Sample records for soil mercury levels

  1. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip M. G. Tack; Thomas Vanhaesebroeck; Marc G. Verloo; Kurt Van Rompaey; Eric Van Ranst

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For

  2. Mercury levels in soils of the Eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Wiersma; H. Tai

    1974-01-01

    Cropland and noncropland soils were sampled to determine levels of elemental mercury present in the upper three inches of soil. Results showed no difference in mercury levels between cropland and noncropland soils. Levels detected compared closely to levels found in similar studies. Actual mean levels of mercury residues in soils of the eastern United States ranged from 0.05 to 0.10

  3. Investigation of mercury levels in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator in Shenzhen, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Jian Wang; Hong-Wei Zhao; Xiu-Ping Zhong; Si-Fang Kong; Yang-Sheng Liu; Hui Zeng

    Within the management hierarchy of municipal solid waste (MSW), incineration with energy recovery is a desired and viable\\u000a option often used in densely populated and economically developed cities. The gaseous and particulate mercury (Hg) emitted\\u000a from MSW incinerators may accumulate in the soil entering via dry and wet deposition. To investigate the soil Hg level and\\u000a estimate the effects of

  4. Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (PCDDS), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFS), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Mercury in Rural Soils of the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Mercury in Rural Soils of the United States . The survey measured levels of dioxins, PCBs and mercury in soil ...

  5. Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, D. [Monmouth Coll., West Long Branch, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

  6. METHYLATION OF MERCURY IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methylation of applied divalent mercury ion was found to occur in agricultural soils. The production of methylmercury was affected by soil texture, soil moisture content, soil temperature, concentration of the ionic mercury amendment, and time. Methylation was directly proportion...

  7. Effects of mercury release from amalgam dental restorations during cremation on soil mercury levels of three New Zealand crematoria

    SciTech Connect

    Nieschmidt, A.K.; Kim, N.D. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-05-01

    A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of mercury during cremation. Mercury is liberated during cremation both because dental amalgams are unstable at cremation temperatures (650-700{degrees}C) and because the free mercury metal is highly volatile. In New Zealand, 58% of deaths are followed by cremation and this figure is likely to rise in the future. This increasing use of cremation as the method of corpse disposal, coupled with the fact that each amalgam restoration is approximately 50% mercury, implies that a significant amount of mercury may be emitted into the environment every year. This study examines mercury released from crematoria in New Zealand. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Mercury content of Illinois soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

  9. Accumulation and oxidation of elemental mercury in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Soares, Liliane Catone; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza; Linhares, Lucília Alves; Windmoller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Yoshida, Maria Irene

    2015-09-01

    The role of chemical and mineralogical soil properties in the retention and oxidation of atmospheric mercury in tropical soils is discussed based on thermal desorption analysis. The retention of gaseous mercury by tropical soils varied greatly both quantitatively and qualitatively with soil type. The average natural mercury content of soils was 0.08±0.06?gg(-1) with a maximum of 0.215±0.009?gg(-1). After gaseous Hg(0) incubation experiments, mercury content of investigated soils ranged from 0.6±0.2 to 735±23?gg(-1), with a mean value of 44±146?gg(-1). Comparatively, A horizon of almost all soil types adsorbed more mercury than B horizon from the same soil, which demonstrates the key role of organic matter in mercury adsorption. In addition to organic matter, pH and CEC also appear to be important soil characteristics for the adsorption of mercury. All thermograms showed Hg(2+) peaks, which were predominant in most of them, indicating that elemental mercury oxidized in tropical soils. After four months of incubation, the thermograms showed oxidation levels from 70% to 100%. As none of the samples presented only the Hg(0) peak, and the soils retained varying amounts of mercury despite exposure under the same incubation conditions, it became clear that oxidation occurred on soil surface. Organic matter seemed to play a key role in mercury oxidation through complexation/stabilization of the oxidized forms. The lower percentages of available mercury (extracted with KNO3) in A horizons when compared to B horizons support this idea. PMID:25950134

  10. VOLATILITY OF MERCURY FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH VARIOUS MERCURY COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the rate of mercury volatilization from soils freshly amended with mercury compounds. Mercuric nitrate, mercuric chloride, mercuric acetate, mercuric oxide, and mercuric sulfide were used in conjunction with three soils: a loamy sand, a sand loa...

  11. OCCURRENCE OF MERCURY-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  12. OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  13. Mercury concentrations in oligohaline wetland vegetation and associated soil biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in above- and below-ground tissues of dominant plant species, as well as soils, in the wetlands of Lake Maurepas, Louisiana. Indicators of wetland soil biogeochemical status, such as soil redox potential, pore-water nutrient concentrations, and pore-water total sulfides, were also determined. Total mercury concentrations in plant tissues were within the typical range for vegetation not exposed to mercury contamination. Similarly, total mercury concentrations in soils were typical of uncontaminated wetlands within this geographic region. Soil methyl mercury levels in this study are slightly lower than those reported in other studies of nearby wetlands. This may reflect the less extensive geographic sampling in this study, or the low water levels in the Lake Maurepas system immediately prior to and during this study, which would have altered soil biogeochemical status. This is corroborated by measurements of soil redox potential and soil pore-water nitrogen and sulfur constituents conducted during this study that suggest minimal sulfate reduction was occurring in surficial soils. This study indicates that the wetlands surrounding Lake Maurepas are typical of many uncontaminated oligohaline wetlands in the southeastern U.S. in regard to mercury concentrations. PMID:21188507

  14. Mercury levels in Wisconsin fish and wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Kleinert; P. E. Degurse

    1972-01-01

    Mercury determinations were made on 1824 fish fillet samples representing 139 locations covering 52 of Wisconsin's 72 counties and boundary waters of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, Lake Superior, and the Mississippi River. Mercury levels in fish from waters removed from any known source of mercury use averaged .19 ppm and ranged between .01 and .60 ppm mercury. The highest mercury

  15. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  16. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Taylor, G.E. Jr. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

  17. Ammonium thiosulphate enhanced phytoextraction from mercury contaminated soil--results from a greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Qiu, Guangle; Ping, Li; Bao, Zhengduo

    2011-02-15

    According to the 'hard and soft' acid-base principle, mercury is a 'soft metal' and will preferentially form soluble chemical complexes with sulphur-containing ligands. In this work mercury uptake by Chenopodium glaucum L. growing on mercury-contaminated soil was promoted using ammonium thiosulphate. The relative geochemical fractionation of mercury in the soil was subsequently investigated as a function of plant growth with and without thiosulphate amendment. The results indicate that the solubility of mercury is significantly increased through the application of thiosulphate to the soil. Substantially higher mercury levels were found in C. glaucum L. treated with 2 g kg(-1) thiosulphate of soil when compared to the non-treated plants. Compared with initial soil, soluble and exchangeable fractions were increased both in planted and planted treated plants. However, no significant difference was observed between the soils of the planted and planted treated plants. The oxide-bound mercury concentration was significantly decreased for the planted soil (treated and non-treated) at the end of the experiment. Moreover, this fraction was highly correlated with the plant tissue mercury concentration. Taken together, thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction could be used to reduce environmental risk apparent for mercury-contaminated soil through reducing the oxide bound fractions, while managing the bioavailable fractions (compared with no treated plant). PMID:21122988

  18. Adsorption–Desorption Characteristics of Mercury in Paddy Soils of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. D. Jing; Z. L. He; X. E. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has received considerable attention because of its association with various human health problems. Adsorption-desorption behavior of Hg at contaminated levels in two paddy soils was investigated. Th e two representative soils for rice production in China, locally referred to as a yellowish red soil (YRS) and silty loam soil (SLS) and classifi ed as Gleyi- Stagnic Anthrosols in

  19. Mercury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... air, ingesting contaminated water and food, and having dental and medical treatments. Mercury, at high levels, may damage the ... burn mercury-containing fuels. Release of mercury from dental work and medical treatments. Breathing contaminated workplace air or skin contact ...

  20. Total gaseous mercury emissions from soil in Guiyang, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; Hou, Yamin; Tang, Shunlin

    2005-07-01

    Guiyang is located in the Circum-Pacific Global Mercuriferous Belt, and mercury concentrations in soil in this area are enriched. In situ total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and soil surface were intensively measured at four sampling sites in Guiyang from 21 May to 16 June 2003. Overall, net emissions were obtained from all sampling sites. Soil mercury concentration and solar radiation are proved to be the two most important parameters to control mercury emissions from soil. Meanwhile, a rain event can enhance mercury emission rate significantly. A simple model based on the linear correlation between mercury flux and solar radiation was applied to scale up mercury emissions from soil zones with different mercury concentration ranges. It is observed that mercury emission fluxes from soil in Guiyang are one order of magnitude higher than the value used in early models to represent emissions from global mercuriferous belts which is 1.1 ng m-2 h-1. The annual mercury emission from soil in Guiyang is calculated to be 408 kg, which highlights that natural emissions from soil contribute significantly to the elevated TGM concentrations in the ambient air in Guiyang.

  1. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  2. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere. PMID:24520729

  3. Environmental Emission of Mercury During Gold Mining by Amalgamation Process and its Impact on Soils of Gympie, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARKIRAT S. DHINDSA; ANDREW R. BATTLE; SVENNING PRYTZ

    2003-01-01

    -- The aims of this study were to estimate the total amount of mercury released to the environment during 60 years of gold mining (1867-1926) at Gympie, Queensland, Australia and to measure the mercury levels in soil samples surrounding the mining activity. We estimated that 1902 tonnes of mercury was released to the environment and about 1236 tonnes of which

  4. Distribution of mercury, methyl mercury and organic sulphur species in soil, soil solution and stream of a boreal forest catchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Skyllberg; Jin Qian; Wolfgang Frech; Kang Xia; William F. Bleam

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of methyl mercury, CH3Hg (II), total mercury, Hgtot = CH3Hg (II) + Hg (II), and organic sulphur species were determined in soils, soil solutions and streams of a small (50 ha) boreal forest catchment in northern Sweden. The CH3Hg (II)\\/Hgtot ratio decreased from 1.2–17.2% in the peaty stream bank soils to 0.4–0.8% in mineral and peat soils 20 m

  5. Effects of mercury on soil microbial communities in tropical soils of French Guyana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Harris-Hellal; Tatiana Vallaeys; Evelyne Garnier-Zarli; Noureddine Bousserrhine

    2009-01-01

    In gold mining regions, the risk of soil pollution by mercury is a major environmental hazard, especially in tropical areas where soil microflora plays a major part in soil functioning, major bio-geochemical cycles and carbon turn-over. The impact of mercury pollution on soil microflora should thus be carefully assessed in such environments while taking into consideration the specificities of tropical

  6. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, Chinese brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 parts-per-million (ppm) and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, or Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. We have observed mercury translocation from roots to shoot for Chinese fern and two Indian mustard varieties. (authors)

  7. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P J; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-06-01

    Mercury from anthropogenic activities is a pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic, and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. Two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, are also discussed in this review. PMID:25850737

  8. Mercury in soils and plants in an abandoned cinnabar mining area (SW Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. García-Sánchez; A. Murciego; E. Álvarez-Ayuso; I. Santa Regina; M. A. Rodríguez-González

    2009-01-01

    An abandoned cinnabar mining area located in the South-West of Spain has been studied with the aim of assessing its mercury pollution level and enhancing the knowledge about the Hg soil\\/plant relationship. To do so, soils and plants were sampled near an inactive smelter and around two mining sites present in this area. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in

  9. Biological monitoring for mercury within a community with soil and fish contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, M; Seidel, S; Rojas, P; Fornes, R; Flessel, P; Smith, D; Kreutzer, R; Goldman, L

    1997-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated levels of inorganic mercury in soil and dust and organic mercury in fish, biological monitoring was conducted among Native Americans living next to an inactive mercury mine in Clear Lake, California. Of resident tribal members, 46% (n = 56) participated in biomonitoring. Urine mercury levels are equivalent to background, indicating that soil and dust exposures among study participants are not substantial. The average blood organic mercury level among study participants is 15.6 +/- 8.8 micrograms/l (n = 44), which is higher than levels reported by others among those who do not consume fish (2 micrograms/l). Consistent with results from other studies, a correlation between fish consumption and blood organic mercury is observed (p = 0.03). The margin between observed and established adverse effect levels for adults is examined for blood organic mercury and found to be less than 10-fold for 20% of the study population. Protective public health efforts for the study population and other similarly exposed populations, notably those who consume commercial fish products, are considered. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189708

  10. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 ?g kg(-1)), sediment (430 ?g kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 ?g kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment. PMID:24943890

  11. Vertical variations in the concentration of mercury in soils around Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Tomiyasu; Morimichi Okada; Ryusuke Imura; Hayao Sakamoto

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to estimate the influence of mercury emitted from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan, on the accumulation of mercury in soil, the vertical distribution of total mercury in soils was investigated together with organic matter content and grain size. The soils were sampled at a thickness of 1 cm from the surface to depth of 1 m at

  12. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  13. A first insight into mercury distribution and speciation in soils from the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Higueras; R. Oyarzun; H. Biester; J. Lillo; S. Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Almost no environmental data on mercury distribution and speciation in soils have been published so far for the Almadén mining district (central Spain), despite its huge size and historic importance. The mercury distribution in soils of the district reveals the existence of high and extremely high mercury values (up to ?9000 ppm Hg). The Hg-thermodesorption curves for soils from a

  14. Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

  15. Application of ferric sludge to immobilize leachable mercury in soils and concrete.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J Ming; Walsh, T; Lam, T; Boulter, D

    2003-11-01

    A Hg-contaminated site in B.C. Province, Canada was caused by the previous operation of Hg-cell in chlor-alkali process for over 25 years. The soils and groundwater at the site are highly contaminated with mercury. An analysis of groundwater at the site has shown that most of the mercury is bonded with humic and fulvic acids (HFA) in colloidal form. The Hg-HFA colloids can be completely removed from the groundwater with ferric chloride treatment under optimized process conditions to form ferric sludge (FS), which is rendered non-leachable by standard TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test. The effluent discharged from a clarifier has achieved mercury levels of < 0.5 microkg l(-1). The studies of mercury adsorption characteristics of FS show it has low mercury leachability by TCLP, and great mercury adsorption capability. This feature is the basis for the application of FS to immobilization of leachable Hg-contaminants in solid wastes. Full-scale stabilization tests of Hg-contaminated soil have been carried out, and the time-based stability of the treated soil has been monitored by TCLP over a period of 60 days. All the results have shown a small variation in TCLP mercury levels within a range of 10-40 microg l(-1). Based on these results and with the approval of the B.C. Ministry of the Environment, 1850 tons of Hg-contaminated soils and 260 tons of Hg-contaminated concrete fines have been treated, stabilized with FS, and disposed in a non-hazardous waste disposal site. PMID:14733397

  16. Evaluation of Mercury in Urine as an Indicator of Exposure to Low Levels of Mercury Vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce S. Tsuji; Pamela R. D. Williams; Melanie R. Edwards; Krishna P. Allamneni; Michael A. Kelsh; Dennis J. Paustenbach; Patrick J. Sheehan

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a pooled analysis to investigate the relationship between exposure to elemental mercury in air and resulting urinary mercury levels, specifically at lower air levels relevant for envi- ronmental exposures and public health goals (i.e., < 50 µg\\/m3 down to 1.0 µg\\/m3). Ten studies reporting paired air and urine mercury data (149 samples total) met criteria for data quality

  17. Estimations of historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from mercury refining and present-day soil concentrations of total mercury in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole; Halabi, Susan; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Richter, Daniel deB; Heine, Paul; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Vandenberg, John

    2012-06-01

    Detailed Spanish records of cinnabar mining and mercury production during the colonial period in Huancavelica, Peru were examined to estimate historical health risks to the community from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor resulting from cinnabar refining operations. Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of Hg were released to the atmosphere in Huancavelica from Hg production. AERMOD was used with estimated emissions and source characteristics to approximate historic atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor. Modeled 1-hour and long-term concentrations were compared with present-day inhalation reference values for elemental Hg. Estimated 1-hour maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values, while some areas closest to the smelters exceeded present-day emergency response guideline levels. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded the EPA Reference Concentration (RfC) by a factor of 30 to 100, with areas closest to the smelters exceeding the RfC by a factor of 300 to 1000. Based on the estimated historical concentrations of Hg vapor in the community, the study also measured the extent of present-day contamination throughout the community through soil sampling and analysis. Total Hg in soils sampled from 20 locations ranged from 1.75 to 698 mg/kg and three adobe brick samples ranging from 47.4 to 284 mg/kg, consistent with other sites of mercury mining and use. The results of the soil sampling indicate that the present-day population of Huancavelica is exposed to levels of mercury from legacy contamination which is currently among the highest worldwide, consequently placing them at potential risk of adverse health outcomes. PMID:22542225

  18. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will be the largest refinery of Brazil and, consequently, with less anthropogenic influences for the moment. Ecological risk assessments are conducted together with ecotoxicological tests in natural and artificial tropical soils, using exotic and native species of the soil fauna, naturally present in the area of study, in order to determine the risk of mercury in soil and litter in tropical forest. Previous results confirm higher concentrations of mercury in litter and soil of the forest area closest to the operating refinery. The presence of Hg seems to select the size of the organisms as well as the abundance and diversity of the soil fauna that remain in tropical forest.

