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1

Instability in Rotating Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

1985-01-01

2

SQP algorithms in balancing rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased running speeds and the requirement for rotating machinery to operate within specified levels of vibration mean that the control of machinery vibration is essential in today's industry. In this paper, the flexible rotor balancing problem based on the influence coefficient method and holospectrum technique is formulated as a minimax optimisation problem. This formulation can solve the minimax high-speed rotating

Xiufeng Wang

2007-01-01

3

SQP algorithms in balancing rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased running speeds and the requirement for rotating machinery to operate within specified levels of vibration mean that the control of machinery vibration is essential in today's industry. In this paper, the flexible rotor balancing problem based on the influence coefficient method and holospectrum technique is formulated as a minimax optimisation problem. This formulation can solve the minimax high-speed rotating machinery's balancing problem under practical balancing constraints effectively while ensuring the balancing machinery runs up safely. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is employed to solve the minimax balancing problem. An experimental and a real world balancing example are given to demonstrate the effect of this formulation. The performance of SQP is compared with that of other established approaches; some conclusions are derived.

Wang, Xiufeng

2007-04-01

4

Magnetism and stray currents in rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for elimination of stray currents and magnetism in turbomachinery is being recognized as an issue to be dealt with in industries that design and operate rotating machinery. Of main concern are bearings, seals, gears, couplings, etc. Resulting problems extend from surface damage to unit crashes. It is important to recognize the symptoms, to heed the warnings, and to

P. I. Nippes

1996-01-01

5

Precision optical angular position marker system for rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system is described which generates one or more markers of the angular shaft position of rotating machinery. The system consists of a light source, an optical cable, a machinery mounted lens assembly, a light detector, and a signal conditioner. Light reflected by targets on the rotor is converted to a digital output signal. The system is highly immune to extreme environments of vibration and temperature and achieved a 0.002 percent precision under operational test conditions.

Barranger, J. P.

1983-01-01

6

Heat and mass transfer in rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference on turbomachine aerodynamics and thermodynamics considers the subjects of rotating tubes and channels, rotating surfaces and enclosures, experimental techniques, gas and steam turbines, and rotating heat pipes and thermosiphons. Attention is given to mass force effects on heat transfer in turbine rotor blades and on the hydraulic resistance of cooling channels, experiments on friction, velocity and pressure distributions in rotating disks, the turbulent field in the blade passages of a radial compressor, wide bandwidth analog circuits for heat transfer instrumentation, steam condensate droplet evolution, and heat transfer problems in aircraft engines. Also discussed are heat transfer to turbine blading, film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer on a flat plate, the prediction of blade erosion in wet steam turbines, a regenerative thermosiphon blade cooling system for high efficiency gas turbines, and heat transfer in rotating, coaxial and parallel heat pipes.

Metzger, D. E.; Afgan, N. H.

7

Design Analysis Of Rotating Machinery Using Infrared Thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of vibratory and acoustical signals from rotating machinery has been used successfully for several decades to determine the adequacy of rotating machine design or operation. Certain vibration or acoustical signals are characteristic of machines encountering problems or near failure. Likewise the thermal signature from a rotating machine may have significant diagnostic value. Friction, damping and material deformations are typical sources of thermal energy easily detected by thermal measurements. Thermocouple thermography has been used to determine rotating machine temperatures. However, point measurements are difficult to obtain because of signal coupling problems with the rotating machine. In the past temperatures could only be obtained by stopping the machine and quickly taking temperature measurements hoping that the temperature information would not dissipate by transient affects. Infrared thermography has solved some of these problems by offering a noncontact thermal measurement along with a display of. temperature fields which facilitates the location of hot spots. Several examples of rotating machinery are reviewed such as couplings, power transmission belts, gears and rotors. The significance of the temperature distribution on the power transmission component is discussed. Infrared thermography appears to be a useful tool in diagnosing problems in rotating machinery.

Roberts, Charles C.

1983-03-01

8

Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery  

SciTech Connect

Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

1999-06-28

9

Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

1999-01-01

10

Balancing of high-speed rotating machinery using convex optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration caused by rotor mass imbalance is a major source of maintenance problems in high-speed rotating machinery. To minimize the vibration by balancing under practical constraints and data uncertainty is a decision making problem. In this paper, the flexible rotor balancing problem based on the influence coefficient method is formulated as a convex optimization problem. This formulation not only

Guoxin Li; Zongli Lin; C. Untaroiu; P. E. Allaire

2003-01-01

11

Low power magnetic bearing design for high speed rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic suspension technology has advanced to the point of being able to offer a number of advantages to a variety of applications in the rotating machinery and aerospace fields. One strong advantage is the decrease in power consumption. The design and construction of a set of permanent magnet biased, actively controlled magnetic bearing for a flexible rotor are presented. Both

P. E. Allaire; E. H. Maslen; R. R. Humphris; C. K. Sortore; P. A. Studer

1992-01-01

12

Rotating electric machinery and transformer technology  

SciTech Connect

Increasing use is now being made of solid-state motor controls. The vast majority of installed motors continue to use the traditional electromagnetic relays and contactors, but newly-designed installations are turning more and more frequently to solid-state controls. Since the use of diodes, transistors, SCRs, DIACs, and TRIACs has moved from the laboratory to the commercially recognized product, it is necessary that the emerging technician and engineer understand their applications in motor control. The major changes in this edition are devoted to solid-state control technology as applied to motors. At the same time, the new methods for efficiency determination and calibration of motors that have been presented from the first edition have found commercial recognition. The determination of armature circuit losses under dynamic conditions with what we call Forgue's method has been successfully applied to diesel electric locomotive traction motors in the 900 horsepower range. When combined with rotational loss determinations as described in this book, the operating efficiency of a motor under locomotive conditions has been measured without the need for a dynamometer installation.

Richardson, D.V.; Caisse, A.J.

1987-01-01

13

Fault Detection of Rotating Machinery using the Spectral Distribution Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral distribution function is introduced to characterize the process leading to faults in rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is illustrated with examples from seeded gearbox transmission faults and an analytical model of a defective bearing. Procedures are suggested for implementation in realistic environments.

Davis, Sanford S.

1997-01-01

14

Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

Provenza, Andy J.

2000-01-01

15

Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery  

DOEpatents

A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1994-01-01

16

Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery  

DOEpatents

A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

Post, R.F.

1994-02-15

17

Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

18

Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, an active chamber system for vibration control of rotating machinery, a computer system for multibearing rotor design, equations of motion of a flexible rotor with axially loose disc, and simulation research on the dynamic characteristics of a steam-injected gas turbine.

Kim, J.H.; Yang, W.J.

1992-01-01

19

Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

1981-01-01

20

Condition Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Support Vector Machines and Symptom Parameters in Frequency Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, many condition diagnosis methods based on the traditional artificial intelligence, such as neural networks (NN), genetic algorithms (GA), etc., have been proposed in the field of condition diagnosis for rotating machinery. These methods depend on the assumption that the number of samples tends to infinity, and also require a large amount of training samples and highly sensitive

Hongtao Xue; Peng Chen

2011-01-01

21

LMD method and multi-class RWSVM of fault diagnosis for rotating machinery using condition monitoring information.  

PubMed

Timely and accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are very important to maintain a high degree of availability, reliability and operational safety. This paper presents a novel intelligent method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) and multi-class reproducing wavelet support vector machines (RWSVM), which is applied to diagnose rotating machinery faults. First, the sensor-based vibration signals measured from the rotating machinery are preprocessed by the LMD method and product functions (PFs) are produced. Second, statistic features are extracted to acquire more fault characteristic information from the sensitive PF. Finally, these features are fed into a multi-class RWSVM to identify the rotating machinery health conditions. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed RWSVM method in identifying rotating machinery fault patterns accurately and effectively and its superiority over that based on the general SVM. PMID:23881133

Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie

2013-01-01

22

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery with a novel statistical feature extraction and evaluation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is receiving more and more attentions. Vibration signals of rotating machinery are commonly analyzed to extract features of faults, and the features are identified with classifiers, e.g. artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs). Due to nonlinear behaviors and unknown noises in machinery, the extracted features are varying from sample to sample, which may result in false classifications. It is also difficult to analytically ensure the accuracy of fault diagnosis. In this paper, a feature extraction and evaluation method is proposed for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Based on the central limit theory, an extraction procedure is given to obtain the statistical features with the help of existing signal processing tools. The obtained statistical features approximately obey normal distributions. They can significantly improve the performance of fault classification, and it is verified by taking ANN and SVM classifiers as examples. Then the statistical features are evaluated with a decoupling technique and compared with thresholds to make the decision on fault classification. The proposed evaluation method only requires simple algebraic computation, and the accuracy of fault classification can be analytically guaranteed in terms of the so-called false classification rate (FCR). An experiment is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, where the unbalanced fault of rotor, inner race fault, outer race fault and ball fault of bearings are considered.

Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhencai; Jiang, Fan; Zhou, Gongbo; Chen, Guoan

2015-01-01

23

Rotating machinery - Transport phenomena; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed in these proceedings include turbine cooling heat transfer, rotating surfaces, curved ducts and rotating channels, flow in pumps, analytical and numerical methods, design and design methods, and multiphase flow and cavitation. Papers are presented on transient heat analysis of stator in air-cooled turbine generators, numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling, film condensation on a rotating cone, flows of a gas in an abruptly rotating cylinder, developing turbulent flow in a curved duct with strong secondary motion, effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-deg bends, and examination of inlet surging in centrifugal pumps. Particular attention is given to the prediction of viscous flows in rotating machinery using Navier-Stokes techniques, two-dimensional transonic flow around VKI turbine cascade, the dynamic transfer matrix of a pump and its use in pumping system design, a fast CAE/CAD procedure for the optimum design of arbitrary impellers, particle dynamics and erosion in radial turbine guide vanes, sustained oscillations of pumped two-phase flow in a closed loop, and rotor/stator flow coupling in turbomachines.

Kim, J. H.; Yang, W.-J.

24

Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery Based on an Adaptive Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition  

PubMed Central

The vibration based signal processing technique is one of the principal tools for diagnosing faults of rotating machinery. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as a time-frequency analysis technique, has been widely used to process vibration signals of rotating machinery. But it has the shortcoming of mode mixing in decomposing signals. To overcome this shortcoming, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed accordingly. EEMD is able to reduce the mode mixing to some extent. The performance of EEMD, however, depends on the parameters adopted in the EEMD algorithms. In most of the studies on EEMD, the parameters were selected artificially and subjectively. To solve the problem, a new adaptive ensemble empirical mode decomposition method is proposed in this paper. In the method, the sifting number is adaptively selected, and the amplitude of the added noise changes with the signal frequency components during the decomposition process. The simulation, the experimental and the application results demonstrate that the adaptive EEMD provides the improved results compared with the original EEMD in diagnosing rotating machinery. PMID:24351666

Lei, Yaguo; Li, Naipeng; Lin, Jing; Wang, Sizhe

2013-01-01

25

7th IFToMM-Conference on Rotor Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, 25-28 September 2006 Mechatronics in Rotating Machinery  

E-print Network

1 7th IFToMM-Conference on Rotor Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, 25-28 September 2006 Mechatronics has already been made in rotating machinery. Automatic balancer, for example, is a typical to excite the rotors for parameter identification, to control the motion of the rotating shaft

Kim, Yong Jung

26

Early warning of developing problems in rotating Machinery as provided by monitoring shaft Voltages and grounding currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique and independent unit condition monitoring technology for rotating machinery, called Shaft Condition Monitoring (SCM) provides early warning of developing problems by monitoring and analyzing shaft voltage and grounding current profiles. The process begins with capturing and trending of critical information inherent in raw signals derived from reliable shaft-riding brushes. Through analysis of this critical information, problems in rotating

Paul I. Nippes

2004-01-01

27

Adaptive multiwavelets via two-scale similarity transforms for rotating machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is very important and critical to avoid serious accidents. However, the complex and non-stationary vibration signals with a large amount of noise make the fault detection to be challenging, especially at the early stage. Based on the inner product principle, fault detection using wavelet transforms is to match fault features most correlative to basis functions, and its effectiveness is determined by the construction and choice of wavelet basis function. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive multiwavelets via two-scale similarity transforms (TSTs) is proposed. Multiwavelets can offer multiple wavelet basis functions and so have the possibility of matching various fault features preferably. TSTs are simple and straightforward methods to design a series of new biorthogonal multiwavelets with some desirable properties. Using TSTs, a changeable and adaptive multiwavelet library is established so as to provide various ascendant multiple basis functions for inner product operation. By the rule of kurtosis maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets most similar to the fault features of a given signal are searched for. The applications to a rolling bearing of outer-race fault and a flue gas turbine unit of rub-impact fault show that the proposed method is an effective approach to detecting the impulse feature components hidden in vibration signals and performs well for rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

Yuan, Jing; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang; Lei, Yaguo; Li, Zhen

2009-07-01

28

Intelligent Method for Diagnosing Structural Faults of Rotating Machinery Using Ant Colony Optimization  

PubMed Central

Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called “relative ratio symptom parameters” are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks. PMID:22163833

Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

2011-01-01

29

Feature extraction using adaptive multiwavelets and synthetic detection index for rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State identification to diagnose the condition of rotating machinery is often converted to a classification problem of values of non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs). To improve the sensitivity of the NSPs to the changes in machine condition, a novel feature extraction method based on adaptive multiwavelets and the synthetic detection index (SDI) is proposed in this paper. Based on the SDI maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets are searched by genetic algorithms (GAs) from an adaptive multiwavelets library and used for extracting fault features from vibration signals. By the optimal multiwavelets, more sensitive NSPs can be extracted. To examine the effectiveness of the optimal multiwavelets, conventional methods are used for comparison study. The obtained NSPs are fed into K-means classifier to diagnose rotor faults. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the sensitivity of the NSPs and achieve a higher discrimination rate for rotor fault diagnosis than the conventional methods.

Lu, Na; Xiao, Zhihuai; Malik, O. P.

2015-02-01

30

International Journal of Rotating Machinery 2005:3, 179189 c 2005 J.-J. Sinou et al.  

E-print Network

International Journal of Rotating Machinery 2005:3, 179­189 c 2005 J.-J. Sinou et al. Experimental.thouverez@ec-lyon.fr Received 30 August 2005 The main goal of this paper is to study, numerically and experimentally critical speeds. The test rig which is used in this study has been developed and built at the ´Ecole

Boyer, Edmond

31

Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery using an intelligent order tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on the development of an intelligent diagnostic system for rotating machinery. The system is composed of a signal processing module and a state inference module. In the signal processing module, the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm and the Kalman filter are exploited to extract the order amplitudes of vibration signals, followed by fault classification using the fuzzy state inference module. The RLS algorithm and Kalman filter provide advantages in order tracking over conventional Fourier-based techniques in that they are insensitive to smearing problems arising from closely spaced orders or crossing orders. On the basis of thus obtained order features, the potential fault types are then deduced with the aid of a state inference engine. Human diagnostic rules are fuzzified for various common faults, including the single fault and double fault situations. This system is implemented on the platform of a floating point digital signal processor, where a photo switch and an accelerometer supply the shaft speed and acceleration signals, respectively. Experiments were carried out for a rotor kit and a practical four-cylinder engine to show the effectiveness of the proposed system in tracking the rotating order with precise inference.

Bai, Mingsian; Huang, Jiamin; Hong, Minghong; Su, Fucheng

2005-02-01

32

Fault Features of Large Rotating Machinery and Diagnosis Using Sensor Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large rotating machinery such as turbines and compressors are the key equipment in oil refineries, power plants, and chemical engineering plants. To minimize the economic loss incurred because of the defects of malfunctions of these machines, diagnosis is very important. Currently, diagnosis is carried out mainly using spectral analysis. In spite of being effective in detecting the faults (monitoring), spectral analysis is often ineffective in pin-pointing what the fault is (diagnosis). This is due to the fact that it cannot clarify the spatial and temporal features in the sensor signals that are correlated to different types of faults. In this paper, phase spectra, holospectra, purified orbit diagrams, and filtered orbit diagrams are used in searching for fault features. From the data obtained from more than 50 practical machines, distinct fault features and diagnostic induces are found for 11 different types of faults including unbalance, cracks, misalignment, rub, loose bearing caps, oil whirl, surge, fluid excitation, rotating stall, electric power supply fluctuation, and pipe excitation. Accordingly, a diagnostic procedure is proposed.

Chen, Y. D.; Du, R.; Qu, L. S.

1995-11-01

33

An approach to performance assessment and fault diagnosis for rotating machinery equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predict and prevent maintenance is routinely carried out. However, how to address the problem of performance assessment maximizing the use of available monitoring data, and how to build a framework that integrates performance assessment, fault detection, and diagnosis are still a significant challenge. For this purpose, this article introduces an approach to performance assessment and fault diagnosis for rotating machinery, including wavelet packet decomposition for extracting energy feature samples from vibration signals acquired during normal and faulty conditions; clustering analysis for demonstrating the separability of the samples; and Fisher discriminant analysis for providing an optimal lower-dimensional representation, in terms of maximizing the separability among different populations, by projecting the samples into a new space. In the new low-dimensional space, the Mahalanobis distance (MD) between the new measurement data and normal population can be calculated for performance assessment. Moreover, this model for performance assessment only requires data to be available in normal conditions and any one of all possible fault conditions, without the necessity for the full life cycle of condition monitoring data. In addition, if monitoring data under different fault conditions are available, the fault mode can be identified accurately by comparing the MDs between the new measurement data and each fault population. Finally, the proposed method was verified to be successful on performance assessment and fault diagnosis via a hydraulic pump test and a ball bearing test.

Tao, Xiaochuang; Lu, Chen; Lu, Chuan; Wang, Zili

2013-12-01

34

Compound faults detection of rotating machinery using improved adaptive redundant lifting multiwavelet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the character of diversity and complexity, the compound faults detection of rotating machinery under non-stationary operation turns into a challenging task. Multiwavelet with two or more base functions and many excellent properties provides a possibility to detect and extract all the features of compound faults at one time. However, the fixed basis functions independent of the vibration signal may decrease the accuracy of fault detection. Moreover, the decomposition result of discrete multiwavelet transform does not possess time invariance, which is harmful to extract the feature of periodical impulses. To overcome these deficiencies, based on the Hermite splines interpolation, taking the minimum envelope spectrum entropy as the optimization objective, adaptive redundant lifting multiwavelet is developed. Additionally, in order to eliminate error propagation of decomposition results, adaptive redundant lifting multiwavelet is improved by adding the normalization factors. As an effective method, Hilbert transform demodulation analysis is used to extract the fault feature from the high frequency modulation signal. The proposed method incorporating improved adaptive redundant lifting multiwavelet (IARLM) with Hilbert transform demodulation analysis is applied to compound faults detection for the simulation experiment, rolling element bearing test bench and traveling unit of electric locomotive. Compared with some other fault detection methods, the results show the superior effectiveness and reliability on the compound faults detection.

Chen, Jinglong; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Yuan, Jing

2013-07-01

35

Exchanged ridge demodulation of time-scale manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration or acoustic signal from rotating machinery with localized fault usually behaves as the form of amplitude modulation (AM) and/or frequency modulation (FM). The demodulation techniques are conventional ways to reveal the fault characteristics from the analyzed signals. One of these techniques is the time-scale manifold (TSM) ridge demodulation method with the merits of good time-frequency localization and in-band noise suppression properties. However, due to the essential attribute of wavelet ridge, the survived in-band noise on the achieved TSM will still disturb the envelope extraction of fault-induced impulses. This paper presents an improved TSM ridge demodulation method, called exchanged ridge demodulation of TSM, by combining the benefits of the first two TSMs: the noise suppression of the first TSM and the noise separation of the second TSM. Specifically, the ridge on the second TSM can capture the fault-induced impulses precisely while avoiding the in-band noise smartly. By putting this ridge on the first TSM, the corresponding instantaneous amplitude (IA) waveform can represent the real envelope of pure faulty impulses. Moreover, an adaptive selection method for Morlet wavelet parameters is also proposed based on the smoothness index (SI) in the time-scale domain for an optimal time-scale representation of analyzed signal. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by means of a simulation study and applications to diagnosis of bearing defects and gear fault.

Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo

2014-05-01

36

Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent for the diagnosis of rotor-to-stator rub in rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration based diagnosis has played a vital role in the crucial analysis of faults in rotating machinery. The conventional vibration techniques currently being used in the industry are however not able to effectively identify nonlinear or complex signals due to, for example, rotor-to-stator rub. This paper reports on the application of the largest Lyapunov Exponent ?1 to diagnose the severity of rotor-to-stator rub in rotating machinery. The method of time delay was employed to reconstruct the vibration signal obtained from numerical simulation of a Jeffcott rotor subjected to rotor-to-stator rub. Numerical results show clear correlation between the increase of rub severity with the invariant quantity ?1 investigated in this work. Two different algorithms for the computation of ?1 were employed in this research, namely the Wolf algorithm and the Rosenstein algorithm.

ChangJie, Colin Heng; Inayat-Hussain, Jawaid I.

2014-10-01

37

Rotating machinery dynamics simulation. I. Rigid systems with ball bearing nonlinearities and outer ring ovality under rotating unbalance excitation  

PubMed

The radial clearance in rolling bearing systems, required to compensate for dimensional changes associated with thermal expansion of the various parts during operation, may cause dimensional attrition and comprise bearing life, if unloaded operation occurs and balls skid [D. Childs and D. Moyer, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 107, 152-159 (1985)]. Also, it can cause jumps in the response to unbalance excitation. These undesirable effects may be eliminated by introducing two or more loops into one of the bearing races so that at least two points of the ring circumference provide a positive zero clearance [D. Childs, Handbook of Rotordynamics, edited by F. Ehrich (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1992)]. The deviation of the outer ring with two loops, known as ovality, is one of the bearing distributed defects. Although this class of imperfections has received much work, none of the available studies has simulated the effect of the outer ring ovality on the dynamic behavior of rotating machinery under rotating unbalance with consideration of ball bearing nonlinearities, shaft elasticity, and speed of rotation. To fill this gap, the equations of motion of a rotor-ball bearing system are formulated using finite-elements (FE) discretization and Lagrange's equations. The analyses are specialized to a rigid-rotor system, by retaining the rigid body modes only in the FE solution. Samples of the results are presented in both time domain and frequency domain for a system with and without outer ring ovality. It is found that with ideal bearings (no ovality), the vibration spectrum is qualitatively and quantitatively the same in both the horizontal and vertical directions. When the ring ovality is introduced, however, the spectrum in both orthogonal planes is no longer similar. And magnitude of the bearing load has increased in the form of repeated random impacts, between balls and rings, in the horizontal direction (direction of maximum clearance) compared to a continuous contact along the vertical direction (direction of positive zero clearance). This underlines the importance of the vibration measuring probe's direction, with respect to the outer ring axes, to capture impact-induced vibrations. Moreover, when the harmonic excitation is increased for a system with ideal bearings, the spectral peaks above forcing frequency have shifted to a higher-frequency region, indicating some sort of a hard spring mechanism inherent in the system. Another observation, is that for the same external excitation, vibration amplitude at forcing frequency in the bearing force spectrum is the same for systems with or without outer ring ovality. PMID:10687695

el-Saeidy

2000-02-01

38

Rotating machinery - Dynamics; Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 1-4, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics addressed include rotordynamic software, blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor, flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal, an analytical investigation of a cryogenic journal bearing, vibration protection of aeration turbine gear motor, a simple procedure for assessing rotor stability, and stability of rotating cylindrical shells including nonlinear stiffening. Attention is also given to aeroelastic analysis of

J. H. Kim; W.-J. Yang

1992-01-01

39

AEROVISC - A Navier-Stokes code for the broad flow regime range involved in liquid propulsion rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3D Navier-Stokes solver is being developed specifically for applications involving rotating machinery in liquid propulsion systems. Accuracy, robustness, and efficiency have been emphasized so that a useful, cost effective design tool will be available to the turbomachinery fluid dynamic designers, who must solve problems covering an extremely wide rage of flow regimes. This paper covers the early phase of anon going program, specifically the discretization methods, the algebraic solver methods and the validation test cases for the currently implemented 2D code called AEROVISC. The extension to 3D with more advanced solution procedures and turbulence models is just underway. The authors feel this AEROVISC code represents the current state-of-the-art in production environment type codes in terms of accuracy, robustness, and efficiency.

Zuercher, J. William; Raw, Michael J.; Hutchinson, Brad R.

1987-06-01

40

ISROMAC-11 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery,  

E-print Network

Kavurmacioglu 2 and Cengiz Camci 3 Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory The Pennsylvania State Shedding from a Radar Antenna used for Airport Ground Traffic Control Baris Gumusel 1 , Levent-speed ground tracking radars rotating at about 60 rpm are being implemented as modern air traffic control

Camci, Cengiz

41

ISROMAC-11 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery,  

E-print Network

2 and Cengiz Camci 3 Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University Design of a Radar Antenna Used for Airport Ground Traffic Control Baris Gumusel 1 , Levent Kavurmacioglu traffic control systems in airports use high-speed ground tracking radars usually rotating at 60 rpm

Camci, Cengiz

42

Some in-field experiences of non-synchronous vibrations in large rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some problems associated with non-synchronous vibrations are analyzed by describing three cases experienced with fairly large rotating machines in operating conditions. In each case, a brief description is first given of the machine and of the instrumentation used. The experimental results are then presented, with reference to time or frequency domain recordings. The lines followed in diagnosis are then discussed and, lastly, the corrective action undertaken is presented.

Colnago, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Claudio; Vallini, Andrea; Zanetta, Gian Antonio

1989-01-01

43

A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery.  

PubMed

This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control. PMID:24517806

Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

2014-01-01

44

Rotor Blade Pressure Measurement in a Rotating Machinery Using Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure and temperature sensitive paints have been utilized for the measurement of blade surface pressure and temperature distributions in a high speed axial compressor and an Allied Signal F109 gas turbine engine. Alternate blades were painted with temperature sensitive paints and then pressure sensitive paint. This combination allows temperature distributions to be accounted for when determining the blade suction surface pressure distribution. Measurements were taken and pressure maps on the suction surface of a blade were obtained over a range of rotational speeds. Pressure maps of the suction surface show-strong shock waves at the higher speeds.

Torgerson, S.; Liu, T.; Sullivan, J.

1998-01-01

45

Numerical modeling of multidimensional flow in seals and bearings used in rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotordynamic behavior of turbomachinery is critically dependent on fluid dynamic rotor forces developed by various types of seals and bearings. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations often depends on the rotor speed and load. Misalignment and rotor wobbling motion associated with differential clearance were often attributed to stability problems. In general, the rotative character of the flowfield is a complex three dimensional system with secondary flow patterns that significantly alter the average fluid circumferential velocity. A multidimensional, nonorthogonal, body-fitted-grid fluid flow model is presented that describes the fluid dynamic forces and the secondary flow pattern development in seals and bearings. Several numerical experiments were carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of this complex flowfield. Analyses were performed by solving a conservation form of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations transformed to those for a rotating observer and using the general-purpose computer code PHOENICS with the assumptions that the rotor orbit is circular and that static eccentricity is zero. These assumptions have enabled a precise steady-state analysis to be used. Fluid injection from ports near the seal or bearing center increased fluid-film direct dynamic stiffness and, in some cases, significantly increased quadrature dynamic stiffness. Injection angle and velocity could be used for active rotordynamic control; for example, injection, when compared with no injection, increased direct dynamic stiffness, which is an important factor for hydrostatic bearings.

Hendricks, R. C.; Tam, L. T.; Przekwas, A.; Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.

46

Development of a generic rotating machinery fault diagnosis approach insensitive to machine speed and support type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous difficulties that can be encountered when using trend monitoring of harmonic components from the simple amplitude spectra to aid diagnosis of rotor related faults on large multi-stage multi-bearing rotating machines, the technique continues to be the mainstay in industry. This is due in part to factors including a lack of adequate experimental validation of newly proposed techniques aimed at improving or replacing this traditional practice. Nevertheless, in recent studies, simple but robust Individual Speed Individual Foundation (ISIF) and Multi-Speed Individual Foundation (MSIF) fault diagnosis (FD) methods that both used a single vibration sensor per bearing without the use of phase information was applied with good results to fixed and variable speed machines respectively. A similar Individual Speed Multi-Foundation (ISMF) technique later enabled FD by direct comparison of vibration data between similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at the same steady-state speed. However, the efficacy of these techniques was questioned as they were all applied to experimental rigs with the same few rotor related faults. Thus, the objective of this study is to test the transferability of these said techniques on a wider range of rotor related faults on different machines. A new Multi-Speed Multi-Foundation (MSMF) method which facilitates FD by the direct comparison of vibration data from similarly configured machines with different dynamic characteristics operating at different steady-state speeds is also proposed. It is observed that the previously proposed methods are indeed able to separate the range of conditions tested on machines with different dynamic characteristics. Analysis done with newly proposed MSMF approach gives improved isolation of fault conditions tested compared to the previously proposed techniques.

Nembhard, Adrian D.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Yunusa-Kaltungo, A.

2015-02-01

47

Hydrogen Bonding in Sodium Alanate: A Muon Spin Rotation Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have detected the occurrence of hydrogen bonding involving an interstitial positive muon situated between hydrogen atoms of two independent alanate anions in sodium alanate (NaAlH4). Ti doping, which is known to dramatically improve the hydrogen cycling performance of NaAlH4, reduces the kinetic barrier of the transition of the muon from the muon-dialanate state to a mobile interstitial state. This observation strongly suggests that hydrogen bonding is the primary bottleneck for hydrogen release or uptake in sodium alanate, which might be common to other complex hydrides.

Kadono, R.; Shimomura, K.; Satoh, K. H.; Takeshita, S.; Koda, A.; Nishiyama, K.; Akiba, E.; Ayabe, R. M.; Kuba, M.; Jensen, C. M.

2008-01-01

48

Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel fault diagnosis system for rotating machinery using thermal imaging is proposed. This system consists of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) for image enhancement, a generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) for feature reduction, and a relevance vector machine (RVM) for fault classification. Firstly, the thermal image obtained from machine conditions is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using BEMD. At each decomposed level, the IMF is expanded and fused with the residue by gray-scale transformation and principal component analysis fusion technique, respectively. The enhanced image is then formed by the improved IMFs in reconstruction process. Subsequently, feature extraction is applied for the enhanced images to obtain histogram features which characterize the thermal image and contain useful information for diagnosis. The high dimensionality of the achieved feature set can be reduced by GDA implementation. Moreover, GDA also assists in the increase of the feature cluster separation. Finally, the diagnostic results are performed by RVM. The proposed system is applied and validated with the thermal images of a fault simulator. A comparative study of the classification results obtained from RVM, support vector machines, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is also performed to appraise the accuracy of these models. The results show that the proposed diagnosis system is capable of improving the classification accuracy and efficiently assisting in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

Tran, Van Tung; Yang, Bo-Suk; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

2013-07-01

49

A Study of the Cause of Failure of Rotationally Molded, High-Density Polyethylene, Sodium Hypochlorite Storage Tanks.  

E-print Network

??The topic of chemical oxidative degradation in rotational molded polyethylene (high-density cross-linked) chemical (sodium hypochlorite) storage tanks is an industry problem that ranks at the… (more)

Abell, Dixon Harold

2011-01-01

50

Output-only cyclo-stationary linear-parameter time-varying stochastic subspace identification method for rotating machinery and spinning structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economical maintenance and operation are critical issues for rotating machinery and spinning structures containing blade elements, especially large slender dynamic beams (e.g., wind turbines). Structural health monitoring systems represent promising instruments to assure reliability and good performance from the dynamics of the mechanical systems. However, such devices have not been completely perfected for spinning structures. These sensing technologies are typically informed by both mechanistic models coupled with data-driven identification techniques in the time and/or frequency domain. Frequency response functions are popular but are difficult to realize autonomously for structures of higher order, especially when overlapping frequency content is present. Instead, time-domain techniques have shown to possess powerful advantages from a practical point of view (i.e. low-order computational effort suitable for real-time or embedded algorithms) and also are more suitable to differentiate closely-related modes. Customarily, time-varying effects are often neglected or dismissed to simplify this analysis, but such cannot be the case for sinusoidally loaded structures containing spinning multi-bodies. A more complex scenario is constituted when dealing with both periodic mechanisms responsible for the vibration shaft of the rotor-blade system and the interaction of the supporting substructure. Transformations of the cyclic effects on the vibrational data can be applied to isolate inertial quantities that are different from rotation-generated forces that are typically non-stationary in nature. After applying these transformations, structural identification can be carried out by stationary techniques via data-correlated eigensystem realizations. In this paper, an exploration of a periodic stationary or cyclo-stationary subspace identification technique is presented here for spinning multi-blade systems by means of a modified Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) via stochastic subspace identification (SSI) and linear parameter time-varying (LPTV) techniques. Structural response is assumed to be stationary ambient excitation produced by a Gaussian (white) noise within the operative range bandwidth of the machinery or structure in study. ERA-OKID analysis is driven by correlation-function matrices from the stationary ambient response aiming to reduce noise effects. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and eigenvalue analysis are computed in a last stage to identify frequencies and complex-valued mode shapes. Proposed assumptions are carefully weighted to account for the uncertainty of the environment. A numerical example is carried out based a spinning finite element (SFE) model, and verified using ANSYS® Ver. 12. Finally, comments and observations are provided on how this subspace realization technique can be extended to the problem of modal-parameter identification using only ambient vibration data.

Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

2015-02-01

51

Control of hysteretic instability in rotating machinery by elastic suspension systems subject to dry and viscous friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the undesired whirling motions of rotating machines can be efficiently reduced by supporting journal boxes elastically and controlling their movement by viscous dampers or by dry friction surfaces normal to the shaft axis, which rub against the frame. In the case of dry dampers, resonance ranges of the floating support configuration can be easily cut off by planning a motionless adhesive state of the friction surfaces. On the contrary, the dry friction contact must change automatically into sliding conditions when the fixed support resonances are to be feared. Moreover, the whirl amplitude can be restrained throughout the speed range by a proper choice of the suspension-to-shaft stiffness ratio and of the support-to-rotor mass ratio. This theoretical research deals firstly with the natural precession speeds and looks for Campbell plots in dependence on the shaft angular speed, for several rotor-suspension systems. Then, the steady response to unbalance is investigated, in terms of rotor and support orbits and of conical path of the rotor axis. In this search, the ranges of adhesive or sliding contact are identified in particular for system with dry friction damping. At last, the destabilizing influence of the shaft hysteresis in the supercritical regime is focalized and the counterbalancing effect of the other dissipative sources is verified. In the nonlinear case of dry friction dampers, the control of linear stability is fulfilled by a perturbation procedure, checking the magnitude of Floquet characteristic multipliers on the complex plane. Moreover, the nonlinear stability far from steady motion is tested by the direct numerical solution of the full motion equations. The comparison configuration of suspension systems with viscous dampers and no dry friction is examined through an analytical first approximation approach and closed-form results for stability thresholds are derived in particular for the symmetric case.

Sorge, Francesco; Cammalleri, Marco

2010-05-01

52

Effect of subacromial sodium hyaluronate injection on rotator cuff disease: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Rotator cuff disease is a common cause of shoulder pain. There are studies about the effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate injection on shoulder and knee pain, but few studies demonstrating the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate ultrasonography guided injection for rotator cuff disease. This study evaluates effectiveness of ultrasonography guided subacromial sodium hyaluronate injection in patients with impingment syndrome without rotator cuff complete tear. Materials and Methods: This prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial study was performed among 40 patients with subacromial impingement syndrome without complete tear of rotator cuff. Patients randomly injected ultrasonography guided in 2 groups: Case group by 20 mg of sodium hyaluronate (Fermathron™) and control group by 0.9% normal saline. Both groups received 3 weekly injections. The pain score (100 mm visual analogue score [VAS]) was evaluated before first injection and one week after each injection. The constant score was evaluated before first and 12 week after last injection. Data was analyzed statistically by Independent t-test. Results: In both groups mean VAS has decreased, but more significantly in case group (P < 0.001). Mean constant score was significantly higher in case group 12 weeks after last injection (P < 0.001). The constant score improved 12 weeks after the last injection in both groups with a significantly better result in case group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate are effective in treating rotator cuff disease without complete tears. PMID:24524035

Moghtaderi, Alireza; Sajadiyeh, Sepideh; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz; Bateni, Vahid

2013-01-01

53

[Sodium-enhanced limestone wet FGD in rotating-stream tray scrubber].  

PubMed

Adding sodium sulfate to limestone slurry can increase SO2 removal efficiency. In this paper, sodium-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization(FGD) tests were conducted in rotating-stream tray scrubber. Changes of SO2 removal efficiency and pH value with time were experimentally studied and, at different pH range, the dissolution rates of limestone etc. were analyzed. The effects of plate number on SO2 removal efficiency and pressure drop were investigated at temperature approximated to industrial operating value. The average plate efficiencies were calculated. According to the experimental results, increasing plate number could increase SO2 removal efficiency, but the average plate efficiency decreased. Under the experimental conditions, when the plate number was increased from 1 to 4, the removal efficiency was increased from 25.5% to 48.6% at the liquid-to-gas ratio of 4 L/m3, but the average plate efficiency was decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. The equation of the relation between the average plate efficiency and plate number was obtained. PMID:12533938

Sun, Wenshou; Wu, Zhongbiao; Li, Yue; Tan, Tianen

2002-09-01

54

Rotational diffusion of bovine serum albumin denaturated by sodium dodecylsulfate, According to data from tryptophan fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational diffusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules in solutions with different concentrations of the anionic detergent sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH values is investigated, yielding information on the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS. It is found from the increased degree of polarization in the tryptophan fluorescence of BSA and the registered parameters for the rotational diffusion of BSA molecules that the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS at pH values less than the isoelectric point (pI) of BSA (4-9) is a two-stage process. It is shown that the first stage of BSA denaturation common for all pH values is the decondensation of BSA globules, while the second stage of BSA denaturation at pH greater than the pI of BSA is the unfolding of the protein's amino acid chain. It is concluded that the denaturation of BSA under the action of SDS proceeds more deeply at pH values greater than the pI of BSA.

Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.

2014-03-01

55

Incentives for Machinery Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machinery investment directly effects agricultural production efficiency and profitability. Machinery investment decisions are a function of tax policy, financial, and structural characteristics. This study uses a double hurdle model to determine the factors that affect the decision to purchase machinery as well as the intensity of the machinery purchase. Results indicate that depreciation expense, type of farm, experience, and tax

Joleen C. Hadrich; Ryan A. Larsen; Frayne E. Olson

2012-01-01

56

An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i) accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii) the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii) when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels. PMID:25372618

Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor

2014-01-01

57

Balancing of high-speed machinery: Theory, methods and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating machinery accounts for the vast majority of modern technological hardware. While the dynamic behavior of such machinery has always been important, the current emphasis on higher efficiency has resulted in the design of machines which are increasingly susceptible to vibratory phenomena. In particular, reduction in weight, coupled with increased operating speeds, have substantially increased the flexibility of rotating machinery.

Mark S. Darlow

1987-01-01

58

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

59

Rotational Symmetry Breaking in the Ground State of Sodium-Doped Cuprate Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an extended t-J model to study a single hole bound to a Na+ acceptor in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. For parameters suitable to cuprates, the ground state has a twofold degeneracy, corresponding to even (odd) reflection symmetry around the x (y) axes. The conductance pattern of the broken symmetry state is anisotropic as the tip of a tunneling microscope scans above the Cu-O-Cu bonds along the x (y) axes. This anisotropy is pronounced at lower voltages but reduced at higher voltages. Our theory agrees qualitatively with recent data of scanning tunneling microscopy showing broken local rotational symmetry.

Chen, Yan; Rice, T. M.; Zhang, F. C.

2006-12-01

60

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

61

Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

62

Machinery vibration: Origins, impressions and cures  

SciTech Connect

The current trend toward high performance (speed, power, flow, etc.) and low eight are causing new machinery dynamics problems. Vibration diagnostics engineering of rotor-bearing-casing systems must consider both internal and external influences to effectively predict and diagnose these problems. It is assumed that machinery vibration data are free from ambiguity, error, conform to a standard and clearly identify the physical cause(s) responsible for vibration. Rotor vibration due to internal forces are described: unbalance force characteristics; response characteristics; and rules of rotor fundamental response. Rotor vibration due to external forces include: rotating aerodynamic stall; oil whirl; oil whip; structural resonance; vane/blade passing vibration; misalignment; rotor rubbing; gear mesh vibrations; and shaft crack. These are also discussed.

