquisition and LabView). The vibration analysis provides a unique vibration signature for the damaged disc, which indicates the existence of the damage. The vibration data are acquired at different running speeds (1000, 2500, 5000 rpm). Then the dynamic investigation of non-rotating discs (with and without defect) is conducted by experimental modal analysis (using STAR software). While the vibration analysis detects and indicates the existence of damage while the disc is rotating, experimental modal analysis (using STAR and MATLAB software) provides the localization of damage through the modal parameters for a non-rotating disc. Both of the experimental diagnostic algorithms are based on measurement of the dynamic behavior of the damaged disc. The results are compared with the reference, or baseline, one, obtained initially for an undamaged disc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

  5. Continuous wavelet grey moment approach for vibration analysis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YanPing, Zhang; ShuHong, Huang; JingHong, Hou; Tao, Shen; Wei, Liu

    2006-07-01

    The statistical characteristics of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of vibration signal are explored, and two features, wavelet grey moment (WGM) and first-order wavelet grey moment vector (WGMV), are proposed for condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Faulty signals from a rotor test rig are studied using the first-order WGM. The analysis indicates that first-order WGM can reveal the time-frequency features of vibration signals well and that it could be used to diagnose faults quantitatively. The effectiveness of the first-order WGMV is also demonstrated by experimental data. Results show that the first-order WGMV is suitable to reflect the local information of scalogram, and would be an effective method of vibration signal analysis for fault diagnostics of rotating machinery. The result by FFT analysis is also given. Compared with the conventional FFT method, the two features presented in this paper are more suitable to extract characters of faults quantitatively.

  6. SHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED ROTATING MACHINERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H. Epstein; Stuart A. Jacobson; Jon M. Protz; Luc G. Frechette

    2000-01-01

    MIT is developing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based gas turbine engines, turbogenerators, and rocket engines. Fabricated in large numbers in parallel using semicon- ductor manufacturing techniques, these engines-on-a-chip are based on micro-high speed rotating machinery with power den- sities approaching those of their more familiar, full-sized breth- ren. The micro-gas turbine is a 2 cm diameter by 3 mm thick Si or

  7. Diagnosis of subharmonic faults of large rotating machinery based on EMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fangji; Qu, Liangsheng

    2009-02-01

    The vibration signals always carry the abundant dynamic information of a machine and are very useful for the feature extraction and fault diagnosis. In practice, most subharmonic signals have a close relationship to time variables and can manifest large amplitude fluctuation, transient vibration, or modulation signals in time domain. In view of this, this paper describes an effective method to search the features of subharmonic faults of large rotating machinery based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Case study on some actual vibration signals of machine parts shows that EMD is an adaptive and unsupervised method in feature extraction and it provides an attractive alternative to the traditional diagnostic methods.

  8. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  9. Intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called "relative ratio symptom parameters" are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks. PMID:22163833

  10. Feature extraction using adaptive multiwavelets and synthetic detection index for rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Xiao, Zhihuai; Malik, O. P.

    2015-02-01

    State identification to diagnose the condition of rotating machinery is often converted to a classification problem of values of non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs). To improve the sensitivity of the NSPs to the changes in machine condition, a novel feature extraction method based on adaptive multiwavelets and the synthetic detection index (SDI) is proposed in this paper. Based on the SDI maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets are searched by genetic algorithms (GAs) from an adaptive multiwavelets library and used for extracting fault features from vibration signals. By the optimal multiwavelets, more sensitive NSPs can be extracted. To examine the effectiveness of the optimal multiwavelets, conventional methods are used for comparison study. The obtained NSPs are fed into K-means classifier to diagnose rotor faults. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the sensitivity of the NSPs and achieve a higher discrimination rate for rotor fault diagnosis than the conventional methods.

  11. Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Loparo, K.A. [Department of Systems Engineering, The Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. 7th IFToMM-Conference on Rotor Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, 25-28 September 2006 Mechatronics in Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    1 7th IFToMM-Conference on Rotor Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, 25-28 September 2006 Mechatronics In this survey paper, we discuss the recent progress in researches on mechatronics in rotating machinery. Even before `mechatronics' emerged as a new concept in technological advancement, much mechatronization effort

  13. The velocity synchronous discrete Fourier transform for order tracking in the field of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, P.; Pennacchi, P.; Chatterton, S.; Ricci, R.

    2014-02-01

    Diagnostics of rotating machinery has developed significantly in the last decades, and industrial applications are spreading in different sectors. Most applications are characterized by varying velocities of the shaft and in many cases transients are the most critical to monitor. In these variable speed conditions, fault symptoms are clearer in the angular/order domains than in the common time/frequency ones. In the past, this issue was often solved by synchronously sampling data by means of phase locked circuits governing the acquisition; however, thanks to the spread of cheap and powerful microprocessors, this procedure is nowadays rarer; sampling is usually performed at constant time intervals, and the conversion to the order domain is made by means of digital signal processing techniques. In the last decades different algorithms have been proposed for the extraction of an order spectrum from a signal sampled asynchronously with respect to the shaft rotational velocity; many of them (the so called computed order tracking family) use interpolation techniques to resample the signal at constant angular increments, followed by a common discrete Fourier transform to shift from the angular domain to the order domain. A less exploited family of techniques shifts directly from the time domain to the order spectrum, by means of modified Fourier transforms. This paper proposes a new transform, named velocity synchronous discrete Fourier transform, which takes advantage of the instantaneous velocity to improve the quality of its result, reaching performances that can challenge the computed order tracking.

  14. Evaluating Manufacturing and Assembly Errors in Rotating Machinery to Enhance Component Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing and assembly phases play a crucial role in providing products that meet the strict functional specifications associated with rotating machinery components. The errors resulting during the manufacturing and assembly of such components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system during its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such as helicopters, resulting in premature component degradation and an unsafe flying environment. In such applications, individual components often are subject to 100% inspection prior to assembly, as well as during operation through rigorous maintenance, resulting in increased product development cycles and high production and operation costs. In this work, we focus on providing designers and manufacturing engineers with a technique to evaluate vibration modes and levels for each component or subsystem prior to putting them into operation. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the correlation between vibrations and manufacturing and assembly errors using an experimental test rig, which simulates a simple bearing and shaft arrangement. A factorial design is used to study the effects of: 1) different manufacturing instances; 2) different assembly instances; and, 3) varying shaft speeds. The results indicate a correlation between manufacturing or assembly errors and vibrations measured from accelerometers. Challenges in developing a tool for DFM are identified, followed by a discussion of future work, including a real-world application to helicopter transmission vibrations.

  15. Exchanged ridge demodulation of time-scale manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo

    2014-05-01

    The vibration or acoustic signal from rotating machinery with localized fault usually behaves as the form of amplitude modulation (AM) and/or frequency modulation (FM). The demodulation techniques are conventional ways to reveal the fault characteristics from the analyzed signals. One of these techniques is the time-scale manifold (TSM) ridge demodulation method with the merits of good time-frequency localization and in-band noise suppression properties. However, due to the essential attribute of wavelet ridge, the survived in-band noise on the achieved TSM will still disturb the envelope extraction of fault-induced impulses. This paper presents an improved TSM ridge demodulation method, called exchanged ridge demodulation of TSM, by combining the benefits of the first two TSMs: the noise suppression of the first TSM and the noise separation of the second TSM. Specifically, the ridge on the second TSM can capture the fault-induced impulses precisely while avoiding the in-band noise smartly. By putting this ridge on the first TSM, the corresponding instantaneous amplitude (IA) waveform can represent the real envelope of pure faulty impulses. Moreover, an adaptive selection method for Morlet wavelet parameters is also proposed based on the smoothness index (SI) in the time-scale domain for an optimal time-scale representation of analyzed signal. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by means of a simulation study and applications to diagnosis of bearing defects and gear fault.

  16. Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Badour, F.; Sunar, M.; Cheded, L.

    2011-08-01

    Time-frequency analysis, including the wavelet transform, is one of the new and powerful tools in the important field of structural health monitoring, using vibration analysis. Commonly-used signal analysis techniques, based on spectral approaches such as the fast Fourier transform, are powerful in diagnosing a variety of vibration-related problems in rotating machinery. Although these techniques provide powerful diagnostic tools in stationary conditions, they fail to do so in several practical cases involving non-stationary data, which could result either from fast operational conditions, such as the fast start-up of an electrical motor, or from the presence of a fault causing a discontinuity in the vibration signal being monitored. Although the short-time Fourier transform compensates well for the loss of time information incurred by the fast Fourier transform, it fails to successfully resolve fast-changing signals (such as transient signals) resulting from non-stationary environments. To mitigate this situation, wavelet transform tools are considered in this paper as they are superior to both the fast and short-time Fourier transforms in effectively analyzing non-stationary signals. These wavelet tools are applied here, with a suitable choice of a mother wavelet function, to a vibration monitoring system to accurately detect and localize faults occurring in this system. Two cases producing non-stationary signals are considered: stator-to-blade rubbing, and fast start-up and coast-down of a rotor. Two powerful wavelet techniques, namely the continuous wavelet and wavelet packet transforms, are used for the analysis of the monitored vibration signals. In addition, a novel algorithm is proposed and implemented here, which combines these two techniques and the idea of windowing a signal into a number of shaft revolutions to localize faults.

  17. Periodic and continuous vibration monitoring for Preventive/Predictive Maintenance of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, W. C.; Muszynska, A.

    1987-04-01

    The application of vibration monitoring as part of Preventive/Predictive Maintenance programs is discussed. Several alternative methods, including periodic and continuous monitoring techniques, are described. Emphasis is given to the importance of selecting vibration transducers with due regard for the specific machinery type. The equally important need to install monitoring systems which are cost effective and provide genuinely useful information for maintenance engineers and vibration analysis is also highlighted. It is argued that critical machinery should be monitored continuously, and in cases when more detailed investigation is required that high-quality Predictive Maintenance vibration analysis techniques be applied. The need is also emphasized for specialist interpretation of vibration data in order to identify specific machinery malfunctions, of which several examples are given.

  18. Periodic and continuous vibration monitoring for Preventive\\/Predictive Maintenance of rotating machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Laws; A. Muszynska

    1987-01-01

    The application of vibration monitoring as part of Preventive\\/Predictive Maintenance programs is discussed. Several alternative methods, including periodic and continuous monitoring techniques, are described. Emphasis is given to the importance of selecting vibration transducers with due regard for the specific machinery type. The equally important need to install monitoring systems which are cost effective and provide genuinely useful information for

  19. Adaptive model for vibration monitoring of rotating machinery subject to random deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhan; V. Makis; A. K. S. Jardine

    2003-01-01

    Due to the non-stationarity of vibration signals resulting from either varying operating conditions or natural deterioration of machinery, both the frequency components and their magnitudes vary with time. However, little research has been done on the parameter estimation of time-varying multivariate time series models based on adaptive filtering theory for condition-based maintenance purposes. This paper proposes a state-space model of

  20. Analysis and experimental study of a plate-type hydraulic vibration damper for cryogenic rotating machinery 

    E-print Network

    Olan, Emmanuel Angustia

    1991-01-01

    Various parameters for one rotational cycle 3. 14 Orifice energy loss for one rotational cycle 59 61 3. 15 Plate radial force 4. 1 Test rig layout 4. 2 Test rig photo 1 4. 3 Test rig photo 2 65 68 71 71 4. 4 4. 5 Cryogenic damper rotor Rotor... 6. 13 6. 14 Pressure distribution, time increment 3 Pressure distribution, time increment 5 145 146 6. 15 Pressure distribution, time increment 6 146 6. 16 6. 17 6. 18 Pressure distribution, time increment 9 Pressure distribution, time...

  1. Fiber optic rotary motion sensor for the real-time condition monitoring of rotating machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Orton; Kayode A. Ayandokun; Nasser Sherkat; Peter D. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the operating principle and construction of a new type of rotary motion sensor. This novel optical device is based on a patented evolution of the high precision optical shaft encoder. It integrates highly accurate measurement of the angular position and 2D center position of a rotating shaft. The current work described is aimed specifically at using this

  2. Some in-field experiences of non-synchronous vibrations in large rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colnago, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Claudio; Vallini, Andrea; Zanetta, Gian Antonio

    1989-01-01

    Some problems associated with non-synchronous vibrations are analyzed by describing three cases experienced with fairly large rotating machines in operating conditions. In each case, a brief description is first given of the machine and of the instrumentation used. The experimental results are then presented, with reference to time or frequency domain recordings. The lines followed in diagnosis are then discussed and, lastly, the corrective action undertaken is presented.

  3. Numerical modeling of multidimensional flow in seals and bearings used in rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Tam, L. T.; Przekwas, A.; Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The rotordynamic behavior of turbomachinery is critically dependent on fluid dynamic rotor forces developed by various types of seals and bearings. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations often depends on the rotor speed and load. Misalignment and rotor wobbling motion associated with differential clearance were often attributed to stability problems. In general, the rotative character of the flowfield is a complex three dimensional system with secondary flow patterns that significantly alter the average fluid circumferential velocity. A multidimensional, nonorthogonal, body-fitted-grid fluid flow model is presented that describes the fluid dynamic forces and the secondary flow pattern development in seals and bearings. Several numerical experiments were carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of this complex flowfield. Analyses were performed by solving a conservation form of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations transformed to those for a rotating observer and using the general-purpose computer code PHOENICS with the assumptions that the rotor orbit is circular and that static eccentricity is zero. These assumptions have enabled a precise steady-state analysis to be used. Fluid injection from ports near the seal or bearing center increased fluid-film direct dynamic stiffness and, in some cases, significantly increased quadrature dynamic stiffness. Injection angle and velocity could be used for active rotordynamic control; for example, injection, when compared with no injection, increased direct dynamic stiffness, which is an important factor for hydrostatic bearings.

  4. Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric-actuator-based active vibration control (AVC) are presented. The evolution of this technology starts with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model where the pushers force the squirrel cage ball bearing supports of a rotating shaft. The piezoelectric pushers consist of a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks that are arranged on top of one another and connected in parallel electrically. This model consists of a prescribed displacement that is proportional to the input voltage and a spring that represents the stiffness of the stack of piezoelectric disks. System tests were carried out to stabilize the AVC system, verify its effectiveness in controlling vibration, and confirm the theory presented.

  5. Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration signals, which describe the transient shaft vibration more vividly and precisely, reducing misinterpretation of the machine running condition. The approach is validated by two practical examples: Part-loosening incident on a large centrifugal compressor. Fluid excitation incident on a centrifugal compressor. Calculations of the mathematical criteria for seven different running conditions of these large rotating machines are also presented. It is demonstrated that the proposed technique provides a feasible and reliable way to interpret shaft vibration, by which means the machine condition can be diagnosed correctly.

  6. Development of a generic rotating machinery fault diagnosis approach insensitive to machine speed and support type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nembhard, Adrian D.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Yunusa-Kaltungo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Despite numerous difficulties that can be encountered when using trend monitoring of harmonic components from the simple amplitude spectra to aid diagnosis of rotor related faults on large multi-stage multi-bearing rotating machines, the technique continues to be the mainstay in industry. This is due in part to factors including a lack of adequate experimental validation of newly proposed techniques aimed at improving or replacing this traditional practice. Nevertheless, in recent studies, simple but robust Individual Speed Individual Foundation (ISIF) and Multi-Speed Individual Foundation (MSIF) fault diagnosis (FD) methods that both used a single vibration sensor per bearing without the use of phase information was applied with good results to fixed and variable speed machines respectively. A similar Individual Speed Multi-Foundation (ISMF) technique later enabled FD by direct comparison of vibration data between similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at the same steady-state speed. However, the efficacy of these techniques was questioned as they were all applied to experimental rigs with the same few rotor related faults. Thus, the objective of this study is to test the transferability of these said techniques on a wider range of rotor related faults on different machines. A new Multi-Speed Multi-Foundation (MSMF) method which facilitates FD by the direct comparison of vibration data from similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at different steady-state speeds is also proposed. It is observed that the previously proposed methods are indeed able to separate the range of conditions tested on machines with different dynamic characteristics. Analysis done with newly proposed MSMF approach gives improved isolation of fault conditions tested compared to the previously proposed techniques.