  19. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    PubMed

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers. PMID:18937528

  20. Mercury exposure in French Guiana: Levels and determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Cordier, S.; Mandereau, L. [Inst. National de Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Villejuif (France); Grasmick, C. [Direction Generale de la Sante, Paris (France); Paquier-Passelaigue, M. [Direction Dept. des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Cayenne (France); Weber, J.P. [Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec (Canada); Jouan, M. [Reseau National de Sante Publique, St. Maurice (France)

    1998-07-01

    Mercury is used widely for gold extraction in French Guiana and throughout the entire Amazon basin. To evaluate contamination among the general population, the authors chose individuals who attended 13 health centers and maternity hospitals dispersed geographically across the territory and served Guiana`s different populations. Five hundred individuals (109 pregnant women, 255 other adults, and 136 children) who received care at one of the centers were selected randomly for this study. Each individual answered a questionnaire and provided a hair sample. The authors determined mercury in hair with atomic absorption spectrometry. The following mean levels of mercury were observed: 1.6 {micro}g/g among pregnant women; 3.4 {micro}g/g among other adults; and 2.5 {micro}g/g among children. Diet factors contributed the most to mercury levels, especially consumption of freshwater fish and livers from game. Other factors, including age, dental amalgams, use of skin-lightening cosmetics, and residence near a gold-mining community, did not contribute significantly to mercury levels. Overall, 12% of the samples contained mercury levels in excess of 10 {micro}g/g, but in some Amerindian communities up to 79% of the children had hair mercury levels that exceeded 10 {micro}g/g. The results of this study indicated that (a) diet played a predominant role in total mercury burden, and (b) in some communities, mercury contamination exceeded safe levels.

  1. Incorporation of Decomposed Crop Straw Affects Potential Phytoavailability of Mercury in a Mining-Contaminated Farming Soil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Fu, Fangjing; Zeng, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Recently, incorporation of crop straw into soils is being largely encouraged worldwide. To explore the possible influence of incorporation of decomposed crop straw on the speciation (i.e., inorganic mercury/IHg, and methylmercury/MMHg) and phytoavailability of mercury, mercury-contaminated farming soil was amended with different amounts (i.e., low, medium or high) of straw organic fertilizer (SF, mainly consisting of decomposed rice straw) or humus (HU) and incubated for a month. Potential phytoavailability of IHg, assessed by CaCl2 extraction, was significantly lower in soils amended with low/medium SF, possibly due to the immobilization effect of SF-organic matter on IHg. In contrast, phytoavailability of IHg was significantly higher in soils incorporated with high HU, possibly explained by the leaching effect of dissolved HU on soil-bound IHg. For MMHg, incorporation of medium/high HU significantly increased MMHg phytoavailability, while SF addition had little effect. Interestingly, MMHg levels in SF/HU amended soils were generally lower than that in soil receiving no amendment, probably because complexation of IHg with SF/HU organics decreased IHg availability to methylation microorganisms. Overall, current results suggested that incorporation of decomposed crop straw may have multiple effects on mercury biogeochemistry in soils, which should be considered when applying SF into mercury-contaminated farming soils. PMID:25855528

  2. Methyl Mercury Production In Tropical Hydromorphic Soils: Impact Of Gold Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guedron; L. Charlet; J. Harris; M. Grimaldi; D. Cossa

    2007-01-01

    Artisanal alluvial gold mining is important in many tropical developing countries and several million people are involved worldwide. The dominant use of mercury for gold amalgamation in this activity leads to mercury accumulation in soils, to sediment contamination and to methyl mercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation along the food chain. In this presentation we will present recent data on methyl mercury production

  3. Mercury in terrestrial biomass and soils and factors determining atmospheric mercury sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S.; Luo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon (C) pools play an important role in uptake, deposition, sequestration, and emission of atmospheric mercury (Hg). The objective of this study is to assess atmospheric Hg sequestration associated with vegetation and soil C pools in forest ecosystems. As part of an ongoing EPA STAR project, we are systematically evaluating Hg pools and fluxes associated with terrestrial C pools in all major ecosystem compartments (i.e., leaves, branches, bole, litter, soils) across selected US forest ecosystems. Results from the first five sites located in the remote western United States show that the dominant above-ground pool of mercury is associated with surface litter with smaller pools associated with leaves and branches. Mass concentrations greatly increase in the following order: green leaves, dry leaves, initial litter, partially decomposed litter, humus. Based on detailed comparison of stochiometric relationships (e.g., Hg/C and Hg/N ratios) we conclude that these concentration increases are dominated by additional atmospheric deposition retained in the decomposing plant material while exposed to the environment rather than by organic C losses during decomposition. The large majority of total ecosystem mercury, up to 98 percent, however, is sequestered belowground in the soils. Soil Hg accumulation across all sites is greatly determined by the availability of organic matter in these systems, with soil C and soil N explaining more than 90 percent of the variability in observed soil Hg stocks. Our results suggest that the availability of soil organic matter is the main determinant for retention of atmospheric inputs in soils and hence in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecosystem structure and soil organic accumulation hence determine the resilience of Hg in terrestrial ecosystems with important implication for the stability and runoff of atmospheric Hg deposition to surrounding waterbodies.

  4. Effects of contamination of single and combined cadmium and mercury on the soil microbial community structural diversity and functional diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Xie; Min Liao; Aili Ma; Haijun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effects of single and combined pollution of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) on soil microbial community structural\\u000a and functional diversities, an incubation experiment was conducted, by employing two soils, namely, the marine sediment silty\\u000a loam soil and the yellowish-red soil, in which five levels of Cd, Hg and Cd and Hg in combination were added. After being

  5. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

    2011-12-01

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the current community of Potosí and vicinity is at risk of adverse health effects from historical mercury contamination.

  6. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis subgroup was 1.155220 ± 0.9470246 ng/g (mean ± SD) and that in chronic superficial gastritis subgroup was 0.604732 ± 0.6942509 ng/g (mean ± SD); the former level was significantly higher than the latter level (p<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic superficial gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.05). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.01). Stratified analysis indicated that the hair mercury level in healthy controls with eating seafood was significantly higher than that in healthy controls without eating seafood (p<0.01) and that the hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in chronic superficial gastritis cases (p<0.01). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that eating seafood was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the healthy controls and that the severity of gastritis was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the gastritis cases. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in controls could be expressed as 0.262 multiplied the value of eating seafood plus 0.434, the model that was statistically significant (p<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis also indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in gastritis cases could be expressed as 0.305 multiplied the severity of gastritis, the model that was also statistically significant (p<0.01). The graphs of regression standardized residual for both controls and cases conformed to normal distribution. The main positively correlated factor affecting the hair mercury level is eating seafood in healthy people whereas the predominant positively correlated factor affecting the hair mercury level is the severity of gastritis in chronic gastritis patients. That is to say, the severity of chronic gastritis is positively correlated with the level of hair mercury. The incessantly increased level of hair mercury possibly reflects the development of gastritis from normal stomach to superficial gastritis and to atrophic gastritis. The detection of hair mercury is potentially a means to predict the severity of chronic gastritis and possibly to insinuate the environmental mercury threat to human health in terms of gastritis or even carcinogenesis. PMID:25119602

  7. Background levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City, and influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Tomiyasu; Ayako Nagano; Hayao Sakamoto; Norinobu Yonehara

    2000-01-01

    Vapor phase mercury concentration was determined daily for 1 year (Jan. 1996–Jan. 1997) in order to present the levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City and to estimate the influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan. The atmospheric mercury was collected on a porous gold collector at Kagoshima University and was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption

  8. Ammonium thiosulphate enhanced phytoextraction from mercury contaminated soil – Results from a greenhouse study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxu Wang; Xinbin Feng; Christopher W. N. Anderson; Guangle Qiu; Li Ping; Zhengduo Bao

    2011-01-01

    According to the ‘hard and soft’ acid-base principle, mercury is a ‘soft metal’ and will preferentially form soluble chemical complexes with sulphur-containing ligands. In this work mercury uptake by Chenopodium glaucum L. growing on mercury-contaminated soil was promoted using ammonium thiosulphate. The relative geochemical fractionation of mercury in the soil was subsequently investigated as a function of plant growth with

  9. Phyto extraction and accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soil contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.; Han, F.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L. [Mississippi State Univ., Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Starkville, MS (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Site, where mercury contamination is a major concern in the Y-12 Watershed area. In order to cost effectively implement those remediation efforts currently planned for FY09, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds from the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal accumulating wild plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2} and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation; and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 ppm and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contaminated HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in Oak Ridge flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. (authors)

  10. Mercury isotope compositions in North American forest soils and litters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Obrist, D.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils represent one of the largest reservoirs of mercury on Earth, playing a critical role in the natural cycle of mercury by acting as both a sink and source. However, it is not well understood how soils sequestrate and remobilize Hg. Natural variations in stable Hg isotopes are being explored as a promising tool in studying the transformation and transport of Hg. However, Hg isotopic data in soils is scarce. In addition, the limited isotopic data that exists is significantly different from those of atmospheric Hg, which is one of the major sources of Hg to soils. For example, Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF, typically reported as ?199Hg) is positive in atmospheric wet deposition, but most soils display negative ?199Hg. MIF on 200Hg (?200Hg) is also observed in atmospheric wet deposition, but not in soils. The discrepancy between soils and atmospheric samples is still unexplained. In this study, we surveyed the Hg isotope compositions in soil profiles, litters and fresh vegetation from four different forest sites across United States (Thompson forest, WA, Truckee, CA, Niwot Ridge, CO and Howland, MA). The current results from the WA site show that soils primarily display negative mass dependent fractionation for the even isotopes (MDF, reported as ?202Hg) with values for ?202Hg of up to -2.0‰. Significant MIF for both odd isotopes is also observed in all WA soil samples and ?199Hg is mostly negative (up to -0.4‰). No MIF on 200Hg is observed in these soils. The negative ?199Hg in soils is inconsistent with the positive ?199Hg reported in atmospheric wet deposition, suggesting that either Hg transformations within or on the surface of soils and/or plants alter its isotope composition after deposition or other types of Hg deposition (e.g., Hg(0) or Hg(II) dry deposition) is more predominant. The ?199Hg/?201Hg ratio is close to 1 in the soils, which is consistent with the results of laboratory photochemical reduction of inorganic Hg(II), indicating that photochemical reduction (either on the surface of soils and vegetations, in surface water or in the atmosphere) is the plausible cause of the MIF in the soils. We are currently studying samples from the other three sites to determine the variation of Hg isotope composition in soils formed in different geological and climatic settings. We will also evaluate the correlation between Hg isotope composition in soils and organic carbon, precipitation and clay content in order to determine the key environmental factors that shape the Hg isotope composition in soils.

  11. Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bertilsson, Stefan; Sjöblom, Rolf; Kumpiene, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions. PMID:25454219

  12. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

  13. Elevated CO2 Effects on Mercury Content of Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, S. M.; Lerdau, M.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere. Terrestrial vegetation can act as a conduit for transferring atmospheric Hg into soils and freshwater systems. While the effects of CO2 on both terrestrial plants and soils have been well-studied, the impacts of these CO2 induced changes on Hg cycling are unknown. We found that elevated CO2 resulted in increased Hg concentration in forest soils. Soil Hg concentration in the top 20cm of soils was 26% greater and total Hg content was 22% greater under elevated CO2 (ambient + 200ppmv), relative to ambient at two FACE sites: Duke Forest, NC and Oak Ridge, TN. However, there was no significant CO2 effect on Hg inputs via leaf litter. Soil Hg was significantly correlated with soil organic matter and acidity, suggesting that CO2 mediated changes in soil properties may be affecting soil Hg content. Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to increase the Hg trapping efficiency of soils, with still unknown effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem function.

  14. Changes in Mercury Volatilization between Planted and Unplanted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important question with respect to the Hg biogeochemical cycle is how does the presence of plants affect the flux of Hg from a soil? Previous research has shown that with leaf development over a growing season and increased soil shading Hg emission decreases, while others have suggested that increased activity of rhizosphere bacteria due to the presence of plants would result in the increased Hg emission from soils. This study examined Hg release to the air associated with low Hg containing soils from three states—Indiana, Alabama, and Ohio over 24 h periods. Hg flux was quantified on a seasonal time step over one year for bare soil and for soil when planted with perennial rye grass (Lolium perennel). For the latter fluxes were measured 5 and 10 weeks after planting. Preliminary data assessment suggests that both planted and unplanted substrates in the summer are generally a net source of Hg to the atmosphere with total daily flux ranging from -50 to 1000 ng/m2 day. Fluxes observed for planted soils exhibited diel trends that were the opposite of that measured for bare soils, that is maximum Hg flux was observed during the night instead of at midday. Planted Indiana and Ohio soils emitted a lower Hg flux than the bare soils while the Alabama soils were not consistent. Good correlations were observed between flux versus soil moisture, soil temperature, local ozone concentration, and solar radiation for bare soils however correlation coefficients were not as strong for the planted materials. Mercury concentration of foliar material showed that plant uptake could not account for reduced flux at midday. This work suggests that the presence of plants does alter the flux of Hg occurring from soils.

  15. Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

    2012-12-01

    Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

  16. Air–soil exchange of mercury from background soils in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ericksen; M. S. Gustin; M. Xin; P. J. Weisberg; G. C. J. Fernandez

    2006-01-01

    The air–surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured, using a dynamic polycarbonate flux chamber, for soils with low or “background” Hg concentrations (<0.1 mg\\/kg) at eleven locations across the contiguous United States. Sampling locations included agricultural, desert, grassland, mixed and pine forest ecosystems (n=1326 soil flux measurements at 46 individual sites). An overall soil Hg flux of 0.9±0.2 ng\\/m2\\/h for

  17. Dry deposition of gaseous elemental mercury to plants and soils using mercury stable isotopes in a controlled environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Rutter; James J. Schauer; Martin M. Shafer; Joel E. Creswell; Michael R. Olson; Michael Robinson; Ryan M. Collins; Andrew M. Parman; Tanya L. Katzman; Justin L. Mallek

    2011-01-01

    Uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0(g)) by three plant species and two soil types was measured using mercury vapor enriched in the 198 isotope (198Hg0(g)). The plant species and soil types were: White Ash (Fraxinus Americana; WA); White Spruce (Picea Glauca; WS); Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa Partensis; KYBG); Plano Silt Loam (4% organic matter; PSL); and Plainfield Sand\\/Sparta Loamy Sand (1.25–1.5%

  18. [Influencing factors of mercury emission flux from forest soil at Tieshanping, Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Luo, Yao; Du, Bao-Yu; Ye, Zhi-Xiang; Duan, Lei

    2014-05-01

    To study the effect of environmental influencing factors on soil mercury emissions, intact surface soil samples (0 to 5 cm) were collected from a Masson pine forest in Tieshanping, Choningng to conduct controlled experiments, and soil mercury emission flux was measured by dynamic flux chambers under different conditions. The results showed that the mercury emission significantly increased with the enhancement of solar radiation, air temperature, and soil water content. The mercury emissions in sunlight were 3 to 9 times higher than those in shade, but the latter condition should be more similar to the actual condition in the field. The mercury emission flux was significantly higher in summer than in spring and autumn, and was the lowest in winter. Higher in air temperature, soil water content had a stronger effect on soil mercury emission. Removal of litterfall significantly decreased soil mercury emission, mainly because the mercury content of litterfall was higher than that in mineral soil layer. In addition, soil mercury emission had an obvious trend of decay during a day, indicating that relatively low mercury content in forest soil might be a limiting factor of mercury emission. The mercury emission flux in the daytime measured in this study was( 14.3 +/- 19.6) ng. (m2 .h) -1 in summer, (3.50 +/-5. 36)ng- (m2 h)-1 in spring and autumn, and (1.48 +/-3. 27)ng- (m2 h)-1 in winter. The steady-state results above might therefore be overestimation of the actual emission in the field. PMID:25055687

  19. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

  20. Relationships between leaching of methylmercury from the soil and the basic characteristics of alkali soil polluted by mercury in Guizhou China.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, A; Taniguchi, Y; Yasuda, Y

    2009-03-01

    To determine the relationship between soluble methylmercury and soil characteristics which was contaminated by mercury, several experiments were conducted. As a result, a good correlation was founding between the leached methylmercury level from soil and the EC (electronic conductivity) level of soil. Moreover, to grasp the relationship between soluble methylmercury and soluble anions from soil, several anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO(4) (2-)) were measured using the ion chromatography method. Although the correlation coefficient was small (r = 0.40), only a correlation between the level of SO(4) (2-) and leached methylmercury was recognized. PMID:19050818