Haq, I. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

1995-01-01

63

Multirobot inspection of industrial machinery  

E-print Network

Inspection of aircraft and power generation machinery using a swarm of miniature robots is a promising application both from an intellectual and a commercial perspective. Our research is motivated by a case study concerned ...

Correll, Nikolaus

64

The machinery of macroautophagy  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a primarily degradative pathway that takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is used for recycling cytoplasm to generate macromolecular building blocks and energy under stress conditions, to remove superfluous and damaged organelles to adapt to changing nutrient conditions and to maintain cellular homeostasis. In addition, autophagy plays a critical role in cytoprotection by preventing the accumulation of toxic proteins and through its action in various aspects of immunity including the elimination of invasive microbes and its participation in antigen presentation. The most prevalent form of autophagy is macroautophagy, and during this process, the cell forms a double-membrane sequestering compartment termed the phagophore, which matures into an autophagosome. Following delivery to the vacuole or lysosome, the cargo is degraded and the resulting macromolecules are released back into the cytosol for reuse. The past two decades have resulted in a tremendous increase with regard to the molecular studies of autophagy being carried out in yeast and other eukaryotes. Part of the surge in interest in this topic is due to the connection of autophagy with a wide range of human pathophysiologies including cancer, myopathies, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. However, there are still many aspects of autophagy that remain unclear, including the process of phagophore formation, the regulatory mechanisms that control its induction and the function of most of the autophagy-related proteins. In this review, we focus on macroautophagy, briefly describing the discovery of this process in mammalian cells, discussing the current views concerning the donor membrane that forms the phagophore, and characterizing the autophagy machinery including the available structural information. PMID:24366339

Feng, Yuchen; He, Ding; Yao, Zhiyuan; Klionsky, Daniel J

2014-01-01

65

Machinery Safety on the Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Machinery Safety on the Farm is an online publication designed for Virginia Tech students and instructors that provides an overview of various aspects of maintaining safety in a farm setting. The document highlights common hazards in machinery, complete with diagrams and descriptions for each type; then delves into the various precautions necessary to avoid accidents involving the aforementioned problem areas. The article is available as the html page, or as an optional pdf at the bottom of the page.

Grisso, Robert

66

Workability and Machinery Sizing for Combine Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting costs make up 30% of overall in-field machinery costs. In addition to this, indirect machinery costs may be incurred through timeliness effects, i.e., reduction in crop yield and quality caused by inefficient scheduling of machinery operations. Optimal work organization and machinery utilization are essential elements in achieving cost reductions, requiring detailed quantifications of harvesting workability and machine performance. This

C. G. Sørensen

2003-01-01

67

Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

68

Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ?? dynamo experiment.  

PubMed

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium ??-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number R(m) ~ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the ??-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade. PMID:24182136

Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

2013-10-01

69

Integrins anchor the invasive machinery.  

PubMed

Cell invasion through the basement membrane, a process important for both development and disease pathogenesis, depends on an interplay of adhesive, force transducing, proteolytic, and chemotactic machineries. The mechanisms whereby these different processes are integrated on the cellular level have remained elusive. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Sherwood and coworkers now identify integrins as integration platforms for a specialized invasive membrane domain in C. elegans. PMID:19686676

Wickström, Sara A; Fässler, Reinhard

2009-08-01

70

Leasing vs. Buying Farm Machinery  

E-print Network

Leasing vs. Buying Farm Machinery Risk Management E-571 RM5-4.0 06-09 *Professor and Extension Economist?Management and Extension Program Specialist III? Economic Accoutability, The Texas A&M System. Equipment leasing has gained favor... with farmers and ranchers in recent years. Leasing often can be advantageous, but one must under- stand how leases work and how to compare the costs of leasing and buying. When equipment is purchased, the buyer owns 100 percent of the property and has com...

Klinefelter, Danny A.; McCorkle, Dean

2009-06-01

71

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

1995-01-01

72

LOW BACK PAIN IN PORT MACHINERY OPERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift

M. Bovenzi; I. Pinto; N. Stacchini

2002-01-01

73

Machinery dynamics activities in Canadian industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from a survey of Canadian industries to determine their activities related to machinery dynamics. Responses were obtained from industries in the categories of electric utilities, consultants, petrochemicals, research laboratories, aircraft related, and machinery manufacturers. The permanent manpower allocated for tasks such as monitoring machinery vibration, balancing, fault diagnosis, or rotor dynamic analysis has increased significantly in the past five years. A list of individuals who can be contacted to exchange information is included. The use of various instruments is also documented. Small computers and microprocessor based instruments are widely used to record and process vibration data. A wide variety of standards and guides are used for allowable vibration severity and residual imbalance. Some data were obtained for typical normal, alarm, and shutdown vibration values for twenty categories of equipment. The median cost of setting up a vibration program was generally one percent of the total cost of plant and machinery. Fifteen research projects in machinery dynamics are tabulated.

Rogers, Robert J.; Kim, Paul Y.

1992-05-01

74

46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop...

2011-10-01

75

46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop...

2013-10-01

76

46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45 Shipping COAST...General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to...

2011-10-01

77

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2011-10-01

78

46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop...

2012-10-01

79

46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

2013-10-01

80

46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

2012-10-01

81

46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

2011-10-01

82

46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

2010-10-01

83

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2010-10-01

84

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2012-10-01

85

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2013-10-01

86

Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

Stempfhuber, Werner

2008-09-01

87

A novel procedure for diagnosing multiple faults in rotating machinery.  

PubMed

In analyzing signals from a wind turbine gearbox this paper suggests a new signal processing procedure named as CMF-EEMD method which is formed by applying conventional EEMD to a new type of combined mode function (CMF). This CMF consists of a low frequency CMF, denoted as CL, and a high frequency CMF, denoted as Ch. Then it optimizes the amplitude of the added noise in decomposing Ch and CL using EEMD. Finally, it calculates cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) for every characteristic IMF from EEMD. The proposed procedure is applied to analyze the multi-faults of a wind turbine gearbox and the results confirm better performances in resolving different signal components by the proposed method than that from the cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) of a direct EEMD analysis. PMID:25440946

Wang, Zhijian; Han, Zhennan; Gu, Fengshou; Gu, James Xi; Ning, Shaohui

2014-11-11

88

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

89

ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

90

Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle.  

PubMed

Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+) in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF(4) mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+), the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole. PMID:23220680

Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

2013-02-01

91

Sodium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium levels? 1. What is the recommended dietary salt intake? The Food and Nutrition Board recommends a ... of sodium are often processed food to which salt is added during preparation, such as cheeses, soups, ...

92

The Machinery of Mitochondrial Inheritance and Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division is an essential feature of cell proliferation. Until recently, it was commonly believed that inheritance of mitochondria and other organelles was a passive process, a consequence of their random diffusion throughout the cytoplasm. A growing recognition of the reticular morphology of mitochondria in many living cells, the association of mitochondria with the cytoskeleton, and the coordinated movements of mitochondria during cellular division and differentiation has illuminated the necessity for a cellular machinery that mediates mitochondrial behavior. Characterization of the underlying molecular components of this machinery is providing insight into mechanisms regulating mitochondrial morphology and distribution.

Michael Yaffe (University of California;Department of Biology)

1999-03-05

93

Noise Control in Tubular Wire Stranding Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is an investigation of noise control options in tubular wire stranding operations. A primary target noise level of 90 dBA, and a secondary target noise level of 85 dBA are identified, based on government regulations, current Worker's Compensation trends, and labor union activities. An examination of rope mills and the sound fields around stranding machinery demonstrates that several

James Frederick Yerges

1980-01-01

94

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--POWER. TEACHERS COPY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OCCUPATIONS IN A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS, TRIED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A TEACHER.…

HILL, DURWIN; VENABLE, BENNY MAC

95

The Protein Import Machinery of Mitochondria*  

E-print Network

The Protein Import Machinery of Mitochondria* Published, JBC Papers in Press, February 18, 2004 proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and then synthesized as precursors on cytosolic ribosomes after which (translocases) for recognition, translocation, and membrane insertion of pre- cursor proteins. In recent years

Economou, Tassos

96

UNSTEADY FLOW SIMULATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of hydraulic machinery Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is routinely used today in research and development as well as in the daily design phase. Today in industry mostly steady state simulations are applied. In this paper, however, an overview over un- steady simulations are shown for different applications. The presented examples contain problems with self excited unsteadiness, vortex

Albert Ruprecht

97

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

2012-10-01

98

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

2010-10-01

99

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

2014-10-01

100

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

2013-10-01

101

46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigeration,...

2011-10-01

102

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2012-10-01

103

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2011-10-01

104

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2013-10-01

105

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks, louvers, etc., to provide sufficient air for proper operation of the propulsion and auxiliary...

2014-10-01

106

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section...RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2011-10-01

107

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section...PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2014-10-01

108

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section...RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2014-10-01

109

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section...RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2010-10-01

110

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section...PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2010-10-01

111

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section...RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2012-10-01

112

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2012-10-01

113

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section...RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2013-10-01

114

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section...PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2012-10-01

115

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2013-10-01

116

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2014-10-01

117

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section...PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2011-10-01

118

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2010-10-01

119

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section...PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2013-10-01

120

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event...

2011-10-01

121

46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY...

2011-10-01

122

44. Looking south towards Sullivan Machinery Company complex from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Looking south towards Sullivan Machinery Company complex from the north side of the Sugar River. The footbridge was built in 1920. - Sullivan Machinery Company, Main Street between Pearl & Water Streets, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

123

46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...control that is outside of the space containing the pump or...

2014-10-01

124

46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...control that is outside of the space containing the pump or...

2011-10-01

125

46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...control that is outside of the space containing the pump or...

2012-10-01

126

46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...control that is outside of the space containing the pump or...

2013-10-01

127

46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...control that is outside of the space containing the pump or...

2010-10-01

128

55. Reduction drive gears in south machinery room (interior of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. Reduction drive gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing west. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

129

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section...Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer...charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

2010-10-01

130

Usage of Tractors and Field Machinery in Agriculture in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy inputs of tractors and field machinery to promote mechanization in the Sultanate of Oman started in the mid-1970s. The provision of tractors and associated machinery has been reviewed, the current state of power and machinery usage has been determined and the future needs of tractors have been assessed. Results obtained showed that between 1976 and 2002 the Government of

D. B. Ampratwum; A. S. S. Dorvlo; L. U. Opara

131

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section...Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer...charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

2013-10-01

132

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section...Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer...charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

2012-10-01

133

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section...Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer...charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

2011-10-01

134

The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla; Scripps Research Institute REV)

2009-08-25

135

Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse health effects on the lower back.

BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

2002-05-01

136

Involvement of Nav 1.8 sodium ion channels in the transduction of mechanical pain in a rodent model of osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction A subgroup of voltage gated sodium channels including Nav1.8 are exclusively expressed on small diameter primary afferent neurons and are therefore believed to be integral to the neurotransmission of nociceptive pain. The present study examined whether local application of A-803467, a selective blocker of the Nav 1.8 sodium channel, can reduce nociceptive transmission from the joint in a rodent model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods OA-like changes were induced in male Wistar rats by an intra-articular injection of 3 mg sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA). Joint nociception was measured at day 14 by recording electrophysiologically from knee joint primary afferents in response to non-noxious and noxious rotation of the joint both before and following close intra-arterial injection of A-803467. The effect of Nav1.8 blockade on joint pain perception and secondary allodynia were determined in MIA treated animals by hindlimb incapacitance and von Frey hair algesiometry respectively. Results A-803467 significantly reduced the firing rate of joint afferents during noxious rotation of the joint but had no effect during non-noxious rotation. In the pain studies, peripheral injection of A-803467 into OA knees attenuated hindlimb incapacitance and secondary allodynia. Conclusions These studies show for the first time that the Nav1.8 sodium channel is part of the molecular machinery involved in mechanotransduction of joint pain. Targeting the Nav1.8 sodium channel on joint nociceptors could therefore be useful for the treatment of OA pain, avoiding the unwanted side effects of non-selective nerve blocks. PMID:22225591

2012-01-01

137

Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

2015-11-01

138

Secretion machinery at the cell plasma membrane  

PubMed Central

Summary Secretion is a fundamental cellular process involving the regulated release of intracellular products from cells. Physiological functions such as neurotransmission, or the release of hormones and digestive enzymes, are all governed by cell secretion. Three critical activities occur at the cell plasma membrane to ensure secretion. Membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock, fuse, and expel their contents to the outside via specialized and permanent plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of these three key cellular activities required for cell secretion. The molecular machinery and mechanism involving them is summarized in this article. PMID:17764925

Jena, Bhanu P.

2007-01-01

139

Sodium Bicarbonate  

MedlinePLUS

... is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate ... doctor immediately: severe headache nausea vomit that resembles coffee grounds loss of appetite irritability weakness frequent urge ...

140

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six – Surprising Foods that Add the ...

141

Application of advanced materials to rotating machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

Triner, J. E.

1983-01-01

142

Fiber bragg grating based rotating speed measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating speed is one of the most important control parameters of rotating machinery. To solve the electromagnetic interference and installation problems of existing speed sensors, a fiber bragg grating(FBG) strain sensing mechanism was applied in speed measurement. The relationship of strain and speed was derived. A FBG-based speed measurement system was established and its feasibility was verified by the testing

Li Wei; Zude Zhou; Yuegang Tan; Lei Yuan; Tingting Hu

2011-01-01

143

Accessorizing the human mitochondrial transcription machinery  

PubMed Central

The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M and TFAM, to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. PMID:23632312

Bestwick, Megan L.; Shadel, Gerald S.

2013-01-01

144

Consider synthetic lubricants for process machinery  

SciTech Connect

Judicious application of properly formulated synthetic lubricants can benefit a wide spectrum of process machinery. This informed usage is very likely to drive down overall maintenance and downtime expenditures and can markedly improve plant efficiency. The paper describes the origin of synthetic lubricants, then explains the principal features and attributes of the six base fluids: synthetic hydrocarbon fluids; organic esters; polyglycols; phosphate esters; silicones; and blends of the synthetic lubricants. The paper discusses the properties and advantages and gives brief highlights of successful case histories of the use of synthetic lubricants. These include: circulating oil system for furnace air preheaters; Right angle gear drives for fin fan coolers; plant-wide oil mist systems; and pulverizing mills in coal-fired generating plant. In the last case, an economic analysis is done to point out the savings possible in lubricant consumption cost, reduced maintenance cost, lubricant disposal cost, and reduction in power consumption.

Bloch, H.P. (Bloch, (Heinz P.), Montgomery, TX (United States)); Pate, A.R. Jr. (Summit Industrial Products, Tyler, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

145

Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

146

4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

147

The adoption of new technology in the American machinery industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rees J., Briggs R. and Oakey R. (1984) The adoption of new technology in the American machinery industry, Reg. Studies18, 489–504. This study examines the spread of a number of key production technologies among machinery manufacturers across the United States. Based on a mail and interview survey of over 600 industrial plants across the country, it was found that adoption

John Rees; Ronald Briggs; Raymond Oakey

1984-01-01

148

Machinery Management. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is intended to provide a basic understanding of selecting, maintaining, and managing farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: dealing with typical problems in farm machinery management; measuring machine capacity; improving field efficiency; matching machine size and capacity; estimating power…

Bowers, Wendell

149

Kansei engineering research on the design of construction machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kansei engineering was used to research the relationship between design elements and Kansei sensibility values in the design of earth moving machinery. The research led to several findings concerning construction machinery design that take into account the effect of such human sensibilities as the motivation to operate or acquire, or factors of psychological comfort such as familiarity, attractiveness and comfort.

Kuniaki Nakada

1997-01-01

150

Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.

Fistedis, S. H.

1967-01-01

151

Electromechanical simulation and test of rotating systems with magnetic bearing or piezoelectric actuator active vibration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper contains a summary of the experience of the authors in the field of electromechanical modeling for rotating machinery - active vibration control. Piezoelectric and magnetic bearing actuator based control are discussed.

Palazzolo, Alan B.; Tang, Punan; Kim, Chaesil; Manchala, Daniel; Barrett, Tim; Kascak, Albert F.; Brown, Gerald; Montague, Gerald; Dirusso, Eliseo; Klusman, Steve

1994-01-01

152

46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural insulation within category A machinery spaces...

2014-10-01

153

46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural insulation within category A machinery spaces...

2010-10-01

154

46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural insulation within category A machinery spaces...

2013-10-01

155

46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural insulation within category A machinery spaces...

2011-10-01

156

46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32...56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural insulation within category A machinery spaces...

2012-10-01

157

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2010-10-01

158

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2010-10-01

159

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2010-10-01

160

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2010-10-01

161

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2014-10-01

162

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2011-10-01

163

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

164

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2012-10-01

165

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

166

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2012-10-01

167

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2011-10-01

168

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2013-10-01

169

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2011-10-01

170

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2014-10-01

171

46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 91.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2014-10-01

172

46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. 167.15-25 Section...15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery. Except as otherwise...regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the...

2014-10-01

173

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2012-10-01

174

46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 189.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2013-10-01

175

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2011-10-01

176

46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. 71.15-1 Section...15-1 Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the...

2012-10-01

177

Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

2000-01-01

178

Runway Rotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use small paper airplanes to model rotations required to turn onto a runway. Students will rotate planes 45, 90, 180, 270, and 360 degrees. Students will identify and describe the results of rotations using benchmark angles.

2012-11-16

179

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

180

46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery....

2014-10-01

181

46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...103-3 Section 111.103-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space...

2010-10-01

182

5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING TEST MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND AND CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING TEST MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND AND CONTROL ROOM IN BACKGROUND. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 20, Propeller Laboratory, Northwest corner of Seventh & E Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

183

46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equivalent covers, permanently attached in their proper positions. (b) Coamings of any fiddley, funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure deck shall be as high above the deck as is reasonable and...

2010-10-01

184

46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equivalent covers, permanently attached in their proper positions. (b) Coamings of any fiddley, funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure deck shall be as high above the deck as is reasonable and...

2013-10-01

185

46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equivalent covers, permanently attached in their proper positions. (b) Coamings of any fiddley, funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure deck shall be as high above the deck as is reasonable and...

2011-10-01

186

46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equivalent covers, permanently attached in their proper positions. (b) Coamings of any fiddley, funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure deck shall be as high above the deck as is reasonable and...

2012-10-01

187

29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having...1910.6. This requirement shall not apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs,...

2012-07-01

188

29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having...1910.6. This requirement shall not apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs,...

2013-07-01

189

29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having...1910.6. This requirement shall not apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs,...

2014-07-01

190

29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having...1910.6. This requirement shall not apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs,...

2010-07-01

191

29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, having...1910.6. This requirement shall not apply to natural sandstone wheels or metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs,...

2011-07-01

192

46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of...machinery arrangement including air intakes, exhaust stack, method...of spark arresting mufflers and capacity of ventilation blowers must be submitted to the...

2010-10-01

193

Machinery sharing by agribusiness firms: methodology, application, and simulation  

E-print Network

is conducted by considering farm locations in diverse geographic 5 locations. Various combinations of farms located in Texas, Colorado, and Montana are simulated. The two-farm simulation model is used to evaluate machinery sharing as a method...

Wolfley, Jared Lynn

2009-05-15

194

51. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST: Winding machinery to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST: Winding machinery to right, and belt-driven machine tools to left. Museum mezzanine in upper portion of photo. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

195

14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

196

46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. Lambert Hoisting Engine Company Winder Powered by A Gray Marine Diesel. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

197

7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

198

Nucleolar Assembly of the Rrna Processing Machinery in Living Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how nuclear machineries are targeted to accurate locations during nuclear assembly, we investigated the pathway of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing machinery towards ribosomal genes (nucleolar organizer regions (NORs)) at exit of mitosis. To follow in living cells two permanently transfected green fluorescence protein-tagged nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin and Nop52, from metaphase to G1, 4-D time- lapse microscopy was

Tulia Maria Savino; J. Gebrane-Younes; Jan De Mey; Jean-Baptiste Sibarita; Danièle Hernandez-Verdun

2001-01-01

199

Nuclear import of the influenza A virus transcriptional machinery.  

PubMed

Unusually for an RNA virus, influenza A viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected cells. As a result the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs), and their newly synthesised protein subunits, must interact with the host nuclear import machinery. In this review we discuss how the virus exploits nuclear import pathways to allow regulated and chaperoned assembly of RNPs in the nucleus, and describe how the import machinery itself can be a determinant of host tropism. PMID:22652398

Hutchinson, E C; Fodor, E

2012-12-01

200

8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

201

Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction  

PubMed Central

Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se0), but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys) biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5?mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ?50% while 0.001 to 0.01?mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ?30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF) whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ?2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S) metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ?2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process. PMID:24839442

Tetteh, Antonia Y.; Sun, Katherine H.; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Ibeanu, Gordon C.