  7. CHLORIDE AND SODIUM UPTAKE POTENTIAL OVER AN ENTIRE ROTATION OF POPULUS IRRIGATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our

  8. Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van Tung; Yang, Bo-Suk; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a novel fault diagnosis system for rotating machinery using thermal imaging is proposed. This system consists of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) for image enhancement, a generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) for feature reduction, and a relevance vector machine (RVM) for fault classification. Firstly, the thermal image obtained from machine conditions is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using BEMD. At each decomposed level, the IMF is expanded and fused with the residue by gray-scale transformation and principal component analysis fusion technique, respectively. The enhanced image is then formed by the improved IMFs in reconstruction process. Subsequently, feature extraction is applied for the enhanced images to obtain histogram features which characterize the thermal image and contain useful information for diagnosis. The high dimensionality of the achieved feature set can be reduced by GDA implementation. Moreover, GDA also assists in the increase of the feature cluster separation. Finally, the diagnostic results are performed by RVM. The proposed system is applied and validated with the thermal images of a fault simulator. A comparative study of the classification results obtained from RVM, support vector machines, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is also performed to appraise the accuracy of these models. The results show that the proposed diagnosis system is capable of improving the classification accuracy and efficiently assisting in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  9. Applicability of acoustic emissions to monitoring the mechanical integrity of bolted structures in low speed rotating machinery: case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring the integrity of equipment rotating at low rotational speeds presents an increased difficulty to the diagnostician. The most successful monitoring technique, vibration analysis, is not capable of measuring the fundamental frequency of operation at rotational speeds below 300rpm. Typically, low speed machines are massive in size and consequently when mechanical defects begin to occur the resulting vibration is often

  10. Sodium Excess in Yellow Supergiants: Implications for Rotational Mixing in Massive Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.

    2005-04-01

    Recent high-quality measurements of the sodium abundance in yellow supergiants are used to test the hypothesis of rotational mixing in massive main-sequence stars. It is shown that the Na excess in a large fraction of yellow supergiants with M>~7-10Msolar can only be understood as a result of mixing of Na between the convective core and the radiative envelope in their main-sequence progenitors. We demonstrate that the vertical turbulent diffusion from the Zahn model could be responsible for this extra mixing.

  11. Elastic scattering and rotational excitation of nitrogen molecules by sodium atoms.

    PubMed

    Loreau, Jérôme; Zhang, Peng; Dalgarno, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    A quantal study of the rotational excitation of nitrogen molecules by sodium atoms is carried out. We present the two-dimensional potential energy surface of the NaN(2) complex, with the N(2) molecule treated as a rigid rotor. The interaction potential is computed using the spin unrestricted coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (UCCSD(T)). The long-range part of the potential is constructed from the dynamic electric dipole polarizabilities of Na and N(2). The total, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections for rotationally elastic and inelastic transitions are calculated using the close-coupling approach for energies between 5 cm(-1) and 1500 cm(-1). The collisional and momentum transfer rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures between 100 K and 300 K, corresponding to the conditions under which Na-N(2) collisions occur in the mesosphere. PMID:22070297

  12. Control of hysteretic instability in rotating machinery by elastic suspension systems subject to dry and viscous friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Francesco; Cammalleri, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Most of the undesired whirling motions of rotating machines can be efficiently reduced by supporting journal boxes elastically and controlling their movement by viscous dampers or by dry friction surfaces normal to the shaft axis, which rub against the frame. In the case of dry dampers, resonance ranges of the floating support configuration can be easily cut off by planning a motionless adhesive state of the friction surfaces. On the contrary, the dry friction contact must change automatically into sliding conditions when the fixed support resonances are to be feared. Moreover, the whirl amplitude can be restrained throughout the speed range by a proper choice of the suspension-to-shaft stiffness ratio and of the support-to-rotor mass ratio. This theoretical research deals firstly with the natural precession speeds and looks for Campbell plots in dependence on the shaft angular speed, for several rotor-suspension systems. Then, the steady response to unbalance is investigated, in terms of rotor and support orbits and of conical path of the rotor axis. In this search, the ranges of adhesive or sliding contact are identified in particular for system with dry friction damping. At last, the destabilizing influence of the shaft hysteresis in the supercritical regime is focalized and the counterbalancing effect of the other dissipative sources is verified. In the nonlinear case of dry friction dampers, the control of linear stability is fulfilled by a perturbation procedure, checking the magnitude of Floquet characteristic multipliers on the complex plane. Moreover, the nonlinear stability far from steady motion is tested by the direct numerical solution of the full motion equations. The comparison configuration of suspension systems with viscous dampers and no dry friction is examined through an analytical first approximation approach and closed-form results for stability thresholds are derived in particular for the symmetric case.

  13. Towards a rapidly rotating liquid sodium dynamo P. Cardin, D. Brito, D. Jault, H.-C. Nataf, J.-P. Masson

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Towards a rapidly rotating liquid sodium dynamo experiment P. Cardin, D. Brito, D. Jault, H to sustain the magnetic field in this regime. We show that an experiment with liquid sodium can be designed the magnetostrophic balance, a smaller scale liq- uid sodium set­up has been designed and is being built. It consists

  14. The combined use of vibration, acoustic emission and oil debris on-line monitoring towards a more effective condition monitoring of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutas, T. H.; Roulias, D.; Pauly, E.; Kostopoulos, V.

    2011-05-01

    The monitoring of progressive wear in gears using various non-destructive technologies as well as the use of advanced signal processing techniques upon the acquired recordings to the direction of more effective diagnostic schemes, is the scope of the present work. For this reason multi-hour tests were performed in healthy gears in a single-stage lab scale gearbox until they were seriously damaged. Three on-line monitoring techniques are implemented in the tests. Vibration and acoustic emission recordings in combination with data coming from oil debris monitoring (ODM) of the lubricating oil are utilized in order to assess the condition of the gears. A plethora of parameters/features were extracted from the acquired waveforms via conventional (in time and frequency domain) and non-conventional (wavelet-based) signal processing techniques. Data fusion was accomplished in the level of integration of the most representative among the extracted features from all three measurement technologies in a single data matrix. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the data matrix whereas independent component analysis (ICA) was further applied to identify the independent components among the data and correlate them to different damage modes of the gearbox. Finally heuristic rules based on characteristic values of the resulted independent components were set, realizing thus a health monitoring scheme for gearboxes. The integration of vibration, AE and ODM data increases the diagnostic capacity and reliability of the condition monitoring scheme concluding to very interesting results. The present work summarizes the joint efforts of two research groups towards a more reliable condition monitoring of rotating machinery and gearboxes specifically.

  15. Shaft voltages and rotating machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Costello

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine whether a machine is experiencing shaft voltage and current problems, recognition of the four types of damage is imperative. The four distinct types of shaft current damage, frosting, spark tracks, pitting, and welding are described. The four shaft voltage sources and their means of generation are discussed in detail. Methods for correction and\\/or elimination of these

  16. Putative channel components for the fast-rotating sodium-driven flagellar motor of a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Asai, Y; Kojima, S; Kato, H; Nishioka, N; Kawagishi, I; Homma, M

    1997-08-01

    The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus rotates remarkably fast (up to 1,700 revolutions per second) by using a motor driven by sodium ions. Two genes, motX and motY, for the sodium-driven flagellar motor have been identified in marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus. They have no similarity to the genes for proton-driven motors, motA and motB, whose products constitute a proton channel. MotX was proposed to be a component of a sodium channel. Here we identified additional sodium motor genes, pomA and pomB, in V. alginolyticus. Unexpectedly, PomA and PomB have similarities to MotA and MotB, respectively, especially in the predicted transmembrane regions. These results suggest that PomA and PomB may be sodium-conducting channel components of the sodium-driven motor and that the motor part consists of the products of at least four genes, pomA, pomB, motX, and motY. Furthermore, swimming speed was controlled by the expression level of the pomA gene, suggesting that newly synthesized PomA proteins, which are components of a force-generating unit, were successively integrated into the defective motor complexes. These findings imply that Na+-driven flagellar motors may have similar structure and function as proton-driven motors, but with some interesting differences as well, and it is possible to compare and study the coupling mechanisms of the sodium and proton ion flux for the force generation. PMID:9260952

  17. Chapter 15. Electric Machinery Electric Machinery

    E-print Network

    Chapter 15. Electric Machinery 15-1 Electric Machinery Academic and Research Staff: James Kirtley, EECS and RLE Graduate Students: Steven Englebretson Summary Induction motors are the modern day workhorses of industry, consuming a substantial fraction of all electric power made in the industrial

  18. Heat transfer and fluid flow in rotating machinery; Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, Honolulu, HI, Apr. 28May 3, 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Jei Yang

    1987-01-01

    The present conference considers topics in the fields of turbine blade cooling, flow visualization and measurement, rotating tubes and heat pipes, rotating surfaces and enclosures, and turbine and compressor blades. Attention is given to film cooling in a plane turbine cascade, mist-cooling of high temperature turbines, a flow visualization of the effects of injection hole geometry, LDA measurements within a

  19. INTRODUCTION TO CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WC U

    Design, operation and refurbishment of hydraulic turbines, pumps or pump-turbine are strongly related to cavitation flow phenomena, which may occur in either the rotating runner-impeller or the stationary parts of the machine. The paper presents the cavitation phenomena featured by fluid machinery including type of cavity development related to the specific speed of machines in both pump and turbine mode,

  20. Rotational Symmetry of Two Pyrethroid Receptor Sites in the Mosquito Sodium Channel.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Although it is well known that specific mutations in insect sodium channels confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids, the atomic mechanisms of pyrethroid-sodium channel interactions are not clearly understood. Previously, computer modeling and mutational analysis predicted two pyrethroid receptors, pyrethroid receptor site 1 (PyR1) (initial) and pyrethroid receptor site 2 (PyR2), located in the domain interfaces II/III and I/II, respectively. The models differ in ligand orientation and the number of transmembrane helices involved. In this study, we elaborated a revised PyR1 model of the mosquito sodium channel. Computational docking in the Kv1.2-based open channel model yielded a complex in which a pyrethroid (deltamethrin) binds between the linker helix IIL45 and transmembrane helices IIS5, IIS6, and IIIS6 with its dibromoethenyl and diphenylether moieties oriented in the intra- and extracellular directions, respectively. The PyR2 and revised PyR1 models explained recently discovered kdr mutations and predicted new deltamethrin-channel contacts. Further model-driven mutagenesis identified seven new pyrethroid-sensing residues, three in the revised PyR1 and four in PyR2. Our data support the following conclusions: 1) each pyrethroid receptor is formed by a linker-helix L45 and three transmembrane helices (S5 and two S6s); 2) IIS6 contains four residues that contribute to PyR1 and another four to PyR2; 3) seven pairs of pyrethroid-sensing residues are located in symmetric positions within PyR1 and PyR2; and 4) pyrethroids bind to PyR1 and PyR2 in similar orientations, penetrating deeply into the respective domain interfaces. Our study elaborates the dual pyrethroid-receptor sites concept and provides a structural background for rational development of new insecticides. PMID:25972447

  1. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to

  2. 49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms contain all motors, motor controllers, and gears for operating one span, in this case, the north span. Note bell with continuous operating clapper for use as fog signals. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Similarity based modeling of time synchronous averaged vibration signals for machinery health monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan W. Wegerich

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring rotating machinery is often accomplished with the aid of vibration sensors. The vibration sensor signals contain a wealth of complex information that characterizes the dynamic behavior of the machinery. Transforming this information into useful knowledge about the health of the machine can be challenging due to the presence of extraneous noise sources and variations in the vibration signal itself.

  4. Multirobot inspection of industrial machinery

    E-print Network

    Correll, Nikolaus

    Inspection of aircraft and power generation machinery using a swarm of miniature robots is a promising application both from an intellectual and a commercial perspective. Our research is motivated by a case study concerned ...

  5. Machinery Safety on the Farm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grisso, Robert

    Machinery Safety on the Farm is an online publication designed for Virginia Tech students and instructors that provides an overview of various aspects of maintaining safety in a farm setting. The document highlights common hazards in machinery, complete with diagrams and descriptions for each type; then delves into the various precautions necessary to avoid accidents involving the aforementioned problem areas. The article is available as the html page, or as an optional pdf at the bottom of the page.

  6. Shaft-Rotation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Signal-processing subsystem generates signal indicative of rotation of shaft from output of accelerometer mounted on housing of bearing supporting shaft. Output of subsystem binary signal at frequency of rotation of shaft. Part of assembly of electronic equipment measuring vibrations in rotating machinery. Accelerometer mounted in such way sensitive to vibrations of shaft perpendicular to axis. Output of accelerometer includes noise and components of vibration at frequencies higher than rotational frequency of shaft.

  7. Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ?? dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

    2013-10-01

    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ??-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number Rm ˜ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the ??-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade.

  8. Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ?? dynamo experiment.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

    2013-10-01

    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ??-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number R(m) ~ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the ??-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade. PMID:24182136

  9. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STIRLING MACHINERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YONG-RAK KWON; DAVID M BERCHOWITZ

    Alternative cooling technology using the Stirling cycle has been considered for application in domestic and commercial refrigeration by virtue of environmental friendliness and low energy consumption. However, the general features of the Stirling cooling system are not familiar to the refrigeration industry. Recently Stirling cooling machinery in the form of the free-piston Stirling cooler (FPSC) has reached an advanced stage

  10. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  11. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  12. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  13. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  14. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  15. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

  17. SUGGESTED PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING FARM MACHINERY COSTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Lazarus; Roger A. Selley

    2002-01-01

    The North Central Farm Machinery Task Force is a group of extension economists who evaluated alternative methods for estimating farm machinery costs and made recommendations for the development of extension materials. This paper describes the procedures agreed upon, and explains the rationale for the procedures chosen. The focus is on \\

  18. LOW BACK PAIN IN PORT MACHINERY OPERATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bovenzi; I. Pinto; N. Stacchini

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift

  19. Integrating Vibration, Motor Current, and Wear Particle Analysis with Machine Operating State for On-line Machinery Prognostics\\/Diagnostics Systems (MPROS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Martin; Joe Van Dyke

    Integration of system process information with expert system vibration analysis to improve the accuracy of rotating machinery fault detection in on-line condition monitoring systems is the main focus of this paper. An overview of the condition based maintenance system MPROS (Machinery Prognostics\\/Diagnostics System) being developed for the US Navy is presented. Details are provided regarding several currently operating prototype systems

  20. Dietary Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  1. On the effects of production and maintenance variations on machinery performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irem Y. Tumer; Edward M. Huff

    2002-01-01

    The variations introduced during the production and maintenance of rotating machinery components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system during its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such as helicopters and aircraft engines, resulting in premature component degradation and a potentially unsafe flying environment. In such applications, individual components

  2. A hybrid approach for nondestructive assessment and design optimisation and testing of in-service machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Ghaffar Abdul Rahman; Siamak Noroozi; Mihai Dupac; Syed Mahathir Syed Mohd Al-Attas; John E. Vinney

    2012-01-01

    Complex rotating machinery requires regular condition monitoring inspections to assess their running conditions and their structural integrity to prevent catastrophic failures. Machine failures can be divided into two categories. First is the wear and tear during operation, they range from bearing defects, gear damage, misalignment, imbalance or mechanical looseness, for which simple condition-based maintenance techniques can easily detect the root

  3. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205 Section 56.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205 Section 56.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205 Section 57.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205 Section 57.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205 Section 57.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205 Section 56.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205 Section 56.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205 Section 57.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205 Section 56.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205 Section 57.14205 Mineral...Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity...

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58...01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO...

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section...CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary...

  15. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel shall be provided with adequate covers or...

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel shall be provided with adequate covers or...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel shall be provided with adequate covers or...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel shall be provided with adequate covers or...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel shall be provided with adequate covers or...

  20. Machinery sharing by agribusiness firms: methodology, application, and simulation 

    E-print Network

    Wolfley, Jared Lynn

    2009-05-15

    Machinery investments represent a substantial portion of agribusiness firms’ costs. Because of high machinery costs, variable profit margins, and increasing competition, agribusiness managers continually seek methods to ...

  1. Vote: The Machinery of Democracy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Always one with a timely exhibition that reflects both historical concerns and issues of immediate expediency, the Smithsonian National Museum of American History has created this website as the online incarnation of one of their current exhibits, â??Vote: The Machinery of Democracyâ?. Through a host of relevant items (such as one of the controversial butterfly ballots used in Palm Beach County, Florida, in 2000), the exhibit â??examines how Americans have historically adopted improved voting techniques as a result of the political, social and technological changes in the country.â? The exhibit is divided into nine well-crafted sections, which includes informative retrospectives on the use of paper ballots, the variety of ways in which voters can cast their ballots, and of course, on the fractious situation of the Florida recount of 2000. A final bonus on the site is the thorough bibliography, which includes books, articles, a number of web links, and a few extra webpages on voting technology.