  1. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  2. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (<3 days) and blood of older (15-37 days) Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis. PMID:22578153

  3. Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  4. Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Sigler; Xuhui Lee

    2006-01-01

    Although the soil gaseous mercury (Hg) reservoir is an important component of the soil Hg emission process, little is known of the behavior of gaseous Hg in soil pores and the processes governing the ultimate evasion of Hg from soil surfaces. In this study, gaseous Hg in background forest soil in the northeastern United States was examined during 2003 and

  5. Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon,

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon erosion and degradation provoked by deforestation in the Amazon is a global concern, and recent studies propose a link between deforestation, soil erosion and the leaching of naturally occurring mercury (Hg

  6. Application of a mer-lux biosensor for estimating bioavailable mercury in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lasse D Rasmussen; Søren J Sørensen; Ralph R Turner; Tamar Barkay

    2000-01-01

    A previously described bioassay using a mer-lux gene fusion for detection of bioavailable mercury was applied for the estimation of the bioavailable fraction of mercury in soil. The bioavailable fraction is defined here as being part of the water leachable fraction. Due to masking of light emission of soil particles leachates had to be cleaned prior to assays. Filtration of

  7. Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States

    E-print Network

    Lee, Xuhui

    Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States Jeffrey M. Sigler1 mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G02007, doi:10 in the northeastern United States was examined during 2003 and 2004 using a novel flask sampling technique

  8. Airsoil exchange of mercury from background soils in the United States

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Air­soil exchange of mercury from background soils in the United States J.A. Ericksen, M.S. Gustin/kg) at eleven locations across the contiguous United States. Sampling locations included agricultural, desert Available online 21 September 2005 Abstract The air­surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured, using

  9. Mercury removal from contaminated soil by thermal treatment with FeCl? at reduced temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Duanping; Hou, Deyi; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal treatment has been used to remediate mercury-contaminated soils; however, existing thermal technologies use high temperatures (e.g., 600-800°C) and require high energy costs. Moreover, the treated soil is unfavorable for agricultural reuse. To address these issues, the present study developed a method for the thermal treatment of mercury-contaminated soils at a reduced temperature (400°C) by adding FeCl3. A FeCl3/Hg molar ratio of 100:1 in the soil was adopted as the optimum dosage of FeCl3 required to achieve maximum reduction of mercury. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced to 0.8 mg kg(-)(1) when treated at 400°C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil properties. FeCl3 addition during thermal treatment not only accelerated the volatilization of mercury in the easily removed fraction but also reduced the volatilization temperature of mercury in the hardly removed fraction. The adsorbable organic halogens and PCDD/Fs formed during thermal treatment with FeCl3 would not affect the soil reuse in agriculture. The thermal decontamination method reduces energy costs and leads to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury-contaminated soil in future engineering applications. PMID:25180482

  10. Mercury cycling in litter and soil in different forest types in the Adirondack region, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Demers, Jason D; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitti, Joseph B

    2007-07-01

    The fate of mercury in decomposing leaf litter and soil is key to understanding the biogeochemistry of mercury in forested ecosystems. We quantified mercury dynamics in decomposing leaf litter and measured fluxes and pools of mercury in litterfall, throughfall, and soil in two forest types of the Adirondack region, New York, USA. The mean content of total mercury in leaf litter increased to 134% of its original mass during two years of decomposition. The accumulation pattern was seasonal, with significant increases in mercury mass during the growing season (+4.9% per month). Litterfall dominated mercury fluxes into the soil in the deciduous forest, whereas throughfall dominated fluxes into the coniferous forest. The increase in mercury mass in decomposing deciduous litter during the growing season was greater than could be accounted for by throughfall inputs during the growing season (P < 0.05), suggesting translocation of mercury from the soil to the decomposing deciduous litter. This internal recycling mechanism concentrates mercury in the organic horizons and retards transport through the soil, thereby increasing the residence time of mercury in the forest floor. A mass balance assessment suggests that the ultimate fate of mercury in the landscape depends upon forest type and associated differences in the delivery and incorporation of mercury into the soil. Our results show that incorporation of mercury into decaying leaf litter increases its residence time in the landscape and may further delay the recovery of surface waters, fish, and associated biota following control of mercury emissions to the atmosphere. PMID:17708212

  11. Mercury recovering and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, T.E.; Rose, M.V.

    1995-11-01

    Efficient, economical treatment of mercury-contaminated soils and industrial wastes requires a treatment process that reduces mercury content to near background levels and recovers the removed mercury in pure recyclable form without producing liquid, solid, or gaseous secondary wastes. Mercury Recovery Services, Inc. has successfully developed and placed commercial operation a medium-temperature thermal desorption process that has into co successfully achieved these goals. The efficacy of the MRS Process to treat mercury-contaminated soils and industrial wastes was first Demonstrated on a pilot scale by means of treating (a) simulated soils containing varying amounts of metallic mercury, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide and mercury chloride, (b) actual natural gas metering site pipeline clay, sandy, and loam soils having total mercury contents in the range of 250 ppm to 15,000 ppm, and (c) waste water treatment sludges from chloralkali production containing up to 20,000 ppm mercury and large significant concentrations of sulfur and chlorine. In every case, the residual total mercury content was reduced to less than 2 ppm after treatment. The performance of MRS` first mobile commercial thermal desorption unit compares very favorably with the previously reported pilot-scale results.

  12. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

  13. The Relationship between Adirondack Lake pH and Levels of Mercury in Yellow Perch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Brown; Alexey Goncharov; Eric Paul; Howard Simonin; David O. Carpenter

    2010-01-01

    Levels of total mercury in yellow perch Perca flavescens from Adirondack lakes were studied in relation to characteristics of the lakes to determine why some lakes had fish with higher concentrations of mercury. Almost all mercury in fish is in the form of methylmercury, which can pose significant health hazards to humans who consume such fish. Fish mercury concentrations and

  14. Vertical variations in the concentration of mercury in soils around Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Okada, Morimichi; Imura, Ryusuke; Sakamoto, Hayao

    2003-03-20

    In an effort to estimate the influence of mercury emitted from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan, on the accumulation of mercury in soil, the vertical distribution of total mercury in soils was investigated together with organic matter content and grain size. The soils were sampled at a thickness of 1 cm from the surface to depth of 1 m at five locations on Sakurajima and two control locations, i.e. Takatoge approximately 11 km southeast and Suzuyama 22 km southwest of the volcano. The concentration in soils increased with the distance from the volcano and was 6.5+/-1.9 ngg(-1) (n=335), 29.0+/-15.6 ngg(-1) (n=100) and 229+/-105 ngg(-1) (n=103) for Sakurajima, Takatoge and Suzuyama, respectively. The concentration of mercury correlated with the amount of organic matter, but not with grain size distribution. The sedimentation rate for Sakurajima, Takatoge and Suzuyama was estimated from geological data to be approximately 1.3, 0.083 and 0.0048 cmyear(-1), respectively. The relatively fast sedimentation of Sakurajima soil was caused by the frequent precipitation of volcanic ash. The annual deposition of mercury estimated for Sakurajima, Takatoge and Suzuyama from the mercury concentration, sedimentation rate and soil density was 9 x 10(4), 3 x 10(4) and 2 x 10(4) ngm(-2)year(-1), respectively. Although the soil of Sakurajima had the lowest concentration among the three sites, it received the largest amount of mercury. PMID:12663186

  15. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. PMID:26040748

  16. Survey of helium in soils and soil gases and mercury in soils at Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinkle

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of helium and mercury in soils and of helium in soil gases were surveyed in part of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area to see what relationship helium and mercury concentrations might have to geothermal features of the area. High concentrations of helium occurred over the producing geothermal field, in an area of high temperature gradients.

  17. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 1: Uptake, partitioning, and emission to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Taylor, G.E. Jr. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    The uptake, distribution, and subsequent emission of mercury to the atmosphere were investigated in five plant species (Lepidium latifolium [L.], Artemisia douglasiana [Bess in Hook], Caulanthus sp. [S. Watson], Fragaria vesca [L.], and Eucalyptus globulus [Labill]) with different ecological and physiological attributes. Transfer coefficients for mercury in the soil-plant system were calculated. Plant-to-atmosphere emissions of mercury were determined using a controlled environment gas-exchange system and ranged from 10 to 93 mg/m{sup 2}/h in the light; emissions in the dark were an order of magnitude less. Transfer coefficients for mercury within the soil-plant system increased acropetally (root-to-leaf axis) by orders of magnitude. Estimated mercury emissions from plants in the Carson River Drainage Basin of Nevada over the growing season (0.5 mg/m{sup 2}) add to the previously reported soil mercury emissions (8.5 mg/m{sup 2}), resulting in total landscape emissions of 9 mg/m{sup 2}. For L. latifolium, 70% of the mercury taken up by the roots during the growing season was emitted to the atmosphere. For every one molecule of mercury retained in foliage of L. latifolium, 12 molecules of mercury were emitted. Within this arid ecosystem, mercury emissions are a dominant pathway of the mercury cycle. Plants function as conduits for the interfacial transport of mercury from the geosphere to the atmosphere, and this role is undervalued in models of the behavior of mercury in terrestrial exosystems and in the atmosphere on a global scale.

  18. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 1: Uptake, partitioning, and emission to the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd L. Leonard; M. S. Gustin; G. C. J. Fernandez; G. E. Jr. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    The uptake, distribution, and subsequent emission of mercury to the atmosphere were investigated in five plant species (Lepidium latifolium [L.], Artemisia douglasiana [Bess in Hook], Caulanthus sp. [S. Watson], Fragaria vesca [L.], and Eucalyptus globulus [Labill]) with different ecological and physiological attributes. Transfer coefficients for mercury in the soil-plant system were calculated. Plant-to-atmosphere emissions of mercury were determined using a

  19. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo [Ehime Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environment Conservation

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  20. Methyl Mercury and Heavy Metal Content in Soils of Rivers Saale and Elbe (Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Istvan Devai; W. H. Patrick Jr; R. D. DeLaune; M. Kongchum; J. Rinklebe

    2005-01-01

    The rivers Saale and Elbe, including their catchment areas (Germany), have been heavily polluted by ore mining and other anthropogenic emission sources during the last centuries. Heavy metal contamination along the Elbe River floodplains can vary depending on location. In this study data on methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metal contents in three soil profiles from a representative site

  1. Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL] [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  2. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T.; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24302714

  3. Binding and mobility of mercury in soils contaminated by emissions from chlor-alkali plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Biester; G. Muller; H. F. Scholer

    2002-01-01

    Chlor-alkali plants are known to be an important source of Hg emissions to the atmosphere and related contamination of soils in their vicinity. In the present study, the results of Hg speciation and mobility of Hg in soils affected by Hg emissions from three chlor-alkali plants are compared. Solid phase mercury speciation analyses was carried out using a mercury–thermo-desorption technique

  4. Spatial variability of mercury emissions from soils in a southeastern US urban environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Gabriel; Derek G. Williamson; Steve Brooks; Hong Zhang; Steve Lindberg

    2005-01-01

    We quantified gaseous mercury (Hg0) fluxes over soil surfaces in an urban setting during the winters of 2003 and 2004 across the metropolitan area of Tuscaloosa,\\u000a AL. The objective was to provide a first inspection of the local spatial variability of mercury flux in an urban area. Flux\\u000a sampling took place on bare, undisturbed, soil surfaces within four evenly spaced

  5. Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kocman; Nicolas S. Bloom; Hirokatso Akagi; Kevin Telmer; Lars Hylander; Vesna Fajon; Vesna Jereb; Radojko Ja?imovi?; Borut Smodiš; Justinian R. Ikingura; Milena Horvat

    2006-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k0 standardization neutron activation

  6. Simultaneous determination of mercury and organic carbon in sediment and soils using a direct mercury analyzer based on thermal decomposition-atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Chakravarty, Pragya; Davidson, Gregg R; Wren, Daniel G; Locke, Martin A; Zhou, Ying; Brown, Garry; Cizdziel, James V

    2015-04-29

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of using a direct mercury analyzer (DMA) to simultaneously determine mercury (Hg) and organic matter content in sediment and soils. Organic carbon was estimated by re-weighing the sample boats post analysis to obtain loss-on-ignition (LOI) data. The DMA-LOI results were statistically similar (p<0.05) to the conventional muffle furnace approach. A regression equation was developed to convert DMA-LOI data to total organic carbon (TOC), which varied between 0.2% and 13.0%. Thus, mercury analyzers based on combustion can provide accurate estimates of organic carbon content in non-calcareous sediment and soils; however, weight gain from moisture (post-analysis), measurement uncertainty, and sample representativeness should all be taken into account. Sediment cores from seasonal wetland and open water areas from six oxbow lakes in the Mississippi River alluvial flood plain were analyzed. Wetland sediments generally had higher levels of Hg than open water areas owing to a greater fraction of fine particles and higher levels of organic matter. Annual loading of Hg in open water areas was estimated at 4.3, 13.4, 19.2, 20.7, 129, and 135 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) for Beasley, Roundaway, Hampton, Washington, Wolf and Sky Lakes, respectively. Generally, the interval with the highest Hg flux was dated to the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:25847156

  7. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil. PMID:25245260

  8. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 ?g/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 ?g/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 ?g/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 ?g/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area. PMID:19160059

  9. Lead and mercury levels in raccoons from Macon County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Thompson, S.J. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States); Mieike, H.W. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the environment has become a major concern of the scientific community. The ubiquitous present of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium in wildlife animals has been reported. Although the understanding of the full significance of these metals is incomplete, it is known that some species contain concentrations of metals proportional to the levels present in their environments. Thus, wild animals can be used as biological indicators of environmental concentrations of metals. The behavior, omnivorous feeding habits, and adaptability of raccoons (Procyon lotor) qualify this animal as a useful indicator of environmental pollution. The purpose of this paper was to report some preliminary observations on lead and mercury levels in raccoons from Macon County, Alabama, a potential indicator species for wildlife. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Energy Level Structure of Mercury 192

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. MacDonald; J. L. Wood; E. Zganjar

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-gamma, gamma-electron, and electron-electron coincidence data have been observed in the decay of 192Tl to 192Hg. Sources of 192Tl were produced at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and separated using the UNISOR isotope separator. We present a detailed level scheme for the 192Hg nucleus and discuss the spin and parities of new levels. Work supported in part by the

  11. Mercury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph shows mosaic images of Mercury, captured by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. The images are accompanied by a brief description and history, some statistical facts, and a list of significant dates in the exploration of Mercury.

  12. Total and methyl mercury in wetland soils and sediments of Louisiana's Pontchartrain Basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Delaune, Ronald D; Devai, Istvan; Tao, Rui; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2008-12-01

    Accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic biota is a primary toxicological concern associated with Hg contamination in the environment. This study reports total mercury (THg) and MeHg measurements in 11 swamp and 24 marsh soils/sediments in wetlands surrounding Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Maurepas located in Louisiana's Pontchartrain Basin. The salinity level ranged from fresh, brackish to salt water. Average THg content in the swamp soils/sediments (112.3 microg kg(-1), n = 10) was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than in the marsh soils/sediments (56.5 microg kg(-1), n = 24). The THg content in the marsh soils/sediments tended to decrease with salinity increase, probably due to geographical locations of the sampling sites with less Hg input in more saline regions. Average MeHg content in the soils/sediments was 1.3 microg kg(-1) (n = 34), higher than reported values in the bottom sediments of Lake Maurepas (0.8 microg kg(-1), n = 27) and Lake Pontchartrain (0.6 microg kg(-1), n = 147). Average MeHg/THg ratio in the marsh soils/sediments (0.022) was considerably higher than in the swamp soils/sediments (0.012). Analysis of MeHg/THg ratio along the salinity gradient at the marsh soils/sediments show that the highest MeHg/THg ratio (up to 0.040, n = 5) was found at the fresh/brackish water sites, and the lowest (0.002, n = 1) at the salt water site. Results suggest that there was a greater potential for MeHg formation in wetland soils/sediments than in bottom sediments of adjacent lakes. Results suggest that wetland surrounding the lakes may be a potential source of MeHg to the aquatic food chain and significance is governed by area of the adjacent wetland. PMID:18988103

  13. Effect of root metabolism on the post-depositional mobilization of mercury in salt marsh soils

    SciTech Connect

    Marins, R.V. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil)]|[Mineral Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lacerda, L.D. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil); Goncalves, G.O.; Paiva, E.C. de [Mineral Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1997-05-01

    Salt marsh soils are an efficient sink for trace metals associated with particulate material in tidal waters and have been proposed as monitors for trace metal contamination in coastal areas, on the basis that vertical profiles provide a record of loading rates. However, the complex nature of the biogeochemical processes occurring in these soils, may prevent this use, since post-depositional mobilization of some trace metals may occur, resulting in their release to pore water, vertical movement through the soil column and exchange with overlying waters. This paper presents and compares the vertical profiles of mercury in soil cores taken under a Spartina altermilflora marsh and in adjacent mod flats without plant cover to characterize the role played by this plant on the post-depositional movement of mercury through the soil and on the possibility of using such profiles as indicators of mercury loading rates in coastal areas. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  15. Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Erhard, P.