2014-01-01

202

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2010-10-01

203

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2011-10-01

204

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2013-10-01

205

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2014-10-01

206

46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section...Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary machinery, and piping...

2012-10-01

207

Sodium and Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

... the Nutrition Facts label. Use the percent Daily Value (% DV) to help limit your sodium intake—5% ... Food Amount Range of Sodium Content (mg)% Daily Value (% DV) * for Sodium Breads, all types 1 oz ...

208

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FARM MACHINERY STATISTICAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The farm machinery statistics is an important task of the farm machinery management, the statistics of farm machinery in Jiangsu\\u000a Province are very wide. Improving the working of statistical analyses by advanced computer technology, enhancing the efficiency,\\u000a is a topic which the farm machinery superintendent and the scientific and technical worker explore continuously. The present\\u000a situation of the farm machinery

Xindan Qi; Hua Li; Wenqing Yin

2009-01-01

209

Structural analyses of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA splicing is a critical event in the gene expression pathway of all eukaryotes. The splicing reaction is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a huge protein-RNA complex that contains five snRNAs and hundreds of different protein factors. Understanding the structure of this large molecular machinery is critical for understanding its function. Although the highly dynamic nature of the spliceosome, in both composition and conformation, posed daunting challenges to structural studies, there has been significant recent progress on structural analyses of the splicing machinery, using electron microscopy, crystallography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. This review discusses key recent findings in the structural analyses of the spliceosome and its components and how these findings advance our understanding of the function of the splicing machinery. PMID:23592432

Zhang, Lingdi; Li, Xueni; Zhao, Rui

2013-01-01

210

Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

2010-12-01

211

Conserved machinery of the bacterial flagellar motor.  

PubMed Central

Novel periplasmic and cytoplasmic structural modules of the bases of bacterial flagella have been observed in situ and isolated using new biochemical protocols. Flagellar rotation may depend upon interactions of these modules with the intramembrane particle rings, a ubiquitous feature of flagellar bases necessary for torque generation. The outer membrane-associated basal disk of the Wolinella succinogenes polar flagellum has architecture well suited for interaction with the ring particles. However, antibody against the main W. succinogenes basal disk protein did not cross-react with flagella-enriched fractions from Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus firmus; nor have such structures been observed in these species thus far. Antibodies against two S. typhimurium proteins, FliG and FliM, known to be involved in motor function and part of the cytoplasmic module in this species cross-reacted with flagella-enriched fractions from both W. succinogenes and B. firmus. In addition, flagellar cytoplasmic structure could be isolated from B. firmus. The basal disk may anchor the flagellar motor to the cell wall in some polar bacteria, but this does not seem to be a unique strategy. In contrast, the data indicate that the cytoplasmic module is conserved. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:7787061

Stahlberg, A; Schuster, S C; Bauer, M; Baeuerlein, E; Zhao, R; Reese, T S; Khan, S

1995-01-01

212

39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 photograph of the steam engines and winding machinery at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. View towards west. United Railroads of San Francisco rebuilt the damaged engines and winders shown in CA-12-60 and CA-12-61. There are no cables strung over the winders in this photograph, indicating that the firm had yet to resume service. Note the rough shed erected over the engines to protect them from weather while work continued on the reconstruction of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

213

Estimating Vibrational Powers Of Parts In Fluid Machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In new method of estimating vibrational power associated with component of fluid-machinery system, physics of flow through (or in vicinity of) component regarded as governing vibrations. Devised to generate scaling estimates for design of new parts of rocket engines (e.g., pumps, combustors, nozzles) but applicable to terrestrial pumps, turbines, and other machinery in which turbulent flows and vibrations caused by such flows are significant. Validity of method depends on assumption that fluid flows quasi-steadily and that flow gives rise to uncorrelated acoustic powers in different parts of pump.

Harvey, S. A.; Kwok, L. C.

1995-01-01

214

Using nonlinear springs to reduce the whirling of a rotating shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrations in rotating machinery cause many problems such as fatigue of the rotating components, excessive noise, or transmission of vibration to the supporting structure. A major source of this vibration is out-of-balance forces and this paper proposes that the rotor response is reduced by suspending the machine on nonlinear springs. In the field of vibration isolation, nonlinear mounts have been

A. Carrella; M. I. Friswell; A. Zotov; D. J. Ewins; A. Tichonov

2009-01-01

215

Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in the car industry for quite some time, dynamic simulation of complete vehicles is being practiced more and more in the development of off-road machinery. However, specific questions arise due not only to company structure and size, but especially to the type of product. Tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system's

Reno Filla; Jan-Ove Palmberg

2003-01-01

216

7. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing machinery, exterior windows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing machinery, exterior windows and double doors, enclosed hinged double doors; northeast corner of building; view to southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Transmitter Standby Building, 200 yards east of County Road, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

217

35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY BASCULE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY - BASCULE LEAF RAISED - LARGE GEAR AT LEFT CENTER IS 'D' - REFER TO STRAUSS SHEETS #15 AND #18 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

218

30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED POSITION - DRIVE GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE VERNACULAR WEIGHT SUSPENDED ON COUNTERWEIGHT AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH TO COMPENSATE FOR AN UNDERWEIGHT COUNTERWEIGHT - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

219

TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

220

COURSE OUTLINE FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE 16-MODULE COURSE OUTLINED IN THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE FORMER FARMERS, HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES, AND UNEMPLOYED, AND EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL ENTRY AS AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SETUP MEN, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, MECHANICS, PARTS MEN, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

221

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

222

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Machinery Service Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Illinois skill standards for agriculture machinery service technician are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

223

COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE BY A.M.TURING  

E-print Network

COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE BY A.M.TURING 1 The Imitation Game I PROPOSE to consider of the problem can be described' in terms of a game which we call the 'imitation game'. It is played with three and answers. Thus: Q: Please write me a sonnet on the subject of the Forth Bridge. A: Count me out on this one

Cockshott, W. Paul

224

46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permanently attached. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft...

2010-10-01

225

46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...permanently attached. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft...

2011-10-01

226

46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...permanently attached. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft...

2013-10-01

227

46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...permanently attached. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship must— (1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft...

2012-10-01

228

Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) firststage gearbox, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of machinery house showing (L to R) first-stage gearbox, hoist drum, and second-stage bull gear. The electric motor, which has been removed, turned the gearbox flange. Lifting wire ropes have been cut and left slack. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

229

Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery house and hydro-electric power house, concrete pylon at upstream entrance to lock in foreground, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

230

Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, SF 109, and timber guide wall on left, exterior view of closed lower lock gates and hydro-electric power house and dam in background, view towards west - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

231

[Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].  

PubMed

The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

2006-01-01

232

Planning and production indicators facing seasonal agricultura machinery market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to compare the profile of the domestic market demand for agricultural machinery, and production indicators and planning of the mechanical industry. The data on sales, this market over the past eleven years, which showed the seasonal pattern characterized by a decline in demand from November and a recovery that begins in late February. The search about quantitative

E. E. Frey; P. H. Braz; M. E. Camargo; M. R. Cruz; A. Galelli; S. L. Russo; G. F. Silva

2012-01-01

233

26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

234

23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

235

6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN RIGHT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE LEFT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

236

7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN LEFT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE RIGHT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

237

1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

238

The Machinery of Management: Leadership (MM2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on leadership--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

239

ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

240

Sonic interaction with a virtual orchestra of factory machinery Figure 1: The virtual orchestra of factory machinery.  

E-print Network

Sonic interaction with a virtual orchestra of factory machinery Figure 1: The virtual orchestra system with head tracking, shutter glasses and a 10.2 loudspeaker configuration. Keywords: Sound using a video projection system combining thirteen 3D HD Barco projectors. The tracking system

Boyer, Edmond

241

46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620 Section 116.620 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank...

2010-10-01

242

46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28...Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service...

2010-10-01

243

49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Securement of heavy vehicles, equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels. (1) In addition to the requirements...paragraph (b) of this section, heavy equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels must be restrained against movement in...

2010-10-01

244

49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Securement of heavy vehicles, equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels. (1) In addition to the requirements...paragraph (b) of this section, heavy equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels must be restrained against movement in...

2011-10-01

245

46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177...GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In...

2010-10-01

246

46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section...28.840 Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically...fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote...

2014-10-01

247

46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177...GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In...

2013-10-01

248

46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section...28.840 Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically...fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote...

2012-10-01

249

46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177...GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In...

2011-10-01

250

46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177...GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In...

2012-10-01

251

The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

252

46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section...28.840 Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically...fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote...

2011-10-01

253

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Small Arms Ammunition PRECIOUS METALS & JEWELRY Costume Jewelry...Lapidary Work Jewelry, Precious Metal Musical Instruments Silverware...General Industrial Machinery Heavy Construction Equipment Rental...Power Transmission Equipment Metal Working Machinery...

2012-07-01

254

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Small Arms Ammunition PRECIOUS METALS & JEWELRY Costume Jewelry...Lapidary Work Jewelry, Precious Metal Musical Instruments Silverware...General Industrial Machinery Heavy Construction Equipment Rental...Power Transmission Equipment Metal Working Machinery...

2013-07-01

255

46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for,...

2011-10-01

256

46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for,...

2010-10-01

257

46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for,...

2014-10-01

258

46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for,...

2013-10-01

259

46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline...Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for,...

2012-10-01

260

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2010-10-01

261

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2010-10-01

262

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2010-10-01

263

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2010-10-01

264

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2012-10-01

265

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2014-10-01

266

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2013-10-01

267

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2011-10-01

268

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2014-10-01

269

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2014-10-01

270

46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section...Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

2011-10-01

271

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2012-10-01

272

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2014-10-01

273

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2011-10-01

274

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2013-10-01

275

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2013-10-01

276

46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section...Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2011-10-01

277

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2013-10-01

278

46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60...Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall...engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school...

2012-10-01

279

46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section...Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty...chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

2012-10-01

280

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

281

Diclofenac sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

282

Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic actuator was designed and is described herein. This actuator consists of: a pump, which generates the nominal pressure, a hydraulic servovalve, and a thin elastic plate, which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass, which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests this actuator generated 182.3 N force at a frequency of 100 Hz. and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 [times] 10[sup [minus] 5] m.

Rashidi, M. (Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)); Dirusso, E. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-04-01

283

Diagnostics of subsynchronous vibrations in rotating machinery - methodologies to identify potential instability  

E-print Network

of this thesis is to explore means of diagnosing whether subsynchronous vibrations are benign or have the potential to become unstable. Several methods will be detailed to draw lines of demarcation between the two. Considerable focus of the research has been...

Kar, Rahul

2005-11-01

284

Modeling and simulation methods for MDOF structures and rotating machinery with impact dampers  

SciTech Connect

Previously published work on applied impact damping typically relates to SDOF models or simple MDOF models such as the classical cantilever beam. Structural models often require an extremely large number of DOF with mode shapes that are generally very complex. Dynamics simulation of these typically becomes both complicated and time consuming. The nonlinear behavior of impact dampers further complicates such simulation in that standard linear solutions are not possible. The primary objective in this research extends previous work by applying impact dampers to MDOF structures that are modeled with general three-dimensional beam finite elements. Modal-based models of the MDOF systems and efficient impact damper tracking algorithms were also developed that significantly reduced CPU time for simulation. Significant among the objectives was obtaining an impact damper design for the MDOF casing structure of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), High-Pressure Oxygen Turbo-Pump (HPOTP), subject to pump rotor shaft unbalance. Impact damper performance is based on suppression of vibration at casing critical frequencies for rotor speed ranges, at rotor full speed, and very high unbalance to simulate a defect such as losing an impeller blade fragment or a cracked bearing. Simulations show significant reductions in vibration at the casing critical frequencies and very high unbalance levels while little or no improvement was observed off resonance. Additionally, the previous work with an experimental rotor bearing system (RBS) and impact damper was modeled using the developed modal-based methods. Simulation of the resulting model response shows remarkable agreement with the experimental. Finally, both the RBS and the HPOTP were modeled and simulated as unstable systems with attached impact dampers. The simulations predict that the impact damper is an excellent stabilizing mechanism for a range of instability driver values.

McElhaney, J.M.; Palazzolo, A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kascak, A. [Army, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-04-01

285

The present status and development of acoustic emission technique in diagnosis of rotating machinery faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, AE source, propagation characteristic, AE parameters, the noise and the advantages of acoustic emission method for the diagnosis are expounded. The last ten years research conclusions of many important experiments and the signal processing methods which were used for the diagnosis of rolling equipment faults are summarized. The results come from UK, USA and China, etc. The

Yang Yu; Ping Yang

2011-01-01

286

Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

1991-01-01

287

Wide band fiber Bragg grating accelerometer for rotating AC machinery condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometers for wide band vibration monitoring in a wound rotor induction generator. The sensor performance is assessed in a series of experiments on a laboratory test rig comprising a 30kW induction machine operating under steady state and variable speed regimes. Vibration measurements are investigated in the frequency domain for generator fault specific electromagnetically induced vibration components. The fiber optic sensor effectiveness in detection of wide band spectral effects (<1kHz) in the vibration signal is compared with that of a commercial piezoelectric based solution. The potential and limitations of the prototype wide band FBG accelerometer are evaluated for use in vibration monitoring applications.

Vilchis-Rodriguez, Damian S.; Djurovic, Sinisa; Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.; Scepanovic, S.; Tshiloz, Kavul; Smith, Alexander C.

2014-09-01

288

Spooky sodium balance.  

PubMed

Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (? monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage. PMID:24107854

Titze, Jens; Dahlmann, Anke; Lerchl, Kathrin; Kopp, Christoph; Rakova, Natalia; Schröder, Agnes; Luft, Friedrich C

2014-04-01

289

Case Analysis of Farm Agriculture Machinery Informatization Management Network System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the process of China’s agricultural modernization, especially agricultural machinery modernization, in terms of equipment,\\u000a we’ve chose the way that foreign imports (and domestic research) with the combination of self-developed, in the software,\\u000a it is difficult to fully apply this approach, the specific reasons are: the modernization of China’s agriculture development\\u000a model is diversified, it is difficult to find a

Hui Yang; Xi Wang; Weidong Zhuang

2009-01-01

290

The Reuse Study of Small Agricultural Machinery's Product Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that more than 90% of industrial design activity is based on variant design. How to use the product information\\u000a model of similar products and to improve design efficiency and the designer’s creativity is a subject that is worth studying.\\u000a This paper has set up the structure frame of small agricultural machinery product information model, and uses ontology

Xuejun Sun; Jiandong Jiang; Fang Xu; Libin Zhang

2006-01-01

291

Activation of Lymphocyte Cytolytic Machinery: Where are We?  

PubMed Central

Target cell recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes implies the simultaneous engagement and clustering of adhesion and activating receptors followed by the activation of an array of signal transduction pathways. The cytotoxic immune synapse represents the highly specialized dynamic interface formed between the cytolytic effector and its target that allows temporal and spatial integration of signals responsible for a defined sequence of processes culminating with the polarized secretion of lytic granules. Over the last decades, much attention has been given to the molecular signals coupling receptor ligation to the activation of cytolytic machinery. Moreover, in the last 10?years the discovery of genetic defects affecting cytotoxic responses greatly boosted our knowledge on the molecular effectors involved in the regulation of discrete phases of cytotoxic process at post-receptor levels. More recently, the use of super resolution and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging technologies added new insights on the dynamic reorganization of receptor and signaling molecules at lytic synapse as well as on the relationship between granule dynamics and cytoskeleton remodeling. To date we have a solid knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing granule movement and secretion, being not yet fully unraveled the machinery that couples early receptor signaling to the late stage of synapse remodeling and granule dynamics. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms acting in the activation of cytolytic machinery, also discussing similarities and differences between Natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. PMID:24312097

Galandrini, Ricciarda; Capuano, Cristina; Santoni, Angela

2013-01-01

292

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

293

Characterization of the Late Endosomal ESCRT Machinery in Trypanosoma brucei  

PubMed Central

The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologues of the ESCRT machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in ?3-fold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Traffic 2008, 9:1698). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in T. brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes. PMID:23905922

Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

2013-01-01

294

Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Brazil). Oil and gas field machinery, November 1990. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian market for oil and gasfield machinery reached approximately $938 million in 1989, of which about $86 million were supplied by imports. The market may reach $2.6 billion by 1993, if indeed the Government of Brazil approves an annual investment plan of $3.5 billion, as proposed by PETROBRAS, the state owned and operated oil and gas production monopoly. According to reports by the Ministry of Economy, investments by PETROBRAS rose from .37% of GDP in 1989 to .41% in 1990. It is predicted that during the next five years its investments will average .56% of GDP. Currently, PETROBRAS imports only about 10% of its equipment needs, but this is expected to more than double by 1993 as a result of a recently adopted procurement policy which calls for purchasing the best available equipment worldwide, at the most favorable price.

Not Available

1990-11-01

295

Virus-Mediated Compartmentalization of the Host Translational Machinery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Viruses require the host translational apparatus to synthesize viral proteins. Host stress response mechanisms that suppress translation, therefore, represent a significant obstacle that viruses must overcome. Here, we report a strategy whereby the mammalian orthoreoviruses compartmentalize the translational machinery within virus-induced inclusions known as viral factories (VF). VF are the sites of reovirus replication and assembly but were thought not to contain ribosomes. It was assumed viral mRNAs exited the VF to undergo translation by the cellular machinery, and proteins reentered the factory to participate in assembly. Here, we used ribopuromycylation to visualize active translation in infected cells. These studies revealed that active translation occurs within VF and that ribosomal subunits and proteins required for translation initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling localize to the factory. Interestingly, we observed components of the 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) concentrating primarily at factory margins, suggesting a spatial and/or dynamic organization of translation within the VF. Similarly, the viral single-stranded RNA binding protein ?NS localized to the factory margins and had a tubulovesicular staining pattern that extended a short distance from the margins of the factories and colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. Consistent with these colocalization studies, ?NS was found to associate with both eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3A) and the ribosomal subunit pS6R. Together, these findings indicate that ?NS functions to recruit 43S PIC machinery to the primary site of viral translation within the viral factory. Pathogen-mediated compartmentalization of the translational apparatus provides a novel mechanism by which viruses might avoid host translational suppression. PMID:25227463

Desmet, Emily A.; Anguish, Lynne J.