  2. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Wu, Thomas

    , fabrication, and performance evaluation of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) powering a cryocooler the first stage of the compressor. Figure 1 shows the developed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with a 2-pole, 3-phase slotless structure. The selection of PMSM was based on its high efficiency due

  3. Magnetostrictive Vibration Damper and Energy Harvester for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural damage. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron-dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum average electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  4. Active vibration control of rotating machinery using piezoelectric pushers 

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Timothy Stuart

    1992-01-01

    (X ? XB + oB) ? KRBXB ? CABXB again simplifying, this becomes: MpBXB + (KpB + KRB)XB + CABXB ? KpBX + KPBcrB = 0 (2. 3) Equations 2. 1-2. 3 describe the fundamental equations of motion for the pushers and bearing, and are used in conjunction... ? Vs+ 12R2 (2. 20) The total current, i, is the sum of il and il. i=il+il (2. 21) CI R, Vq Rs Cs V) 3 2 Rp Rr Vs R Fig. 2. 8. 2 Order Low Pass Filter 20 or and finally, V4 ? V;? Rr Vj ? Vg + iRr ? Vs + st Rs + sRr (2, 22) (2. 23...

  5. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    are convenient to use. Then, for an aircraft engine, rolling-element bearings are commonly used. As explained. In the last years, rolling- element bearings in aircraft engines are being pushed to their limits in order on the Rolling-Bearing Temperature Jean-Jacques Sinou and Fabrice Thouverez Laboratoire de Tribologie et

  6. Active vibration control of rotating machinery using piezoelectric pushers

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Timothy Stuart

    1992-01-01

    (figure 2. 3) FLEXIBLE CASING CA K A KA FLEXIBLE CASING CB MPB XC A5 RA6 Vg MB ACTIVE STIFFNESS KB (Xg ? XC)=XREL ACTIVE DAMPING IIDS~ RAZ I D 1 c RA1 A C GHpF V7 GPS V4 V3 V5 A3 A4 GPD I I I I I I BL R R R3 R4 C4 g RFg R... IGIT C6 I I R6 R LC Rg R RS I C J V6 I I B5 I V6 V9 R R10 I CIO+ r ?? R I II RIS CI I 122 RF6 I aA=t 6 c I 6~ RF4l V11 VIO aB ?? PT V9 Ry I I Cg I 6 I RS CT I RF6 I Rg6 B6 Fig. 2. 1. 2 Pusher Model with Equivalent Electrical...

  7. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Farrar; Thomas A. Duffey

    1999-01-01

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps

  8. Productivity Growth Average in Farm Machinery Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Arthur S.; Ferris, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Productivity in farm machinery manufacturing is examined. The authors discuss how the national economy affects productivity, how the growth of agriculture and technology has changed the industry, and how future trends may cause change in the industry. (CT)

  9. PM—Power and Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mesquita; M. Hanna; N. Costa; J. França Neto

    2000-01-01

    An experimental device was built for threshing standing, uncut soya bean plants. It used impact energy provided by nylon cords, fixed on counter-rotating shafts, striking the soya beans from both sides of the plant row. The device threshed up to 99% of the beans depending on the ground speed. The material-other-than-grain removed at slower speeds was significantly more than that

  10. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et al. (2002, Meteor. Planet. Sci. 8, 3357-3374) successfully explaining their velocity and column density profiles vs. heliocentric distance. Comparison with this data allows us to constrain the supply rate of new sodium atoms to the surface. We also discuss the possible origins of the strong high latitude emissions (Potter and Morgan, 1990, Science 248, 835-838; 1997a, Adv. Space Res. 19, 1571-1576; 1997b, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 95-100; Sprague et al., 1998, Icarus 135, 60-68) and the strong variations of the total content of the sodium exosphere on short (Potter et al., 1999, Planet. Space Sci. 47, 1441-1449) and long time scales (Sprague et al., 1997, Icarus 129, 506-527).

  11. The research of Computer Aided Ergonomics analysis in farm machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiyin Gaol; Haijun Yang; Pengyun Xu; Qian Wang; Ying Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The ergonomics question in farm machinery relates operators¿ safety and efficiency, which is important aspect in the farm machinery design. But the developed Computer Aided Ergonomics software has not human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, therefore the farm machinery design have deviation in Ergonomics analysis. This article propose that using the open

  12. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY ASSEMBLY AND LUBRICATION. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, SKILL IN THEIR SELECTION, AND UNDERSTANDING OF…

  13. The Machinery of Mitochondrial Inheritance and Behavior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Yaffe (University of California; Department of Biology)

    1999-03-05

    The distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division is an essential feature of cell proliferation. Until recently, it was commonly believed that inheritance of mitochondria and other organelles was a passive process, a consequence of their random diffusion throughout the cytoplasm. A growing recognition of the reticular morphology of mitochondria in many living cells, the association of mitochondria with the cytoskeleton, and the coordinated movements of mitochondria during cellular division and differentiation has illuminated the necessity for a cellular machinery that mediates mitochondrial behavior. Characterization of the underlying molecular components of this machinery is providing insight into mechanisms regulating mitochondrial morphology and distribution.

  14. The Protein Import Machinery of Mitochondria*

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    The Protein Import Machinery of Mitochondria* Published, JBC Papers in Press, February 18, 2004 proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and then synthesized as precursors on cytosolic ribosomes after which (translocases) for recognition, translocation, and membrane insertion of pre- cursor proteins. In recent years

  15. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  16. Two Generation Farming: Transferring Machinery and Livestock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Edwards; Donald Hofstrand

    1998-01-01

    Once the younger party has made a long-term commitment to farming, the parties should consider how to transfer control and owner-ship of farm assets. This publication discusses considerations for transferring the use and ownership of personal property such as farm machinery, breeding livestock, and crop and livestock inventories.

  17. Cavitation in fluid machinery and hydraulic structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. A. Arndt

    1981-01-01

    Cavitation and its effects on fluid machinery and hydraulic structures were reviewed with emphasis on the mechanics of inception, the thermodynamic and gaseous diffusion factors on bubble growth, and resulting cavitation. Small amounts of free gas can change the water bulk modulus, with the speed of sound dropping to 15 m\\/s; this affects pump performance and stability. Most of the

  18. THE NATIVE MEMBRANE FUSION MACHINERY IN CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Hwan Jeong; Paul Webster; Chau Q. Khuong; A. K. M. Abdus Sattar; Mylan Satchi; Bhanu P. Jena

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant SNAREs have been demonstrated as the minimal membrane fusion machinery. The participation of additional proteins in the regulation of membrane fusion has been suggested. In this study we provide nanometer-resolution images of native NSF oligomers and SNARE complexes isolated from neurons and the pancreas. Our study reveals the presence of new coiled rod-like structures in association with the SNARE

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

  1. Machinery Management: Acquiring Farm Machinery Services--Ownership, Custiom Hire, Rental Leasing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Edwards; Vernon M. Meyer

    2001-01-01

    Today farmers can easily invest more than $100,000 in a single tractor or combine. Although most farmers own their own machinery, options such as custom hiring, renting, and leasing also are popular alternatives.

  2. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications. PMID:11585001

  3. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  4. 54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing west. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

  6. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

  7. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

  8. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

  9. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

  10. Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds 

    E-print Network

    White, Gary Paul

    1977-01-01

    of the rotor as predicted is within 5/ of the experi- mental value. This accuracy is within the range of knowledge for the bearing parameters. The three balancing procedures are applied to the experimental rotor for a speed range just above the first.... The use of the rotor dynamic analysis would allow designers of high speed rotating machinery to predict the various rotor critical speeds. The use of the Least Squares balancing procedure would allow users of high speed rotating machinery to minimize...

  11. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping...of Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed and...

  12. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35 Shipping...Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 shall be properly...

  13. PER UNIT COSTS TO OWN AND OPERATE FARM MACHINERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron J. Beaton; Kevin C. Dhuyvetter; Terry L. Kastens

    2003-01-01

    Entropy and jackknife estimation procedures were used to find that custom rates are 20.3% lower than the true cost to own and operate machinery for an average size Kansas farm. A method was then developed to estimate a farms total machinery costs with which to benchmark machinery costs.

  14. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1...coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept...essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position...or skylight over a machinery space opening in the freeboard...

  15. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1...coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept...essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position...or skylight over a machinery space opening in the freeboard...

  16. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1...coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept...essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position...or skylight over a machinery space opening in the freeboard...

  17. Machinery Cooperatives—a Case Study in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Toro; P.-A. Hansson

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisation systems of six arable farms, their joint machinery pool at present and some alternative machinery options were analysed in economic terms, field operation times and in some social aspects. A discrete event simulation model for field operations was run for 20 years in order to quantify timeliness costs and their annual variations.The main findings were: (1) machinery sharing

  18. The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla; Scripps Research Institute REV)

    2009-08-25

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

  19. Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

    2013-01-01

    Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Transition in Three-Dimensional Rotating Flows with Walls: Boundary Layers Instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Serre; P. Bontoux; R. Kotarba

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the complex phenomena that precede the transition to turbulence inside a cavity subjected to rotation. The configurations of cylindrical cavities subjected to a radial throughflow or to a differential rotation of the walls are relevant to rotating machinery devices. At a high rotation rate, the DNS exhibits instability

  1. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  2. Cavitation in fluid machinery and hydraulic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, R. E. A.

    Cavitation and its effects on fluid machinery and hydraulic structures were reviewed with emphasis on the mechanics of inception, the thermodynamic and gaseous diffusion factors on bubble growth, and resulting cavitation. Small amounts of free gas can change the water bulk modulus, with the speed of sound dropping to 15 m/s; this affects pump performance and stability. Most of the cavitation theory was formulated from experimental data which requires analysis of separation and transition to turbulence results; the influence of nuclei size and number density are important, along with the cavitation nuclei appearing in the form of small gas bubbles or solid particles with small quantities of gas.

  3. Industrial machinery noise impact modeling, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. H.; Kugler, B. A.

    1981-07-01

    The development of a machinery noise computer model which may be used to assess the effect of occupational noise on the health and welfare of industrial workers is discussed. The purpose of the model is to provide EPA with the methodology to evaluate the personnel noise problem, to identify the equipment types responsible for the exposure and to assess the potential benefits of a given noise control action. Due to its flexibility in design and application, the model and supportive computer program can be used by other federal agencies, state governments, labor and industry as an aid in the development of noise abatement programs.

  4. Vibration isolation of unbalanced machinery using an adaptive-passive magnetoelastic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. L.; Nieto, A. J.; Chicharro, J. M.; Pintado, P.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of unbalanced machinery isolation is tackled in this paper. The proposed method incorporates a magnetoelastic suspension which can be adapted depending on the rotational frequency and is built with two main parts: a magnetoelastic rod and a magnetizing solenoid. The properties of the system make it possible to use one configuration of the suspension (demagnetized state of the rod) over a bandwidth range and another configuration (saturated state of the rod) over the remaining bandwidth range. In addition, three different magnetoelastic materials were tested and the results show significant improvements with respect to completely passive configurations. A theoretical model is also explored in order to make comparisons with the experimental results.

  5. The native membrane fusion machinery in cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, E H; Webster, P; Khuong, C Q; Abdus Sattar, A K; Satchi, M; Jena, B P

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant SNAREs have been demonstrated as the minimal membrane fusion machinery. The participation of additional proteins in the regulation of membrane fusion has been suggested. In this study we provide nanometer-resolution images of native NSF oligomers and SNARE complexes isolated from neurons and the pancreas. Our study reveals the presence of new coiled rod-like structures in association with the SNARE complex only in neuronal tissue. Neuronal SNAREs were found coiled and super-coiled with these structures. The existence of NSF as pentamers in its native state is also demonstrated. The extent of coiling and super-coiling of SNAREs may regulate the potency and efficacy of membrane fusion in cells. PMID:10452836

  6. Selected US farm machinery market characteristics and their implications for the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Zulauf; Gary D. Schnitkey

    1989-01-01

    Trends in farm machinery use suggest the US farm machinery market is a replacement market. Moreover, since 1960, the price of machinery has risen relative to prices for other production inputs. Econometric analysis suggests that higher relative machinery prices encourage input substitution. Thus, relative price trends should be a major concern to the machinery industry. The analysis also suggests that

  7. 18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS, CIRCA 1910 'THE RACINE' RECIPROCATING HACK SAW, AND CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER NEAR CENTER OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE RIGHT ARE THREE WHEELED WORK STATIONS. THE LINE SHAFT WITH BELTS AND PULLEYS FOR OPERATING MACHINERY IS VISIBLE IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  8. SUGGESTED PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING FARM MACHINERY COSTS FOR EXTENSION AUDIENCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Lazarus; Roger A. Selley

    2001-01-01

    North Central Farm Machinery Task Force is a group of extension economists who evaluated alternative methods for estimating farm machinery costs and made recommendations for the development of extension materials. This paper describes the procedures agreed upon, and explains the rationale for the procedures chosen. The focus is on \\

  9. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  10. System dynamics simulation for constructing maintenance management of ship machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Handani; K. Ishida; S. Nishimura; S. Hariyanto

    2011-01-01

    The operation of a safe ship relies on the success of the occupied operating system. This paper shows a model of a reliability analysis in the System Dynamics (SD) simulation in order to recognize a potential failure and prevent a functional failure of maintainable items of ship machinery components. The simulated machinery component is the pump which is operated in

  11. 4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

    1994-05-01

    This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

  13. Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

  14. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  15. Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

  16. 7. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, May 2000 View to southeast. Machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, May 2000 View to southeast. Machinery for turning bull wheel on Davis Lock hoist. - St. Mary's Falls Canal, Soo Locks, Emergency Dam Steam Plant, St. Mary's River at Falls, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  17. 14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. 7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east wall of 1953 addition, view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Waste Water Treatment Plant, Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  19. Impact of electric towers on farm machinery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, J.M.; Vigneault, C.

    1981-01-01

    A special program has been prepared to evaluate land and time lost in the operation of farm machinery around electric towers. Various parameters involved in such a study are described. Applications to various farm productions are also shown. 10 refs.

  20. 28. View of operating machinery shoeing electric motor, clutch drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View of operating machinery shoeing electric motor, clutch drive wheel and hand-painted alignment dial, (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

  1. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  2. 39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY LOCK. January 1932 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. Mathematical?neural model for assessing productivity of earthmoving machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Schabowicz; Bozena Hola

    2007-01-01

    Many construction processes are carried out by machines working together and forming technological systems, eg earthmoving machinery made up of excavators and haulers (trucks). Productivity (W(N)) is a key to valuate the process design purposes. The paper presents the results obtained by applying artificial neural networks to predict productivity (W(N),S) for earthmoving machinery systems, consisting of c excavators and N

  4. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - sodium (salt) ... salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium. Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg ...

  5. Development of remote control system of construction machinery using pneumatic robot arm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro SASAKI; Toshim MIYATA; K. Kawashima

    2004-01-01

    In the restoration work from disasters, the remote control of construction machinery is required to ensure the worker's safety. However, only limited numbers of remote controlled construction machinery exist and they are typically larger than conventional machinery. After a disaster, the transportation of such machinery takes additional times and is often troublesome. Therefore, it would be desirable to develop a

  6. The Design of Farm Machinery Statistics Management System Based on Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Hua; Yin Wenqing; Qi Xindan

    2008-01-01

    The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, agricultural machinery statistics will provide the main basis for decision-making. With the development of computer technology, the use of advanced software technology and network technology can change the traditional agricultural machinery statistical methods. So, three tasks has done in this paper. First, the present situation of the

  7. Development of the Farm Machinery Statistical Management System Based on Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xindan; Li, Hua; Yin, Wenqing

    The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, the statistics of farm machinery in Jiangsu Province are very wide. Improving the working of statistical analyses by advanced computer technology, enhancing the efficiency, is a topic which the farm machinery superintendent and the scientific and technical worker explore continuously. The present situation of the farm machinery statistics management informationization was analyzed .Mainly, the status of the farm machinery statistics management in Jiangsu Province was investigated. Subsequently, the farm machinery statistics management system based on the Web database was developed and the introduction on main function of the system was made.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FARM MACHINERY STATISTICAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON WEB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xindan Qi; Hua Li; Wenqing Yin

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, the statistics of farm machinery in Jiangsu\\u000a Province are very wide. Improving the working of statistical analyses by advanced computer technology, enhancing the efficiency,\\u000a is a topic which the farm machinery superintendent and the scientific and technical worker explore continuously. The present\\u000a situation of the farm machinery

  9. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  10. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of diuretics, or burns Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including birth control pills, corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and ... than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  11. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  12. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat increased amounts of potassium in the body. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be used as a ...