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that mercury accumulates in cord blood during pregnancy. This study was carried out to determine where in cord blood the mercury accumulates, i.e., in cord erythrocytes, in cord plasma, or in both, and to determine whether the predominant form of mercury which accumulates is methyl or inorganic mercury. From our data it is clear that methyl mercury accumulates in cord erythrocytes: A total of 30% more methyl mercury was found in fetal erythrocytes than in maternal erythrocytes. Also correlation analysis of the methyl mercury levels in maternal and fetal erythrocytes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.87). In regard to inorganic mercury, the highest concentration was found in the placenta, suggesting a barrier role, but a significant correlation (r = 0.62) was also found between the maternal and fetal plasma levels of inorganic mercury. Moreover, the inorganic mercury concentration per gram of plasma was higher in fetal cord plasma than in maternal plasma. Overall, the relative levels of methyl and inorganic mercury reported here varied considerably in maternal and fetal erythrocytes, plasma, and in the placenta, but all of the levels were low (< 6 ng Hg/gm of tissue) and in agreement with total mercury levels reported by others.

  16. Evaluation of an interlaboratory proficiency-testing exercise for total mercury in environmental samples of soils, sediments and fish tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rocha; S RODRIGUES; M OTERO; M VALEGA; C LOPES; P PATO; J COELHO; A LILLEBO; A DUARTE; M PARDAL

    2008-01-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in soils and sediments (with different levels of contamination) and fish tissue involved 25 European laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and reference values were determined from the results obtained. The most precise results were obtained for the fish matrix. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories

  17. Mercury levels in common (Actitis hypoleucos) and green (Tringa ochropus) sandpipers from west-central Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekian, Mansoureh; Hosseinpour-Mohamadabadi, Zahra

    2015-05-01

    Mercury concentrations were examined in the liver, kidneys, and tail and breast feathers of common and green sandpipers from Zayanderud Dam in west-central Iran. The aim was to provide indirect information about habitat contamination. Tail feathers of both species had higher mercury levels compared to other tissues. Moreover, tissues of common sandpipers had significantly higher mercury concentrations compared to tissues of green sandpipers. Male specimens of both species had higher values of mercury compared to females. The pattern of larger body size-higher mercury body burden was not completely true in the current study. Smaller and shorter common sandpipers had higher mercury concentrations compared to taller and heavier green sandpipers. At the intraspecific level, body weight was positively correlated with mercury concentrations in tissues of common sandpipers. Based on the data presented here, it appears that these sandpipers, especially common sandpipers, are at potential risk from the toxic effects of mercury. PMID:25851218

  18. Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Kleja, Dan B; Biester, Harald; Lagerkvist, Anders; Kumpiene, Jurate

    2014-08-01

    Feasibility of soil washing to remediate Hg contaminated soil was studied. Dry sieving was performed to evaluate Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions. The influence of dissolved organic matter and chlorides on Hg dissolution was assessed by batch leaching tests. Mercury mobilization in the pH range of 3-11 was studied by pH-static titration. Results showed infeasibility of physical separation via dry sieving, as the least contaminated fraction exceeded the Swedish generic guideline value for Hg in soils. Soluble Hg did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon in the water leachate. The highest Hg dissolution was achieved at pH 5 and 11, reaching up to 0.3% of the total Hg. The pH adjustment was therefore not sufficient for the Hg removal to acceptable levels. Chlorides did not facilitate Hg mobilization under acidic pH either. Mercury was firmly bound in the studied soil thus soil washing might be insufficient method to treat the studied soil. PMID:24873713

  19. Comparison of Indoor Mercury Vapor in Common Areas of Residential Buildings with Outdoor Levels in a Community Where Mercury Is Used for Cultural Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Garetano, Gary; Gochfeld, Michael; Stern, Alan H.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental mercury has been imbued with magical properties for millennia, and various cultures use elemental mercury in a variety of superstitious and cultural practices, raising health concerns for users and residents in buildings where it is used. As a first step in assessing this phenomenon, we compared mercury vapor concentration in common areas of residential buildings versus outdoor air, in two New Jersey cities where mercury is available and is used in cultural practices. We measured mercury using a portable atomic absorption spectrometer capable of quantitative measurement from 2 ng/m3 mercury vapor. We evaluated the interior hallways in 34 multifamily buildings and the vestibule in an additional 33 buildings. Outdoor mercury vapor averaged 5 ng/m3; indoor mercury was significantly higher (mean 25 ng/m3; p < 0.001); 21% of buildings had mean mercury vapor concentration in hallways that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury vapor concentration (17 ng/m3), whereas 35% of buildings had a maximum mercury vapor concentration that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury concentration. The highest indoor average mercury vapor concentration was 299 ng/m3, and the maximum point concentration was 2,022 ng/m3. In some instances, we were able to locate the source, but we could not specifically attribute the elevated levels of mercury vapor to cultural use or other specific mercury releases. However, these findings provide sufficient evidence of indoor mercury source(s) to warrant further investigation. PMID:16393659

  20. Mercury in soils and plants in an abandoned cinnabar mining area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, A; Murciego, A; Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Regina, I Santa; Rodríguez-González, M A

    2009-09-15

    An abandoned cinnabar mining area located in the South-West of Spain has been studied with the aim of assessing its mercury pollution level and enhancing the knowledge about the Hg soil/plant relationship. To do so, soils and plants were sampled near an inactive smelter and around two mining sites present in this area. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the close environs of pollutant sources. These also show high levels of elemental Hg (up to 8 mg kg(-1)), but quite low exchangeable Hg contents (0.008-0.038 mg kg(-1)). Most plant specimens display in their aboveground tissues Hg concentrations comprised in the range 0.1-10 mg kg(-1), with a great proportion (50%) showing critical levels. Greater Hg contents were found in plant specimens growing in soils with higher elemental Hg concentrations. The plant species displaying the greatest Hg levels are either perennial species of small-medium size and/or showing medium-highly corrugated leaves, or annual plants of small size. Marrubium vulgare L., Bromus madritensis L. and Trifolium angustifolium L. are the plant species with the highest Hg contents (37.6, 12.7 and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Leaf specific surface seems an important feature in the atmospheric Hg uptake by plants. PMID:19345007

  1. Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and air in the heavily air-polluted area, eastern Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Fu, Xuewu; Wei, Zhongqing

    To investigate the characteristics of mercury exchange between soil and air in the heavily air-polluted area, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentration in air and Hg exchange flux were measured in Wanshan Hg mining area (WMMA) in November, 2002 and July-August, 2004. The results showed that the average TGM concentrations in the ambient air (17.8-1101.8 ng m -3), average Hg emission flux (162-27827 ng m -2 h -1) and average Hg dry deposition flux (0-9434 ng m -2 h -1) in WMMA were 1-4 orders of magnitude higher than those in the background area. It is said that mercury-enriched soil is a significant Hg source of the atmosphere in WMMA. It was also found that widely distributed roasted cinnabar banks are net Hg sources of the atmosphere in WMMA. Relationships between mercury exchange flux and environmental parameters were investigated. The results indicated that the rate of mercury emission from soil could be accelerated by high total soil mercury concentration and solar irradiation. Whereas, highly elevated TGM concentrations in the ambient air can restrain Hg emission from soil and even lead to strongly atmospheric Hg deposition to soil surface. A great amount of gaseous mercury in the heavily polluted atmosphere may cycle between soil and air quickly and locally. Vegetation can inhibit mercury emission from soil and are important sinks of atmospheric mercury in heavily air-polluted area.

  2. Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.E.; Zhang, H.; Gustin, M.; Vette, A.; Marsik, F.; Owens, J.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, J.; Kock, H.H.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Poissant, L.; Pilote, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Xiao, Z. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)] [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    1999-09-01

    As part of an international Hg flux intercomparison at the Steamboat Springs, Nevada, geothermal area, several dynamic soil flux chambers and micrometeorological gradient systems were operated over desert soils in early September 1997. A series of unanticipated convective rain cells impacted the site with the first rainfall in {approximately}90 days, and the initial 4-cm rainfall increased soil moisture from {approximately}0.01 to 0.06{percent} (vol/vol). Several chambers were operating prior to the events, and two were deployed over wet soils following rainfall. Rainfall resulted in an immediate and steep rise in ambient air Hg concentrations and soil Hg emissions which persisted for 12{endash}24 hours. Fluxes increased most quickly and to a greater degree over the wettest soils, and the rate of increase was related to chamber design and flushing rate. The flux response was also apparent in the micrometeorological data. In general, soil emissions increased by an order of magnitude following the rain, and reached levels {approximately}6 times above those at the same time the previous day. These fluxes were significantly correlated with temperature, radiation, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture. After drying for {approximately}40 hours, selected soil plots were manually irrigated with low-Hg-distilled water. Mercury emissions responded similarly across the three treated sites, uniformly increasing from {approximately}60 ng m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} pretreatment to {approximately}650 ng m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} posttreatment, which was a factor of {approximately}6 higher than adjacent control soils. Possible causes of the increases in flux include soil gas displacement, desorption of Hg{degree} by water molecules, and desorption of Hg(II) and subsequent reduction in solution. The kinetics of the flux response, combined with local soil and climatic conditions, suggest that Hg emissions were responding primarily to soil moisture and solar radiation. These data have interesting implications for the role of changing regional climates on biogeochemical cycling of Hg.

  3. Biogeochemical factors affecting mercury methylation rate in two contaminated floodplain soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Frohne; J. Rinklebe; U. Langer; G. Du Laing; S. Mothes; R. Wennrich

    2011-01-01

    An automated biogeochemical microcosm system allowing controlled variation of redox potential (EH) in soil suspensions was used to assess the effect of various factors on the mobility of mercury (Hg) as well as on the methylation of Hg in two contaminated floodplain soils with different Hg concentrations (approximately 5 mg kg-1 Hg and >30 mg kg-1 Hg). The experiment was

  4. ASSESSING MERCURY LEVELS IN THE WASTEWATER OF AN AGING RESEARCH LABORATORY BUILDING

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Gregory A.; Gregory Alvord, W.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations. PMID:18438463

  5. Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

    1980-07-01

    It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

  6. Analysis of sorption and bioavailability of different species of mercury on model soil components using XAS techniques and sensor bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Bernaus; Xavier Gaona; Angela Ivask; Anne Kahru; Manuel Valiente

    2005-01-01

    The present work studies the adsorption behaviour of mercury species on different soil components (montmorillonite, kaolinite and humic acid) spiked with CH3HgCl and CH3HgOH at different pH values, by using XAS techniques and bacterial mercury sensors in order to evaluate the availability of methyl mercury on soil components. The study details and discusses different aspects of the adsorption process, including

  7. Experimental evaluation of mercury release from flooded vegetation and soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Morrison; N. Thérien

    1991-01-01

    Significant increases in Hg concentrations have been noted in fish caught in newly-created hydroelectric reservoirs in various\\u000a parts of northern Canada. It has been hypothesized that a significant contributing factor to these increased levels may be\\u000a the release to the water column of Hg from flooded vegetation and soils and subsequent methylation by bacteria whose growth\\u000a has been stimulated by

  8. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features of daily change of mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere have been formed. PMID:23243844

  9. Impacts of mercury contaminated mining waste on soil quality, crops, bivalves, and fish in the Naboc River area, Mindanao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Weeks, J M; Calvez, J P S; Beinhoff, C

    2006-02-01

    Rice paddy fields in the Naboc area, near Monkayo on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, have been irrigated four times a year over the last decade using Naboc River water contaminated with mercury (Hg) by artisanal gold mining in the Diwalwal area. Silt containing up to at least 90 mg Hg/kg (d.w.) has been deposited in rice paddy fields during the 1990s and this has been repeatedly mixed into the rice root zone through ploughing. Hg in the rice paddy field soils averages 24 mg Hg/kg and generally exceeds the UK and Canadian soil quality thresholds for agricultural soils as well as the proposed Dutch Intervention value and the USEPA soil ingestion Soil Screening Level (SSL) for inorganic Hg. Much lower Hg concentrations (0.05-0.99 mg/kg) within the range expected for uncontaminated soils, characterise soils on which corn and bananas are cultivated, largely because these are not irrigated with Hg-contaminated water from the Naboc River. The estimated total weekly MeHg intake for a person living in the Naboc area related to the weekly consumption of 2.1 kg of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils (15 microg MeHg) in conjunction with 1 kg of fish (220 microg MeHg) and 100 g of mussels (50 microg MeHg) from the Naboc River, would total 285 microg MeHg (equivalent to 4.75 microg/kg bw for a 60 kg adult), which is nearly three times the JECFA PTWI of 1.6 microg/kg bw. This will significantly contribute to the population mercury exposure and might explain why 38% of the local inhabitants were classified as Hg intoxicated during a mercury toxicity assessment [Drasch GS, Böse, O'Reilly S, Beinhoff C, Roider G, Maydl S. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines 1999-assessing mercury intoxication of the population by small scale gold mining. Sci Total Environ 2001; 267(1-3): 151-168.]. PMID:16398996

  10. An evaluation of mercury levels in Louisiana fish: trends and public health issues.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Sun, Mei-Hung; Suffet, Mel

    2010-11-01

    To characterize statewide fish tissue mercury levels in edible finfish the first comprehensive analysis of Louisiana's fish tissue mercury database was conducted. Analyses were based on fifteen years of fish tissue mercury data collected from 368 waterbodies between 1994 and 2008 (n=14,344). The overall objectives of this study were to establish baseline fish tissue mercury levels; and evaluate species-specific temporal and spatial trends in fish tissue mercury levels. Fish tissue mercury levels ranged from 0.001 ppm (the detection limit) to 5.904 ppm for king mackerel; with an overall geometric mean of 0.218 ppm. Ninety-five percent of samples had mercury levels below the FDA's action level of 1.0 ppm for methylmercury in commercial food. Forty-four percent of all samples had mercury levels above the U.S. EPA's methylmercury fish tissue criterion of 0.3 ppm for sportfish. Species of potential concern include cobia, king mackerel, blackfin tuna, greater amberjack, spotted bass, bowfin, largemouth bass and freshwater drum. There was a significant but small decline in statewide length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels between 1994-1999 to 2003-2008 (p<0.05). The highest fish mercury levels were observed in Pearl, Calcasieu, Mermentau, Ouachita, Pontchartrain and Sabine basins. Length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels were significantly higher in wetlands and rivers/streams vs. lakes; and in wetlands vs. estuaries (p<0.05). Data were analyzed from a public health perspective to make recommendations for optimizing monitoring and outreach. PMID:20855108

  11. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey.

    PubMed

    Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N; Kaneko, J John; Drazen, Jeffrey C

    2009-08-18

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  12. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: a field manipulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Mazur, M; Mitchell, C P J; Eckley, C S; Eggert, S L; Kolka, R K; Sebestyen, S D; Swain, E B

    2014-10-15

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m(-2)d(-1)) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (-40 ± 60 ng m(-2)d(-1)) and the un-harvested reference plot (-180 ± 115 ng m(-2)d(-1)) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg(2+) photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it is not yet clear for how long such an effect will persist. PMID:24993512

  13. Association of Dissolved Mercury with Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rivers and Streams: The Role of Watershed Soil Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoken, O.; Riscassi, A.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Surface waters are an important pathway for the transport of atmospherically deposited mercury (Hg) from terrestrial watersheds. Dissolved Hg (HgD) is thought to be more bioavailable than particulate Hg and has been found to be strongly correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in numerous watersheds. The ratio of HgD to DOC is highly variable from site to site, which we hypothesize is strongly dependent on local environmental factors such as atmospheric deposition and soil organic carbon (SOC). Sixteen watersheds throughout the United States were used in this study to determine the relationship between the ratio of HgD:DOC, Hg wet deposition, and SOC. The Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO) and Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) were used to determine SOC values while HgD:DOC values were obtained from previous studies. Hg wet deposition was reported by the Mercury Deposition Network. There was no correlation found between atmospheric mercury wet deposition and HgD:DOC (r2 = 0.04; p = 0.44) but SOC was able to explain about 71% of the variation in the HgD:DOC ratio (r2 = 0.71; p < 0.01). A mathematical framework was developed to explain the power-law relationship between SOC and HgD:DOC based on soil carbon pools. The framework infers that the amount of Hg adsorbed to SOC does not increase in proportion to SOC at high SOC levels and points towards a Hg supply limitation for adsorption to soils with relatively deep carbon pools. Overall, this study identifies SOC as a first-order control on the association of HgD and DOC and indicates that globally available SOC datasets can be utilized to predict Hg transport in stream systems.

  14. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends, and Implications

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment, visit httpThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends. Wentz). #12;The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends

  15. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-08-18

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.