2014-01-01

296

Characterization of the late endosomal ESCRT machinery in Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed

The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologs of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in approximately threefold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Leung et al., Traffic 2008;9:1698-1716). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in Trypanosoma brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes. PMID:23905922

Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

2013-10-01

297

Optical control and diagnostics sensors for gas turbine machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a vast range of optical techniques that have been under development for solving complex measurement problems related to gas-turbine machinery and phenomena. For instance, several optical techniques are ideally suited for studying fundamental combustion phenomena in laboratory environments. Yet other techniques hold significant promise for use as either on-line gas turbine control sensors, or as health monitoring diagnostics sensors. In this paper, we briefly summarize these and discuss, in more detail, some of the latter class of techniques, including phosphor thermometry, hyperspectral imaging and low coherence interferometry, which are particularly suited for control and diagnostics sensing on hot section components with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

Trolinger, James D.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Heeg, Bauke

2012-10-01

298

16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS WITH WOOD-BURNING HEATING STOVE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. BESIDE THE HEATING STOVE, POINTING TOWARD THE PUNCH PRESS, IS A JIG USED TO POSITION ANGLE STEEL COMPONENTS OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER LEGS FOR PUNCHING BOLT HOLES. THE SUPPORT FOR THE BRICK FLUE OF THE HEATING STOVE IS CONSTRUCTED FROM SALVAGED GALVANIZED ANGLE STEEL OF THE TYPE USED IN FABRICATING WINDMILL TOWERS MANUFACTURED IN THE FACTORY. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

299

The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs' mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

Villicaña, Claudia; Cruz, Grisel; Zurita, Mario

2014-01-01

300

RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons  

PubMed Central

RNAi is a conserved mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide the degradation of cognate RNAs, but also promote heterochromatin assembly at repetitive DNA elements such as centromeric repeats1,2. However, the full extent of RNAi functions and its endogenous targets have not been explored. Here we show that in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, RNAi and heterochromatin factors cooperate to silence diverse loci, including sexual differentiation genes, genes encoding transmembrane proteins, and retrotransposons that are also targeted by the exosome RNA degradation machinery. In the absence of the exosome, transcripts are processed preferentially by the RNAi machinery, revealing siRNA clusters and corresponding increase in heterochromatin modifications across large domains containing genes and retrotransposons. We show that the generation of siRNAs and heterochromatin assembly by RNAi is triggered by a mechanism involving the canonical poly(A) polymerase Pla1 and an associated RNA surveillance factor Red1, which also activate the exosome. Remarkably, siRNA production and heterochromatin modifications at these target loci are regulated by environmental growth conditions, and by developmental signals that induce gene expression during sexual differentiation. Our analyses uncover interplay between RNAi and the exosome that is conserved in higher eukaryotes, and show that differentiation signals modulate RNAi silencing to regulate developmental genes. PMID:23151475

Yamanaka, Soichiro; Mehta, Sameet; Reyes-Turcu, Francisca E.; Zhuang, Fanglei; Fuchs, Ryan T.; Rong, Yikang; Robb, Gregory B.; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

2012-01-01

301

MG53 nucleates assembly of cell membrane repair machinery  

PubMed Central

Dynamic membrane repair and remodelling is an elemental process that maintains cell integrity and mediates efficient cellular function. Here we report that MG53, a muscle-specific tripartite motif family protein (TRIM72), is a component of the sarcolemmal membrane-repair machinery. MG53 interacts with phosphatidylserine to associate with intracellular vesicles that traffic to and fuse with sarcolemmal membranes. Mice null for MG53 show progressive myopathy and reduced exercise capability, associated with defective membrane-repair capacity. Injury of the sarcolemmal membrane leads to entry of the extracellular oxidative environment and MG53 oligomerization, resulting in recruitment of MG53-containing vesicles to the injury site. After vesicle translocation, entry of extracellular Ca2+ facilitates vesicle fusion to reseal the membrane. Our data indicate that intracellular vesicle translocation and Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion are distinct steps involved in the repair of membrane damage and that MG53 may initiate the assembly of the membrane repair machinery in an oxidation-dependent manner. PMID:19043407

Cai, Chuanxi; Masumiya, Haruko; Weisleder, Noah; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Nishi, Miyuki; Hwang, Moonsun; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Lin, Peihui; Thornton, Angela; Zhao, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Komazaki, Shinji; Brotto, Marco; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie

2010-01-01

302

Nucleolar Assembly of the Rrna Processing Machinery in Living Cells  

PubMed Central

To understand how nuclear machineries are targeted to accurate locations during nuclear assembly, we investigated the pathway of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing machinery towards ribosomal genes (nucleolar organizer regions [NORs]) at exit of mitosis. To follow in living cells two permanently transfected green fluorescence protein–tagged nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin and Nop52, from metaphase to G1, 4-D time-lapse microscopy was used. In early telophase, fibrillarin is concentrated simultaneously in prenucleolar bodies (PNBs) and NORs, whereas PNB-containing Nop52 forms later. These distinct PNBs assemble at the chromosome surface. Analysis of PNB movement does not reveal the migration of PNBs towards the nucleolus, but rather a directional flow between PNBs and between PNBs and the nucleolus, ensuring progressive delivery of proteins into nucleoli. This delivery appeared organized in morphologically distinct structures visible by electron microscopy, suggesting transfer of large complexes. We propose that the temporal order of PNB assembly and disassembly controls nucleolar delivery of these proteins, and that accumulation of processing complexes in the nucleolus is driven by pre-rRNA concentration. Initial nucleolar formation around competent NORs appears to be followed by regroupment of the NORs into a single nucleolus 1 h later to complete the nucleolar assembly. This demonstrates the formation of one functional domain by cooperative interactions between different chromosome territories. PMID:11381093

Savino, Tulia Maria; Gébrane-Younès, Jeannine; De Mey, Jan; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Hernandez-Verdun, Danièle

2001-01-01

303

Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

2004-12-01

304

A dynamically assembled cell wall synthesis machinery buffers cell growth.  

PubMed

Assembly of protein complexes is a key mechanism for achieving spatial and temporal coordination in processes involving many enzymes. Growth of rod-shaped bacteria is a well-studied example requiring such coordination; expansion of the cell wall is thought to involve coordination of the activity of synthetic enzymes with the cytoskeleton via a stable complex. Here, we use single-molecule tracking to demonstrate that the bacterial actin homolog MreB and the essential cell wall enzyme PBP2 move on timescales orders of magnitude apart, with drastically different characteristic motions. Our observations suggest that PBP2 interacts with the rest of the synthesis machinery through a dynamic cycle of transient association. Consistent with this model, growth is robust to large fluctuations in PBP2 abundance. In contrast to stable complex formation, dynamic association of PBP2 is less dependent on the function of other components of the synthesis machinery, and buffers spatially distributed growth against fluctuations in pathway component concentrations and the presence of defective components. Dynamic association could generally represent an efficient strategy for spatiotemporal coordination of protein activities, especially when excess concentrations of system components are inhibitory to the overall process or deleterious to the cell. PMID:24550500

Lee, Timothy K; Tropini, Carolina; Hsin, Jen; Desmarais, Samantha M; Ursell, Tristan S; Gong, Enhao; Gitai, Zemer; Monds, Russell D; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

2014-03-25

305

Intelligent condition-based prediction of machinery reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to forecast machinery failure is vital to reducing maintenance costs, operation downtime and safety hazards. Recent advances in condition monitoring technologies have given rise to a number of prognostic models that attempt to forecast machinery health based on condition data. This paper presents a novel approach for incorporating population characteristics information and suspended condition trending data of historical units into prognosis. The population characteristics information extracted from statistical failure distribution enables longer-range prognosis. The accurate modelling of suspended data is also found to be of great importance, since in practice machines are rarely allowed to run to failure and hence data are commonly suspended. The proposed model consists of a feed-forward neural network whose training targets are asset survival probabilities estimated using a variation of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and a degradation-based failure probability density function (PDF) estimator. The trained network is capable of estimating the future survival probabilities of an operating asset when a series of condition indices are inputted. The output survival probabilities collectively form an estimated survival curve. Pump vibration data were used for model validation. The proposed model was compared with two similar models that neglect suspended data, as well as with a conventional time series prediction model. The results support our hypothesis that the proposed model can predict more accurately and further ahead than similar methods that do not include population characteristics and/or suspended data in prognosis.

Heng, Aiwina; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph; Montgomery, Neil; Banjevic, Dragan; Jardine, Andrew K. S.

2009-07-01

306

Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa machinery during interactions.  

PubMed

The amenability of Caenorhabditis elegans against pathogen provides a valuable tool for studying host-pathogen interactions. Physiological experiments revealed that the P. aeruginosa was able to kill C. elegans efficiently. The effects of P. aeruginosa PA14, PAO1 and their isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the host system were analyzed. The LPS at higher concentrations (?2 mg/ml) was toxic to the host animals. Kinetic studies using qPCR revealed the regulation of host-specific candidate antimicrobial genes during pathogen-mediated infections. In addition, the pathogen-specific virulent gene, exoT expression, was anlyzed and found to be varied during the interactions with the host system. Ability of the pathogens to modify their internal machinery in the presence of the host was analyzed by XRD, FTIR and PCA. LPS isolated from pathogens upon exposure to C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions. LPS from PAO1 showed difference in d-spacing angle (?) and °2Th position. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in polysaccharide (1,200-900 cm(-1)) and fatty acid (3,000-2,800 cm(-1)) regions of LPS from P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to the host system. These data provide additional insights on how the pathogens subvert its own and host machinery during interactions. PMID:21909805

Vigneshkumar, Balasubramanian; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

2012-04-01

307

Architecture and regulation of negative-strand viral enzymatic machinery  

PubMed Central

Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses initiate infection with a unique polymerase complex that mediates both mRNA transcription and subsequent genomic RNA replication. For nearly all NS RNA viruses, distinct enzymatic domains catalyzing RNA polymerization and multiple steps of 5? mRNA cap formation are contained within a single large polymerase protein (L). While NS RNA viruses include a variety of emerging human and agricultural pathogens, the enzymatic machinery driving viral replication and gene expression remains poorly understood. Recent insights with Machupo virus and vesicular stomatitis virus have provided the first structural information of viral L proteins, and revealed how the various enzymatic domains are arranged into a conserved architecture shared by both segmented and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses. In vitro systems reconstituting RNA synthesis from purified components provide new tools to understand the viral replicative machinery, and demonstrate the arenavirus matrix protein regulates RNA synthesis by locking a polymerase–template complex. Inhibition of gene expression by the viral matrix protein is a distinctive feature also shared with influenza A virus and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses, possibly illuminating a conserved mechanism for coordination of viral transcription and polymerase packaging PMID:22767259

Kranzusch, Philip J.; Whelan, Sean P.J.

2012-01-01

308

The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs’ mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

2014-01-01

309

User Experience in Machinery Automation: From Concepts and Context to Design Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machinery automation (MA), e.g. different agriculture machinery, has traditionally been developed by experts in automation\\u000a and in machinery engineering. As the role of interactive software is increasing, the principles and methods of human centered\\u000a design (HCD) are being applied. This results in better usability of the systems particularly through efficiency of work processes\\u000a and user interfaces (UIs). The user experience

Jarmo Palviainen; Kaisa Väänänen-vainio-mattila

2009-01-01

310

Thermophysical properties of sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

1969-01-01

311

Rotation Matrices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to introduce the concept of using matrix multiplication to rotate vectors in two-dimensional space; to provide motivation for the definition of matrix multiplication; to lay the groundwork for using matrices to work with graphics.

Smith, David

2002-01-11

312

Rotation Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University of California, Berkeley, provides a description of the study of stellar motion around the center of a galaxy, and includes a graph of rotational speed versus distance from the center. The site relates this study to the prediction of dark matter. The page also gives explanations of other lines of evidence for dark matter. ____________________________________

White, Martin

2008-08-04

313

Rotating Phasors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive phasor page allows you to control the values of a rotating phasor and see a visualization of each change that is done. You can control: one, pos/neg, two, beats, delta, sawtooth, square, triangle, time, zoom, plus you can put into five different values: Frequency (rel, HZ, mHZ), Amplitude (raw, rel), and Phases (Deg, Rad, unitrad).

Sharp, Cory

314

Rotating Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium webpage describes the classic Caro® syrup demonstration of the rotation of the plane of polarized light by an optically active material. The webpage lists the materials, how they are assembled, the observations, and the physics that explains what happens. A photo and drawing are provided.

2012-02-27

315

Stimulation of F 1ATPase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

F1-ATPase is a rotary molecular motor in which the ? subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of ?3?3 subunits. We have studied the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the rotational and ATP hydrolysis activities of F1-ATPase. Bulk hydrolysis activity at various SDS concentrations was examined at 2mM ATP. Maximal stimulation was obtained at 0.003% (w\\/v) SDS, the initial

Mohammad Delawar Hossain; Shou Furuike; Yasuhiro Onoue; Kengo Adachi; Masasuke Yoshida; Kazuhiko Kinosita Jr.

2010-01-01

316

MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO–BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY  

PubMed Central

Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano–bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano–bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano–bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano–bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields. PMID:23105163

ROZHKOVA, E. A.; ULASOV, I. V.; KIM, D.-H.; DIMITRIJEVIC, N. M.; NOVOSAD, V.; BADER, S. D.; LESNIAK, M. S.; RAJH, T.

2011-01-01

317

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

318

Rotation Matrices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to introduce the concept of using matrix multiplication to rotate vectors in two-dimensional space; to provide motivation for the definition of matrix multiplication; to lay the groundwork for using matrices to work with graphics. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Smith, David

2010-05-24

319

Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary. PMID:24738521

Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

2014-01-01

320

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Lopez, John T. (Santa Clara, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA); West, Calvin W. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

321

Submersible sodium pump  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21

322

NEUROTROPHIN-3 TARGETS THE TRANSLATIONAL INITIATION MACHINERY IN OLIGODENDROCYTES  

PubMed Central

Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) regulates oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation by mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Exposure of OLGs to NT-3 induces a significant increase in the levels of myelin basic protein (MBP). However, we found that this stimulation occurs in the absence of measurable effects on MBP gene promoter activation or mRNA expression, suggesting that NT-3 up-regulates MBP protein expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Furthermore, NT-3 also causes an increase in the levels of myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), raising the possibility of a more general effect on myelin protein synthesis. Surprisingly, 35S-methionine incorporation into total OLG proteins demonstrated a 50% increase in labeling following only a brief, 15 minute treatment with NT-3. Such a remarkably fast response is unlikely due to transcriptional activation, reinforcing the possibility that NT-3 may play a crucial role in regulating protein expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. In support of this idea, we found that NT-3 stimulates the phosphorylation of essential regulators of the initiation machinery, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its inhibitory binding partner 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), two crucial players in controlling cap-dependent protein synthesis. This stimulation involves the activation of pathways mediated by ERK1/2 and PI3K/mTOR, implicating these two kinase systems as modulators of protein synthesis in developing OLGs. Altogether, these observations show for the first time that NT-3 has the capacity of targeting the translational machinery and suggest a potential stimulatory effect of this neurotrophin on myelination by direct action on protein translation in the OLGs. PMID:19455580

Coelho, Rochelle P.; Yuelling, Larra M.; Fuss, Babette; Sato-Bigbee, Carmen

2015-01-01

323

The von Krmn Sodium experiment: Turbulent dynamical dynamos Romain Monchaux,1  

E-print Network

-generation of a stationary dynamo when the flow forcing is R -symmetric, i.e., when the impellers rotate in opposite motion of liquid sodium. The flow is a helicoidal jet confined within a bath of liquid sodium at rest.5

324

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2010-10-01

325

46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC...Supply Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs....

2014-10-01

326

46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC...Supply Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs....

2010-10-01

327

46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC...Supply Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs....

2013-10-01

328

46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC...Supply Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs....

2011-10-01

329

46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC...Supply Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs....

2012-10-01

330

Development of agriculture machinery aided guidance system based on GPS and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agriculture machinery guidance technology is one of precision agricultural important technologies. Based on GPS and GIS, it can raise working efficiency and improve the quality, reduce production costs, reduce driver working difficulty. This research's general goals realize the aided guidance function for agriculture machinery driving on road and straight line operation in the field by lightbar. The system uses

Zhuang Weidong; Wang Chun; Han Jing

2010-01-01

331

Application of Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation in regional agricultural machinery advice station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local administrative departments in charge of agricultural machinery should focus more capital investment on constructing the regional advice station for agricultural machinery, which could help improve the agricultural mechanization level, increase the income and reduce the labor intensity of farmers. However, there existed problems like embezzlement and poor construction effect during the project implementation at present. Therefore, performance appraisal of

Enli Lu; Zhou Yang; Huazhong Lu; Xiaoteng Han; Dongxia Zhang

2011-01-01

332

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2011-10-01

333

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2012-10-01

334

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2013-10-01

335

46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL...Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL...an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith...

2014-10-01

336

Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization of cytoplasmic messenger RNA transcripts is widely used to target proteins within cells. For many transcripts, localization depends on cis-acting elements within the transcripts and on microtubule-based motors; however, little is known about other components of the transport machinery or how these components recognize specific RNA cargoes. Here, we show that in Drosophila the same machinery and RNA signals

Simon L. Bullock; David Ish-Horowicz

2001-01-01

337

Machinery Repairman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Rate Training Manual (textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Machinery Repairman Third Class and Second Class. The 15 chapters in the textbook are (1) Scope of the Machinery Repairman Rating; (2) Toolrooms and Tools; (3) Layout and…

Bynum, Michael H.; Taylor, Edward A.

338

Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

2014-01-01

339

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

340

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate comes as a powder and suspension to take by mouth. It may also be ... as directed by your doctor. Shake the liquid (suspension) well before each use. Follow the directions on ...

341

Rotating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these problems, two people ride on a merry-go-round (radius fixed at 10 m..it's big!). One rider tosses a ball toward the other. The period of motion can be varied as can the initial velocity of the ball, relative to rider. One of the problems is to select the initial velocity of the ball so that it passes through center of the merry-go-round. Another is for the rider who throws the ball to catch it him/herself after exactly half a rotation.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

342

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. 167...Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a boiler of a nautical school ship the...

2010-10-01

343

Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis  

SciTech Connect

Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs.

Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

1989-01-01

344

Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders  

PubMed Central

Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases. PMID:22709827

2012-01-01

345

Recombinant Reporter Assay Using Transcriptional Machinery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Development of an in vivo gene reporter assay to assess interactions among the components of the transcription machinery in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a challenge to scientists due to the tediousness of generation of mutant strains of the extremely slow-growing bacterium. We have developed a recombinant mCherry reporter assay that enables us to monitor the interactions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional regulators with its promoters in vivo in Escherichia coli. The assay involves a three-plasmid expression system in E. coli wherein two plasmids are responsible for M. tuberculosis RNA polymerase (RNAP) production and the third plasmid harbors the mCherry reporter gene expression cassette under the control of either a ? factor or a transcriptional regulator-dependent promoter. We observed that the endogenous E. coli RNAP and ? factor do not interfere with the assay. By using the reporter assay, we found that the functional interaction of M. tuberculosis cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) occurs with its own RNA polymerase, not with the E. coli polymerase. Performing the recombinant reporter assay in E. coli is much faster than if performed in M. tuberculosis and avoids the hazard of handling the pathogenic bacterium. The approach could be expanded to develop reporter assays for other pathogenic and slow-growing bacterial systems. PMID:25448818

Banerjee, Rajdeep; Rudra, Paulami; Saha, Abinit; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

2015-02-01

346

Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

Fox, George E.

2010-09-01

347

Fault detection in variable speed machinery: Statistical parameterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable speed machinery presents a particular challenge to automated condition-monitoring systems; changes in speed have a strong relation to the vibration response collected by accelerometers—the effect of which may mask fault conditions in standard condition monitoring techniques. In order to account for the effects of this measurable variable, the vibration response will be segmented into speed bins with a small range of speed. The mean and covariance matrix for the feature vectors in each speed bin will be computed in order to derive a statistical novelty boundary for that bin. Each component of these statistical parameters can then be interpolated or regressed in order to derive boundaries for speed segments where no training data is available. A comparison of the use of a statistical decision boundary and support vector boundaries, whose inputs have been centralized and whitened with these statistical parameters, will reveal a stronger classification approach. These methods were validated on data gathered from an experimental gearbox and motor apparatus operating at variable speeds; the results indicate a high degree of separability between data from healthy and faulted states—providing exceptional classification error.

McBain, Jordan; Timusk, Markus

2009-11-01

348

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

349

Balancing of machinery with a flexible variable-speed rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The balancing procedure of machines composed of a flexible rotating part (rotor) and a non-rotating part (stator) mounted on suspensions is presented. The rotating part runs at a variable speed of rotation and is mounted on bearings with variable-speed-dependent characteristics. Assuming that the unbalance masses are relatively well defined, such as in the case of a crank-shaft, the procedure is based on a numerical approach using rotordynamics theory coupled with the Finite Element and Influence Coefficient Methods. An academic rotor/stator model illustrates the procedure. Moreover, the industrial application concerns a refrigerant rotary compressor whose experimental investigation permits validating the model. Assuming that the balancing planes are located on the rotor, it is shown that reducing the vibration level of both rotor and stator requires a balancing procedure using target planes on the rotor and on the stator. In the case of the rotary compressor, this avoids rotor-to-stator rubs and minimizes vibration transmission through pipes and grommets.

Sève, F.; Andrianoely, M. A.; Berlioz, A.; Dufour, R.; Charreyron, M.

2003-07-01

350

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

351

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE Guided Missiles & Space Vehicle Guided Missile & Space Vehicle Prop Other Space Vehicle & Missile Parts...

2011-07-01

352

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE Guided Missiles & Space Vehicle Guided Missile & Space Vehicle Prop Other Space Vehicle & Missile Parts...

2010-07-01

353

76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc., 16 Orbit Lane, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533; phone: (845) 897-4194. FERC Contact: Monir Chowdhury; phone: (202)...

2011-10-31

354

Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo  

PubMed Central

Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter. PMID:23963697

Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent

2013-01-01

355

29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...operate such machinery and give signals to operators during training. (2) No employee known to have defective uncorrected eyesight or hearing, or to be suffering from heart disease, epilepsy, or similar ailments that may suddenly incapacitate the...