  13. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  14. MicroRNA Machinery Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers. PMID:24904827

  15. 32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH, EMERGENCY BRAKE ON THE PEDESTAL TO THE LEFT OF CENTER - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. An expert system towards solving ship auxiliary machinery troubleshooting: SHIPAMTSOLVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selcuk Cebi; Metin Celik; Cengiz Kahraman; I. Deha Er

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an expert system to aid shipboard personnel for solving ship auxiliary machinery troubleshootings. The developed expert system, called as SHIPAMTSOLVER, is structured based on PROLOG programming language. Principally, the SHIPAMTSOLVER suggests an optimum action code for the shipboard personnel with respect to the established rules on technical knowledge, system indicators, and previous failure experiences from the auxiliary

  17. Developmental Cell WIP/WASp-Based Actin-Polymerization Machinery

    E-print Network

    Shilo, Benny

    Developmental Cell Article WIP/WASp-Based Actin-Polymerization Machinery Is Essential for Myoblast myoblasts. We have established that Wsp, the Drosophila homolog of the WASp family of microfilament nucle-WIP, a homolog of the conserved Verprolin/ WASp Interacting Protein family of WASp-bind- ing proteins, performs

  18. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING FARM MACHINERY PURCHASE DECISIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Johnson; William J. Brown; Kevin OGrady

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the farm management process. The model suggests that certain socioeconomic characteristics of farm managers will influence their decision-making process. Several characteristics are hypothesized an tested using multivariate techniques (multivariate analysis of variance, range tests, and multiple comparisons). The analysis indicates that the soil zone, value of machinery inventory, operator's age, and operator's education influence

  19. Feasibility Study of Inspection of Farm Machinery Safety Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Purschwitz; Dean T. Stueland; Barbara C. Lee

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture continues to be a very hazardous industry. One of the possible risk factors injuries may be the absence of safety features on farm machinery. A feasibility study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of obtaining information on deficiencies or absence of safety devices. Tractors and Power take-off (PTO) driven machines on 36 dairy farms were inspected. The pilot study

  20. 7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN LEFT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE RIGHT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) firststage gearbox, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) first-stage gearbox, hoist drum, and second-stage bull gear. The electric motor, which has been removed, turned the gearbox flange. Lifting wire ropes have been cut and left slack. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  2. 6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN RIGHT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE LEFT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuantao Liu; Jinzhi Zhao; Zexiang Zhao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as

  4. Liposome division by a simple bacterial division machinery

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Harold P.

    Liposome division by a simple bacterial division machinery Masaki Osawa ()1 and Harold P. Erickson not divide the thick-walled liposomes. Here we developed a unique system to observe Z rings in unilamellar that produced concave distortions when viewed at the equator of the liposome. When viewed en face at the top

  5. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Machinery Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for agriculture machinery service technician are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among…

  6. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  7. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead...means to make it watertight. (c) No penetration of a bulkhead in a machinery space by...is continuously watertight from the penetration to the main deck. (d) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead...means to make it watertight. (c) No penetration of a bulkhead in a machinery space by...is continuously watertight from the penetration to the main deck. (d) Each...

  9. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead...means to make it watertight. (c) No penetration of a bulkhead in a machinery space by...is continuously watertight from the penetration to the main deck. (d) Each...

  10. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead...means to make it watertight. (c) No penetration of a bulkhead in a machinery space by...is continuously watertight from the penetration to the main deck. (d) Each...

  11. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead...means to make it watertight. (c) No penetration of a bulkhead in a machinery space by...is continuously watertight from the penetration to the main deck. (d) Each...

  12. Chapter 1 Farm Machinery and Operating a Tractor

    E-print Network

    79 Chapter 1 ­ Farm Machinery and Equipment Operating a Tractor Tractors are the main cause, have been killed or seriously injured falling from moving tractors, being run over by tractors, or being crushed when a tractor rolls sideways or backwards. Spot the hazard Regularly check for hazards

  13. 13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY LAYOUT. Drawing was made by the Berlin Construction Company and is in the possession of the Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield, Connecticut. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  14. 35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY BASCULE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY - BASCULE LEAF RAISED - LARGE GEAR AT LEFT CENTER IS 'D' - REFER TO STRAUSS SHEETS #15 AND #18 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED POSITION - DRIVE GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE VERNACULAR WEIGHT SUSPENDED ON COUNTERWEIGHT AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH TO COMPENSATE FOR AN UNDERWEIGHT COUNTERWEIGHT - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. Studies on treatment of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate solution by high shear ultrafiltration system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenghuan Tu; Luhui Ding; Matthieu Frappart; Michel Y. Jaffrin

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic ultrafiltration of anionic surfactant solution, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), using a rotating disk system with hydrophilic polyethersulfone (PES) membranes (MWCO 10 kDa) was studied in this paper. The effects of mean transmembrane pressure (TMP) and disk rotating speed on the permeate flux and surfactant retention have been reported. When the rotating speed of the disk with vanes

  17. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  18. Three dimensional flow phenomena in fluid machinery; Proceedings of the winter annual meeting, Miami Beach, FL, November 17-22, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, A.; Herring, J.; Povinelli, L.

    1985-01-01

    Papers in this volume provide an overview of the latest developments in experimental measurements and analytical and numerical predictions of three-dimensional flows in fluid machinery. Topics discussed include three-dimensional cascade testing of turbine nozzles at high exit Mach number; the use of a secondary flow computation in the compressor design process; an experimental investigation of static propeller flow field; and calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotating turbine blades. Papers are also presented on a three-dimensional solution method for turbomachinery analysis; analysis of rotational inviscid flows in curved passages; and a mathematical model for the analysis of fluid flow in a scroll.

  19. Three dimensional flow phenomena in fluid machinery; Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting, Miami Beach, FL, November 17-22, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A. (editor); Herring, J. (editor); Povinelli, L. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    For papers presented in this volume provide an overview of the latest developments in experimental measurements and analytical and numerical predictions of three-dimensional flows in fluid machinery. Topics discussed include three-dimensional cascade testing of turbine nozzles at high exit Mach number; the use of a secondary flow computation in the compressor design process; an experimental investigation of static propeller flow field; and calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotating turbine blades. Papers are also presented on a three-dimensional solution method for turbomachinery analysis; analysis of rotational inviscid flows in curved passages; and a mathematical model for the analysis of fluid flow in a scroll.

  20. Detection of sodium chloride in Io's atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lellouch; G. Paubert; J. I. Moses; N. M. Schneider; D. F. Strobel

    2002-01-01

    On January 14-18, 2002, we observed Io with the IRAM 30-m telescope and detected two rotational lines of NaCl at 143.237 and 234.252 GHz, obtaining the first detection of gaseous sodium chloride in Io's neutral atmosphere. The emission from SO2 was monitored by simultaneously observing SO2 lines at 143.057 and 234.187 GHz. Although intrinsically stronger by a factor ~ 300,

  1. 24th Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems OCTOBER 27-31, FOZ DO IGUASSU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IAHR 24th Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems OCTOBER 27-31, FOZ DO IGUASSU RESERVED, published in "IAHR - 24th Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Argentina (2008)" #12;24th Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 2 INTRODUCTION Several types of plants use hydraulic pumps to withdraw water

  2. COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

    LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

  3. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T...separate category A machinery spaces from cargo pumprooms must...

  4. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. ...insulation within category A machinery spaces must have a barrier...

  5. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. ...insulation within category A machinery spaces must have a barrier...

  6. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. ...insulation within category A machinery spaces must have a barrier...

  7. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T...separate category A machinery spaces from cargo pumprooms must...

  8. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. ...insulation within category A machinery spaces must have a barrier...

  9. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T...separate category A machinery spaces from cargo pumprooms must...

  10. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T...separate category A machinery spaces from cargo pumprooms must...

  11. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. ...insulation within category A machinery spaces must have a barrier...

  12. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T...Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or...56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T...separate category A machinery spaces from cargo pumprooms must...

  13. The Instrumentation of the NMIMT Sodium alphaωDynamo Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiahe Si; C. Westrom; J. Slutz; B. Klein; M. Milburn; D. Westpfahl; H. Beckley; R. Gianni; T. McKinney; T. Mickey; V. D. Romero; V. Pariev; H. Li; J. Finn; S. Colgate

    2008-01-01

    The NMIMT alphaω-Dynamo Experiment depends upon the formation of near-stable high speed Couette flow ( 60 m\\/s) in liquid sodium between a 60cm outer and 30cm inner co-rotating cylinders. The resulting high Reynolds number, Re 107 means that the Ekman flow is small, 1\\/Re1\\/2, so that both the turbulence and the resulting torque are small, both important for a sodium

  14. Function and regulation of the endosomal fusion and fission machineries.

    PubMed

    Gautreau, Alexis; Oguievetskaia, Ksenia; Ungermann, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Organelles within the endomembrane system are connected via vesicle flux. Along the endocytic pathway, endosomes are among the most versatile organelles. They sort cargo through tubular protrusions for recycling or through intraluminal vesicles for degradation. Sorting involves numerous machineries, which mediate fission of endosomal transport intermediates and fusion with other endosomes or eventually with lysosomes. Here we review the recent advances in our understanding of these processes with a particular focus on the Rab GTPases, tethering factors, and retromer. The cytoskeleton has also been recently recognized as a central player in membrane dynamics of endosomes, and this review covers the regulation of the machineries that govern the formation of branched actin networks through the WASH and Arp2/3 complexes in relation with cargo recycling and endosomal fission. PMID:24591520

  15. ASP syetem construction for machinery manufacturing process aided equipment management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minru Yao; Zhenkai Yang

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the slow development of the in machinery manufacturing process aided equipment management and no platform about it, an information sharing technology on the process aided equipment management is researched.A new idea about the process aided equipment management based on the networked manufacturing ASP(Application Service Provider) platform is put forward. At first,evolution status9ÿ ASP service model and trend

  16. Is retinoic acid genetic machinery a chordate innovation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Canestro; John H. Postlethwait; Roser Gonzalez-Duarte; Ricard Albalatb

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Development of many chordate features depends on retinoic acid (RA). Because the action of RA duringdevelopment seems to be restricted to chordates,it had been previously proposed that the ''invention'' of RA genetic machinery, including RA-binding nuclear hormone receptors (Rars), and the RA-synthesizing and RA-degrading enzymes Aldh1a (Raldh) and Cyp26, respectively, was an important step for the origin of developmental

  17. The research of dynamic agricultural machinery working area measure system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuo Wei; Fang Yang; Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A simplified method of area-measurement system of farm machineries was proposed through the study of field test data, and a dynamic vehicle field area-measurement system based on GPS-OEM was built. In the test, the system represented (presented) high speed of information collection and high area measure accuracy with the error rate lower than 2%. The portability and convenience of this

  18. CAI - multimedia approach to farm tractor and machinery safety certification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger L. Tormoehlen; Ernest J. Sheldon; William E. Field

    1999-01-01

    Research was conducted at Purdue University with the primary goal to compare a newly developed self-instructional CAI\\/multimedia computer program with traditional instructional methods for use by youth enrolled in a farm tractor and machinery safety program. Seventy-two subjects selected from three 8th and 9th grade agricultural education classes and one group of middle school-aged youth (grades 6–19) involved in a

  19. The Potential of Reference Modeling for Simulating Mobile Construction Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Esswein; Sina Lehrmann; Jeannette Stark

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a This research-in-progress paper summarizes first results of the INPROVY project by applying reference modeling to the simulation\\u000a of mobile construction machinery. Four Business cases for a potential application of reference modeling are derived by an\\u000a expert interview. For these four business cases this paper discusses principles of reference modeling can be applied best\\u000a and how reference modeling can be used

  20. Life-cycle analysis of shipboard machinery resilient mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polter, Sherwood Vern

    This thesis is about evaluating isolation performance on elastomeric mounts removed from a vessel after 20-years of service. Mount properties are evaluated to determine if extending service life is feasible. Current maintenance requires elastomeric mounts of the center bonded type to be replaced on specific machinery components regardless of condition after 20-years. To determine if mounts are still effective in providing vibration isolation, several testing methods are introduced to evaluate key performance indicators needed for more understanding of life-cycle.

  1. Characterization of the Late Endosomal ESCRT Machinery in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

    2013-01-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologues of the ESCRT machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in ?3-fold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Traffic 2008, 9:1698). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in T. brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes. PMID:23905922

  2. The 10th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Steven W.

    , Hawaii, March 07-11, 2004 ISROMAC10-2004-043 EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS OF CENTRIFUGAL PENDULUM VIBRATION Department of Mechanical Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 Phone: Email: shawsw systems fitted with centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers. Two types of absorbers are considered which

  3. The present status and development of acoustic emission technique in diagnosis of rotating machinery faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Ping

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, AE source, propagation characteristic, AE parameters, the noise and the advantages of acoustic emission method for the diagnosis are expounded. The last ten years research conclusions of many important experiments and the signal processing methods which were used for the diagnosis of rolling equipment faults are summarized. The results come from UK, USA and China, etc. The signal processing methods consist of Wavelet Transform, Wavelet Packets and Neural Network, etc. The contradictions of the results are discussed. These summaries are helpful to the new researchers. Through analyzing these results, we could conclude that although there is a lot of work to do, the diagnosis of early rolling equipment faults will be resolved by Acoustic Emission technology not vibration analysis.

  4. Diagnosis of subharmonic faults of large rotating machinery based on EMD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fangji Wu; Liangsheng Qu

    2009-01-01

    The vibration signals always carry the abundant dynamic information of a machine and are very useful for the feature extraction and fault diagnosis. In practice, most subharmonic signals have a close relationship to time variables and can manifest large amplitude fluctuation, transient vibration, or modulation signals in time domain. In view of this, this paper describes an effective method to

  5. Diagnostics of subsynchronous vibrations in rotating machinery - methodologies to identify potential instability 

    E-print Network

    Kar, Rahul

    2005-11-01

    Rotordynamic instability can be disastrous for the operation of high speed turbomachinery in the industry. Most ??instabilities?? are due to de-stabilizing cross coupled forces from variable fluid dynamic pressure around a rotor component, acting...

  6. The 9th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Brian

    Implicit scheme. The code utilized Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k- turbulence modeling. The full. + Senior Engineer, Technology R & D * Professor and Director of MAIDO. Fellow of ASME. # Senior Research Associate. Manager of MAIDO Lab. Member ASME. INTRODUCTION The major cause of flow unsteadiness in stator

  7. International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, ISROMAC-14 February 27

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cedex, FRANCE annie-claude.bayeul@ensam.eu Abstract The vertical axis wind turbine studied in this paper velocity of pales (rad/s) Subscripts i blade index 1 Introduction All wind turbines can be classified) horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWTs) and (ii) vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWTs). Figure 1 shows typical

  8. Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Reng R.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric actuator based - active vibration control (AVC). The evolution of this new technology begins with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model.

  9. Selection of informative frequency band in local damage detection in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchowski, Jakub; Wy?oma?ska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Rados?aw

    2014-10-01

    Problem of informative frequency band (IFB) selection in vibration signal processing for local damage detection is discussed. It is proposed to extend the concept of automatic and objective IFB selection proposed by several authors. Till now, kurtosis was preferred as criterion for IFB search. Thus, it is offered to study set of statistics, namely Jarque-Bera, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer-von Mises, Anderson-Darling, quantile-quantile plot and a method based on the local maxima approach in order to verify their abilities of IFB selection. Also similarities between them are described. It has been proved by simulation and real data analysis that proposed selectors (because they allow us to “select” frequency band) might be equivalent to the spectral kurtosis (SK) in ordinary cases. Moreover, some of the novel selectors are better, because they are less sensitive to incidental spikes that might occur during the signal acquisition process. Proposed selectors might be (as SK) the basis for filter design for informative signal extraction.