  16. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristeo Renzoni

    1992-01-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken.\\u000a Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated\\u000a through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning\\u000a levels of mercury

  17. Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is an important part of the solar system puzzle, yet we know less about it than any other planet, except Pluto. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets (0.05 Earth masses) and the closest to the Sun. Its relatively high density (5.4 g cm -3) indicates that it has a large metallic core (˜3/4 of the planet's radius) compared to its silicate mantle and crust. The existence of a magnetic field implies that the metallic core is still partly molten. The surface is heavily cratered like the highlands of the Moon, but some areas are smooth and less cratered, possibly like the lunar maria (but not as dark). Its surface composition, as explained in the next section, appears to be low in FeO (only ˜3 wt.%), which implies that either its crust is anorthositic (Jeanloz et al., 1995) or its mantle is similarly low in FeO ( Robinson and Taylor, 2001).The proximity of Mercury to the Sun is particularly important. In one somewhat outmoded view of how the solar system formed, Mercury was assembled in the hottest region close to the Sun so that virtually all of the iron was in the metallic state, rather than oxidized to FeO (e.g., Lewis, 1972, 1974). If correct, Mercury ought to have relatively a low content of FeO. This hypothesis also predicts that Mercury should have high concentrations of refractory elements, such as calcium, aluminum, and thorium, and low concentrations of volatile elements, such as sodium and potassium, compared to the other terrestrial planets.Alternative hypotheses tell a much more nomadic and dramatic story of Mercury's birth. In one alternative view, wandering planetesimals that might have come from as far away as Mars or the inner asteroid belt accreted to form Mercury (Wetherill, 1994). This model predicts higher FeO and volatile elements than does the high-temperature model, and similar compositions among the terrestrial planets. The accretion process might have been accompanied by a monumental impact that stripped away much of the young planet's rocky mantle, accounting for the high density of the planet ( Benz et al., 1988). Most planetary scientists consider such a giant impact as the most likely hypothesis for the origin of the Moon. A giant impact model could explain the high density of Mercury if much of the silicate material failed to reaccrete, but it would not explain the low FeO concentration of the planet. Thus, knowing the composition of Mercury is crucial to testing models of planetary accretion.In this chapter we summarize what we know about the chemical composition of Mercury, with emphasis on assessing the amount of FeO in the bulk planet. FeO is a particularly useful quantity to evaluate the extent to which Mercury is enriched in refractory elements, because its concentration increases with decreasing temperature in a cooling gas of solar composition (e.g., Goettel, 1988). We then examine models for the composition of Mercury and outline tests that future orbital missions to Mercury will be able to make.

  18. Mercury in soils of three agricultural experimental stations with long-term fertilization in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Ming Zheng; Yu-Rong Liu; Hong-Qing Hu; Ji-Zheng He

    2008-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the agricultural ecosystem is a global concern because of its high potential toxicity. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration and distribution of Hg in soils from three long-term experimental stations, i.e., Taoyuan (TY) and Qiyang (QY) in Hunan Province and Fengqiu (FQ) in Henan Province of China, and thus to assess the possible

  19. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  20. Determination of mercury in soils and biological matrices by the vanadium pentoxide digestion procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Malaiyandi; J. P. Barrette

    1974-01-01

    The wet digestion procedure using catalytic amounts of vanadium pentoxide with sulfuric-nitric acid mixture developed in this laboratory for the analysis of mercury in cereals is extended to other biological substrates and soils. Investigations of the different parameters, such as temperature and concentration of vanadium pentoxide on the oxidation process indicate that 0.20 g of vanadium pentoxide was adequate to

  1. Soil remediation at natural gas mercury meter stations in Montana and northwestern Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy J. Larango

    1996-01-01

    The Montana Power Company initiated voluntary soil assessment and remediation at natural gas meter stations reported to have contained a mercury manometer at some time during facility operation. Remedial sites were selected according to criteria developed from data collected during a Phase I Assessment of approximately 400 facilities. The Montana Power Company and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality agreed

  2. Electrokinetic remediation of mercury-contaminated soils using iodine/iodide lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.D.; Shoesmith, M.A.; Ghosh, M.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In-situ remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, by electrokinetic or other means, is difficult because of the low solubility of mercury and its compounds. In this research, enhanced electrokinetic remediation of HgS-contaminated soils using I{sub 2}/I{sup -} lixiviant was investigated using bench-scale electrokinetic cells. The thermodynamic conditions under which the lixiviant could be effective were determined by constructing a pE-pH diagram for the Hg-S-I system. Introduced near the cathode, the lixiviant migrated through the soil to the anode by electromigration. Mercury, released by the oxidation of HgS compounds by I{sub 2}, was complexed as HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The negative complex continued to electromigrate toward the anode. Up to 99% of the Hg present in laboratory-contaminated soils could be removed. Electrokinetic treatment of a field-contaminated soil, containing more organic matter than the laboratory-contaminated soil, occurred much slower. The critical issues in determining the efficacy of the process are the oxidation of reduced Hg by I{sub 2} and I{sub 3}{sup -} and the transport of the resultant HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-} complex. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

    PubMed Central

    Green, Peter G.; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ? 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ? 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ? 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12640-009-9137-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19937285

  4. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTP1, GSS, and SEPP1 polymorphisms influenced Hg accumulation in hair.

  5. Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Justin B.; Friedland, Andrew J; Engerbretson, Teresa R.; Kaste, James M.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 ?g kg?1) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha?1) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha?1). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. PMID:23911621

  6. Background levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City, and influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu; Nagano; Sakamoto; Yonehara

    2000-10-01

    Vapor phase mercury concentration was determined daily for 1 year (Jan. 1996-Jan. 1997) in order to present the levels of atmospheric mercury in Kagoshima City and to estimate the influence of mercury emission from Sakurajima Volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan. The atmospheric mercury was collected on a porous gold collector at Kagoshima University and was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry; Kagoshima University of Kagoshima City is located approximately 11 km west of Sakurajima Volcano. The mercury concentration obtained was in the range 1.2-52.5 ng m(-3) (mean 10.8 ng m(-3), n = 169). The atmospheric concentration varied from season to season; the concentration was high in summer and lower in winter. A linear relation was obtained by plotting ln[Hg/ng m(-3)] vs. 1/T for the north, south and west winds with correlation coefficients of -0.76, -0.79 and -0.83, respectively, but no such dependency was found for the east wind (r = -0.035). When the wind is blowing from the east, Kagoshima City is on the leeward side of the volcano. The impact of the fumarolic activity of the volcano on ambient air in the city was evident in the disappearance of temperature dependency with the appearance of the east wind. Atmospheric mercury concentration except for the east wind was considered to be background levels of Kagoshima City. As background levels, 8.1 +/- 5.3 ng m(-3), 14.8 +/- 7.9 ng m(-3), 13.9 +/- 11.7 ng m(-3) and 4.4 +/- 1.6 ng m(-3) (mean +/- S.D.) were obtained for spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. PMID:11032152

  7. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavia L Barbieri; Jacques Gardon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial

  8. Accumulation, transfer, and environmental risk of soil mercury in a rapidly industrializing region of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao Huang; Mei Wang; Lianxiang Yan; Weixia Sun; Yongcun Zhao; Xuezheng Shi; David C. Weindorf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Mercury (Hg) accumulation and transfer in soil ecosystems has been altered on local, regional, and even global scales, and\\u000a their environmental risk has increasingly been a concern to the public and the scientific community.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A county level region in Zhangjiagang County, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China and a factory with Hg-contaminated\\u000a wastewater discharging within the

  9. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  10. Evaluation of mercury levels in Pangasius and Cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ferrantelli; G. Giangrosso; A. Cicero; C. Naccari; A. Macaluso; F. Galvano; N. D’Orazio; G. E. Arcadipane; F. Naccari

    2012-01-01

    Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus

  11. Mercury Levels along the Food Chain and Risk for Exposed Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Renzoni; F. Zino; E. Franchi

    1998-01-01

    Mercury was not regarded as a pollutant of primary importance until many deaths due to mercury poisoning occurred in the 1950s. More recently, adverse health effects have been documented at relatively low exposure levels, and monitoring data must now be interpreted in this light. The Mediterranean basin has been studied in great detail over the past 20 years because of

  12. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  13. Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Mainville, N; Webb, J; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Betancourt, O; Cueva, E; Mergler, D

    2006-09-01

    Soil erosion and degradation provoked by deforestation in the Amazon is a global concern, and recent studies propose a link between deforestation, soil erosion and the leaching of naturally occurring mercury (Hg). In the Ecuadorian Amazon, elevated deforestation rates and the proximity of volcanoes could play an important role in soil fertility and soil Hg levels. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts of deforestation on Andisol and Inceptisol fertility and Hg levels in the Napo River Valley, Ecuador. Results show a significant decrease in surface soil organic matter (-15% to -70% of C and N) and exchangeable cations (-25% to -60%) in deforested plots. Hg concentrations at the surface (0-5 cm), higher in Andisols (225 ng/g average) than in Inceptisols (95 ng/g average), show a decrease of up to 60% following deforestation. Soil erosion exposes the mineral horizon, a layer with a higher Hg burden, to the elements thus provoking and accelerating Hg leaching. These results suggest that deforestation and the associated Hg leaching could contribute to the fish Hg contamination measured in the Napo River watershed. PMID:16499953

  14. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Skyllberg; Paul R. Bloom; Jin Qian; Chung-Min Lin; William F. Bleam

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed

  15. Dry deposition of gaseous elemental mercury to plants and soils using mercury stable isotopes in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Andrew P.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Creswell, Joel E.; Olson, Michael R.; Robinson, Michael; Collins, Ryan M.; Parman, Andrew M.; Katzman, Tanya L.; Mallek, Justin L.

    2011-02-01

    Uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0(g)) by three plant species and two soil types was measured using mercury vapor enriched in the 198 isotope ( 198Hg 0(g)). The plant species and soil types were: White Ash ( Fraxinus Americana; WA); White Spruce ( Picea Glauca; WS); Kentucky Bluegrass ( Poa Partensis; KYBG); Plano Silt Loam (4% organic matter; PSL); and Plainfield Sand/Sparta Loamy Sand (1.25-1.5% organic matter: PS). The plants and soils were exposed to isotopically enriched Hg 0(g) in a 19 m 3 controlled environment room for 7 days under optimal plant growth conditions (20 °C, 140 Wm -2 between 300 nm and 700 nm; 70% RH) and atmospherically relevant Hg 0(g) concentrations. Mercury was recovered from the samples using acidic digestions and surface leaches, and then analyzed for enrichments in 198Hg by ICPMS. The method was sensitivity enough that statistically significant enrichments in 198Hg were measured in the plant foliage at the end of Day 1. Whole leaf digestions and surface-selective leaches revealed that accumulative uptake was predominantly to the interior of the leaf under the conditions studied. Uptake fluxes for WA increased between the first and third days and remained constant thereafter (WA; Day 1 = 7 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Days 3-7 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1; where m 2 refers to one sided leaf area). KYBG demonstrated similar behavior although no Day 3 measurement was available (Day 1 = 7.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1). Fluxes to White Spruce were lower, with little difference between Days 1 and 3 followed by a decrease at Day 7 (WS; Days 1-3 = 5 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 2.4 ± 0.2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1). Uptake of Hg to soils was below the method detection limit for those media (PSL = 3 × 10 -2 ng m -2 s -1; PS = 3 × 10 -3 ng m -2 s -1) over the 7 day study period. Foliar resistances calculated for each species compared well to previous studies.

  16. Hair mercury level of coastal communities in Malaysia: a linkage with fish consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvaneh Hajeb; Jinap Selamat; Ahmad Ismail; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Jamilah Bakar; Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

    2008-01-01

    Hair mercury level was assessed in four coastal communities in Malaysia with relation to fish consumption between gender,\\u000a age, and rural and urban area. Mercury level was found at a range of 0.01–21.00 (?g\\/g dry wt). The average mercury levels\\u000a were 13.69, 10.85, 9.94, and 6.78 ?g\\/g dry wt for communities in Kedah, Terengganu, Johor, and Selangor, respectively. The\\u000a same order

  17. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area. PMID:23653314

  18. Mercury levels in a 21-year-old black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoffman

    1976-01-01

    Mercury levels in a 21-year-old black crowned night heron were measured. Concentrations were: breast muscle (0.9 ppm), liver (3.1 ppm), brain (0.5ppm), and primary wing feathers (17.9 ppm). These levels were not substantially different from those found in much younger birds. These data imply that either the kind had been feeding in an area with low levels of mercury contaminations

  19. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface. PMID:24974151

  20. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mercury in Post-fire Soils in Southern California Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Mendez, C. B.; Navarro, B. I.; Jay, J. A.; Hogue, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfires are well known sources of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, but there is a paucity of data characterizing how fire impacts the transport of Hg to surface waters where methylation can occur. Because post-fire storm events have the potential to carry large sediment loads to a stream system, it is important to understand the effects of wildfire on Hg binding and relative variability in terrestrial soils in order to assess its transport potential in burned watersheds. It has been widely reported that Hg stored in surface soils is lost to the atmosphere due to volatilization during wildfire and that higher metal concentrations are associated with fine-grained particle fractions due to higher surface area/volume ratios, and consequently, available binding sites. Following southern California's September 2006 Day Fire, seasonal terrestrial sampling was undertaken at burned and unburned soils over a 1.5 year period to assess both immediate and long term impacts of the fire on Hg binding in the soils of Piru Creek watershed. Freshly burned soils exhibited the loss of Hg at the surface that would be expected due to volatilization during the fire, but this was followed by a sharp increase in [Hg] in surface soils over the subsequent recovery period that was not seen in the unburned soils. Soils were also size-fractionated and Hg was measured on each grain size. Mercury in the fine grained soil fraction (<250 um) was not significantly higher than that measured in the coarser grain size fractions. This is contrary to the behavior observed in the unburned soils and has implications for modeling Hg transport to surface waters as a function of hill slope erosional processes and sediment re- distribution in burned watersheds.

  2. Collisionally induced transfer of orientation and alignment between 6s6d levels of mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lukaszewski; D. Lecler

    1978-01-01

    Mercury atoms are stepwise excited to the 6s6d levels by means of a mercury lamp (61S0 to 61P1) and a CW tunable dye laser (61P1 to 61D2 or 63D2). The transfer of coherence (orientation and alignment) between these levels induced in collisions with noble-gas (helium and xenon) atoms is studied in a weak magnetic field by means of the Hanle

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Dialifos in Soils with a Mercury Film Ultramicroelectrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Morais; Oriza Tavares

    2005-01-01

    An extraction?adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure for the determination of the pesticide dialifos in soil samples using microwave?assisted solvent extraction and a mercury film ultramicroelectrode was developed. The method is based on the use of hexane?acetone solvent (1:1, v\\/v) and on controlled adsorptive accumulation of the insecticide at the potential of ?0.10 V (versus Ag\\/AgCl) in the presence of Britton?Robinson buffer (pH

  4. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects. PMID:9419264

  5. Mercury concentrations and air/soil fluxes in Wuchuan mercury mining district, Guizhou province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Wei, Zhongqing

    Wuchuan Hg mine, located in the Circum-Pacific Global Mercuriferous Belt, is one of the important Hg production centers in Guizhou province, China. Soil Hg concentrations in this area are elevated by 2-4 orders of magnitude compared to the national background value in soil which is 0.038 ?g g -1. In situ air Hg concentrations and air/soil Hg fluxes were measured at five sampling sites in Wuchuan Hg mining area (WMMA) from 19 to 26 December 2003 and from 18 to 25 December 2004. The results showed that air Hg concentrations were 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in background areas in Europe and North America due to a large amount of Hg emission from artisanal Hg smelting activities. The average in situ Hg fluxes at site Laohugou, Jiaoyan, Luoxi, Sankeng and Huanglong were -5493, 124, -924, -13 and 140 ng m -2 h -1, respectively. Diurnal pattern of Hg flux was not found and a number of negative Hg fluxes were observed in our sampling campaigns. The correlations between Hg fluxes and meteorological parameters such as solar irradiation, air temperature, soil temperature and relative humidity and air Hg concentrations were investigated. The commonly observed significant correlations between Hg fluxes and meteorological parameters observed in many previous studies were not obtained in WMMA. However, significantly negative correlations between Hg flux and air Hg concentration were observed at all sites. Our study demonstrated that highly elevated air Hg concentrations could suppress Hg emission processes even from Hg-enriched soil. At specific conditions in WMMA, air Hg concentrations play a dominant role in controlling Hg emission from soil.