2014-07-01

356

19. PWD Drawing 1123918 (814M9) (1951), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. PWD Drawing 11239-18 (814-M-9) (1951), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Building No. 814, Ventilation' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

357

11. PWD Drawing 11,23981 (814C2) (1944), 'Battle Damage Machinery Cleaning ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. PWD Drawing 11,239-81 (814-C-2) (1944), 'Battle Damage Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Bldg 814, Pile Record' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

358

Dissecting the Machinery That Introduces Disulfide Bonds in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Disulfide bond formation is required for the folding of many bacterial virulence factors. However, whereas the Escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is well characterized, not much is known on the pathways that oxidatively fold proteins in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the detailed unraveling of the pathway that introduces disulfide bonds in the periplasm of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genome of P. aeruginosa uniquely encodes two DsbA proteins (P. aeruginosa DsbA1 [PaDsbA1] and PaDsbA2) and two DsbB proteins (PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2). We found that PaDsbA1, the primary donor of disulfide bonds to secreted proteins, is maintained oxidized in vivo by both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2. In vitro reconstitution of the pathway confirms that both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2 shuttle electrons from PaDsbA1 to membrane-bound quinones. Accordingly, deletion of both P. aeruginosa dsbB1 (PadsbB1) and PadsbB2 is required to prevent the folding of several P. aeruginosa virulence factors and to lead to a significant decrease in pathogenicity. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, we also analyzed the impact of PadsbA1 deletion on the global periplasmic proteome of P. aeruginosa, which allowed us to identify more than 20 new potential substrates of this major oxidoreductase. Finally, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of PaDsbA2, a highly oxidizing oxidoreductase, which seems to be expressed under specific conditions. By fully dissecting the machinery that introduces disulfide bonds in P. aeruginosa, our work opens the way to the design of novel antibacterial molecules able to disarm this pathogen by preventing the proper assembly of its arsenal of virulence factors. PMID:24327342

Arts, Isabelle S.; Ball, Geneviève; Leverrier, Pauline; Garvis, Steven; Nicolaes, Valérie; Vertommen, Didier; Ize, Bérengère; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Messens, Joris; Voulhoux, Romé; Collet, Jean-François

2013-01-01

359

The Actomyosin Machinery Is Required for Drosophila Retinal Lumen Formation  

PubMed Central

Multicellular tubes consist of polarized cells wrapped around a central lumen and are essential structures underlying many developmental and physiological functions. In Drosophila compound eyes, each ommatidium forms a luminal matrix, the inter-rhabdomeral space, to shape and separate the key phototransduction organelles, the rhabdomeres, for proper visual perception. In an enhancer screen to define mechanisms of retina lumen formation, we identified Actin5C as a key molecule. Our results demonstrate that the disruption of lumen formation upon the reduction of Actin5C is not linked to any discernible defect in microvillus formation, the rhabdomere terminal web (RTW), or the overall morphogenesis and basal extension of the rhabdomere. Second, the failure of proper lumen formation is not the result of previously identified processes of retinal lumen formation: Prominin localization, expansion of the apical membrane, or secretion of the luminal matrix. Rather, the phenotype observed with Actin5C is phenocopied upon the decrease of the individual components of non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) and its upstream activators. In photoreceptor cells MyoII localizes to the base of the rhabdomeres, overlapping with the actin filaments of the RTW. Consistent with the well-established roll of actomyosin-mediated cellular contraction, reduction of MyoII results in reduced distance between apical membranes as measured by a decrease in lumen diameter. Together, our results indicate the actomyosin machinery coordinates with the localization of apical membrane components and the secretion of an extracellular matrix to overcome apical membrane adhesion to initiate and expand the retinal lumen. PMID:25233220

Nie, Jing; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew C.

2014-01-01

360

HEK293S Cells Have Functional Retinoid Processing Machinery  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin activation is measured by the early receptor current (ERC), a conformation-associated charge motion, in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293S) expressing opsins. After rhodopsin bleaching in cells loaded with 11-cis-retinal, ERC signals recover in minutes and recurrently over a period of hours by simple dark adaptation, with no added chromophore. The purpose of this study is to investigate the source of ERC signal recovery in these cells. Giant HEK293S cells expressing normal wild-type (WT)-human rod opsin (HEK293S) were regenerated by solubilized 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinal, or Vitamin A in darkness. ERCs were elicited by flash photolysis and measured by whole-cell recording. Visible flashes initially elicit bimodal (R1, R2) ERC signals in WT-HEK293S cells loaded with 11-cis-retinal for 40 min or overnight. In contrast, cells regenerated for 40 min with all-trans-retinal or Vitamin A had negative ERCs (R1-like) or none at all. After these were placed in the dark overnight, ERCs with outward R2 signals were recorded the following day. This indicates conversion of loaded Vitamin A or all-trans-retinal into cis-retinaldehyde that regenerated ground-state pigment. 4-butylaniline, an inhibitor of the mammalian retinoid cycle, reversibly suppressed recovery of the outward R2 component from Vitamin A and 11-cis-retinal–loaded cells. These physiological findings are evidence for the presence of intrinsic retinoid processing machinery in WT-HEK293S cells similar to what occurs in the mammalian eye. PMID:12034766

Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Sullivan, Jack M.

2002-01-01

361

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is

Mikkor; Mati

1981-01-01

362

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

363

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery. 3 figs.

Topouzian

1980-01-01

364

An economic analysis of financial policies and constraints common to retail farm machinery dealers in Texas  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August J974 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL POLICIES AND CONSTRAINTS COMMON TO RETAIL FARM MACHINERY DEALERS IN TEXAS A Thesis by JAMES WESLEY SUTTON Approued as to style... of financing need to be considered by farmers to maintain a profitable and efficient operation. This study will investigate the methods, sources, and terms of financing offered by retail farm machinery dealers in Texas, with special attention given...

Sutton, James Wesley

2012-06-07

365

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

366

Apoptotic Machinery Diversity in Multiple Myeloma Molecular Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell (PC) malignancy that is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and prognosis. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) consistently preceded development of MM. The presence of primary IgH translocations and the universal overexpression of cyclin D genes led to a molecular classification of MM patients into different disease subtypes. Since Bcl-2 family proteins determine cell fate, we analyzed a publicly available Affymetrix gene expression of 44 MGUS and 414 newly diagnosed MM patients to investigate (1) the global change of Bcl-2 family members in MM versus MGUS (2) whether the four major subtypes defined as hyperdiploid, CyclinD1, MAF, and MMSET, display specific apoptotic machineries. We showed that among the main anti-apoptotic members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), Mcl-1 up-regulation discriminated MM from MGUS, in agreement with the prominent role of Mcl-1 in PC differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of multi-domain pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax were increased during the progression of MGUS to MM. The combined profile of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 was sufficient to distinguish MM molecular groups. While specific pro-apoptotic members expression was observed for each MM subtypes, CyclinD1 subgroup, was identified as a particular entity characterized by a low expression of BH3-only (Puma, Bik, and Bad) and multi-domain pro-apoptotic members (Bax and Bak). Our analysis supports the notion that MM heterogeneity is extended to the differential expression of the Bcl-2 family content in each MM subgroup. The influence of Bcl-2 family profile in the survival of the different patient groups will be further discussed to establish the potential consequences for therapeutic interventions. Finally, the use of distinct pro-survival members in the different steps of immune responses to antigen raises also the question of whether the different Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic profile could reflect a different origin of MM cells. PMID:24391642

Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Amiot, Martine

2013-01-01

367

Loss rates and time scales for sodium at Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scales and loss rates for sodium in the exosphere of Mercury are studied here. Sodium comes from release processes occurring at the planetary surface; the amount of surface sodium that is available for release (mostly through thermal- or photon-stimulated desorption) is limited. Loss processes deplete the surface concentration of sodium, which is continuously refilled by diffusion from the interior of regolith grains or by chemical sputtering. Ejected sodium particles may either escape the gravity, also aided by the radiation pressure acceleration, or be photoionized, or fall back onto the surface. Falling particles may either stick to the surface or bounce. A Monte Carlo model, simulating all these processes, is used to obtain the exosphere densities, the global loss rates at different true anomaly angles, and typical time scales for small-term variations, taking into account planet's orbit and rotation speed. Assuming an impulsive event, which causes the enhancement of sodium in the exosphere, the model gives the time scales for the exosphere to recover to a steady-state condition. It is found that time scales go from one or two hour (close to perihelion) to half day (close to aphelion). The escape probability ranges from 20% at perihelion and aphelion up to 40% at true anomaly angles of about 60° and 300°.

Mura, Alessandro

2012-04-01

368

The freezing rotation illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “freezing rotation illusion” refers to decrease in perceived speed of a continuously rotating central region when a swaying surround co-rotates. We observed the following effects for rotations: First, when the centre and its surround are turning in the same direction, and their velocities are distinguishable, the perceived speed of the centre is lower than its physical speed. Second, when

Max R. Dürsteler

2008-01-01

369

Acoustic Radiation From Rotating Blades: The Kirchhoff Method in Aeroacoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the current status of discrete frequency noise prediction for rotating blade machinery in the time domain. There are two major approaches both of which can be classified as the Kirchhoff method. These methods depend on the solution of two linear wave equations called the K and FW-H equations. The solutions of these equations for subsonic and supersonic surfaces are discussed and some important results of the research in the past years are presented. This paper is analytical in nature and emphasizes the work of the author and coworkers at NASA Langley Research Center.

Farassat, F.

2000-01-01

370

Effect of conditions of three dimensional clinostating on testicular cell machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our scope was to study the effects of on ground random positioning machine rotation on swine testicular cells in culture. Cells of the 2n karyotype line, from trypsinized swine testes, were submitted to modeled microgravity (?G) using a 3D RPM from 15 min to 24 h. The cultured cells were then fixed and submitted to immunohistochemistry using antibodies to steroid dehydrogenases, heat shock proteins and the sodium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase). The results revealed that, after 15 min at modeled ?G, all the cells showed damages at cytoskeletal level. The immunoreactions for 3?HSD, 17?HSD and Na+/K+ ATPase were almost abolished. After 24 h of treatment, the presence of the enzymes was restored, and small heat shock proteins were strongly immunostainable. On the other hand, in the 1×G cultures, the expression of HSPs was very weak. We conclude that modeled ?G by random positioning of cells affects testicular cells in culture for a short time, while the normal activity of the cells is restored after 24 h.

Uva, Bianca Maria; Strollo, Felice; Ricci, Franco; Pastorino, Martina; Mason, Ian J.; Angela Masini, Maria

2007-02-01

371

Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium  

PubMed Central

Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

2011-01-01

372

Single-ended counter-rotating radial turbine for space application  

DOEpatents

A single-ended turbine with counter-rotating blades operating with sodium as the working fluid. The single-ended, counter-rotating feature of the turbine results in zero torque application to a space platform. Thus, maneuvering of the platform is not adversely affected by the turbine. 4 figs.

Coomes, E.P.; Wilson, D.G.; Webb, B.J.; McCabe, S.J.

1987-05-13

373

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

1987-07-01

374

Study on the precession orbit shape analysis-based linear fault qualitative identification method for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration responses of different linear faults all possess some common features, which make fault diagnosis very difficult. Based on the multi-sensor information fusion theory, this paper presents a new qualitative identification method for the diagnosis of linear faults. The excitation-response dynamic equation is constructed and system balancing response with full consideration of system anisotropy is analyzed. Through discussion of the precession orbit shape difference and its dispersive situation, the orbit shape average difference coefficient and the corresponding dispersion term are estimated to obtain the theoretical balancing effect. Finally, the qualitative identification of linear fault can be done according to whether the calculated balancing effect meets the safe operation requirement or not. The dynamic characteristic of the system difference coefficients is verified by a simulation experiment and the case study further testifies the capability and reliability of the proposed method.

Lang, Genfeng; Liao, Yuhe; Liu, Qingcheng; Lin, Jing

2015-01-01

375

Enhancement of signal denoising and multiple fault signatures detecting in rotating machinery using dual-tree complex wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the desired features related to some special type of machine fault, a technique based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated that DTCWT enjoys better shift invariance and reduced spectral aliasing than second-generation wavelet transform (SGWT) and empirical mode decomposition by means of numerical simulations. These advantages of the DTCWT arise from the relationship between the two dual-tree wavelet basis functions, instead of the matching of the used single wavelet basis function to the signal being analyzed. Since noise inevitably exists in the measured signals, an enhanced vibration signals denoising algorithm incorporating DTCWT with NeighCoeff shrinkage is also developed. Denoising results of vibration signals resulting from a crack gear indicate the proposed denoising method can effectively remove noise and retain the valuable information as much as possible compared to those DWT- and SGWT-based NeighCoeff shrinkage denoising methods. As is well known, excavation of comprehensive signatures embedded in the vibration signals is of practical importance to clearly clarify the roots of the fault, especially the combined faults. In the case of multiple features detection, diagnosis results of rolling element bearings with combined faults and an actual industrial equipment confirm that the proposed DTCWT-based method is a powerful and versatile tool and consistently outperforms SGWT and fast kurtogram, which are widely used recently. Moreover, it must be noted, the proposed method is completely suitable for on-line surveillance and diagnosis due to its good robustness and efficient algorithm.

Wang, Yanxue; He, Zhengjia; Zi, Yanyang

2010-01-01

376

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

377

Thermal energy storage composition comprising sodium sulfate decahydrate; sodium carbonate decahydrate; and sodium tetraborate decahydrate  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy storage composition is disclosed that stores heat upon melting and releases heat upon solidification. It is composed of a mixture of sodium sulfate decahydrate, sodium carbonate decahydrate, sodium borate decahydrate and a thickening agent. Its good heat transfer characteristics, relatively high latent heat of fusion, low cost, and favorable melting point allow this material to be particularly useful for space heating applications.

Chen, J.C.

1981-09-29

378

Position indicating, rotating boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Universal multiplanar position indicating, rotating boom for mounting various instruments or sensors is described. Boom is telescoping, and apparatus is capable of 3 types of rotation controlled by electric motors. Movement may be continuous or incremental.

Dibble, A. C.; Gibson, F. W.; Padelt, J. R.; Saunders, W. S.

1972-01-01

379

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2013-10-01

380

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2011-10-01

381

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2014-10-01

382

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2010-10-01

383

49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173...173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material...

2012-10-01

384

Feasibility of vibration monitoring of small rotating machines for the environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) of the NASA advanced space craft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery typical of ECLSS components in advanced NASA spacecraft was studied. It is found that the weighted summation of the accelerometer power spectrum is the most successful detection scheme for a majority of problem types. Other detection schemes studied included high-frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, and amplitude processing.

Milner, G. Martin; Black, Mike; Hovenga, Mike; Mcclure, Paul; Miller, Patrice

1988-01-01

385

The bacterial actin MreB rotates, and rotation depends on cell-wall assembly  

PubMed Central

Bacterial cells possess multiple cytoskeletal proteins involved in a wide range of cellular processes. These cytoskeletal proteins are dynamic, but the driving forces and cellular functions of these dynamics remain poorly understood. Eukaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics are often driven by motor proteins, but in bacteria no motors that drive cytoskeletal motion have been identified to date. Here, we quantitatively study the dynamics of the Escherichia coli actin homolog MreB, which is essential for the maintenance of rod-like cell shape in bacteria. We find that MreB rotates around the long axis of the cell in a persistent manner. Whereas previous studies have suggested that MreB dynamics are driven by its own polymerization, we show that MreB rotation does not depend on its own polymerization but rather requires the assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall. The cell-wall synthesis machinery thus either constitutes a novel type of extracellular motor that exerts force on cytoplasmic MreB, or is indirectly required for an as-yet-unidentified motor. Biophysical simulations suggest that one function of MreB rotation is to ensure a uniform distribution of new peptidoglycan insertion sites, a necessary condition to maintain rod shape during growth. These findings both broaden the view of cytoskeletal motors and deepen our understanding of the physical basis of bacterial morphogenesis. PMID:21903929

van Teeffelen, Sven; Wang, Siyuan; Furchtgott, Leon; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Gitai, Zemer

2011-01-01

386

Sodium--sulfur storage battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a novel sodium--sulfur storage battery comprising a sodium reservoir made of metal (incorporating a heater) between double walls, a solid electrolyte connected to it, an anodic reactant contained in it and a cathode reactant outside of it, and a battery housing which contains the above-mentioned components. The battery is sealed at the upper part. According to

Kagawa

1977-01-01

387

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

388

Transformations: Rotation (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the rotation transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the center and angle of rotation to see the effect on a rotated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

389

Mechanism of rotational relaxation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is presented which describes the characteristic pattern of relaxation of a nonthermal rotational distribution of hydrogen halide, peaked initially at high rotational quantum number J, to a thermal distribution without generating a peak at intermediate J. A method for correcting infrared chemiluminiscence data for modest rotational relaxation is also suggested.

Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

1972-01-01

390

Dynamic balancing of dual-rotor system with very little rotating speed difference.  

PubMed

Unbalanced vibration in dual-rotor rotating machinery was studied with numerical simulations and experiments. A new method is proposed to separate vibration signals of inner and outer rotors for a system with very little difference in rotating speeds. Magnitudes and phase values of unbalance defects can be obtained directly by sampling the vibration signal synchronized with reference signal. The balancing process is completed by the reciprocity influence coefficients of inner and outer rotors method. Results showed the advantage of such method for a dual-rotor system as compared with conventional balancing. PMID:12656345

Yang, Jian; He, Shi-zheng; Wang, Le-qin

2003-01-01

391

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...Requirements § 167.65-70 Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or...

2014-10-01

392

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...Requirements § 167.65-70 Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or...

2012-10-01

393

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...Requirements § 167.65-70 Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or...

2011-10-01

394

46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...Requirements § 167.65-70 Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery...be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or...

2013-10-01

395

Automated function generation of symptom parameters and application to fault diagnosis of machinery under variable operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional or nondimensional symptom parameters are usually used for condition monitoring of plant machinery. However, it is difficult to extract the most important symptom parameters and the functions of those parameters by which machinery faults can be sensitively detected and the fault types can be precisely distinguished. In order to overcome this difficulty and to ensure highly accurate fault diagnosis,

Peng Chen; Toshio Toyota; Zhengja He

2001-01-01

396

Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

397

Nuclear microenvironments support assembly and organization of the transcriptional regulatory machinery for cell proliferation and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal and spatial organization of transcriptional regulatory machinery provides microenvironments within the nucleus where threshold concentrations of genes and cognate factors facilitate functional interactions. Conventional biochemical, molecular, and in vivo genetic approaches, together with high throughput genomic and proteomic analysis are rapidly expanding our database of regulatory macromolecules and signaling pathways that are requisite for control of genes that

Gary S. Stein; Jane B. Lian; Andre J. Van Wijnen; Janet L. Stein; Amjad Javed; Martin A. Montecino; Sayyed K. Zaidi; Daniel W. Young; Je-Yong Choi; Soraya E. Gutierrez; Shirwin M. Pockwinse

2004-01-01

398

Feature -Nanocomposites -05/07 Current Issue | Article Library | Materials Database | Machinery Database  

E-print Network

Feature - Nanocomposites - 05/07 Current Issue | Article Library | Materials Database | Machinery Feature Article Nanocomposites Less Hype, More Hard Work On Commercial Viability By Lilli Manolis Sherman, Senior Editor Print This Article Learn More Read This Article... Nanocomposites Do More with Less Chasing

Aksay, Ilhan A.