  10. Wide band fiber Bragg grating accelerometer for rotating AC machinery condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis-Rodriguez, Damian S.; Djurovic, Sinisa; Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.; Scepanovic, S.; Tshiloz, Kavul; Smith, Alexander C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometers for wide band vibration monitoring in a wound rotor induction generator. The sensor performance is assessed in a series of experiments on a laboratory test rig comprising a 30kW induction machine operating under steady state and variable speed regimes. Vibration measurements are investigated in the frequency domain for generator fault specific electromagnetically induced vibration components. The fiber optic sensor effectiveness in detection of wide band spectral effects (<1kHz) in the vibration signal is compared with that of a commercial piezoelectric based solution. The potential and limitations of the prototype wide band FBG accelerometer are evaluated for use in vibration monitoring applications.

  11. Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery based on a new hybrid clustering algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaguo Lei; Zhengjia He; Yanyang Zi; Qiao Hu

    2008-01-01

    A new hybrid clustering algorithm based on a three-layer feed forward neural network (FFNN), a distribution density function,\\u000a and a cluster validity index, is presented in this paper. In this algorithm, both feature weighting and sample weighting are\\u000a considered, and an optimal cluster number is automatically determined by the cluster validity index. Feature weights are learnt\\u000a via FFNN based on

  12. Analysis and experimental study of a plate-type hydraulic vibration damper for cryogenic rotating machinery

    E-print Network

    Olan, Emmanuel Angustia

    1991-01-01

    center, in/sec deflection of a simply-supported plate, in displacement of simply-supported plate, in XV NOMENCLATURE (continued) x, y &r Za +b (z] (z) [K] (p) (F) [K] (F) ~e~ (F) (eI P 5 e &I& 4'b r, r, 0, f/ P e Kb V actual... Fine mesh pressure plot ? orifice modeled as a point, no plate deflection 49 3. 11 Plate deflection shape, F(x, y), one quadrant 54 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page 3. 12 Actual, intermediate, and natural coordinate systems 56 3. 13...

  13. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, 10(4): 319335, 2004 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc.

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Steven W.

    of freedom (d.o.f.). Using an invariant man- ifold approach, the individual nonlinear normal modes. ISSN: 1023-621X print / 1542-3034 online DOI: 10.1080/10236210490447773 Nonlinear Normal Modes University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA The nonlinear normal mode methodology is generalized to the study

  14. Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1991-01-01

    A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

  15. ISROMAC-11 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery,

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    to the rotor blade tips is measured in a phase- locked manner as observed from the stationary frame. A model helicopter with a two-bladed rotor is utilized for experiments at a speed of 570 rpm corresponding to a tip for instantaneous and unsteady/turbulent flow events such as flows in wind turbine blades, jets, and rotor blades

  16. Modeling the Sodium Atmosphere of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal; Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-10-01

    Presented are preliminary results obtained using a 3D gas kinetic simulation of the Moon’s sodium atmosphere. We model the evolution of the atmosphere by considering the dynamics of the Moon-Earth-Sun system. To this end, the NASA SPICE toolkit is incorporated into the model to accurately calculate body orientations, velocities and rotation states. This information is used for calculation of source rates, solar radiation pressure and gravitational acceleration, and to account for collisions of sodium atoms with the Earth. In the model, micrometeoroids deliver sodium to the lunar surface, and the atmosphere is produced by thermal desorption (TD), solar wind sputtering (SWS), impact vaporization (IV) and photon simulated desorption (PSD). The recycling and loss of atmospheric sodium due to PSD and SWS redistribute the sodium content of the surface and atmosphere supplied by IV. Because PSD is the dominant source process, the maximum of the injection flux and surface density occurs at the sub-solar point. The model is used to simulate ground-based observations of the exosphere and tail, for comparison. We model the dynamics of the system to examine time variation of sodium production rates, surface density and exospheric morphology in relation to the Moon’s changing heliocentric distance. In addition, we study the effect of PSD from a regolith versus a smooth surface on exospheric morphology. Finally, the model is used to analyze the effect of Earth’s gravity on the extended sodium tail during new moon phase. This work was supported by grant NNX11AB24G from the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Program.

  17. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  18. Drosophila Myosin II, Zipper, is Essential for Ommatidial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Fiehler, Ryan W.; Wolff, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    The adult Drosophila retina is a highly polarized epithelium derived from a precursor tissue that is initially symmetric across its dorsoventral axis. Specialized 90° rotational movements of subsets of cells, the ommatidial precursors, establish mirror symmetry in the retinal epithelium. Myosin II, or Zipper (Zip), a motor protein, regulates the rate at which ommatidia rotate: in zip mutants, the rate of rotation is significantly slowed. Zip is concentrated in the cells that we show to be at the likely interface between rotating and non-rotating cells: the boundary between differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Zip is also robust in newly added ommatidial cells, consistent with our model that the machinery that drives rotation should shift to newly recruited cells as they are added to the growing ommatidium. Finally, cell death genes and canonical Wnt signaling pathway members genetically modify the zip phenotype . PMID:17826761

  19. Comparison of heat transfer performance among solid, hollow and sodium encapsulated engine valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Hashimoto, I.; Hashimoto, R.; Takashina, T.; Kanematsu, H.; Utsumi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of an engine valve encapsulating sodium in the hollow was analyzed theoretically. Hollow valves are occasionally used due to the light weight to enhance efficiency and maximum rotation speed. Further, hollow valves encapsulating sodium in the hollow have been practically applied so that the heat transfer of the hollow valve is improved. However, there are little report on the performance of the sodium encapsulated engine valve quantitatively. In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics of a hollow valve and a sodium encapsulated valve were analyzed in comparison to a solid valve, by finite element method (FEM). As a result, the maximum temperature of the sodium encapsulated valve was lower by 413°C or 115°C than that of the hollow valve or the solid valve. Therefore, it has been concluded that the enhancement of efficiency and maximum rotation speed is possible without decreasing in the thermal performance by replacing the conventional solid or hollow valve to the sodium encapsulating valves.

  20. Rotator interval.

    PubMed

    Woertler, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    The rotator interval is an anatomically complex region of the shoulder joint that is difficult to evaluate on clinical examination and by imaging. Abnormalities of its components may contribute to instability, shoulder stiffness, and pain and are challenging to diagnose and treat. This article gives an overview of the anatomy, MR anatomy, and normal variants of the rotator interval, together with basic technical aspects of MR imaging of this area. Pathologic conditions of the rotator interval capsule, the long head of biceps tendon, and the pulley system are reviewed and illustrated with several clinical examples. PMID:26021585

  1. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Brazil). Oil and gas field machinery, November 1990. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Brazilian market for oil and gasfield machinery reached approximately $938 million in 1989, of which about $86 million were supplied by imports. The market may reach $2.6 billion by 1993, if indeed the Government of Brazil approves an annual investment plan of $3.5 billion, as proposed by PETROBRAS, the state owned and operated oil and gas production monopoly. According to reports by the Ministry of Economy, investments by PETROBRAS rose from .37% of GDP in 1989 to .41% in 1990. It is predicted that during the next five years its investments will average .56% of GDP. Currently, PETROBRAS imports only about 10% of its equipment needs, but this is expected to more than double by 1993 as a result of a recently adopted procurement policy which calls for purchasing the best available equipment worldwide, at the most favorable price.

  2. [Sodium and hypertension].

    PubMed

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a number of functional abnormalities most of which are capable of impairing sodium excretion. Essential hypertension would appear to be as much a renal disturbance related to the intake of sodium as hypertension secondary to renal disease. PMID:8952809

  3. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  4. Virus-Mediated Compartmentalization of the Host Translational Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Desmet, Emily A.; Anguish, Lynne J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses require the host translational apparatus to synthesize viral proteins. Host stress response mechanisms that suppress translation, therefore, represent a significant obstacle that viruses must overcome. Here, we report a strategy whereby the mammalian orthoreoviruses compartmentalize the translational machinery within virus-induced inclusions known as viral factories (VF). VF are the sites of reovirus replication and assembly but were thought not to contain ribosomes. It was assumed viral mRNAs exited the VF to undergo translation by the cellular machinery, and proteins reentered the factory to participate in assembly. Here, we used ribopuromycylation to visualize active translation in infected cells. These studies revealed that active translation occurs within VF and that ribosomal subunits and proteins required for translation initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling localize to the factory. Interestingly, we observed components of the 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) concentrating primarily at factory margins, suggesting a spatial and/or dynamic organization of translation within the VF. Similarly, the viral single-stranded RNA binding protein ?NS localized to the factory margins and had a tubulovesicular staining pattern that extended a short distance from the margins of the factories and colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. Consistent with these colocalization studies, ?NS was found to associate with both eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3A) and the ribosomal subunit pS6R. Together, these findings indicate that ?NS functions to recruit 43S PIC machinery to the primary site of viral translation within the viral factory. Pathogen-mediated compartmentalization of the translational apparatus provides a novel mechanism by which viruses might avoid host translational suppression. PMID:25227463

  5. 173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  6. 16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS WITH WOOD-BURNING HEATING STOVE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. BESIDE THE HEATING STOVE, POINTING TOWARD THE PUNCH PRESS, IS A JIG USED TO POSITION ANGLE STEEL COMPONENTS OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER LEGS FOR PUNCHING BOLT HOLES. THE SUPPORT FOR THE BRICK FLUE OF THE HEATING STOVE IS CONSTRUCTED FROM SALVAGED GALVANIZED ANGLE STEEL OF THE TYPE USED IN FABRICATING WINDMILL TOWERS MANUFACTURED IN THE FACTORY. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. The chromosome replication machinery of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Duggin, Iain G; Bell, Stephen D

    2006-06-01

    In the three domains of life, the archaea, bacteria, and eukarya, there are two general lineages of DNA replication proteins: the bacterial and the eukaryal/archaeal lineages. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus provides an attractive model for biochemical study of DNA replication. Its relative simplicity in both genomic and biochemical contexts, together with high protein thermostability, has already provided insight into the function of the more complex yet homologous molecules of the eukaryotic domain. Here, we provide an overview of recent insights into the functioning of the chromosome replication machinery of S. solfataricus, focusing on some of the relatively well characterized core components that act at the DNA replication fork. PMID:16467299

  8. The centromere: chromatin foundation for the kinetochore machinery.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-09-01

    Since discovery of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, centromeres have come to be defined as chromatin structures that establish the assembly site for the complex kinetochore machinery. In most organisms, centromere activity is defined epigenetically, rather than by specific DNA sequences. In this review, we describe selected classic work and recent progress in studies of centromeric chromatin with a focus on vertebrates. We consider possible roles for repetitive DNA sequences found at most centromeres, chromatin factors and modifications that assemble and activate CENP-A chromatin for kinetochore assembly, plus the use of artificial chromosomes and kinetochores to study centromere function. PMID:25203206

  9. From Guide to Target: Molecular Insights into Eukaryotic RNAi Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2015-01-01

    Since its relatively recent discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potent, specific, and ubiquitous means of gene regulation. Through a number of pathways that are conserved from yeast to humans, small non-coding RNAs direct molecular machinery to silence gene expression. In this review, we focus on mechanisms and structures that govern RNA silencing in higher organisms. In addition to highlighting recent advances, parallels and differences between RNAi pathways are discussed. Together, the studies reviewed herein reveal the versatility and programmability of RNA-induced Silencing Complexes (RISCs) and emphasize the importance of both upstream biogenesis and downstream silencing factors. PMID:25565029

  10. Sodium Phosphate Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... widening of the intestine), dehydration, low levels of calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium in your blood, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7 ...produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is...

  15. Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

    1995-10-01

    The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

  16. Activity of sodium pump in photosensitized cultured rat cardiomyocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Mariusz; Shainberg, Asher; Schwartz, Fidi; Rochkind, Shimon

    1997-12-01

    Sodium pump (Na+/K+-ATP-ase) utilizing energy accumulated in macroergic bonds of ATP, maintains physiological sodium and potassium gradients across plasma membrane. This, in turn, preserves cell volume and enables functioning of all Na+-gradient driven cotransporters and exchangers. Therefore, any impairment of Na+/K+-ATP-ase activity results in severe consequences to cell viability. Cardiac cells are equipped with efficient enzymatic machinery capable of coping with oxidative stress. This was the rationale for examining their sodium pump activity upon photosensitization. Cells were incubated with hematoporphyrin dihydrochloride for 1 hour and irradiated using HeNe low-energy laser light (ED: 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 J/cm2). It was found that Na+/K+-ATP-ase activity in 3-day-old cardiocytes is indirectly stimulated during photosensitization by rapid influx of sodium. The latter was determined by radiometric fluorescent probe SBFI/AM. Five-day-old cardiocytes turned out to be less resistant to photo-oxidative stress as the pump activity was inhibited by 50% in comparison to control cells.

  17. A task-based analysis of machinery entanglement injuries among Western Canadian farmers.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2011-10-01

    Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts. PMID:21958400

  18. Vesicle formation and endocytosis: function, machinery, mechanisms, and modeling.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Nihal S; Akpa, Belinda S; Nitsche, Ludwig C; Wedgewood, Lewis E; Place, Aaron T; Sverdlov, Maria S; Chaga, Oleg; Minshall, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. PMID:19113823

  19. Vesicle Formation and Endocytosis: Function, Machinery, Mechanisms, and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Nihal S.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Wedgewood, Lewis E.; Place, Aaron T.; Sverdlov, Maria S.; Chaga, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1301–1312. PMID:19113823

  20. Visualizing the functional architecture of the endocytic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Andrea; Mund, Markus; Ries, Jonas; Nédélec, François; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential process that forms vesicles from the plasma membrane. Although most of the protein components of the endocytic protein machinery have been thoroughly characterized, their organization at the endocytic site is poorly understood. We developed a fluorescence microscopy method to track the average positions of yeast endocytic proteins in relation to each other with a time precision below 1 s and with a spatial precision of ?10 nm. With these data, integrated with shapes of endocytic membrane intermediates and with superresolution imaging, we could visualize the dynamic architecture of the endocytic machinery. We showed how different coat proteins are distributed within the coat structure and how the assembly dynamics of N-BAR proteins relate to membrane shape changes. Moreover, we found that the region of actin polymerization is located at the base of the endocytic invagination, with the growing ends of filaments pointing toward the plasma membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04535.001 PMID:25675087

  1. The hippocampal protein machinery varies over the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wei-Fei; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Höger, Harald; Shim, Ki Shuk; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2007-11-01

    Information about estrous cycle (EC) and sex-dependent protein levels is limited. Cognitive functions vary over the EC and the aim of this study was to investigate rat protein fluctuations in the hippocampus, the main cognitive brain area for learning and memory, in the individual phases of the EC and in males and indeed protein fluctuations may reflect functional variation over the EC. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the studies and estrous phases were determined. Hippocampi were taken, proteins extracted, run on 2-DE, and identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS; protein levels were quantified using Proteomweaver software. Levels of protein synthetic machinery components transcriptional activator protein PUR(?,?), elongation factor 2, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, chaperones 78?kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock cognate 71?kDa protein, Hsp 105, stress-70 protein, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, prefoldin subunit 2, T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha and subunit delta, and degradation principle proteasome subunit alpha type 1 and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, were different between sex and phase of the EC. We suggest that differences in the protein synthetic, chaperoning, and degradation machinery indicate different function in the individual EC phases. Results herein are relevant for further design of studies in the hippocampus at the protein level and interpretation of previous studies because EC phases will have to be respected and taken into account. PMID:21136643

  2. Hospital costs associated with agricultural machinery injuries in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hartling, L; Pickett, W; Dorland, J; Brison, R J

    1997-11-01

    To assist those responsible for agricultural safety, we: (1) piloted an approach to costing hospitalized farm injuries; and, (2) described ambulance and inpatient costs associated with these injuries in Ontario. Hospital discharge records (hospital separations) for farm machinery injuries in Ontario (n = 1,610) were identified by ICD9-CM E-codes for 1985-1993. Ambulance costs were estimated by the Ontario Ministry of Health. For each case, the hospital costs were calculated by multiplying the case-specific resource intensity weight by the average inpatient cost per weighted case. The costs (1993 Canadian dollars) ranged from $768 to $62,643 and totaled $6.9 million over the study period. Males accounted for 89.8% of the total costs. Tractor injuries accounted for a large proportion of costs (34.3%). The median costs per case varied by type of machinery, ranging from $2,043 for ploughs/disks to $3,366 for augers. Entanglement injuries were responsible for the largest proportion of costs (40.7%), while tractor rollovers accounted for the highest median cost ($3,065). Although these figures represent a fraction of the total costs associated with farm injuries, the results provide one basis from which to justify and target preventive initiatives. This approach to costing may also be widely applicable to other health issues. PMID:9327074