  6. Mercury levels of Nelson's and saltmarsh sparrows at wintering grounds in Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Cristol, Daniel A; Smith, Fletcher M; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Watts, Bryan D

    2011-11-01

    Nelson's and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions and the susceptibility of their wetland habitats to climate change, these two new species are of conservation concern. Both species are known to bioaccumulate mercury at breeding sites in New England, USA where their ranges overlap, with the saltmarsh sparrow reported to have twice the concentration of blood total mercury. In this study we sampled both species on their shared wintering grounds, and documented that mercury exposure is lower than that reported for the breeding range, with saltmarsh sparrow blood mercury 2.6 times higher than in Nelson's sparrow. Feather mercury, which is incorporated on the breeding grounds, confirmed that saltmarsh sparrows had incorporated 2.3 times more mercury than Nelson's sparrows during the previous breeding season. A comparison of stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon suggests that the higher exposure of saltmarsh sparrows may be not due to feeding at a higher trophic level, as previously hypothesized, but rather could be related to a difference in the carbon source at the base of each species' food chain. This study, along with recently published data from both species on additional breeding and wintering grounds, provides a more complete picture of relative mercury exposure. Saltmarsh sparrows are exposed to mercury levels that warrant concern, with the highest exposure being during the breeding season. Areas set aside for the long-term conservation of this species should be carefully assessed for mercury bioaccumulation. PMID:21698442

  7. Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Doris; Lauzière, Julie; Blanchet, Rosanne; Vézina, Carole; Vaissière, Emilie; Ayotte, Pierre; Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that various diet components and nutrients, including vegetables, fruit and food-derived antioxidants, could mitigate contaminant exposure and/or adverse health effects of contaminants. To examine the effect of the consumption of tomato products on blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children, 155 Inuit children (25.0±9.1months) were recruited from 2006-2008 in Nunavik childcare centers (northern Québec, Canada). Food frequency questionnaires were completed at home and at the childcare center, and total blood mercury concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after multiple imputation. The median blood concentration of mercury was 9.5nmol/L. Age, duration of breastfeeding, annual consumption frequency of seal meat, and monthly consumption frequency of tomato products were significant predictors of blood mercury levels, whereas annual consumption frequencies of beluga muktuk, walrus, Arctic char, and caribou meat were not. Each time a participant consumed tomato products during the month before the interview was associated with a 4.6% lower blood mercury level (p=0.0005). All other significant predictors in the model were positively associated with blood mercury levels. Further studies should explore interactions between consumption of healthy store-bought foods available in Arctic regions and contaminant exposure. PMID:23127601

  8. Total Mercury Concentrations among Fish and Crayfish Inhabiting Different Trophic Levels in Lake Whatcom, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl W. Mueller; David M. Serdar

    2002-01-01

    Tissue samples from six species of fish and one species of crayfish from Lake Whatcom, Washington were analyzed for total mercury content in late spring 2000. Predaceous smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) displayed the highest levels of mercury (mean ± SE, range = 0.49 ± 0.03, 0.10 ? 1.84 mg\\/kg, n = 95), followed by omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens; 0.20

  9. Mercury in Fish-eating Communities of the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jena Webb; Nicolas Mainville; Donna Mergler; Marc Lucotte; Oscar Betancourt; Robert Davidson; Edwin Cueva; Edy Quizhpe

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to examine the relationship between fish eating habits, human mercury levels, and mercury levels in fish in three communities of the Napo River Valley, Ecuadorian Andean Amazon, a region without gold mining but with significant deforestation and volcanic soils with naturally high mercury levels. By recognizing the politicoeconomic factors which cause deforestation, the cultural factors which

  10. The relationship between Adirondack lake pH and levels of mercury in yellow perch.

    PubMed

    Brown, Donald; Goncharov, Alexey; Paul, Eric; Simonin, Howard; Carpenter, David O

    2010-12-01

    Levels of total mercury in yellow perch Perca flavescens from Adirondack lakes were studied in relation to characteristics of the lakes to determine why some lakes had fish with higher concentrations of mercury. Almost all mercury in fish is in the form of methylmercury, which can pose significant health hazards to humans who consume such fish. Fish mercury concentrations and water chemistry data were analyzed from eight Adirondack lakes. Four lakes (Halfmoon Lake, Sand Pond, Rock Pond, and Upper Sister Lake) had pH values of less than 5.0. Four other lakes (Lake Adirondack, Kings Flow, Harris Lake, and Lake Kushaqua) had pH values of more than 7.0. The acidic lakes also had high levels of aluminum and low acid-neutralizing capacity relative to the neutral lakes. Yellow perch (n = 100) from the acidic lakes had significantly higher levels of mercury than did those (n = 102) from the neutral lakes (P < 0.001), and the total mercury concentration increased with both length and weight of the fish. We conclude that the pH of the lake water is a major factor in determining the concentration of methylmercury in yellow perch. PMID:21413513

  11. The development and testing of technologies for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, Task 7.52. Topical report, December 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Fraley, R.H.; Charlton, D.S.

    1994-02-01

    The release of elemental mercury into the environment from manometers that are used in the measurement of natural gas flow through pipelines has created a potentially serious problem for the gas industry. Regulations, particularly the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), have had a major impact on gas companies dealing with mercury-contaminated soils. After the May 8, 1993, LDR deadline extension, gas companies were required to treat mercury-contaminated soils by designated methods to specified levels prior to disposal in landfills. In addition, gas companies must comply with various state regulations that are often more stringent than the LDR. The gas industry is concerned that the LDRs do not allow enough viable options for dealing with their mercury-related problems. The US Environmental Protection Agency has specified the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) as thermal roasting or retorting. However, the Agency recognizes that treatment of certain wastes to the LDR standards may not always be achievable and that the BDAT used to set the standard may be inappropriate. Therefore, a Treatability Variance Process for remedial actions was established (40 Code of Federal Regulations 268.44) for the evaluation of alternative remedial technologies. This report presents evaluations of demonstrations for three different remedial technologies: a pilot-scale portable thermal treatment process, a pilot-scale physical separation process in conjunction with chemical leaching, and a bench-scale chemical leaching process.

  12. Mercury in soils of three agricultural experimental stations with long-term fertilization in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Yu-Rong; Hu, Hong-Qing; He, Ji-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the agricultural ecosystem is a global concern because of its high potential toxicity. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration and distribution of Hg in soils from three long-term experimental stations, i.e., Taoyuan (TY) and Qiyang (QY) in Hunan Province and Fengqiu (FQ) in Henan Province of China, and thus to assess the possible food and health risk of long-term applications of fertilizers. Soil samples at each site were collected from different fertilization plots and also from soil profiles with depths 0-100 cm. There were significant differences in soil Hg concentrations in 0-20 cm (A) or 20-40 cm (B) horizon among the three experimental stations. QY station showed significantly higher Hg concentrations than TY and FQ stations. However, there were no significant differences in soil Hg concentrations between A and B horizons at each station. It was concluded that the soil Hg concentrations at the three sites were mainly controlled by the parent materials. Moreover, chemical fertilizer, especially phosphorous fertilizers, could influence the soil Hg concentrations to some extent at the station with lower soil Hg concentrations, for example, at TY station. There were minimal amounts of Hg resulting from applications of the other chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and thus the fertilization had very low risk to the food security of the agro-ecosystems in the terms of Hg inputs and contamination. PMID:18541285

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and prediction in terrestrial insects from soil in Huludao City, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongsheng; Song, Xiaolin; Wang, Qichao; Lu, Xianguo

    2012-07-01

    Mercury accumulation was investigated by constructing and testing empirical equations based on mercury in soil (C(s)) and in 10 terrestrial insects (C(i)). C(s) ranged from 0.13 to 41.01 mg/kg. C(i) differed with species and the highest was found in dragonfly. C(s) and C(i) showed a good linear fit, and a simple equation was used in predicting C(i) when insects were classified into one Insecta group (r = 0.3399, p = 0.0037). The taxonomy can affect validities of empirical equations, which fit field data well when insects were grouped by feeding habits, and when grouped by species, empirical equations were suitable only for certain insects. PMID:22527000

  14. Mercury Deposition and Re-emission Pathways in Boreal Forest Soils Investigated with Hg Isotope Signatures.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Hajdas, Irka; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-06-16

    Soils comprise the largest terrestrial mercury (Hg) pool in exchange with the atmosphere. To predict how anthropogenic emissions affect global Hg cycling and eventually human Hg exposure, it is crucial to understand Hg deposition and re-emission of legacy Hg from soils. However, assessing Hg deposition and re-emission pathways remains difficult because of an insufficient understanding of the governing processes. We measured Hg stable isotope signatures of radiocarbon-dated boreal forest soils and modeled atmospheric Hg deposition and re-emission pathways and fluxes using a combined source and process tracing approach. Our results suggest that Hg in the soils was dominantly derived from deposition of litter (?90% on average). The remaining fraction was attributed to precipitation-derived Hg, which showed increasing contributions in older, deeper soil horizons (up to 27%) indicative of an accumulation over decades. We provide evidence for significant Hg re-emission from organic soil horizons most likely caused by nonphotochemical abiotic reduction by natural organic matter, a process previously not observed unambiguously in nature. Our data suggest that Histosols (peat soils), which exhibit at least seasonally water-saturated conditions, have re-emitted up to one-third of previously deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. Re-emission of legacy Hg following reduction by natural organic matter may therefore be an important pathway to be considered in global models, further supporting the need for a process-based assessment of land/atmosphere Hg exchange. PMID:25946594

  15. Historical mercury contamination in sediments and catchment soils of Diss Mere, UK.

    PubMed

    Yang, Handong

    2010-07-01

    A 5.3 m sediment core and soil samples were taken from Diss Mere and its catchment. The sediment core was dated and Hg analysed on the sediment and soil samples. The Hg record of the sediment core shows that Diss Mere has been contaminated for the past thousand years and the historical trends in sediment contamination are in good agreement with the development of the weaving industry in Diss and hemp cultivation in the region. Mercury contamination in Diss Mere has been significant and reached a peak in the mid-19th century with sediment Hg concentrations over 50 microg g(-1). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in contemporary soils in residential areas with former industrial land use. Although local hemp cultivation and the traditional weaving industry were abandoned a hundred years ago, Hg contamination caused by these activities still exists in the catchment, and affects the lake. PMID:20392552

  16. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  17. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  18. Chronic effects of low-level mercury and cadmium to goldfish (Carassius Auratus)

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    During this five and one half year investigation, experiments were performed to determine the effects of nanogram levels of cadmium and mercury on reproductive performance, growth, and tissue residues of goldfish. In addition, embryo-larval bioassays were conducted on these metals to compare the effects of a short-term exposure to a sensitive life-cycle stage (i.e., eggs and larvae) with a sustained exposure to a relatively insensitive life-cycle period (i.e., adult). Reproduction was blocked by the long-term exposure to 0.25 ..mu..g/l mercury and 0.27 ..mu..g/l cadmium. Over the 1972 days, the control fish spawned on eleven occasions, but the experimentals failed to spawn. The metal-induced reproductive impairment continued in the experimentals even after six months in clean water. Growth of the populations exposed to mercury and cadmium was significantly less than that of the control population (P < 0.001). The mercury, cadmium and control populations grew by 229%, 232% and 353%, respectively. Mercury and cadmium continuously accumulated in fish tissues over the entire 1789 days of whole body exposure. Despite exposure to mercury as inorganic metal, organomercury also accumula

  19. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L., E-mail: millercl@ornl.gov; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-08-15

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0){sub l}) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0){sub l} in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0){sub g} headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0){sub l} in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0){sub l} was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0){sub l} in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0){sub l} is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the subsurface has remobilized the Hg. -- Highlights: • Presence of Hg(0) and chemical transformations control the Hg speciation in soil. • Redox reactions can result in the mobilization and sequestration of Hg in soils. • Analysis of soils containing Hg(0) is complex due to sample heterogeneity.

  20. Electronic Characterization of Defects in Narrow Gap Semiconductors-Comparison of Electronic Energy Levels and Formation Energies in Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Mercury Zinc Telluride, and Mercury Zinc Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a Green's function technique to calculate the energy levels and formation energy of deep defects in the narrow gap semiconductors mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT) and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). The formation energy is calculated from the difference between the total energy with an impurity cluster and the total energy for the perfect crystal. Substitutional (including antisite), interstitial (self and foreign), and vacancy deep defects are considered. Relaxation effects are calculated (with molecular dynamics). By use of a pseudopotential, we generalize the ideal vacancy model so as to be able to consider relaxation for vacancies. Different charge states are considered and the charged state energy shift (as computed by a modified Haldane-Anderson model) can be twice that due to relaxation. Different charged states for vacancies were not calculated to have much effect on the formation energy. For all cases we find deep defects in the energy gap only for cation site s-like orbitals or anion site p-like orbitals, and for the substitutional case only the latter are appreciably effected by relaxation. For most cases for MCT, MZT, MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range appropriate for a band gap of 0.1 eV. For defect energy levels, the absolute accuracy of our results is limited, but the precision is good, and hence chemical trends are accurately predicted. For the same reason, defect formation energies are more accurately predicted than energy level position. We attempt, in Appendix B, to calculate vacancy formation energies using relatively simple chemical bonding ideas due to Harrison. However, these results are only marginally accurate for estimating vacancy binding energies. Appendix C lists all written reports and publications produced for the grant. We include abstracts and a complete paper that summarizes our work which is not yet available.

  1. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects. PMID:26036022

  2. Effects of infiltration chemistry on the mobilization potential of mercury (Hg) in soils from the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C.; Taylor, E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in ground water exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 2 [mu]g/l have been found in wells 60 to 100 feet deep in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. The aquifer is a sand and gravel aquifer consisting primarily of quartz with minor amounts of biotite, plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite. This is the shallowest aquifer system in the NJ Coastal Plain and is unconfined over much of central and southern NJ. Soils on these aquifer sediments are quartz-rich with poorly developed A[sub 0] and B horizons. These are weakly-buffered acid soils with a pH ranging from 4.0 to 5.5, and little or no capacity for metal retention. Mercury contaminated soils from Gloucester County, NJ were used to determine the mobilization potential of Hg by run-off solutions containing 0.02M NaCl and 0.02M CaCl[sub 2] salt solutions that approximate diluted highway de-icing salts; and by a simulated acid rain solution of pH 4.0. These experimental data are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that chlorides from de-icing salts are capable of mobilizing Hg. However, the mobilization potential of Hg in coastal plain soils attributable to acid rain is much greater (approx. 1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than that estimated for de-icing salts. These data also indicate that in NJ Coastal Plain soils Hg mobilization may be controlled by colloidal movement during an infiltration event. Mobilization of Hg by the simulated acid rain solution was found to coincide with the resuspension of Fe and Al colloids, while no colloidal movement was found with either of the salt solutions. Thus Hg sorbed to Fe and Al colloids in NJ Coastal Plain soils is more likely to be mobilized by infiltration of acidic rain water or fluctuating acidic ground water than by highway de-icing salts.

  3. Antioxidants and metallothionein levels in mercury-treated mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Brandão; F. W. Santos; M. Farina; G. Zeni; D. Bohrer; J. B. T. Rocha; C. W. Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Acute effects of mercury on mouse blood, kidneys, and liver were evaluated. Mice received a single dose of mercuric chloride\\u000a (HgCl2, 4.6 mg\\/kg, subcutaneously) for three consecutive days. We investigated the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy\\u000a (N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2) compared with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS), an effective chelating agent in HgCl2 exposure in

  4. Relating Land Cover Characteristics and Common Loon Mercury Levels Using Geographic Information Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kramar; Wing M. Goodale; L. M. Kennedy; L. W. Carstensen; Taranjat Kaur

    2005-01-01

    This effort models the relationship between mercury (Hg) levels in the common loon (Gavia immer) and land cover types as defined by the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We constructed the model within the framework of a GIS to analyze the spatial relationships between land cover types and blood Hg levels in male common loons. Thiessan polygons were used to

  5. Levels of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and 137Caesium in Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Tissues from Northern Québec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. ROBILLARD; G. BEAUCHAMP; G. PAILLARD; D. BÉLANGER

    2002-01-01

    Levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) were assessed in samples of muscle, kidney, and liver from caribou (Rangifer tarandus; n = 317) harvested in two regions of northern Québec between 1994 and 1996. Levels of 137 caesium (137Cs) were also examined in muscle samples. Log concentration of the three metals varied significantly among tissues and was

  6. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Historic use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. An evaluation of analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the soils at the Y-12 facility was conducted and these tequniques were used to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collect at the site. These include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption. Hg concentrations determined using XRF, a tool that has been suggestions for quick onsite characterization of soils, were lower than concentrations determined by HgT analysis and as a result this technique is not suitable for the evaluation of Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing Hg(0)l. Hg(0)g headspace analysis can be used to examine the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and when coupled with HgT analysis an understanding of the speciation of Hg in soils can be obtained. Two soil cores collected within the Y-12 complex highlight the heterogeneity in the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. At one location Hg(0)l was distributed throughout 3.2 meters of core whereas the core from a location only 12 meters away only contained Hg(0)l in 0.3 m zone of the core. Sequential extractions, used to examine the forms of Hg in the soils, indicated that at depths within the core that have low Hg concentrations organically associated Hg is dominant. Soil from the zone of groundwater inundation showed reduced characteristics and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this location it appears that Hg transported within the groundwater is a source of Hg to the soil. Overall the characterization of Hg in soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult due to the heterogeneous distribution within the soils and this challenge is enhanced in industrial facilities in which fill material comprise most of the soils and historical and continuing reworking of the subsurface has remobilized the Hg.