399

31. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'C5' IS AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'C5' IS AT LOWER LEFT AND EMERGENCY BRAKE MECHANISM ON PEDESTAL AT CENTER. NOTE LOWER EQUALIZING LINKAGE FOR COUNTERWEIGHT AT LEFT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH - THIS WAS A KEY COMPONENT OF STRAUSS' PATENT PARALLOGRAM LINKAGE - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

400

Conservation of the RNA Transport Machineries and Their Coupling to Translation Control across Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Restriction of proteins to discrete subcellular regions is a common mechanism to establish cellular asymmetries and depends on a coordinated program of mRNA localization and translation control. Many processes from the budding of a yeast to the establishment of metazoan embryonic axes and the migration of human neurons, depend on this type of cell polarization. How factors controlling transport and translation assemble to regulate at the same time the movement and translation of transported mRNAs, and whether these mechanisms are conserved across kingdoms is not yet entirely understood. In this review we will focus on some of the best characterized examples of mRNA transport machineries, the “yeast locasome” as an example of RNA transport and translation control in unicellular eukaryotes, and on the Drosophila Bic-D/Egl/Dyn RNA localization machinery as an example of RNA transport in higher eukaryotes. This focus is motivated by the relatively advanced knowledge about the proteins that connect the localizing mRNAs to the transport motors and the many well studied proteins involved in translational control of specific transcripts that are moved by these machineries. We will also discuss whether the core of these RNA transport machineries and factors regulating mRNA localization and translation are conserved across eukaryotes. PMID:22666086

Vazquez-Pianzola, Paula; Suter, Beat

2012-01-01

401

Aviation electrical machinery and power supplies \\/2nd revised and enlarged edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A textbook on the fundamentals and design of airborne electrical machinery and power sources for aircraft and helicopters, written for aviation technicians. The text covers electric power generators, electric motors driving mechanical systems, electric power transducers and amplifiers, actuators, servomechanisms, velocity and acceleration pickups, correction motors and thrusters used in gyroscopic and navigation systems, dc and ac generators, transformers, and

M. I. Komisar

1975-01-01

402

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Fall 2012 Bechtel Plant Machinery, Inc. Gas Mitigation Project  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Fall 2012 Bechtel Plant Machinery, Inc decisions to use parts that may or may not fit into BPMI's specifications for the system. BPMI needs a system with a military grade parts. Our objective was to create both a conceptual design and a prototype

Demirel, Melik C.

403

CHL1 Is a Selective Organizer of the Presynaptic Machinery Chaperoning the SNARE Complex  

PubMed Central

Proteins constituting the presynaptic machinery of vesicle release undergo substantial conformational changes during the process of exocytosis. While changes in the conformation make proteins vulnerable to aggregation and degradation, little is known about synaptic chaperones which counteract these processes. We show that the cell adhesion molecule CHL1 directly interacts with and regulates the activity of the synaptic chaperones Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT. CHL1, Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT form predominantly CHL1/Hsc70/?SGT and CHL1/CSP complexes in synapses. Among the various complexes formed by CHL1, Hsc70, CSP and ?SGT, SNAP25 and VAMP2 induce chaperone activity only in CHL1/Hsc70/?SGT and CHL1/CSP complexes, respectively, indicating a remarkable selectivity of a presynaptic chaperone activity for proteins of the exocytotic machinery. In mice with genetic ablation of CHL1, chaperone activity in synapses is reduced and the machinery for synaptic vesicle exocytosis and, in particular, the SNARE complex is unable to sustain prolonged synaptic activity. Thus, we reveal a novel role for a cell adhesion molecule in selective activation of the presynaptic chaperone machinery. PMID:20711454

Knepper, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Redecke, Lars; Schachner, Melitta

2010-01-01

404

Identification of Inhibitors of Bacterial Transcription\\/Translation Machinery Utilizing a Miniaturized 1536Well Format Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the miniaturization of a HTS screen to identify inhibitors of prokaryotic transcription-translation in a 1536-well format. The in vitro assay design utilized the bacterial expression machinery to drive expression of a firefly luciferase reporter gene, which was read as an endpoint luminesence measurement. This multicomponent system permits identification of inhibitors at different steps in this pathway. Successful

Ilona Kariv; Hong Cao; Phillip D. Marvil; Ekaterina V. Bobkova; Yuri E. Bukhtiyarov; Yong P. Yan; Utpal Patel; Louis Coudurier; Thomas D. Y. Chung; Kevin R. Oldenburg

2001-01-01

405

Worlds apart: The changing market geography of the German machinery industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

German producers of advanced machinery have long enjoyed a reputation for technical excellence and export success. The literature attributes much of the industry's success, inter alia, to various forms of interfirm cooperation between SMEs within spatial clusters such as that found in Baden-Württemberg. However, this industry entered a period of relative crisis in the early 1990s, experiencing stagnant or declining

Meric S. Gertler

1996-01-01

406

Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

Wright, John; And Others

407

Novel HVAC fan machinery fault diagnosis method based on KPCA and SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel HVAC fan machinery fault recognition method combining kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. KPCA is an improved PCA, which possesses the property of extracting optimal features by adopting a nonlinear kernel function method. Support vector machine (SVM) is a novel approach based on statistical learning theory, which has emerged

Li Xuemei; Shao Ming; Ding Lixing; Xu Gang; Li Jibin

2009-01-01

408

Energetic Components of the Allosteric Machinery in Hemoglobin Measured by Hydrogen Exchange  

E-print Network

Energetic Components of the Allosteric Machinery in Hemoglobin Measured by Hydrogen Exchange Joan J. Englander1 *, Godfrey Louie2 , Russell E. McKinnie3 and S. Walter Englander1 1 The Johnson Research Lucent Technologies, 1100 E Warrenville Rd, Naperville IL 60566, USA A hydrogen exchange (HX) functional

Englander, S. Walter

409

15. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, PENTHOUSE/ELEVATOR MACHINERY CONTROL ROOM (ROOF LEVEL) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, PENTHOUSE/ELEVATOR MACHINERY CONTROL ROOM (ROOF LEVEL) AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, General Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, North of A Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

410

Application of Entropy Weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation in Optimal Selection of Engineering Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome the subjective randomness in traditional fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the weight value is modified based on the differential degree of evaluation indices, a new model for comprehensive evaluation-entropy weight fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is established by using the concept of entropy in information engineering science. Then the model is applied to the optimization of engineering machinery. Calculation

Jun Yan; Tiefu Zhang; Bin Zhang; Bangjun Wu

2008-01-01

411

The relationship between metabolism and the autophagy machinery during the innate immune response  

PubMed Central

The innate immune response is shaped by multiple factors, including both traditional autophagy and LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As the autophagic machinery is engaged during times of nutrient stress, arising from scarcity or pathogens, we examine how autophagy, specifically LAP, and cellular metabolism together influence macrophage function and the innate immune response. PMID:23747248

Martinez, Jennifer; Verbist, Katherine; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R.

2013-01-01

412

18. PWD Drawing 1123915 (814M7) (1945), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Bldg ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. PWD Drawing 11239-15 (814-M-7) (1945), 'Machinery Cleaning Bldg., Bldg No. 814, Fire Protection Automatic CO2 and Tank Cover Control' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Chemical Cleaning Facility, North of Fourteenth Street, between California & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

413

CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY DURING 50 YEARS OF ITS EXISTENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery was founded in 1960 at Ulbroka as a Research Institute of Agricultural Mechanisation and Electrification. In order to hasten the introduction of scientific developments into agriculture, a department of design engineers and an experimental workshop were formed at the Institute. The main directions of its action were mechanisation of field crop growing and harvesting,

Arvids Vilde; Dainis Viesturs; Imants Ziemelis; Ruta Balode

2010-01-01

414

Effects of machinery-sharing arrangements on farm efficiency: evidence from Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of partnerships, in the form of machinery-sharing arrangements, on farm efficiency are analyzed using data for Swedish crop and livestock farms. Efficiency scores are obtained using Data Envelopment Analysis and the findings suggest that efficiency is, on average, higher among partnership farms compared to nonpartnership farms. Moreover, partnership farms that are characterized by the most extensive form of

Karin Larsén

2010-01-01

415

Abnormalities of the DNA methylation mark and its machinery: an emerging cause of neurologic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Recently, Mendelian disorders of the DNA methylation machinery have been described which demonstrate the complex roles of epigenetics in neurodevelopment and disease. For example, defects of DNMT1, the maintenance methyltransferase, lead to adult-onset progressive neurologic disorders, whereas defects of the de novo methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B lead to nonprogressive neurodevelopmental conditions. Furthermore, patients with DNMT3A deficiency demonstrate overgrowth, a feature common to disorders of histone machinery and imprinting disorders, highlighting the interconnectedness of the many epigenetic layers. Disorders of the DNA methylation machinery include both the aforementioned "writers" and also the "readers" of the methyl mark, such as MeCP2, the cause of Rett syndrome. Any dosage disruption, either haploinsufficiency or overexpression of DNA methylation machinery leads to widespread gene expression changes in trans, disrupting expression of a subset of target genes that contribute to individual disease phenotypes. In contrast, classical imprinting disorders such as Angelman syndrome have been thought generally to cause epigenetic dysregulation in cis. However, the recent description of multilocus methylation disorders challenges this generalization. Here, in addition to summarizing recent developments in identifying the pathogenesis of these diseases, we highlight clinical considerations and some unexpected therapeutic opportunities, such as topoisomerase inhibitors for classical imprinting disorders. PMID:25192503

Weissman, Jacqueline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Bjornsson, Hans T

2014-07-01

416

Fault diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition by instantaneous power spectrum and genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a fault diagnosis method for plant machinery in an unsteady operating condition using instantaneous power spectrum (IPS) and genetic programming (GP). IPS is used to extract feature frequencies of each machine state from measured vibration signals for distinguishing faults by relative crossing information. Excellent symptom parameters for detecting faults are automatically generated by the GP. The excellent

Peng Chen; Masatoshi Taniguchi; Toshio Toyota; Zhengja He

2005-01-01

417

Failure diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition by instantaneous power spectrum and genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a failure diagnosis method for machinery in unsteady operating condition using instantaneous power spectrum (IPS) and genetic programming (GP). The IPS is used to extract feature frequency of each machine state from measured vibration signal for distinguishing failures by the Relative Crossing Information (RCI). Excellent symptom parameters for detecting failures are automatically generated by GP. The method

Peng Chen; Toshio Toyota; Masatoshi Taniguchi; Fang Feng; T. Hiho

2000-01-01

418

Computer Information Systems Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) delivers resources that advance computing as a science  

E-print Network

and assurance practices. The Information Systems Security Association (ISSA)®is a not-for-profit, internationalComputer Information Systems Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) delivers resources and procedures that properly manage the full data lifecycle needs of an enterprise Information Systems Audit

419

RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator  

E-print Network

. These results suggest that the RNAi machinery acts as a modulator of nuclear architecture capable of effecting-enhancer interactions and shield transgenes from position effects caused by surrounding chro- matin. The gypsy insulator also has a role in the nuclear positioning of silent chromatin, as S. pombe RNAi mutants show telomere

Corces, Victor G.

420

DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

421

46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces. (a) To prevent leakage through a single weld failure, the following spaces must be separated from a cargo by two walls, two bulkheads, or a bulkhead and a deck not...

2014-10-01

422

The Machinery of Management: Communication II (MM1). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on communication--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

423

The Machinery of Management: Team Building (MM4). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on team building--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

424

The Machinery of Management: Communication III (MM1). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on communication--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

425

The Machinery of Management: The Art of Interviewing (MM3). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on effective training skills for the art of interviewing--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

426

The Machinery of Management: Communication I (MM1). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on communications, the machinery of management for new hires, has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile, apparel, and carpet industries at 15…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

427

MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

428

SURVEY OF TECHNICAL PREVENTATIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EFFECTS WHEN DESIGNING MOBILE MACHINERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: •Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.•Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and

P. Donati

2002-01-01

429

21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

430

21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder. Commercially, sodium palmitate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and palmitic...

2010-04-01

432

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

433

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

434

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

435

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

436

CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?  

MedlinePLUS

... tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have different sodium ... can: Develop and implement efforts that: Increase public awareness about the amount of sodium added to processed ...

437

21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid and sodium chloride buffer containing 0.1 percent w/v chlorocresol B.P. as a bactericide. (2)...

2013-04-01

438

Learning Rotations Learning rotations with little regret  

E-print Network

-line algorithms for learning rotations have developed (Arora, 2009; Abrudan et al., 2008a,b) that exploit the Lie of examples, has numerous applications in these areas (see Arora (2009) for a summary of application areas

Warmuth, Manfred K.

439

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

440

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-print Network

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01

441

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

442

Agricultural machineries wheeling and soil qualities mapping in climatic changes conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As argued in the Fourth Assessment Report of the UN International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2007 the global climate is changing and will continue to change in the near future. Due to the changing in time distribution and intensity of rainfall, the available time to carry out soil tillage operations, seedbed preparation and fertilizers distribution is becoming shorter. These issues are worsened by soil compaction that is one of the major problems facing modern agriculture. Soil compaction impedes infiltration of rainfall, so the increasing scale of mechanization might well be responsible for greater runoff, soil loss by water erosion and water-logging. Overuse of machinery, intensive cropping, short crop rotations, intensive grazing and inappropriate soil management leads to compaction. The objective of this research was to study the compacting effect of two wheeled tractors fitted with different type of tires during fertilizing operations with soil water content over field capacity. Field tests were carried out in a farm near Rome (41°52'502'' Latitude (N); 12°12'866" Longitude (E)) in March 2010 on a clay soil (Vertic Cambisol) during wheat fertilizing. One tractor was fitted with very narrow and high aspect ratio tires with mounted broadcaster coded (WTN), the other tractor was equipped with extra large and low aspect ratio tires with trailed broadcaster for a total of four axles coded (WTEL). Immediately after fertilising operations, such effects have been quantified through spatial variation of some soil parameters: soil water content, soil penetration resistance (CI) and soil shear strength (SS). Soil samplings have been carried out on the tracks left by the tractors and on soil not interested by the passage (control). To monitor all tractors passes across the field and to compute the total area covered by tractors tires a DGPS receiver was placed into the tractors; to map soil parameters studied, both on tracks left by the tractors passes and on control areas, a software GIS was used. Results shown the highest level of soil compaction caused by the traffic of WTN in term of CI and SS. In fact, increment ratio respect to the control measured after the tractors pass were: CI = 0.65 and 0.14 for WTN and for WTEL respectively; SS = 0.65 and 0.46 for WTN and WTEL respectively. Comparing the two different tires, significant differences were found particularly in the surface layers (0-0.20 m depth): mean values of CI and SS were higher for WTN (0.47 and 1.60 respectively) respect to WTEL. Track area covered by the two treatments respect to the whole field (16.32 ha) were: 0.025 for treatment WTN (0.27 m tires width) having an operative work width of 24 m ; 0.075 for treatment WTEL (0.85 m tires width) having an operative work width of 14 m. Results of this study highlighted that, in these field conditions (clay soil, water content over field capacity), tractor pass with very narrow tires caused a soil compaction level too high up to be impossible to traffic into the field. To operate at these soil water content conditions a tractors fitted with low aspect ratio and low inflation pressure tires is necessary. With lower soil water content, narrow tires allow carrying out fertilization into the inter-row avoiding crop trampling and compacting less percentage of field area respect to the a tractor equipped with large tires. Key words: Tractor, Soil trafficability, Soil compaction, Tires, GPS, GIS. Acknowledgements This work was carried out under the auspices of the special project "Sceneries of adaptation of the Italian agriculture to the climatic changes" (AGROSCENARI) of the Agricultural Research Council, and Italian Ministry of the Agricultural and Forestry Politics.

Bergonzoli, S.; Servadio, P.

2012-04-01

443

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

444

Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed.

Freskakis, G.N.

1984-09-01

445

Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

446

Notes on rotating turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work investigates the turbulent constitutive relation when turbulence is subjected to solid body rotation. Laws regarding spectra and asymptotic decay of rotating homogeneous turbulence were confirmed through large-eddy simulation (LES) computations. Rotating turbulent flows exist in many industrial, geophysical, and astrophysical applications. From Lagrangian analysis a relation between turbulent stress and strain in rotating homogeneous turbulence was inferred. This relation was used to derive the spectral energy flux and, ultimately, the energy spectrum form. If the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) lies in the inertial subrange, then for wavenumbers less than k(sub Omega) the turbulence motions are affected by rotation and the energy spectrum slope is modified. Energy decay laws inferred in other reports and the present results suggest a modification of the epsilon model equation and eddy viscosity in k-epsilon models.

Zeman, Otto

1994-01-01

447

Rotating Sky Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses interactive simulations to introduce students to the horizon and celestial coordinate systems and the apparent rotation of objects in the sky (caused by the Earth's rotation). The simulations demonstrate the horizon plane, azimuth, and altitude; compare the advantages and disadvantages of the horizon and celestial coordinate systems, and show the paths of stars and other objects as they 'rotate' through the sky. The 'Rotating Star Explorer' lets users place stars, select the observer's position, and run an animation that shows the movements of the stars in both celestial and horizon views. The module includes a pretest, posttest, and a student guide.

448

Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

2014-01-01

449

Exploitation of host clock gene machinery by hepatitis viruses B and C  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of cellular physiology display circadian (approximately 24-h) rhythms. Dysfunction of the circadian clock molecular circuitry is associated with human health derangements, including neurodegeneration, increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Viruses triggering hepatitis depend tightly on the host cell synthesis machinery for their own replication, survival and spreading. Recent evidences support a link between the circadian clock circuitry and viruses’ biological cycle within host cells. Currently, in vitro models for chronobiological studies of cells infected with viruses need to be implemented. The establishment of such in vitro models would be helpful to better understand the link between the clock gene machinery and viral replication/viral persistence in order to develop specifically targeted therapeutic regimens. Here we review the recent literature dealing with the interplay between hepatitis B and C viruses and clock genes. PMID:24379614

Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Piccoli, Claudia; Tataranni, Tiziana; Andriulli, Angelo; Pazienza, Valerio

2013-01-01

450

Influenza A virus uses the aggresome processing machinery for host cell entry.  

PubMed

During cell entry, capsids of incoming influenza A viruses (IAVs) must be uncoated before viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) can enter the nucleus for replication. After hemagglutinin-mediated membrane fusion in late endocytic vacuoles, the vRNPs and the matrix proteins dissociate from each other and disperse within the cytosol. Here, we found that for capsid disassembly, IAV takes advantage of the host cell's aggresome formation and disassembly machinery. The capsids mimicked misfolded protein aggregates by carrying unanchored ubiquitin chains that activated a histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-dependent pathway. The ubiquitin-binding domain was essential for recruitment of HDAC6 to viral fusion sites and for efficient uncoating and infection. That other components of the aggresome processing machinery, including dynein, dynactin, and myosin II, were also required suggested that physical forces generated by microtubule- and actin-associated motors are essential for IAV entry. PMID:25342804

Banerjee, Indranil; Miyake, Yasuyuki; Nobs, Samuel Philip; Schneider, Christoph; Horvath, Peter; Kopf, Manfred; Matthias, Patrick; Helenius, Ari; Yamauchi, Yohei

2014-10-24

451

The application of energy operator demodulation approach based on EMD in machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy operator demodulation approach based on EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) is proposed to extract the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the multi-component amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) signals. Furthermore the proposed approach is applied to machinery fault diagnosis. Firstly, EMD method is used to decompose a multi-component AM-FM signal into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IFMs). Secondly, the energy operator demodulation method is applied to each IMF and the instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies of a multi-component AM-FM signal are extracted. Finally, the spectrum analysis is applied to each instantaneous amplitude in order to obtain envelope spectra from which the mechanical fault can be diagnosed. The analysis results show that the energy operator demodulation approach based on EMD can extract the characteristic of machinery fault vibration signals efficiently.

Junsheng, Cheng; Dejie, Yu; Yu, Yang

2007-02-01

452

The chitinolytic machinery of Serratia marcescens--a model system for enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The chitinolytic machinery of Serratia marcescens is one of the best known enzyme systems for the conversion of insoluble polysaccharides. This machinery includes four chitin-active enzymes: ChiC, an endo-acting non-processive chitinase; ChiA and ChiB, two processive chitinases moving along chitin chains in opposite directions; and CBP21, a surface-active CBM33-type lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase that introduces chain breaks by oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, an N-acetylhexosaminidase or chitobiase converts the oligomeric products from the other enzymes to monomeric N-acetylglucosamine. Here we discuss the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes as well as the structural basis of each enzyme's specific role in the chitin degradation process. We also discuss how knowledge of this enzyme system may be extrapolated to other enzyme systems for conversion of insoluble polysaccharides, in particular conversion of cellulose by cellulases and GH61-type lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. PMID:23398882

Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Horn, Svein J; Sørlie, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G H

2013-07-01

453

The dendritic SNARE fusion machinery involved in AMPARs insertion during long-term potentiation  

PubMed Central

Sorting endosomes carry ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from their maturation sites to their final destination at the dendritic plasma membrane through both constitutive and regulated exocytosis. Insertion of functional AMPARs into the postsynaptic membrane is essential for maintaining fast excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Despite this crucial role in neuronal function, the machinery mediating the fusion of AMPAR-containing endosomes in dendrites has been largely understudied in comparison to presynaptic vesicle exocytosis. Increasing evidence suggests that similarly to neurotransmitter release, AMPARs insertion relies on the formation of a SNARE complex (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor), whose composition in dendrites has just begun to be elucidated. This review analyzes recent findings of the fusion machinery involved in regulated AMPARs insertion and discusses how dendritic exocytosis and AMPARs lateral diffusion may work together to support synaptic plasticity.