  3. Chromatin remodeling by the small RNA machinery in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin states, quite different from changes in DNA sequence, can impact fundamental cellular processes such as determination of cell identity and development of disease. However, how chromatin states are established and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. In several lower eukaryotes, the small RNA machinery comprised of small RNA and its partners, the Argonaute proteins, is known to play important roles in the establishment of heterochromatin and silencing of repetitive sequences. In mammalian cells, however, the nuclear function of the small RNA machinery is largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that components of the small RNA pathway interact with chromatin to regulate nuclear events, including gene transcription and alternative splicing. In addition, these endogenous mechanisms are being exploited to target specific genomic loci for manipulation of gene expression and splicing events. In this review, I summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling by small RNAs in mammalian cells and highlight recent efforts to map genome-wide interactions between RNAi-related factors and chromatin. PMID:24149777

  4. LTP requires a unique postsynaptic SNARE fusion machinery.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sandra; Goswami, Debanjan; Zhang, Yingsha; Molina, Alfredo J Miñano; Südhof, Thomas C; Malenka, Robert C

    2013-02-01

    Membrane fusion during exocytosis is mediated by assemblies of SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins. The SNARE/SM proteins involved in vesicle fusion during neurotransmitter release are well understood, whereas little is known about the protein machinery that mediates activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) exocytosis during long-term potentiation (LTP). Using direct measurements of LTP in acute hippocampal slices and an in vitro LTP model of stimulated AMPAR exocytosis, we demonstrate that the Q-SNARE proteins syntaxin-3 and SNAP-47 are required for regulated AMPAR exocytosis during LTP but not for constitutive basal AMPAR exocytosis. In contrast, the R-SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 contributes to both regulated and constitutive AMPAR exocytosis. Both the central complexin-binding and the N-terminal Munc18-binding sites of syntaxin-3 are essential for its postsynaptic role in LTP. Thus, postsynaptic exocytosis of AMPARs during LTP is mediated by a unique fusion machinery that is distinct from that used during presynaptic neurotransmitter release. PMID:23395379

  5. THE RESEARCH OF COMPUTER AIDED FARM MACHINERY DESIGNING METHOD BASED ON ERGONOMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiyin Gao; Xinling Li; Qiang Song; Ying Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question\\u000a is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that\\u000a farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software\\u000a has not suitable human body database, which is needed

  6. Considerations for the establishment of a machinery monitoring analysis program for surface ships of the US Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Strunk, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were tasked by the US Navy to assist in establishing a maintenance monitoring program for machinery aboard surface ships. Given the number of surface ships, the variety of locations in which they operate, the different types of equipment (rotating and reciprocating, as well as instrumentation), and the different procedures which control the operation and maintenance of a ship, it can be seen, apart from the logistics of organizing such a monitoring program, that the technical issues are as varied and numerous as the ships themselves. Unique methods and procedures have been developed to perform the tasks required on a large scale. Among the specific tasks and technical issues addressed were the development and installation of a data collection and communication instrumentation system for each port, the qualification of measurement methodologies and techniques, the establishment of computer data bases, the evaluation of the instrumentation used, training of civilian and military personnel, development of machinery condition assessment aids using machine design and modal analysis information, and development of computer displays. After these tasks were completed and the appropriate resolution integrated into the program, the final task was the development of a method to continually evaluate the effectiveness of the program, using actual maintenance records.

  7. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...all vital engineering systems, including— (i...alarm, and extinguishing systems; and (iv) Machinery space flooding safety systems, except the valves described... (b) Alarms and instrumentation. (1) A...

  8. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Peru; P. B. Lorenz

    1987-01-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate

  9. Rotating Phasors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharp, Cory

    This interactive phasor page allows you to control the values of a rotating phasor and see a visualization of each change that is done. You can control: one, pos/neg, two, beats, delta, sawtooth, square, triangle, time, zoom, plus you can put into five different values: Frequency (rel, HZ, mHZ), Amplitude (raw, rel), and Phases (Deg, Rad, unitrad).

  10. Rotating Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambru?, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the rigidly rotating quantum thermal distribution of fermions in flat space-time. We find that thermal states diverge on the speed of light surface. We remove the divergences by enclosing the system inside a cylindrical boundary and investigate thermal expectation values and the Casimir effect for two sets of boundary conditions.

  11. ACOUSTIC RADIATION FROM ROTATING BLADES—THE KIRCHHOFF METHOD IN AEROACOUSTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of discrete frequency noise prediction for rotating blade machinery in the time domain. There are two major approaches both of which can be classified as the Kirchhoff method. These methods depend on the solution of two linear wave equations called the K and FW–H equations. The solutions of these equations for subsonic and supersonic

  12. Role of sodium bioenergetics in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Häse, C C; Barquera, B

    2001-05-01

    The ability of the bacterium to use sodium in bioenergetic processes appears to play a key role in both the environmental and pathogenic phases of Vibrio cholerae. Aquatic environments, including fresh, brackish, and coastal waters, are an important factor in the transmission of cholera and an autochthonous source. The organism is considered to be halophilic and has a strict requirement for Na(+) for growth. Furthermore, expression of motility and virulence factors of V. cholerae is intimately linked to sodium bioenergetics and to each other. Several lines of evidence indicated that the activity of the flagellum of V. cholerae might have an impact on virulence gene regulation. As the V. cholerae flagellum is sodium-driven and the Na(+)-NQR enzyme is known to create a sodium motive force across the bacterial membrane, it was recently suggested that the increased toxT expression observed in a nqr-negative strain is mediated by affecting flagella activity. It was suggested that the V. cholerae flagellum might respond to changes in membrane potential and the resulting changes in flagellar rotation might serve as a signal for virulence gene expression. However, we recently demonstrated that although the flagellum of V. cholerae is not required for the effects of ionophores on virulence gene expression, changes in the sodium chemical potential are sensed and thus alternative mechanisms, perhaps involving the TcpP/H proteins, for the detection of these conditions must exist. Analyzing the underlying mechanisms by which bacteria respond to changes in the environment, such as their ability to monitor the level of membrane potential, will probably reveal complex interplays between basic physiological processes and virulence factor expression in a variety of pathogenic species. PMID:11248198

  13. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  14. Ultra-short pulses to signal neuronal growth cone machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Andres, Rosa; Cormack, Iain G.; Artigas, David; Soriano, Eduardo; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2007-02-01

    Measurable change in the sensory motor machinery of growth cones are induced by non contact femtosecond laser. The focused laser beam with an average power of 3 mW was positioned at some distance away from the closest fillopodia of cortical neurons from primary cell cultures (mice E15). By identifying a set of preliminary parameters we were able to statistically analyze the phenomenological behavior of the fillopodia and classify the effects different conditions of laser light has on the growth cone. Results show that fillopodia become significantly biased towards the focused femtosecond laser light. The same experiment performed with continuous wave (CW) produced results which were indistinguishable from the case where there is no laser light present (placebo condition) indicating no clear effects of the CW laser light on the fillopodia at a distance. These findings show the potential for ultrashort pulsed light to become a new type of pathfinding cue for neuronal growth cones.

  15. Pictet–Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Ge, Hui Ming; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Rong; Li, Sui Jun; Chen, Chao Jun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Xu, Qiang; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Pictet–Spengler (PS) reaction constructs plant alkaloids such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. Here, a silent fungal Pictet–Spenglerase (FPS) gene of Chaetomium globosum 1C51 residing in Epinephelus drummondhayi guts is described and ascertained to be activable by 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). The activated FPS expression enables the PS reaction between 1-MT and flavipin (fungal aldehyde) to form “unnatural” natural products with unprecedented skeletons, of which chaetoglines B and F are potently antibacterial with the latter inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. A gene-implied enzyme inhibition (GIEI) strategy has been introduced to address the key steps for PS product diversifications. In aggregation, the work designs and validates an innovative approach that can activate the PS reaction-based fungal biosynthetic machinery to produce unpredictable compounds of unusual and novel structure valuable for new biology and biomedicine. PMID:25425666

  16. Choreography of the Mycobacterium Replication Machinery during the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Damian; Ginda, Katarzyna; Pióro, Monika; Ho?ówka, Joanna; Skut, Partycja; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has recently been demonstrated that bacterial chromosomes are highly organized, with specific positioning of the replication initiation region. Moreover, the positioning of the replication machinery (replisome) has been shown to be variable and dependent on species-specific cell cycle features. Here, we analyzed replisome positions in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a slow-growing bacterium that exhibits characteristic asymmetric polar cell extension. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed that the replisome is slightly off-center in mycobacterial cells, a feature that is likely correlated with the asymmetric growth of Mycobacterium cell poles. Estimates of the timing of chromosome replication in relation to the cell cycle, as well as cell division and chromosome segregation events, revealed that chromosomal origin-of-replication (oriC) regions segregate soon after the start of replication. Moreover, our data demonstrate that organization of the chromosome by ParB determines the replisome choreography. PMID:25691599

  17. In vivo dissection of the chromosome condensation machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Brigitte D.; Hogan, Eileen; Koshland, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The machinery mediating chromosome condensation is poorly understood. To begin to dissect the in vivo function(s) of individual components, we monitored mitotic chromosome structure in mutants of condensin, cohesin, histone H3, and topoisomerase II (topo II). In budding yeast, both condensation establishment and maintenance require all of the condensin subunits, but not topo II activity or phospho-histone H3. Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein 2, as well as each of the three non-SMC proteins (Ycg1p, Ycs4p, and Brn1p), was required for chromatin binding of the condensin complex in vivo. Using reversible condensin alleles, we show that chromosome condensation does not involve an irreversible modification of condensin or chromosomes. Finally, we provide the first evidence of a mechanistic link between condensin and cohesin function. A model discussing the functional interplay between cohesin and condensin is presented. PMID:11864994

  18. Transcription in archaea: preparation of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii transcription machinery.

    PubMed

    Smollett, Katherine; Blombach, Fabian; Werner, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal RNA polymerase and general transcription factors are more closely related to those of eukaryotes than of bacteria. As such the study of transcription of archaea is important both in terms of examination of the evolution of the transcriptional machinery and as a simplified tool for eukaryotic transcription. In particular, the hyperthermophilic Methanocaldococcus jannaschii provides us with a fully recombinant RNA polymerase system allowing for much more detailed in vitro examination of the roles of different components during the transcription cycle than otherwise possible. The individual subunits of M. jannaschii enzyme are easily expressed and purified from heterologous expression systems. Forming functional RNA polymerase involves simply combining the different subunits under denaturing conditions and slowly removing the denaturant. PMID:25665571

  19. The Protein Quality Control Machinery Regulates Its Misassembled Proteasome Subunits

    PubMed Central

    David-Kadoch, Galit; Hazan, Rotem; Yu, Tzenlin; Glickman, Michael H.; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2015-01-01

    Cellular toxicity introduced by protein misfolding threatens cell fitness and viability. Failure to eliminate these polypeptides is associated with various aggregation diseases. In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a vital role in protein quality control (PQC), by selectively targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. While the assembly of the proteasome can be naturally impaired by many factors, the regulatory pathways that mediate the sorting and elimination of misassembled proteasomal subunits are poorly understood. Here, we reveal how the dysfunctional proteasome is controlled by the PQC machinery. We found that among the multilayered quality control mechanisms, UPS mediated degradation of its own misassembled subunits is the favored pathway. We also demonstrated that the Hsp42 chaperone mediates an alternative pathway, the accumulation of these subunits in cytoprotective compartments. Thus, we show that proteasome homeostasis is controlled through probing the level of proteasome assembly, and the interplay between UPS mediated degradation or their sorting into distinct cellular compartments. PMID:25919710

  20. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary. PMID:24738521

  1. Membrane fusion in cells: molecular machinery and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Leabu, M

    2006-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a sine qua non process for cell physiology. It is critical for membrane biogenesis, intracellular traffic, and cell secretion. Although investigated for over a century, only in the last 15 years, the molecular machinery and mechanism of membrane fusion has been deciphered. The membrane fusion event elicits essentially three actors on stage: anionic phospholipids - phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidyl serines, specific membrane proteins, and the calcium ions, all participating in a well orchestrated symphony. Three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)-attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) have been implicated in membrane fusion. Target membrane proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin (t-SNARE) and secretory vesicle-associated membrane protein (v-SNARE) or VAMP were discovered in the 1990's and suggested to be the minimal fusion machinery. Subsequently, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion was discovered. It was demonstrated that when t-SNARE-associated lipid membrane is exposed to v-SNARE-associated vesicles in the presence of Ca2+, the SNARE proteins interact in a circular array to form conducting channels, thus establishing continuity between the opposing bilayers. Further it was proved that SNAREs bring opposing bilayers close to within a distance of 2-3 Å, allowing Ca2+ to bridge them. The bridging of bilayers by Ca2+ then leads to the expulsion of water between the bilayers at the contact site, allowing lipid mixing and membrane fusion. Calcium bridging of opposing bilayers leads to the release of water, both from the water shell of hydrated Ca2+ ions, as well as the displacement of loosely coordinated water at the phosphate head groups in the lipid membrane. These discoveries provided for the first time, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion in cells. Some of the seminal discoveries are briefly discussed in this minireview. PMID:16796809

  2. Sodium sulfur storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, H.; Matsui, K.

    1985-04-09

    The present invention discloses a sodium-sulfur storage battery utilizing an inside of a sodium-ion conductive solid electrolyte tube as a negative chamber, comprising an a-alumina ring jointed with solder glass to an open end of said electrolyte tube, a flange aluminum housing having a fine hole at its bottom incorporated in said solid electrolyte tube, a negative auxiliary cover thermo-compressively jointed through a flange of said aluminum housing to an upper surface of said a-aluminum ring, and a negative cover provided with a negative current collector terminal welded to said negative auxiliary cover.

  3. Machinery Repairman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Michael H.; Taylor, Edward A.

    This Rate Training Manual (textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Machinery Repairman Third Class and Second Class. The 15 chapters in the textbook are (1) Scope of the Machinery Repairman Rating; (2) Toolrooms and Tools; (3) Layout and…

  4. An Analysis of the Skills Required of Agricultural Mechanics at Retail Farm Machinery Dealerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Clinton O.; Mulcahy, John V.

    In order to determine needs for teaching various competencies in agricultural mechanics courses, a study was conducted to determine the types and frequencies of service/repair operations performed by an Arizona agricultural machinery company from January 1 to June 30, 1981. Data were obtained from 1,232 service orders at the Arizona Machinery…

  5. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

  6. Sodium satellite structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fred Moore; David K. Olsen; Bill Hodge; P. Richard

    1972-01-01

    A sample of sodium was bombarded by proton, helium, and oxygen beams and the subsequentK X-ray spectra measured. The spectra exhibit a preponderance of structure which is speculated upon in light of HFS calculations. The strongest lines are ascertained to be the normalKa satellite spectra produced by multiple electron vacancies in single ion-atom collisions.

  7. Ion selectivity strategies of sodium channel selectivity filters.

    PubMed

    Dudev, Todor; Lim, Carmay

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Sodium ion channels selectively transport Na(+) cations across the cell membrane. These integral parts of the cell machinery are implicated in regulating the cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, nerve impulses, salt and water homeostasis, as well as pain and taste perception. Their malfunction often results in various channelopathies of the heart, brain, skeletal muscles, and lung; thus, sodium channels are key drug targets for various disorders including cardiac arrhythmias, heart attack, stroke, migraine, epilepsy, pain, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. The ability of sodium channels to discriminate the native Na(+) among other competing ions in the surrounding fluids is crucial for proper cellular functions. The selectivity filter (SF), the narrowest part of the channel's open pore, lined with amino acid residues that specifically interact with the permeating ion, plays a major role in determining Na(+) selectivity. Different sodium channels have different SFs, which vary in the symmetry, number, charge, arrangement, and chemical type of the metal-ligating groups and pore size: epithelial/degenerin/acid-sensing ion channels have generally trimeric SFs lined with three conserved neutral serines and/or backbone carbonyls; eukaryotic sodium channels have EKEE, EEKE, DKEA, and DEKA SFs with an invariant positively charged lysine from the second or third domain; and bacterial voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels exhibit symmetrical EEEE SFs, reminiscent of eukaryotic voltage-gated calcium channels. How do these different sodium channel SFs achieve high selectivity for Na(+) over its key rivals, K(+) and Ca(2+)? What factors govern the metal competition in these SFs and which of these factors are exploited to achieve Na(+) selectivity in the different sodium channel SFs? The free energies for replacing K(+) or Ca(2+) bound inside different model SFs with Na(+), evaluated by a combination of density functional theory and continuum dielectric calculations, have shed light on these questions. The SFs of epithelial and eukaryotic Nav channels select Na(+) by providing an optimal number and ligating strength of metal ligands as well as a rigid pore whose size fits the cognate Na(+) ideally. On the other hand, the SFs of bacterial Nav channels select Na(+), as the protein matrix attenuates ion-protein interactions relative to ion-solvent interactions by enlarging the pore and allowing water to enter, so the ion interacts indirectly with the conserved glutamates via bridging water molecules. This shows how these various SFs have adapted to the specific physicochemical properties of the native ion, using different strategies to select Na(+) among its contenders. PMID:25343535

  8. Lab Procedure Sodium Borate Crystals

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    Lab Procedure Sodium Borate Crystals Materials: Plastic cup, marked for 50 mL Styrofoam cup 50 m a styrofoam cup, Sodium Borate solution. 2. Place 2 teaspoons of sodium borate in the Styrofoam cup. 3. Place hydrate Plastic cup, marked for 50 mL Styrofoam cup 50 mL of deionized water Plastic spoon String

  9. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  10. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment...Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment...inspections of the main propulsion and auxiliary machinery and of its associated...