  7. Mercury in the Soil of Two Contrasting Watersheds in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Douglas A.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bradley, Paul M.; Cannon, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Soil represents the largest store of mercury (Hg) in terrestrial ecosystems, and further study of the factors associated with soil Hg storage is needed to address concerns about the magnitude and persistence of global environmental Hg bioaccumulation. To address this need, we compared total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations and stores in the soil of different landscapes in two watersheds in different geographic settings with similar and relatively high methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters and biota, Fishing Brook, Adirondack Mountains, New York, and McTier Creek, Coastal Plain, South Carolina. Median total Hg concentrations and stores in organic and mineral soil samples were three-fold greater at Fishing Brook than at McTier Creek. Similarly, median methyl Hg concentrations were about two-fold greater in Fishing Brook soil than in McTier Creek soil, but this difference was significant only for mineral soil samples, and methyl Hg stores were not significantly different among these watersheds. In contrast, the methyl Hg/total Hg ratio was significantly greater at McTier Creek suggesting greater climate-driven methylation efficiency in the Coastal Plain soil than that of the Adirondack Mountains. The Adirondack soil had eight-fold greater soil organic matter than that of the Coastal Plain, consistent with greater total Hg stores in the northern soil, but soil organic matter – total Hg relations differed among the sites. A strong linear relation was evident at McTier Creek (r2?=?0.68; p<0.001), but a linear relation at Fishing Brook was weak (r2?=?0.13; p<0.001) and highly variable across the soil organic matter content range, suggesting excess Hg binding capacity in the Adirondack soil. These results suggest greater total Hg turnover time in Adirondack soil than that of the Coastal Plain, and that future declines in stream water Hg concentrations driven by declines in atmospheric Hg deposition will be more gradual and prolonged in the Adirondacks. PMID:24551042

  8. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the United States are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected by using dynamic schemes. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This spatial difference corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this finding indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses show that changes in anthropogenic emissions contribute 32-53% of projected changes in mercury air concentration, while the independent contribution by climate change and its induced natural emissions change accounts for 47-68%.

  9. Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:20126317

  10. Mercury accumulation in grass and forb species as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and mercury exposures in air and soil.

    PubMed

    Millhollen, A G; Obrist, D; Gustin, M S

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for atmospheric Hg degrees uptake by grassland species as a function of different air and soil Hg exposures, and to specifically test how increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations may influence foliar Hg concentrations. Four common tallgrass prairie species were germinated and grown for 7 months in environmentally controlled chambers using two different atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg major; 3.7+/-2.0 and 10.2+/-3.5 ng m(-3)), soil Hg (<0.01 and 0.15+/-0.08 micro g g(-1)), and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (390+/-18, 598+/-22 micro mol mol(-1)) exposures. Species used included two C4 grasses and two C3 forbs. Elevated CO(2) concentrations led to lower foliar Hg concentrations in plants exposed to low (i.e., ambient) air Hg degrees concentrations, but no CO(2) effect was apparent at higher air Hg degrees exposure. The observed CO(2) effect suggests that leaf Hg uptake might be controlled by leaf physiological processes such as stomatal conductance which is typically reduced under elevated CO(2). Foliar tissue exposed to elevated air Hg degrees concentrations had higher concentrations than those exposed to low air Hg degrees , but only when also exposed to elevated CO(2). The relationships for foliar Hg concentrations at different atmospheric CO(2) and Hg degrees exposures indicate that these species may have a limited capacity for Hg storage; at ambient CO(2) concentrations all Hg absorption sites in leaves may have been saturated while at elevated CO(2) when stomatal conductance was reduced saturation may have been reached only at higher concentrations of atmospheric Hg degrees . Foliar Hg concentrations were not correlated to soil Hg exposures, except for one of the four species (Rudbeckia hirta). Higher soil Hg concentrations resulted in high root Hg concentrations and considerably increased the percentage of total plant Hg allocated to roots. The large shifts in Hg allocation patterns-notably under soil conditions only slightly above natural background levels-indicate a potentially strong role of plants in belowground Hg transformation and cycling processes. PMID:16631233

  11. Symptoms of intoxication in dentists associated with exposure to low levels of mercury.

    PubMed

    Neghab, Masoud; Choobineh, Alireza; Hassan Zadeh, Jafar; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of occupational exposure of a group of dentists to low levels of mercury. The study population consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (referent group), from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete a questionnaire on demographic variables, suspicious symptoms of intoxication and work practices. Additionally, atmospheric and urinary concentrations of mercury were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique. The data were analysed by ?(2) test, independent sample t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis, where applicable. Both groups were similar as far as most demographic and socioeconomic variables, but age and number of personal amalgam fillings, were concerned. Median of atmospheric concentration of mercury was found to be 3.35 ?g/m(3). Likewise, the urinary concentration of mercury in dentists was estimated to be 3.16 ?g/g creatinine. This value was significantly higher than that of the referent group. Similarly, analysis of the data revealed that neuropsychological, muscular, respiratory, cardiovascular and dermal symptoms were more prevalent in dentists. Our findings indicate that occupational exposure of dentists to mercury, even at low levels, is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of symptoms of intoxication. PMID:21173523

  12. The study of mercury exchange rate between air and soil surface in Hongfeng reservoir region, Guizhou, PR China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Feng, X.; Qiu, G.

    2003-05-01

    In summer of 2002, we measured the exchange flux of mercury between air and soil surface using the method of Dynamic Flux Chamber (DFC) in Hongfeng lake region. At the same time, we recorded meteorological parameters such as air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed and solar radiation using a multi-function mini-weather station (global water III). Soil, moss and fertilizer samples in study area were also collected. The Hg fluxes of air/soil surface rangeed from -11.0ng m^{-2} h^{-1} to 219.0ng m^{-2}h^{-1}, averaged at 29.2 ng m^{-2} h^{-1} (n = 508). The data show that the exchange of mercury is bi-direction between air and soit surface: namely both emission and deposition of mercury occurs, but Hg emission is much more frequent than deposition process (n_{deposition} =3,n_{emission}= 505). The average mercury content in soil, moss, fertilizer sample are 249.9± 24.1ng/g (n=3), 450.4 ± 64.6ng/g (n=2), 53.4ng/g (n= 1) respectively.

  13. Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

    2013-08-01

    In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [?g/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 ?g/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 ?g/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 ?g/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 ?g/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

  14. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (?g m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) ?g m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with potential hazardous impacts for predatory animals in northeastern US forests and other ecosystems.

  15. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2013-08-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the US are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected using dynamic schemes. The zonal mean surface total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the tropics and mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere are projected to increase by 0.5-1.2 ng m-3 in 2050. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This pattern corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses presented show that anthropogenic emissions changes contribute 32-53% of projected mercury air concentration changes, while the independent contribution by climate change accounts for 47-68%. In summary, global climate change could have a comparable effect on mercury pollution in the US to that caused by global emissions changes.

  16. Health effects of ingestion of mercury-polluted urban soil: an animal experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolai Mirlean; Daniela Carrazzoni; Maria Cristina Flores Soares; Gianni Peraza Goulart; Paulo Baisch

    Rio Grande, the southernmost Brazilian port and industrial center, is marked by mercury-polluted ground cover. This pollution\\u000a varies spatially, with levels exceeding 1,000 ?g kg?1 in 30% of the urban territory. The risk of Hg impact as a result of deliberate and involuntary geophagy is increased by restrained\\u000a urban conditions in combination with the large proportion of the population living at low-income

  17. Visual Functions in 6YearOld Children in Relation to Lead and Mercury Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Altmann; K Sveinsson; U Krämer; M Weishoff-Houben; M Turfeld; G Winneke; H Wiegand

    1998-01-01

    Within a larger comparative environmental health screening program in East and West Germany we investigated functions of the developing visual system in field experiments in a total of 384 children living in three different areas. Visual functions were assessed neurophysiologically by visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) and psychophysically by measuring the contrast sensitivity (CS). Blood lead concentrations and urinary mercury levels were

  18. A gravimetric approach to providing SI traceability for concentration measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient air levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ent, Hugo; van Andel, Inge; Heemskerk, Maurice; van Otterloo, Peter; Bavius, Wijnand; Baldan, Annarita; Horvat, Milena; Brown, Richard J. C.; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2014-11-01

    Current measurement and calibration capabilities for mercury vapor in air are maintained at levels of 0.2–40??g?Hg?m?3. In this work, a mercury vapor generator has been developed to establish metrological traceability to the international system of units (SI) for mercury vapor measurement results ?15?ng?Hg?m?3, i.e. closer to realistic ambient air concentrations (1–2?ng?Hg?m?3) [1]. Innovations developed included a modified type of diffusion cell, a new measurement method to weigh the loss in (mercury) mass of these diffusion cells during use (ca. 6–8??g mass difference between successive weighings), and a new housing for the diffusion cells to maximize flow characteristics and to minimize temperature variations and adsorption effects. The newly developed mercury vapor generator system was tested by using diffusion cells generating 0.8 and 16?ng?Hg?min?1. The results also show that the filter system, to produce mercury free air, is working properly. Furthermore, and most importantly, the system is producing a flow with a stable mercury vapor content. Some additional improvements are still required to allow the developed mercury vapor generator to produce SI traceable mercury vapor concentrations, based upon gravimetry, at much lower concentration levels and reduced measurement uncertainties than have been achieved previously. The challenges to be met are especially related to developing more robust diffusion cells and better mass measurement conditions. The developed mercury vapor generator will contribute to more reliable measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient and background air levels, and also to better safety standards and cost reductions in industrial processes, such as the liquefied natural gas field, where aluminum main cryogenic heat exchangers are used which are particularly prone to corrosion caused by mercury.

  19. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method–Cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhua Geng; Tsunenori Nakajima; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki

    2008-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or

  20. Contaminated Soils (II): In Vitro Dermal Absorption of Nickel (Ni63) and Mercury (Hg203) in Human Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Moody; Julie Joncas; Mark Richardson; Sanya Petrovic; Ih Chu

    2009-01-01

    Dermal absorption of heavy metal soil contaminants was tested in vitro with chloride salts of radioactive nickel (Ni-63) and mercury (Hg-203). Aqueous soil suspensions, spiked with either Ni-63 or Hg-203, were applied to fresh viable human breast skin tissue in Bronaugh diffusion cells perfused with Hanks HEPES buffered (pH 7.4) receptor containing 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Receptor fractions were

  1. Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

    2006-07-15

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, Jody; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2006-07-01

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg (0.013 mg/kg) amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing -10% coal ash (0.070 mg/kg Hg), a mixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes (0.075 mg/kg Hg), a subbituminous coal ash containing -10% petroleum coke ash (1.2 mg/kg Hg), and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, -0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, -20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O3 concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m2 day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m2 day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m2 day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m2 day. Simple analytical tests (i.e., total Hg content, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, heating, and indoor gas-exchange experiments) were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from (intact and disturbed) substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. PMID:16878589

  3. Estimation and Mapping of Wet and Dry Mercury Deposition Across Northeastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K. Miller; Alan Vanarsdale; Gerald J. Keeler; Ann Chalmers; Laurier Poissant; Neil C. Kamman; Raynald Brulotte

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative

  4. Evaluation of mercury levels in pangasius and cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrantelli, V; Giangrosso, G; Cicero, A; Naccari, C; Macaluso, A; Galvano, F; D'Orazio, N; Arcadipane, G E; Naccari, F

    2012-01-01

    Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic and North Sea, both being commercially important in the Italian market. A comparative analysis of these two imported fish species was carried out as a risk assessment for consumer safety. The results showed the presence of higher mercury levels in pangasius (0.41 ± 0.08 mg kg(-1)) than in cod (0.11 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1)) fillets. These data underline the importance of monitoring on imported fish before marketing, to evaluate better the risk of mercury exposure through fish and seafood consumption, and of selecting safer fishes for consumption by those groups more sensitive to the toxic effects of this metal. PMID:22575000

  5. Low oxygen levels in earliest Triassic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Nathan D.; Retallack, Gregory J.

    2002-10-01

    An earliest Triassic methane postapocalyptic greenhouse following the Permian-Triassic (P-T) extinction event was proposed on the basis of evidence of deeply weathered paleosols at high latitudes with features of low-latitude soils, and low stomatal index values of seed fern leaves. Reexamination of distinctive phyllosilicates, unique to a single stratigraphic level, in paleosols located just above the isotopically defined Permian-Triassic boundary in Australia and Antarctica furnishes additional tests of this hypothesis. Illite is the dominant clay mineral in earliest Triassic paleosols from Antarctica, but the paleosols also contain conspicuous green nodules of coarsely crystalline berthierine. Examples from the geologic record and from experimental studies indicate that the formation of berthierine is restricted to reducing conditions. The occurrence of this unusual mineral in soils may indicate soil oxygen consumption by the influx of atmospheric methane to form carbon dioxide, which in turn warmed the earliest Triassic, giving rise to a postapocalyptic greenhouse.

  6. Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    D.P. Krabbenhoft

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) factsheet contains information about US mercury contamination. Issues discussed include how mercury becomes a toxicological problem through bioaccumulation, human effects of mercury toxicity, and levels of atmospheric mercury. Mercury levels in fish are examined to determine how mercury gets into the environment and into the food chain.

  7. Parameterizing soil emission and atmospheric oxidation-reduction in a model of the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Ikemoto, Hisatoshi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasome, Hisashi; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2013-01-01

    Using the GEOS-Chem atmosphere-land-ocean coupled mercury model, we studied the significances of two processes, soil emission and atmospheric oxidation-reduction, in the global biogeochemical cycling of mercury and their parametrization to improve model performance. Implementing an empirical equation for soil emission flux (Esoil) including soil mercury concentration, solar radiation, and surface air temperature as parameters enabled the model to reproduce the observed seasonal variations of Esoil, whereas the default setting, which uses only the former two parameters, failed. The modified setting of Esoil also increased the model-simulated atmospheric concentration in the summertime surface layer of the lower- and midlatitudes and improved the model reproducibility for the observations in Japan and U.S. in the same period. Implementing oxidation of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by ozone with an updated rate constant, as well as the oxidation by bromine atoms (Br) in the default setting, improved the model reproducibility for the dry deposition fluxes observed in Japan. This setting, however, failed to reproduce the observed seasonal variations of atmospheric concentrations in the Arctic sites due to the imbalance between oxidation and reduction, whereas the model with Br as the sole Hg(0) oxidant in the polar atmosphere could capture the variations. PMID:24053722

  8. Statistical evaluation of the influence of several sample pretreatment methods on the mercury content detectable by chemical analysis of contaminated soil samples under practical conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Rasemann; U. Seltmann; M. Hempel

    1995-01-01

    The estimation of the environmental risk of contaminated sites caused by hazardous components may be obtained, for instance, by means of a soil survey. There unavoidable errors by sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis occur. Furthermore, in case of mercury contaminations, the mercury content detectable by chemical analysis can be falsified, if between sampling, on the one hand, and sample

  9. Mercury in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Shan; Wang, Fan; Guo, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration was investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The median of Hg concentration in Beijing was 0.26 mg/kg. The value in CG was much higher than the other 5 types of land use, which was due to the historical use of Hg. More than 87% of the samples were not contaminated according to the guideline values of China, UK, Canada, and USEPA. Spatial distribution map revealed that Hg concentration showed a decreasing trend from the center to the suburb, it increased with the age of the urban area. Hg contamination in urban area of Beijing is marked by features of non-point sources associated with human activities, and it is most likely to be the common characteristics of Hg contamination in cities. PMID:19765869

  10. Inhibition of mercury release from forest soil by high atmospheric deposition of Ca(2+) and SO4(2.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yao; Duan, Lei; Xu, Guangyi; Hao, Jiming

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important natural mercury (Hg) sources, soil release (emission to the atmosphere or leaching to soil water) depends on various factors, some of which can be affected by atmospheric deposition. We studied the effect of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) addition on soil Hg release in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest in southwestern China. FGDG addition simulated atmospheric deposition of Ca(2+), SO4(2-) and Hg, which are commonly high in China. Results showed that Hg concentration in soil water decreased with the gypsum treatment, suggesting that the mobility of Hg in mineral soil was reduced. Moreover, the application of gypsum also seems to have decreased Hg emission from the soil, shown by the lower Hg contents in leaf tissues of ground vegetation in the treated plots than in the reference. Both Hg mobility in the soil and Hg emission to the atmosphere were decreased despite the additional Hg input from FGDG. The decreased DOC concentration in soil water and the elevated organic sulfur content in the soil Oe & Oa horizons were speculated to result in an enhanced capacity of surface soil to bind Hg, and thus to reduce Hg release from the soil. However, with the increasingly stringent control of particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, the deposition of Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) is expected to decrease, and their ability to inhibit soil Hg release is likely to decline in the future. PMID:25935601

  11. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 ?g/ml and 0.1-0.9 ?g/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by reducing them to Hg(0). Thus, these results are the first evidence of the relevance of interaction between bacteria and plants in Hg cycling in Tagus Estuary. PMID:25072727

  12. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts. PMID:21166283

  13. Mercury levels in coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elia M. Garc; APO AA

    Sediment and coral skeleton samples from 23 coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panama (1497 km) were evaluated for total mercury (Hg). High levels of pollution were found in the entire region with averages of 18.9 and 71.3 ppb in coral skeletons and sediments respectively. Significantly higher contamination was found in Panamanian corals (21.4 ppb) while

  14. Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Meili; Kevin Bishop; Lage Bringmark; Kjell Johansson; John Munthe; Harald Sverdrup; Wim de Vries

    2003-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts

  15. Monitoring programme on cadmium, lead and mercury in fish and seafood from Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated weekly intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Yusà; T. Suelves; L. Ruiz-Atienza; M. L. Cervera; V. Benedito; A. Pastor

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the current levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead in fish and seafood from the market of Comunitat Valenciana, Spain. Levels of total mercury ranged from 0.02 to 3.15 mg kg w.w. (average = 0.073 mg kg w.w.). Cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.66 mg kg w.w. (average = 0.27 mg kg w.w.)