Jurado, Sandra

2014-01-01

454

Overexpression of microRNA biogenesis machinery: Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer in multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the expression of the major components of microRNA biogenesis machinery including Drosha, Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The expression levels of these components in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients were significantly up-regulated in comparison to healthy controls. DGCR8 was up-regulated 4.9 times in RRMS patients versus healthy controls, and Drosha was up-regulated 3.58 times. Additionally, the expression level of Dicer was 2.11 times higher in RRMS patients than the healthy controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that overexpression of Drosha, Dicer and DGCR8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. Further investigation may introduce microRNA biogenesis machinery as MS markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:25439752

Jafari, Naser; Shaghaghi, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Davood; Shirzad, Zohreh; Alibeiki, Fatemeh; Bohlooli, Shahab; Dogaheh, Hadi Peeri

2015-01-01

455

Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

2011-01-01

456

Machinery-related deaths: Relevance of workplace investigation and antemortem radiological data in reconstructing the fatality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machinery-related fatalities are one of the leading causes of traumatic occupational deaths. In our report, we present the case of a 40-year-old male who suffered a severe head trauma while working in a cut-foam industry and died despite an early craniectomy. The radiological reconstruction of the skull based on preoperative computed tomography scans disclosed a large depressed conical fracture of

Giovanni Cecchetto; Guido Viel; Federica De Lotto; Renzo Manara; Massimo Montisci; Silvano Zancaner; S. Davide Ferrara

2010-01-01

457

48. COILING MACHINERY AT THE END OF THE 84INCH CONTINUOUS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. COILING MACHINERY AT THE END OF THE 84-INCH CONTINUOUS HOT STRIP MILL. EACH STEEL SLAB BY THIS POINT HAS BECOME A SINGLE TRIP VARYING IN WIDTH AND THICKNESS ACCORDING TO THE CUSTOMER'S ORDER. THE STRIP IS AUTOMATICALLY COILED, COOLED BY WATER SPRAYS, AND TRANSFERRED BY MECHANICAL ARMS ONTO A CONVEYOR. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

458

COMPARISON OF ENERGY CONSUPTION AND MACHINERY WORK WITH VARIOUS SOIL TILLAGE PRACTICES AT SOYBEAN PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual investigation of energy consumption and machinery work with three various soil tillage practices at soybean production, variety Tisa (Ist group) was conducted in east Croatia area (latitude 45O30? and longitude 18O07?). Conventional, conservation and no till were tillage practices applied. Energy comparison indicates a markedly energy consumption at the conventional soil tillage (ploughing, disking and seeding) with 56.86

R. Zimmer; S. Košuti?; M. Juriši?; V. Duvnjak

459

Research and Application of Modern Information Technology in the Forest Plant Protection Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest pests and diseases is very important to forest because it not only restricts the development of forest, but also causes\\u000a huge economic. Chemical pesticides control the pests and diseases effectively and pollute environment seriously. How to reduce\\u000a the amount of pesticide is the research hotspot in the field of plant protection. Forest plant protection machinery is the\\u000a most important

Lairong Chen; Qingchun Wang; Ronghua Ji

2010-01-01

460

Rabies Virus Hijacks and accelerates the p75NTR retrograde axonal transport machinery.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that depends on long distance axonal transport in order to reach the central nervous system (CNS). The strategy RABV uses to hijack the cellular transport machinery is still not clear. It is thought that RABV interacts with membrane receptors in order to internalize and exploit the endosomal trafficking pathway, yet this has never been demonstrated directly. The p75 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) receptor (p75NTR) binds RABV Glycoprotein (RABV-G) with high affinity. However, as p75NTR is not essential for RABV infection, the specific role of this interaction remains in question. Here we used live cell imaging to track RABV entry at nerve terminals and studied its retrograde transport along the axon with and without the p75NTR receptor. First, we found that NGF, an endogenous p75NTR ligand, and RABV, are localized in corresponding domains along nerve tips. RABV and NGF were internalized at similar time frames, suggesting comparable entry machineries. Next, we demonstrated that RABV could internalize together with p75NTR. Characterizing RABV retrograde movement along the axon, we showed the virus is transported in acidic compartments, mostly with p75NTR. Interestingly, RABV is transported faster than NGF, suggesting that RABV not only hijacks the transport machinery but can also manipulate it. Co-transport of RABV and NGF identified two modes of transport, slow and fast, that may represent a differential control of the trafficking machinery by RABV. Finally, we determined that p75NTR-dependent transport of RABV is faster and more directed than p75NTR-independent RABV transport. This fast route to the neuronal cell body is characterized by both an increase in instantaneous velocities and fewer, shorter stops en route. Hence, RABV may employ p75NTR-dependent transport as a fast mechanism to facilitate movement to the CNS. PMID:25165859

Gluska, Shani; Zahavi, Eitan Erez; Chein, Michael; Gradus, Tal; Bauer, Anja; Finke, Stefan; Perlson, Eran

2014-08-01

461

Piecewise Mental Rotation 1 Running Head: PIECEWISE MENTAL ROTATION  

E-print Network

Piecewise Mental Rotation 1 Running Head: PIECEWISE MENTAL ROTATION Piecewise Mental Rotation Heri entries Figures: 2 (1 panel and 6 panels) Tables: 1 (2 panels) #12;Piecewise Mental Rotation 2 Abstract In mental rotation tasks, participants have to decide whether two images show the same object or scene

Pomplun, Marc

462

The midbody ring scaffolds the abscission machinery in the absence of midbody microtubules  

PubMed Central

Abscission completes cytokinesis to form the two daughter cells. Although abscission could be organized from the inside out by the microtubule-based midbody or from the outside in by the contractile ring–derived midbody ring, it is assumed that midbody microtubules scaffold the abscission machinery. In this paper, we assess the contribution of midbody microtubules versus the midbody ring in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We show that abscission occurs in two stages. First, the cytoplasm in the daughter cells becomes isolated, coincident with formation of the intercellular bridge; proper progression through this stage required the septins (a midbody ring component) but not the membrane-remodeling endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Second, the midbody and midbody ring are released into a specific daughter cell during the subsequent cell division; this stage required the septins and the ESCRT machinery. Surprisingly, midbody microtubules were dispensable for both stages. These results delineate distinct steps during abscission and highlight the central role of the midbody ring, rather than midbody microtubules, in their execution. PMID:24217623

Green, Rebecca A.; Mayers, Jonathan R.; Wang, Shaohe; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Desai, Arshad; Audhya, Anjon

2013-01-01

463

Functional interplay between a virus and the ESCRT machinery in archaea.  

PubMed

Recently it has been discovered that a number of eukaryotic viruses, including HIV, coopt the cellular Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery to affect egress from infected cells. Strikingly, the ESCRT apparatus is conserved in a subset of Archaea, including members of the genus Sulfolobus where it plays a role in cytokinesis. In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National Park's acidic hot springs also exploits the host ESCRT machinery in its replication cycle. Moreover, perturbation of normal ESCRT function abrogates viral replication and, thus, prevents establishment of a productive Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus infection. We propose that the Sulfolobus ESCRT machinery is involved in viral assembly within the cytoplasm and in escape from the infected cell by using a unique lysis mechanism. Our results support an ancient origin for viruses "hijacking" ESCRT proteins to complete their replication cycle and thus identify a critical host-virus interaction conserved between two domains of life. PMID:23754419

Snyder, Jamie C; Samson, Rachel Y; Brumfield, Susan K; Bell, Stephen D; Young, Mark J

2013-06-25

464

The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions.  

PubMed

Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

465

The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

466

The Place of RNA in the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genetic Machinery  

PubMed Central

The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA ? DNA memory takeover and ribozyme ? enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness. PMID:25532530

Wächtershäuser, Günter

2014-01-01

467

RNAi in Arthropods: Insight into the Machinery and Applications for Understanding the Pathogen-Vector Interface  

PubMed Central

The availability of genome sequencing data in combination with knowledge of expressed genes via transcriptome and proteome data has greatly advanced our understanding of arthropod vectors of disease. Not only have we gained insight into vector biology, but also into their respective vector-pathogen interactions. By combining the strengths of postgenomic databases and reverse genetic approaches such as RNAi, the numbers of available drug and vaccine targets, as well as number of transgenes for subsequent transgenic or paratransgenic approaches, have expanded. These are now paving the way for in-field control strategies of vectors and their pathogens. Basic scientific questions, such as understanding the basic components of the vector RNAi machinery, is vital, as this allows for the transfer of basic RNAi machinery components into RNAi-deficient vectors, thereby expanding the genetic toolbox of these RNAi-deficient vectors and pathogens. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of arthropod vector RNAi machinery and the impact of RNAi on understanding vector biology and vector-pathogen interactions for which vector genomic data is available on VectorBase. PMID:24705082

Barnard, Annette-Christi; Nijhof, Ard M.; Fick, Wilma; Stutzer, Christian; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

2012-01-01

468

Vibration Sensor Data Denoising Using a Time-Frequency Manifold for Machinery Fault Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods. PMID:24379045

He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

2014-01-01

469

Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

1990-01-01

470

The place of RNA in the origin and early evolution of the genetic machinery.  

PubMed

The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA ? DNA memory takeover and ribozyme ? enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness. PMID:25532530

Wächtershäuser, Günter

2014-01-01

471

Organelle proteomics: identification of the exocytic machinery associated with the natural killer cell secretory lysosome.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate virally infected and transformed cells. Target cell killing is mediated by the regulated exocytosis of secretory lysosomes, which deliver perforin and proapoptotic granzymes to the infected or transformed cell. Yet despite the central role that secretory lysosome exocytosis plays in the immune response to viruses and tumors, little is known about the molecular machinery that regulates the docking and fusion of this organelle with the plasma membrane. To identify potential components of this exocytic machinery we used proteomics to define the protein composition of the NK cell secretory lysosome membrane. Secretory lysosomes were isolated from the NK cell line YTS by subcellular fractionation, integral membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins were enriched using Triton X-114 and separated by SDS-PAGE, and tryptic peptides were identified by LC ESI-MS/MS. In total 221 proteins were identified unambiguously in the secretory lysosome membrane fraction of which 61% were predicted to be either integral membrane proteins or membrane-associated proteins. A significant proportion of the proteins identified play a role in vesicular trafficking, including members of both the Rab GTPase and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and protein families. These proteins include Rab27a and the SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein-7, both of which were enriched in the secretory lysosome fraction and represent potential components of the machinery that regulates the exocytosis of this organelle in NK cells. PMID:17272266

Casey, Tammy M; Meade, Josephine L; Hewitt, Eric W

2007-05-01

472

Time-frequency manifold for nonlinear feature extraction in machinery fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-frequency feature is beneficial to representation of non-stationary signals for effective machinery fault diagnosis. The time-frequency distribution (TFD) is a major tool to reveal the synthetic time-frequency pattern. However, the TFD will also face noise corruption and dimensionality reduction issues in engineering applications. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear time-frequency feature based on a time-frequency manifold (TFM) technique. The new TFM feature is generated by mainly addressing manifold learning on the TFDs in a reconstructed phase space. It combines the non-stationary information and the nonlinear information of analyzed signals, and hence exhibits valuable properties. Specifically, the new feature is a quantitative low-dimensional representation, and reveals the intrinsic time-frequency pattern related to machinery health, which can effectively overcome the effects of noise and condition variance issues in sampling signals. The effectiveness and the merits of the proposed TFM feature are confirmed by case study on gear wear diagnosis, bearing defect identification and defect severity evaluation. Results show the value and potential of the new feature in machinery fault pattern representation and classification.

He, Qingbo

2013-02-01

473

Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

2011-01-01

474

Optical Gyroscopes: Sensing Rotation  

E-print Network

gyroscopes are all familiar methods to measure position. The sensing of rotation by optical means was first1 Optical Gyroscopes: Sensing Rotation Without Moving Parts Robert Dahlgren Silicon Valley since ancient times. Astronomy, timekeeping, magnetic sensors, the GPS system, MEMs, and spinning- mass

Miller, Ethan L.

475

Rotator cuff exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons A rotator cuff tear, which occurs when one of the tendons is ... Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, Osterman AL, Fedorczyk JM, Amadio ...

476

Rotatable shear plate interferometer  

DOEpatents

A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

Duffus, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

477

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

478

Diamagnetism of rotating plasma  

SciTech Connect

Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2011-11-15

479

A rotating disk study of gold dissolution by bromine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold dissolution with bromine was studied using the rotating disk technique with Geobrom™ 3400 as a source of bromine. The parameters studied were speed of rotation, lixiviant concentration, pH, temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid concentrations, and the concentrations of various cations (i.e., copper, iron, zinc, aluminum, manganese, potassium, and sodium) and anions (i.e., chloride, bromide, sulfate, nitrate, and iodide). According to the Lavich plot and activation energy, gold dissolution is controlled by a chemical reaction rate. Copper, iron, and manganese in their highest oxidation states, as well as aluminum, zinc, sodium, and potassium, have no effect on the rate of gold dissolution. The presence of manganous ion substantially decreases the gold dissolution rate. The kinetic performance of bromine was found to be dramatically better than the performance of cyanide and thiourea.

Pesic, Batric; Sergent, Rodney H.

1991-12-01

480

Rotating reactor studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is thicker and extends all the way around the reactor.

Roberts, Glyn O.

1991-01-01

481

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-print Network

mashed 1/2 small *Two units of Group A vegetables may be substituted for one unit from Group B. *One unit from the bread list may be substituted for one unit of Group C vegetables. If fresh, frozen or dietetic canned vegetables are used, the sodium... medium 1/4 cup 2 tablespoons 2 tablespoons use as desired 1 cup 1 large 1/2 cup 1 cup 7 BREADS Group A Yeast breads and rolls without salt One unit 5 mg sodium, 70 calories Bread Melba toast, unsalted Roll Group B 1 slice 4 pieces (3112...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

482

Sodium heat transfer system modeling  

SciTech Connect

The sodium heat transfer system of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator has been modeled. The computer code SOLTES (Simulator of Large Thermal Energy Systems), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was used to model this system. Based on data provided to Sandia by the IEA-SSPS/CRS project, the results from SOLTES are compared to measured data. The comparison between measured data and predictions from SOLTES is very good for the day evaluated.

Baker, A.F.; Fewell, M.E.

1983-01-01

483

Sodium nitroprusside: theory and practice  

PubMed Central

Sodium nitroprusside, by a peripheral vasodilator action, is a powerful hypotensive drug. In contrast to established agents, its hypotensive action is accompanied by an unchanged or augmented cardiac output. Intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside rapidly produces a profound and controllable hypotension. Normotension is swiftly restored by ceasing to infuse the agent, and antidotes are unnecessary. Its attributes make it especially suitable for neurosurgical anaesthesia, and although free cyanide is liberated during biotransformation, side effects are virtually absent provided that dosage is reasonable. Special contraindications to its use are hypothyroidism and altered cobalamin metabolism. PMID:4467853

Verner, Ian R.

1974-01-01

484

Rotational Quantum Friction  

E-print Network

We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semiconductor materials that are able to support surface plasmon polaritons, quantum friction can be further enhanced by several orders of magnitude due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons.

Rongkuo Zhao; Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier García de Abajo; J. B. Pendry

2012-09-25

485

Magnetic rotating disk viscometer  

SciTech Connect

A rotating disk viscometer has been developed aiming at measuring the viscosity at the critical consolute point of binary mixtures in the true hydrodynamic limit. The viscometer consists of a small magnetized disk set into slow rotation by a uniformly rotating magnetic field. The liquid is continuously sheared and no frequency effects should manifest even at the critical point. The phase delay between field and disk depends on the torques acting on the disk, including that of viscous nature. The viscosity can be calculated from the knowledge of the viscous torque obtained after calibration of the viscometer using literature data for ethanol. Preliminary testing results obtained with this novel apparatus are reported.

Borghesani, A.F.; Santini, M. (Universita degli studi di Padova (Italy) GNSM/CISM, Padova (Italy))

1989-09-01

486

Chaotic rotation of Hyperion?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.

Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.

1986-01-01

487

Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets  

DOEpatents

An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.

1980-11-12

488

Multiscale envelope manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wavelet transform has been widely used in the field of machinery fault diagnosis for its good property of band-pass filtering. However, the filtered signal still faces the contamination of in-band noise. This paper focuses on wavelet enveloping, and proposes a new method, called multiscale envelope manifold (MEM), to extract the envelope information of fault impacts with in-band noise suppression. The MEM addresses manifold learning on the wavelet envelopes at multiple scales. Specifically, the proposed method is conducted by three following steps. First, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with complex Morlet wavelet base is introduced to obtain the wavelet envelopes at all scales. Second, the wavelet envelopes are restricted in one or more narrow scale bands to simply include the envelope information of fault impacts. The scale band is determined through a smoothness index-based (SI-based) selection method by considering the impulsiveness inside the power spectrum. Third, the manifold learning algorithm is conducted on the wavelet envelopes at selected scales to extract the intrinsic envelope manifold of fault-related impulses. The MEM combines the envelope information at multiple scales in a nonlinear approach, and may thus preserve the factual envelope structure of machinery fault. Simulation studies and experimental verifications confirm that the new method is effective for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines.

Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

2015-02-01

489

Rotator Cuff Tears  

MedlinePLUS

... cu? tear most o en occurs within the tendon. Rotator Cu? Tears cont. .org Page ( 3 ) AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information ...

490

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

491

Synchronous Rotation of Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the moon's orbit around the Earth. This animation and accompanying text explain that the same side of the moon always faces Earth because of the moon's rotation. The animation begins with a demonstration of how the moon would appear if it did not rotate on its axis, and shows that all sides would be visible from Earth at some point in that orbit. The animation then shows the synchronous rotation of the moon and explains this rotation is the reason for our only seeing one side of the moon. The sun is shown at the right side of the diagram and the Earth and moon are shown with an illuminated side facing the sun and a dark side facing away from the sun. Colored "craters" on opposite sides of the moon are used as reference points for the animation.

492

The Earth's rotation problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.

2008-09-01

493

[Sodium transporters and aquaporins: future renal biomarkers?].  

PubMed

Renal sodium and water reabsorption is mediated by renal sodium transporters and water channels or aquaporins which are localized in the apical and basolateral membranes of tubular epithelial cells. The main apical sodium transporters and water channels located along the nephron are: sodium-proton exchanger subtype 3 (NHE-3) which reabsorbs most of the sodium coming from the glomerular filtrate, sodium-phosphate type II cotransporter (NaPiII) and aquaporin-1, all of which are located in the proximal tubule; sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) which plays a key role in sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb; the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule; and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and aquaporin-2 located in the collecting tubule. There are some experimental studies in which the role of these proteins has been associated with the pathophysiology of several sodium and water balance disorders. In humans, urine is the perfect source to obtain biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of kidney diseases and the assessment of disease progression without the use of invasive procedures. Thus, some of the renal sodium transporters or the aquaporins located in the apical membrane which are excreted in the tubular lumen and detected in urine could become biomarkers of some sodium and water balance disorders. Nowadays there are many studies investigating the role of these proteins in humans in clinical settings. PMID:17927939

Esteva-Font, Cristina; Torra Balcells, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

2007-09-29

494

Rotational rate sensor  

DOEpatents

A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

495

The Physics of Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains media-illustrated articles on various physical phenomena related to the Coriolis effect. Almost all of the articles are illustrated with animations and java simulations. The main subjects covered include the Coriolis and Centrifugal effects, rotation-vibration coupling, the consequences of Earth's rotation on oceanography and weather, the Foucault pendulum, and angular momentum conservation. There are also articles on the Eötvös effect and special and general relativity.

Teunissen, Cleon

2009-01-12

496

Faraday rotation in graphene  

E-print Network

We study magneto--optical properties of monolayer graphene by means of quantum field theory methods in the framework of the Dirac model. We reveal a good agreement between the Dirac model and a recent experiment on giant Faraday rotation in cyclotron resonance. We also predict other regimes when the effects are well pronounced. The general dependence of the Faraday rotation and absorption on various parameters of samples is revealed both for suspended and epitaxial graphene.

I. V. Fialkovsky; D. V. Vassilevich

2012-03-20

497

Electromagnetic rotational actuation.  

SciTech Connect

There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

Hogan, Alexander Lee

2010-08-01

498

Robot Grasps Rotating Object  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

1991-01-01

499

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

500

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01