  11. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYNN, FRANK

    DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

  12. Rotating Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    In these problems, two people ride on a merry-go-round (radius fixed at 10 m..it's big!). One rider tosses a ball toward the other. The period of motion can be varied as can the initial velocity of the ball, relative to rider. One of the problems is to select the initial velocity of the ball so that it passes through center of the merry-go-round. Another is for the rider who throws the ball to catch it him/herself after exactly half a rotation.

  13. Effect of sodium nitrite–borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Mohana; A. M. Badiea

    2008-01-01

    Effects of sodium nitrite–borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box–Wilson statistical method. The process

  14. Beta1-subunit modulates the Nav1.4 sodium channel by changing the surface charge.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Loretta; Moran, Oscar

    2006-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels, comprised of a pore-forming alpha-subunit and additional regulatory (beta) subunits, play a critical role in regulation of neuronal excitability. Mechanisms of regulation of beta-subunits remain elusive. We have tested the functional effects of beta1 sodium channel subunit on surface charges as a mechanism for channel modulation. HEK-293 cell lines permanently transfected with the sole rat skeletal muscle sodium channel alpha-subunit (Nav1.4), or co-expressing the sodium channel alpha-subunit and beta1-subunit were studied with the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique. At physiological extracellular Ca2+ concentration (2 mM), expression of beta1-subunit did not produce any significant effect on the voltage-dependent properties of sodium currents. However, a shift of half-activation potentials of sodium channel by changing the extracellular Ca2+ was potentiated when beta1 was co-expressed with alpha-subunit. In contrast, the expression of beta1-subunit did not affect the Ca2+ binding to the open or to the closed sodium channel pore, difference of the effect provoked by extracellular Ca2+ could therefore be attributed to an increased in negative surface charge determined by the presence of beta1-subunit. These data are in agreement with the hypothesis of a modulation of the sodium current by the expression of the highly sialylated beta1-subunit, which would alter the channel gating by increasing the density of surface negative charges in the vicinity of the sodium channel voltage sensing machinery. PMID:16432696

  15. Compartmentalization of the protein repair machinery in photosynthetic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Tsabari, Onie; Lowry, Troy; Lenhert, Steven; Lewis, Robert R.; Reich, Ziv; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A crucial component of protein homeostasis in cells is the repair of damaged proteins. The repair of oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PS II) supercomplexes in plant chloroplasts is a prime example of a very efficient repair process that evolved in response to the high vulnerability of PS II to photooxidative damage, exacerbated by high-light (HL) stress. Significant progress in recent years has unraveled individual components and steps that constitute the PS II repair machinery, which is embedded in the thylakoid membrane system inside chloroplasts. However, an open question is how a certain order of these repair steps is established and how unwanted back-reactions that jeopardize the repair efficiency are avoided. Here, we report that spatial separation of key enzymes involved in PS II repair is realized by subcompartmentalization of the thylakoid membrane, accomplished by the formation of stacked grana membranes. The spatial segregation of kinases, phosphatases, proteases, and ribosomes ensures a certain order of events with minimal mutual interference. The margins of the grana turn out to be the site of protein degradation, well separated from active PS II in grana core and de novo protein synthesis in unstacked stroma lamellae. Furthermore, HL induces a partial conversion of stacked grana core to grana margin, which leads to a controlled access of proteases to PS II. Our study suggests that the origin of grana in evolution ensures high repair efficiency, which is essential for PS II homeostasis. PMID:25331882

  16. Wobble decoding by the Escherichia coli selenocysteine insertion machinery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Croitoru, Victor; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Cheng, Qing; Arnér, Elias S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenoprotein expression in Escherichia coli redefines specific single UGA codons from translational termination to selenocysteine (Sec) insertion. This process requires the presence of a Sec Insertion Sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA, which forms a secondary structure that binds a unique Sec-specific elongation factor that catalyzes Sec insertion at the predefined UGA instead of release factor 2-mediated termination. During overproduction of recombinant selenoproteins, this process nonetheless typically results in expression of UGA-truncated products together with the production of recombinant selenoproteins. Here, we found that premature termination can be fully avoided through a SECIS-dependent Sec-mediated suppression of UGG, thereby yielding either tryptophan or Sec insertion without detectable premature truncation. The yield of recombinant selenoprotein produced with this method approached that obtained with a classical UGA codon for Sec insertion. Sec-mediated suppression of UGG thus provides a novel method for selenoprotein production, as here demonstrated with rat thioredoxin reductase. The results also reveal that the E. coli selenoprotein synthesis machinery has the inherent capability to promote wobble decoding. PMID:23982514

  17. Identification of an iron acquisition machinery in Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lingyu; Santander, Javier; Mellata, Melha; Zhang, Yuangxing; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-10-11

    Flavobacterium columnare, a fastidious Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most harmful pathogens in the freshwater fish-farming industry. Nevertheless the virulence mechanisms of F. columnare are not well understood. Bacterial iron uptake from the host during infection is an important mechanism of virulence. Here we identified and analyzed part of the iron uptake machinery of F. columnare. Under iron-limited conditions during in vitro growth, synthesis of an outer membrane protein of ~86 kDa was upregulated. This protein was identified as a TonB-dependent ferrichrome-iron receptor precursor (FhuA). Synthesis of siderophores in F. columnare was corroborated by chrome azurol S assays. A putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein was also identified in the F. columnare genome. Structural analysis of the F. columnare Fur protein revealed that it was similar to Fur proteins involved in iron uptake regulation of other bacteria. Furthermore, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) ?fur mutants were partially complemented by the F. columnare fur gene. We conclude that a siderophore-mediated iron uptake system exists in F. columnare, and fur from F. columnare could partially complement S. Typhimurium ?fur mutant. PMID:24113246

  18. Discovery of the ‘porosome’ the universal secretory machinery in cells

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L L

    2006-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitters at the nerve terminal for neurotransmission, release of insulin from ?-cells of the endocrine pancreas for regulating blood glucose levels, the release of growth hormone from GH cells of the pituitary gland to regulate body growth, or the expulsion of zymogen from exocrine pancreas to digest food, are only a few examples of key physiological processes made possible by cell secretion. It comes as no surprise that defects in cell secretion are the cause for numerous diseases, and have been under intense investigation for over half century. Only in the last decade, the molecular machinery and mechanism of cell secretion has become clear. Cell secretion involves the docking and transient fusion of membrane-bound secretory vesicles at the base of plasma membrane structures called porosomes, and the regulated expulsion of intravesicular contents to the outside, by vesicle swelling. The discovery of the porosome in live cells, its morphology and dynamics at nanometer resolution and in real time, its isolation, its composition, and its structural and functional reconstitution in lipid membrane, are complete. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle fusion at the base of porosomes, and the regulated expulsion of intravesicular contents during cell secretion, are also resolved. In this minireview, the monumental discovery of the porosome, a new cellular structure at the cell plasma membrane, is briefly discussed. PMID:16563225

  19. Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

  20. Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases. PMID:22709827

  1. Study on Integrated Design Method for Series Traction Mechanism of Heavy Machinery Based on Virtual Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guozhi; Zhou, Ning

    The integrated design method of series traction mechanism of heavy machinery was studied based on virtual prototyping. The overall research program was proposed. Furthermore, Based on this program, the computing system with the entity finite element based on ANSYS software and the computing system with equivalent beam element based on Matlab software were developed. Moreover, with two systems, for typical structure traction mechanism of heavy machinery, it was optimized. The study in the paper provides a new design method for design and development of series traction mechanism of heavy machinery.

  2. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems. PMID:25341502

  3. Two-way communication between the metabolic and cell cycle machineries: the molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Joanna; van Dam, Loes; Peeper, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between cellular metabolism and the cell cycle machinery is by no means unidirectional. The ability of a cell to enter the cell cycle critically depends on the availability of metabolites. Conversely, the cell cycle machinery commits to regulating metabolic networks in order to support cell survival and proliferation. In this review, we will give an account of how the cell cycle machinery and metabolism are interconnected. Acquiring information on how communication takes place among metabolic signaling networks and the cell cycle controllers is crucial to increase our understanding of the deregulation thereof in disease, including cancer. PMID:26038996

  4. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  5. On the rotational operators in protein structure simulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Carlos; Kazerounian, Kazem

    2003-10-01

    The reduction of the computational complexity of the algorithms dealing with protein structure analysis and conformation predictions is of prime importance. One common element in most of these algorithms is the process of transforming geometrical information between dihedral angles and Cartesian coordinates of the atoms in the protein using rotational operators. In the literature, the operators used in protein structures are rotation matrices, quaternions in vector and matrix forms and the Rodrigues-Gibbs formula. In the protein structure-related literature, the most widely promoted rotational operator is the quaternions operator. In this work, we studied the computational efficiency of the mathematical operations of the above rotational operators applied to protein structures. A similar study applied to protein structures has not been reported previously. We concluded that the computational efficiency of these rotational operators applied to protein chains is different from those reported for other applications (such as mechanical machinery) and the conclusions are not analogous. Rotation matrices are the most efficient mathematical operators in the protein chains. We examined our findings in two protein molecules: Ab1 tyrosine kinase and heparin-binding growth factor 2. We found that the rotation matrix operator has between 2 and 187% fewer mathematical operations than the other rotational operators. PMID:14600200

  6. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary...

  8. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  9. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  10. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  11. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment...

  12. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment...

  13. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment...

  15. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment...

  16. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment...

  17. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  18. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

  19. Dissecting the Machinery That Introduces Disulfide Bonds in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Isabelle S.; Ball, Geneviève; Leverrier, Pauline; Garvis, Steven; Nicolaes, Valérie; Vertommen, Didier; Ize, Bérengère; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Messens, Joris; Voulhoux, Romé; Collet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disulfide bond formation is required for the folding of many bacterial virulence factors. However, whereas the Escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is well characterized, not much is known on the pathways that oxidatively fold proteins in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the detailed unraveling of the pathway that introduces disulfide bonds in the periplasm of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genome of P. aeruginosa uniquely encodes two DsbA proteins (P. aeruginosa DsbA1 [PaDsbA1] and PaDsbA2) and two DsbB proteins (PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2). We found that PaDsbA1, the primary donor of disulfide bonds to secreted proteins, is maintained oxidized in vivo by both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2. In vitro reconstitution of the pathway confirms that both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2 shuttle electrons from PaDsbA1 to membrane-bound quinones. Accordingly, deletion of both P. aeruginosa dsbB1 (PadsbB1) and PadsbB2 is required to prevent the folding of several P. aeruginosa virulence factors and to lead to a significant decrease in pathogenicity. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, we also analyzed the impact of PadsbA1 deletion on the global periplasmic proteome of P. aeruginosa, which allowed us to identify more than 20 new potential substrates of this major oxidoreductase. Finally, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of PaDsbA2, a highly oxidizing oxidoreductase, which seems to be expressed under specific conditions. By fully dissecting the machinery that introduces disulfide bonds in P. aeruginosa, our work opens the way to the design of novel antibacterial molecules able to disarm this pathogen by preventing the proper assembly of its arsenal of virulence factors. PMID:24327342

  20. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more detailed mathematical models. PMID:24244124

  1. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins. PMID:23603359

  2. Fatal and hospitalized agricultural machinery injuries to children in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W.; Brison, R. J.; Hoey, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess rates and patterns of agricultural machinery injuries in farm children in order to both determine priorities and develop strategies for injury control in this population. METHODS: Coroners' files and hospital discharge data were examined for Ontario farm children aged 0-19 who had agricultural machinery injuries over a five year period ending 31 March 1990. Injury rates were described by age, sex, geographic region, type of machinery, and mechanism of injury. Common patterns of injury deserving of priority for prevention were then identified and described. RESULTS: 283 machinery injuries to children were identified. Injury rates were 116 and 25/100,000/year for boys and girls respectively. Boys were at increasing risk relative to girls as their ages increased. Young children were at greatest risk for fatal injury. There is a prominent summer peak in occurrence. The farm tractor was the machine most commonly associated with these injuries (33.2%), and entanglement, usually of clothing, was the mechanism cited most often (36.3%). The case fatality ratio (ratio of hospitalizations:deaths) was generally low whether assessed by machinery type or by mechanism of injury. This provides an indication of the lethality of these injuries. Common patterns associated with injury risk included: (1) inadequate supervision of small children; (2) permitting children to be in the area of moving or unguarded machinery; (3) allowing children to accompany workers using farm machinery; and (4) having children performing work related tasks inappropriate for their age. CONCLUSIONS: Machinery related injuries are not uncommon in farm children and have a high case fatality rate. These rates changed little over the five year study period. Feasible strategies for prevention of these injuries, four of which are presented here, need to be developed and implemented by public health professionals working in cooperation with members of the agricultural industry. PMID:9346004

  3. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed in the escaping atmosphere. I conclude that the exosphere is sustained by a combination of micro-meteorite impact vaporization and photo-desorption that is locally enhanced by precipitating ions.

  4. Sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump: the roles of ATP and ADP.

    PubMed Central

    Cavieres, J D; Glynn, I M

    1979-01-01

    1. We have developed a procedure for preparing resealed red cell ghosts that contain ADP but very little ATP. 2. The procedure involves (i) lysis of the cells in a very large volume of lysing solution, (ii) resuspension of the ghosts in a small volume, (iii) the incorporation into the ghosts, before they are resealed, of the adenylate kinase inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5'-)pentaphosphate (AP5A) and of hexokinase, and (iv) the removal of traces of ATP, formed by residual adenylate kinase activity, by the addition of glucose. 3. Measurements of sodium efflux from ghosts prepared in this way show that sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump does not occur in the absence of ATP even if ADP is present. 4. The beta:gamma imido analogue of ATP (AMP.PNP), which is incapable of phosphorylating sodium, potassium-ATPase, cannot replace ATP in supporting sodium-sodium exchange. 5. These findings support the hypothesis that the outward movement of sodium ions through the sodium pump is associated with the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to the enzyme, and that the inward movement of sodium ions through the pump is associated with the return of a phosphoryl group from the phosphoenzyme to ADP. PMID:536926

  5. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  7. Gravitational collapse with rotating thin shells and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2015-04-01

    The study of gravitational collapse is a subject of great importance, both from an astrophysical and a holographic point of view. In this respect, exact solutions can be very helpful but known solutions are very scarce, especially when considering dynamical processes with rotation. We describe a setup in which gravitational collapse of rotating matter shells can be addressed with analytic tools, at the expense of going to higher dimensions and considering equal angular momenta spacetimes. The framework for an exact treatment of the dynamics, relying on a thin shell approximation, is developed. Our analysis allows the inclusion of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss applications of this machinery to the construction of stationary solutions describing matter around rotating black holes and to the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  8. On design method for hydraulic machinery in sandy water

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, W.; Zeng, Q. [Huazhang Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the general solution for trajectory of a particle (a bubble) moving in stationary and rotational coordinate systems in the case of low Re number, and the trajectory equation of dilute particles is proposed when the interaction is taken into account between particles. Next, the particle trajectory have been calculated and the substance has been elaborated for the runner rapidly damaged in the runner. Finally, the Concentration equation has been proposed in the runner, and the approach has been expounded for design the runner in sandy water. The design method is used to reform a water power station in China.

  9. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  10. The Sodium Content of Your Food. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01

    - 8873 ~ 0 . 1 4 0 0 ' sodium - * - Content of Contents Page .............................................. Introduction Sodium Content of Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverages and fruit juices 4... .................................... Condiments, fats and oils 2t ........ Sodium Content of Selected Non-prescription Drugs 2t The Sodium Content of Your Food Extension food and nutrition specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Introduction Sodium is a mineral element necessary...

  11. Econometric analysis of farm-machinery investment and simulations under alternative energy, price support, and export policies

    SciTech Connect

    Gunjal, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    The historical trends in structure, extent, and intensity of agricultural mechanization are analyzed in this study. The number of tractors, grain combines, corn pickers and picker shellers, pickup balers, and field forage harvesters peaked during the early 1960s. The decline in this numbers after the '60s is brought about mainly by the qualitative changes in those machines. Based on the various investments theories, the alternative models of stock adjustment, expectations, and derived demand type are estimated for tractor and other machinery investments at the national and regional levels using 1950 to 1977 annual data. Investment demand functions for harvesting machinery are estimated at the national level. Statistical tests for structural change in the machinery investments are performed. The demand elasticities with respect to prices, income and other economic variables are calculated. Dynamic multipliers expressing the long-lasting effects of the interest rates, price of fuel and oil, and net farm income are calculated for selected machinery investments. The impact and long-term multipliers are also presented. Finally, a block recursive simulation model of the regional farm-machinery investments is developed. The relevant variables are selected from agriculture, industry, and the economy in general to complete the linkages specified in the model. The regional tractor and other machinery investments and national tractor, harvesting-machinery, other machinery, and all machinery investments are predicted up to 1990. The potential effects of six alternative policies of energy prices, support prices, and agricultural exports on future farm-machinery investments are also analyzed.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  13. Pure pseudoboehmite from sodium aluminate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ozimek; J. Grzechowiak; B. Radomyski

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Na2O\\/Al2O3 mole ratio in sodium aluminate, the pH and the temperature of precipitation upon physicochemical properties of pseudoboehmite obtained from sodium aluminate has been studied. A mole ratio of 1?1 and low pH are favorable for the preparation of pure alumina.

  14. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  15. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  16. Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

    1995-01-01

    We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  2. Dietary Sodium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Khmer (Khmer) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Lowering Sodium ... Sodium Khmer (Khmer) Bilingual PDF Harborview Medical Center Somali (af Soomaali) Lowering Sodium in Your Diet Yareenta ...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphos- phate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6787 Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 ...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182...GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 582.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 582.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 ...Food Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182...Chemical Preservatives § 182.3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section... Sequestrants 1 § 182.6769 Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance...substance is generally recognized as safe for use at a level not exceeding 2 percent in...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810... Sequestrants 2 § 582.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582...SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6801 Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 ...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 ...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182...SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182...Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810...Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have different sodium ... can: Develop and implement efforts that: Increase public awareness about the amount of sodium added to processed ...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless...an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate. (b) The ingredient...

  10. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  11. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  12. The ER quality control and ER associated degradation machineries are vital for viral pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to protein production and membrane lipid synthesis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) supports cellular metabolism by ensuring protein quality control in the ER. Most positive strand RNA viruses cause extensive remodeling of membranes and require active membrane synthesis to promote infection. How viruses interact with the cellular machinery controlling membrane metabolism is largely unknown. Furthermore, there is mounting data pointing to the importance of the UPR and ER associated degradation (ERAD) machineries in viral pathogenesis in eukaryotes emerging topic. For many viruses, the UPR is an early event that is essential for persistent infection and benefits virus replication. In addition, many viruses are reported to commandeer ER resident chaperones to contribute to virus replication and intercellular movement. In particular, calreticulin, the ubiquitin machinery, and the 26S proteasome are most commonly identified components of the UPR and ERAD machinery that also regulate virus infection. In addition, researchers have noted a link between UPR and autophagy. It is well accepted that positive strand RNA viruses use autophagic membranes as scaffolds to support replication and assembly. However this topic has yet to be explored using plant viruses. The goal of research on this topic is to uncover how viruses interact with this ER-related machinery and to use this information for designing novel strategies to boost immune responses to virus infection. PMID:24653727

  13. Production and characterization of pyrolytic oils by pyrolysis of waste machinery oil.

    PubMed

    Sina?, Ali; Gülbay, Selen; Uskan, Burçin; Uçar, Suat; Ozgürler, Sara Bilge

    2010-01-15

    The main objective of this work is to propose an alternative method for evaluation of the waste machinery oil which is an environmental problem in Turkey. For this purpose, pyrolysis of waste machinery oil was conducted in a tubular reactor. Effect of the experimental conditions (various temperatures, catalyst type) on the formation of pyrolytic oil, gas, and char was investigated. Nickel supported on silica and zeolite (HZSM-5) were used as catalysts. Properties of the pyrolytic oils were characterized by gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MS), gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID for boiling point range distribution), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, higher heating value measurement, and elemental analysis. The behavior of the metals in the waste machinery oil and the pyrolytic oil samples was also quantitatively detected by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. As, Cd and Cr contents of the all pyrolytic oils were found as <0.05 ppm, while Cu content of the pyrolytic oils varied between 0.3 ppm and 0.61 ppm. Only Vanadium contents of the pyrolytic oils obtained at 800 degrees C (0.342 ppm) and in the presence of HZSM5 (0.57 ppm) increased compared to that obtained by waste machinery oil (0.1 ppm). Lower metal contents of the pyrolytic oils reveal that pyrolysis of the waste machinery oils leads to the formation of environmental friendly pyrolytic oils with higher heating values. PMID:19744779

  14. Stellar Evolution with Rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Meynet; A. Maeder

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Grids of models for rotating stars are constructed in the range of 9 to 120 M,at solar metallicity. The following effects of rotation are included: shellular rotation, new struc- ture equations for non?conservative case, surface distortions, increase of mass loss with rotation, meridional circulation and interaction with horizontal turbulence, shear instability and cou- pling with thermal effects, advection and

  15. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c)...

  7. Early secondary sodium drain assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    The FFTF secondary HTS loops can be drained about two years before the planned Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) is available if part of the sodium is stored in the primary sodium drain tank and the reactor overflow tank and the balance is stored in the normal secondary sodium drain tank. This report documents the results of a study to determine the technical and programmatic viability o such and early secondary sodium drain. The drain sequence that would be used is to drain secondary loops 1 and 2, sequentially to T-44 with intermediate transfers to T-42 and T-43 until sufficient capacity is available in T-44 to accommodate the sodium from loop 3. Draining the secondary sodium loops about two years earlier than now planned by utilizing installed tank storage capacity is clearly technically viable and offers significant programmatic advantages. $1,642,000 in electrical power and manpower costs can be avoided and applied to other plant shutdown activities. It is recommended that the drain sequence described herein be implemented.

  8. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-print Network

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  10. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  11. The Sodium-Restricted Diet 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    collected for possession of salt. Even the word "salary" is connected with salt. Salt remains valuable to us as a source of sodium, an essential nutrient needed by our body to function properly. The body needs sodium to form tissue - to aid a child...'s growth, to heal a wound or to develop the fetus during pregnancy. Sodium is found mostly in body fluids surrounding the cells. Its chief purpose is to regulate the amount of fluid in the body and the location of that fluid. The body stores extra...

  12. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

  13. Enhancement of signal denoising and multiple fault signatures detecting in rotating machinery using dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxue; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance the desired features related to some special type of machine fault, a technique based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated that DTCWT enjoys better shift invariance and reduced spectral aliasing than second-generation wavelet transform (SGWT) and empirical mode decomposition by means of numerical simulations. These advantages of the DTCWT arise from the relationship between the two dual-tree wavelet basis functions, instead of the matching of the used single wavelet basis function to the signal being analyzed. Since noise inevitably exists in the measured signals, an enhanced vibration signals denoising algorithm incorporating DTCWT with NeighCoeff shrinkage is also developed. Denoising results of vibration signals resulting from a crack gear indicate the proposed denoising method can effectively remove noise and retain the valuable information as much as possible compared to those DWT- and SGWT-based NeighCoeff shrinkage denoising methods. As is well known, excavation of comprehensive signatures embedded in the vibration signals is of practical importance to clearly clarify the roots of the fault, especially the combined faults. In the case of multiple features detection, diagnosis results of rolling element bearings with combined faults and an actual industrial equipment confirm that the proposed DTCWT-based method is a powerful and versatile tool and consistently outperforms SGWT and fast kurtogram, which are widely used recently. Moreover, it must be noted, the proposed method is completely suitable for on-line surveillance and diagnosis due to its good robustness and efficient algorithm.

  14. 2008/12/10 () 2:30~3:30 Misalignment Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery through Vibration Analysis via

    E-print Network

    of the misaligned shaft can be examined in the time-frequency Hilbert spectrum as well as the marginal Hilbert indicates the levels of shaft misalignment. The fault characteristic of shaft misalignment is also featured spectrum exhibits that the levels of amplitude modulation in the IMF depict the levels of shaft

  15. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action. PMID:25383034

  16. An investigation of angular stiffness and damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling in high-speed rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Walton, James F., Jr.; Lund, Jorgen W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provided an opportunity to quantify the angular stiffness and equivalent viscous damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling used in high-speed turbomachinery. A unique test methodology and data reduction procedures were developed. The bending moments and angular deflections transmitted across an axial spline coupling were measured while a nonrotating shaft was excited by an external shaker. A rotor dynamics computer program was used to simulate the test conditions and to correlate the angular stiffness and damping coefficients. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to show that the accuracy of the dynamic coefficients do not rely on the accuracy of the data reduction procedures.

  17. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Y Mulkidjanian; M. Y. Galperin; Kira S Makarova; Yuri I Wolf; Eugene V Koonin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent

  18. Formation of sporadic sodium layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Clemesha; P. P. Batista; D. M. Simonich

    1996-01-01

    A study of sporadic sodium (Ns) layers observed at So Jos6 dos Campos (23øS, 46øW) shows that during their occurrence the form of the background sodium layer is differ- ent from that which it normally takes when Ns layers are absent. During Ns events, peak so- dium in the background layer typically occurs below 90 km, whereas the peak of

  19. Mercury's sodium exosphere: new insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leblanc; R. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    We describe the formation of Mercury's sodium exosphere using a 3D Monte Carlo model in which we follow sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by photo desorption, meteoritic vaporization and solar wind sputtering. Comparisons of our results with observations (Potter A.E., Killen R.M. and Morgan T.H., Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 37, 2002) are provided. Averaging over one Mercury year, the

  20. Sodium nitroprusside treatment in erythromelalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Özsoylu; T. Coskun

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms of two children with erythromelalgia were relieved promptly by the intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside (1–5 µg\\/kg\\/min). The elevated blood pressure of one of them was also easily controlled with this drug and did not recur during the follow-up period. Taken together with our previous experience, we believe sodium nitroprusside administration to be a treatment of choice for

  1. Sodium heat engine\\/AMTEC system experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Hunt; J. V. Lasecki; R. F. Novak; J. R. McBride; J. T. Brockway

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) or Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a high efficiency device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. The SHE system operates as a thermally regenerative concentration cell using sodium as the working fluid. Its operation relies on the high sodium ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity of sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte. The SHE\\/AMTEC

  2. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shangyou Zeng; Peter Jung

    2008-01-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10\\/mum2 . The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results

  3. Solubilities and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Emanuel Manzurola

    2003-01-01

    Solubilities and vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions were determined and compared with the literature data. These results permitted the evaluation of osmotic and activity coefficients and molar enthalpies of vaporization.

  4. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention. PMID:25983308

  5. Europa's sodium atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.

    2007-08-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is exposed to intense ion and electron flux that erodes the surface, launching atoms and molecules into ballistic trajectories to form a tenuous atmosphere (e.g., Johnson et al., "Jupiter," book, 2004). One component of that atmosphere is neutral atomic sodium, which has been observed many times by Earth-based telescopes (e.g., Leblanc et al., Icarus, 2005). When the Cassini spacecraft viewed Europa during an eclipse by Jupiter its visible camera revealed spatially nonuniform emission (Porco et al., Science, 2003, Supporting Online Material). The Cassini eclipse observations were performed with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and clear filters (Porco et al., 2003). Clear filters provide sensitivity to the wavelength range 200-1050 nm, with maximum sensitivity at 611 nm (Porco et al., 2004). Within that wavelength range there are a number of lines that might contribute to the observed glow. These include the electron impact-induced excitation of Na (Kim, Phys. Rev. A, 2001), O (Fig. 4 Smyth and Marconi, Icarus, 2006), K, and SO2 (Ajello et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1992). Ions may also make a small contribution to these same processes (e.g., Allen et al., Phys. Rev. A, 1988). Of these, electron excitation of Na D line emission is likely the dominant emission in eclipse. Using an atmospheric model described by Cassidy et al. (2007), we successfully model those emissions by assuming that the Na atoms are ejected preferentially from Europa's trailing hemisphere dark terrain, which may be rich in Na-containing salt hydrates. We will discuss those results and, if available, discuss similar observations by the recent New Horizons Jupiter flyby.

  6. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  7. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME II. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYNN, FRANK

    THE APPENDIXES FOR "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, FINAL REPORT, VOLUME I" (VT 004 006) INCLUDE (1) TWO LETTERS FROM PLANT ENGINEERS STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, (2) A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAINTENANCE TRAINING SURVEY, A SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE,…

  8. An Assessment of Selected Aspects of the Pre-Employment Program in Farm Machinery Service and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Kruse, Robert F.

    In an effort to evaluate certain aspects of the pre-employment program in farm machinery service and repair, questionnaires were sent to 39 Texas teachers of the programs. Based on 30 responses (76.92%), the major conclusions were: a majority of the teachers felt they did not have adequate training in farm machinery mechanics; no uniform selection…

  9. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL. 32.56-25...56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights—T/ALL. (a...cargo pumprooms must not be pierced for windows or portlights. (b) Skylights...

  10. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL. 32.56-25...56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights—T/ALL. (a...cargo pumprooms must not be pierced for windows or portlights. (b) Skylights...

  11. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL. 32.56-25...56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights—T/ALL. (a...cargo pumprooms must not be pierced for windows or portlights. (b) Skylights...

  12. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL. 32.56-25...56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights—T/ALL. (a...cargo pumprooms must not be pierced for windows or portlights. (b) Skylights...

  13. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL. 32.56-25...56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights—T/ALL. (a...cargo pumprooms must not be pierced for windows or portlights. (b) Skylights...

  14. Automated function generation of symptom parameters and application to fault diagnosis of machinery under variable operating conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Chen; Toshio Toyota; Zhengja He

    2001-01-01

    Dimensional or nondimensional symptom parameters are usually used for condition monitoring of plant machinery. However, it is difficult to extract the most important symptom parameters and the functions of those parameters by which machinery faults can be sensitively detected and the fault types can be precisely distinguished. In order to overcome this difficulty and to ensure highly accurate fault diagnosis,

  15. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made of muscles and tendons. It helps your shoulder to move and stay stable. Problems with the rotator cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ...

  16. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Practical industrial method of increasing structural damping in machinery, I: Squeeze-film damping with air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Chow; R. J. Pinnington

    1987-01-01

    There is frequently a need to reduce sound radiation due to resonant flexural motion of stiff machinery panels. This can be achieved by applying squeeze-film damping to the vibrating panel by attaching an auxiliary plate parallel to the surface, thereby trapping a thin layer of air. Relative vibration of the plates pumps this air at high velocities, resulting in energy

  18. CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY DURING 50 YEARS OF ITS EXISTENCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvids Vilde; Dainis Viesturs; Imants Ziemelis; Ruta Balode

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery was founded in 1960 at Ulbroka as a Research Institute of Agricultural Mechanisation and Electrification. In order to hasten the introduction of scientific developments into agriculture, a department of design engineers and an experimental workshop were formed at the Institute. The main directions of its action were mechanisation of field crop growing and harvesting,

  19. Computer Information Systems Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) delivers resources that advance computing as a science

    E-print Network

    and assurance practices. The Information Systems Security Association (ISSA)®is a not-for-profit, internationalComputer Information Systems Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) delivers resources that advance computing as a science and a profession. ACM provides the computing field's premier Digital

  20. DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…