  16. Mercury levels in human hair and sex factors

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, S.; Kimura, A.; Nakagawa, H.; Takao, M.

    1980-06-01

    Evidence has been presented: (1) that the geometric mean is essential to the statistical analysis of the result of the amount of Hg in hair, and (2) that the individual Hg level in hair must be evaluated by the standard deviation of logarithmic values. The Hg level in hair obtained from 1324 inhabitants on Shikoku Island showed logarithmic-normal distribution curves, with higher values in males than in females. To verify such a sexual difference, hair samples were obtained from male and female children (N = 346), teenagers (N = 300), and adults (N = 354) living in an agricultural area of Tokushima Prefecture on the island. As the result, males were found to have more Hg than females in sexually mature teenagers and adults (P < 0.05 by F test) but not in younger children.

  17. National Resources Conservation Service: Soils: College Level Teaching Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students and educators looking for resources on the world of soil science will want to bookmark this useful site. Created by the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, the site includes college-level appropriate material on soil biology, soil risks, soil quotations, and urban soil issues. The "Soil Risks & Hazards" area contains two key documents that can be best used by students seeking to understand potential soil-related hazards in and around different parts of the US. Moving along, "The Twelve Soil Orders" leads to a page created by the University of Idaho about the soil taxonomy created by the USDA in 1975. The "Soil Quotations" area has some rather compelling quotes from biologists, soil scientists, and poets about the nature and importance of soil. The site is rounded out by the "Agriculture in the Classroom" link, which leads to state agricultural profiles created by the USDA.

  18. Mercury Air\\/Surface Exchange Kinetics of Background Soils of the Tahquamenon River Watershed in the Michigan Upper Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhang; S. E. Lindberg; F. J. Marsik; G. J. Keeler

    2001-01-01

    Air\\/surface exchange of mercury was investigated over background soils at five sites in the Tahquamenon River watershed in the Michigan Upper Peninsula in the summer of 1998. Measurements of Hg fluxes were performed during middayperiods using the ORNL Teflon dynamic flux chamber. Mean Hg emission fluxes were 1.4±0.3–2.4±1.0 ng m-2 hr-1 for three shaded forest sites and 7.6±1.7 ng m-2

  19. Potassium fixation of different soil types and nutrient levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sardi; G. Csitari

    1998-01-01

    Potassium (K) fixation plays a significant role in the soil?plant system influencing the effectiveness of fertilizaiton. Among the factors controlling fixation capacity of soils, clay mineralogy and soil moisture are of primary importance. The objective of this experiment was to study the K fixation capacity of different soil types and K levels as well as to develop quantitative relationships between

  20. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 ?g/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 ?g/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 ?g/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 ?g/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is warranted to protect children from environmental exposure. PMID:26035667

  1. Association between Low-level Mercury Exposure and Neurobehavioral Functions in Korean Adults Living in a Coastal City

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; You, Chang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between low-level mercury exposure and neurobehavioral functions in adults living in coastal regions of Korea. Methods We selected 172 adults aged 20-65 years living in a city in the coastal region of Korea. A sociodemographic survey was conducted, mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were measured, and the associations according to computerized neurobehavioral tests were determined using univariate analysis. After adjustment for associated variables, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Results The geometric mean mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were 5.41 µg/L (range, 0.00-15.84 µg/L), 1.17 µg/g-creatinine (range, 0.00-32.86 µg/g-creatinine), and 1.37 mg/kg (range, 0.42-6.56 mg/kg), respectively. Variables that were associated with simple reaction time according to the neurobehavioral test results were age and urine mercury level. Variables associated with choice reaction time were the recent use of Korean traditional medicine and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the right-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, smoking behavior, education level, monthly household income, and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the left-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, education level, and urine mercury level. After adjustment for associated variables, there was no significant association between urine mercury level and simple reaction time (?=25.96; p=0.47), choice reaction time (?=50.37; p=0.32), or the number of left-hand finger taps (?=-1.54; p=0.21). However, urine mercury level was significantly associated with the number of right-hand finger taps (?=-3.86; p=0.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that low-level mercury exposure in adults is associated with deficits in neurobehavioral functions. A longer follow-up study is required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:24303351

  2. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Wim; Römkens, Paul F A M; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the risk of elevated soil metal concentrations requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil in view of ecological and human toxicological risks. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies to derive critical total metal concentrations in soils for Cd, Pb, and Hg as relevant to health effects on animals and humans, taking into account the effect of soil properties. The approach is based on the use of nonlinear relationships for metals in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates, including soil properties that affect metal availability in soil. Results indicate that the impact of soil properties on critical soil metal concentrations is mainly relevant for Cd because of significant soil-plant, soil-solution, and soil-worm relationships. Critical Cd levels in soil thus derived are sometimes lower than those related to ecotoxicological impacts on soil organisms/processes and plants, which is especially true for critical soil Cd concentrations in view of food quality criteria for wheat, drinking water quality, and acceptable daily intakes of worm-eating birds and mammals. There are, however, large uncertainties involved in the derivation from assumptions made in the calculation and uncertainties in acceptable daily intakes and in relationships for Cd in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates. Despite these uncertainties, the analyses indicate that present Cd concentrations in parts of the rural areas are in excess of the critical levels at which effects in both agricultural and nonagricultural systems can occur. PMID:17708073

  3. Low-level prenatal mercury exposure in north china: an exploratory study of anthropometric effects.

    PubMed

    Ou, Langbo; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Yang, Tianjun; Xie, Han; Tong, Yindong; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate anthropometric effects of mercury (Hg) exposure, we examined the status of human prenatal exposure to Hg species, including total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg), in North China, as well as their potential effects on fetal and infant growth. Hg concentrations in various bioindicators were measured from 50 Chinese women and newborns in 2011. The participants were followed for 12 months to collect anthropometric information. Linear and two-level regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between Hg levels and body growth. The geometric mean levels of THg in the placenta, cord blood, fetal hair, and maternal blood, hair, and urine were 25.88 ?g/kg dry wt, 2.73 ?g/L, 572.98 ?g/kg, 2.29 ?g/L, 576.54 ?g/kg, and 0.58 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Nearly 100% of Hg presented as IHg in urine, and the percentage of IHg in other bioindicators was 14.86-48.73%. We observed significantly negative associations between Hg levels in some matrixes and anthropometry of neonates (weight and height) and infants (height) (p < 0.05). THg levels in maternal hair were also negatively associated with infant growth rate of weight during 12 months after delivery (p = 0.017). This study suggests that low-level prenatal Hg exposure could play a role in attenuating fetal and infant growth, and the effects of MeHg and IHg are different. PMID:25936461

  4. Mercury bombardment ion thrusters - Development status, performance levels, and test history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molitor, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes the development status, performance levels, and life test history of 5-cm, 8-cm, and 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thrusters and their respective power processors. A 2.6 kW, 30-cm thruster module and its power processor unit are now available that established the performance required by interplanetary and geosynchronous orbit raising missions. An 8-cm thruster with nominal 4.5 mN thrust level capability has demonstrated a high performance over a wide range of thrust and operational life.

  5. Mercury levels in mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) from northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Yates, David E; Mayack, David T; Munney, Kenneth; Evers, David C; Major, Andrew; Kaur, Taranjit; Taylor, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems have received mercury released from anthropogenic sources. The northeast region of North America is at especially high risk because of local and regional emission sources, prevailing wind patterns, and certain hydrological and biogeochemical features. Here we examine regional variation in total mercury (Hg) in brain, liver, and fur from otter and mink collected across New York, New England, and Nova Scotia. Gender and age are examined as factors potentially affecting Hg tissue levels. In addition, temporal relationships are analyzed for New York as well as correlative relationships for tissues from Maine. Animals were collected from 1982 to 2003, mostly from licensed trappers. Liver was the only tissue from otter that exhibited significant regional variation (New York versus Maine) in Hg concentration. Mercury concentration was significantly related to age but not to gender for otter. All tissues in mink exhibited significant, but inconsistent, regional variation in total Hg concentration, with the highest mean Hg concentration in liver samples from Massachusetts/Connecticut. Female mink had significantly greater Hg concentrations in liver than males. Total Hg concentration in the liver of both otter and mink from New York decreased significantly with time. Correlations among tissues for Hg concentration were stronger for male and female mink and male otter than female otter from Maine. PMID:15931971

  6. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  7. Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

  8. Growth Response and Tissue Accumulation Trends of Herbaceous Wetland Plant Species Exposed to Elevated Aqueous Mercury Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Willis; Robert P. Gambrell; Mark W. Hester

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by

  9. Mercury levels of fish in Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir and in River Mojú in Amazonia, in the state of Pará, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petri Porvari

    1995-01-01

    High mercury (Hg) levels were found in fish of Tucuruí reservoir and River Mojú polluted by mercury due to gold mining activities. The highest Hg concentrations were measured in predatory fish (1.3 ± 0.89 mg\\/kg, N = 121), intermediate values in planktivorous and omnivorous fish (0.32 ± 0.20 mg\\/kg, N = 89) and the lowest values in herbivorous fish (0.11

  10. Soil organic carbon buffers heavy metal contamination on semiarid soils: Effects of different metal threshold levels on soil microbial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Moreno; F. Bastida; M. Ros; T. Hernández; C. García

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, three threshold levels have been accepted for heavy metal concentrations in agricultural soils, depending on soil pH. The aim of this work was to ascertain how the three threshold values proposed for Cd (3, 6.5, and 12.5 mg kg?1) and Zn (300, 650, and 1300 mg kg?1) really affect soil microbial activity. Two soils, a scrubland soil and a forest soil, differing widely

  11. Mercury levels in lichens from different host trees around a chlor-alkali plant in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sensen, Marion; Richardson, David H S

    2002-07-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes along five transects starting from a chlor-alkali plant located at Dalhousie, New Brunswick, a landfill site and a nearby electricity generating station. Lichen samples were collected from white birch (Betula papyrifera) and spruce (Picea sp.) or balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Average lichen background mercury values were 0.088+/-0.005 microg/g from white birch and 0.148+/-0.046 microg/g from spruce trees, with a detection limit of 0.05 microg/g. The chlor-alkali plant and a power plant were identified, respectively, as a major source and a minor source of elevated mercury levels in lichens. At 125 m north-west of the New Brunswick Power plant, 0.28 microg/g Hg were found in Hypogymnia physodes from spruce trees, while at 250 m west (downwind) of the chlor-alkali plant, 3.66 microg/g of mercury were determined. High values, 0.98 microg/g in lichens from spruce trees and 0.79 microg/g in lichen samples from white birch were also measured at 125 m south of the chlor-alkali plant and decreased exponentially with distance. The sphere of influence of the chlor-alkali plant with respect to mercury deposition was estimated to extend 2.4-3.4 km from the plant. The mercury concentrations in Hypogymnia physodes collected from white birch were significantly lower than the concentrations in the same lichen from spruce trees in areas with elevated levels of mercury, but not in areas with low mercury levels. The magnitude of this difference dropped with distance from the source. PMID:12109479

  12. Targeting geothermal exploration sites in the Mount St. Helens area using soil mercury surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.; Waugh, K.

    1983-11-01

    The background mercury level was determined for the areas studied, providing preliminary information for future work. Identification of areas which might merit more intensive sampling was also accomplished. The clusters of samples with high Hg concentrations in both areas may indicate high heat flow and should be investigated further. Problems involving the use of this method in the Cascades were also identified. Both areas north and south of the mountain had approximately the same standard deviation (expressed as a percentage of the mean), even though the sampling horizons seemed much more consistent and less disturbed in the Marble Mountain area than in the Green River Soda Springs area. This may indicate that for these areas, secondary controls are more important, or that Hg anomalies are much smaller than indicated in studies of other areas.

  13. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In Brief: Mountaintop mining under scrutiny; High levels of mercury in U.S. rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Proposed new regulations call for mountaintop surface coal mining in U.S. Appalachian states to reduce ``burying'' and other adverse impacts on streams and watersheds. The draft regulations, issued on 29 May by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies, affects a 12-million-acre area encompassing parts of Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee.The mercury levels in rainfall in 12 U.S. states far exceeds safe standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency, according to a 29 May report by the National Wildlife Federation, a non-profit environmental group.

  15. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Ohno; Mineshi Sakamoto; Tomoko Kurosawa; Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Katsuyuki. Murata

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and ?1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels

  16. A new, catchment-scale model for simulating methyl and total mercury in soils and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futter, M. N.; Poste, A. E.; Whitehead, P. G.; Dillon, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent and persistent neurotoxin. It is subject to long-range atmospheric transport, accumulates in catchment soils, and can pose health risks to humans and animals both at the point of use as well as in remote locations. Elevated concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) in fish are related to atmospheric Hg deposition and have resulted in fish consumption advisories in many parts of North America and Fennoscandia. After more than 150 years of elevated Hg deposition in Europe and North America, there remains a large inventory of Hg in the terrestrial catchments of lakes, which continues to be exported to receiving waters despite decreasing atmospheric inputs. While a substantial Hg pool exists in boreal catchment soils, fluxes of Hg from catchments via stream runoff tend to be much lower than atmospheric Hg inputs. Terrestrial catchments receiving similar atmospheric Hg inputs can have markedly different patterns of Hg output in stream water. Considering the importance of catchment processes in determining Hg flux to lakes and subsequent MeHg concentrations in fish, there is a need to characterize Hg cycling and transport in boreal and temperate forest-covered catchments. We present a new, catchment-scale, process-based dynamic model for simulating Hg in soils and surface waters. The Integrated Catchments Model for Mercury (INCA-Hg) simulates transport of gaseous, dissolved and solid Hg and transformations between elemental (Hg0), ionic (Hg(II)) and MeHg in natural and semi-natural landscapes. The mathematical description represents the model as a series of linked, first-order differential equations describing chemical and hydrological processes in catchment soils and waters which control surface water Hg dynamics and subsequent fluxes to lakes and other receiving waters. The model simulates daily time series between one and one hundred years long and can be applied to catchments ranging in size from <1 to ~10000 km2. Here we present applications of the model to two boreal forest headwater catchments in central Canada where we were able to reproduce observed patterns of stream water total mercury (THg) and MeHg fluxes and concentrations. Model performance was assessed using Monte Carlo techniques. Simulated in-stream THg and MeHg concentrations were sensitive to hydrologic controls and terrestrial and aquatic process rates. Our results show the need for new research to better quantify in-situ methylation and demethylation rates in soils and surface waters and for additional surveys of soil Hg concentrations. These data are needed for constraining model simulations of the effects of changing climate, Hg deposition and land management on fluxes of THg and MeHg.

  17. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (United States). Division of Science and Research

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  18. Mercury concentration in lichen, moss and soil samples collected from the forest areas of Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    K?os, Andrzej; Rajfur, Ma?gorzata; Šrámek, Ivo; Wac?awek, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The concentration of mercury was determined in samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, the moss Pleurozium schreberi, and the soil humus collected in Polish and Czech Euroregions Praded and Glacensis. The sampling sites were located in Bory Stobrawskie, Bory Niemodli?skie and Kotlina K?odzka in Poland, and in Jeseniki and Gory Orlickie in the Czech Republic. The mean concentrations of mercury accumulated in the lichen (0.129 mg g(-1)), in the moss (0.094 mg g(-1)) and in soil (0.286 mg g(-1)) were fairly close to the corresponding concentrations in other low-industrialized regions. The highest concentrations of mercury were observed in the lichen and the moss samples from Kotlina K?odzka. The primary deposition of mercury was evaluated using the comparison factor, defined as the ratio of a difference between the concentrations of a bioavailable analyte in lichens and in mosses, to the arithmetic mean of these concentrations. PMID:22131015

  19. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 2 - Coal fly ash generated stabilized soil and degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Mae Sexauer Gustin; Mei Xin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

    2008-11-15

    The potential for mercury (Hg) releases to the air and water from three soils, two subbituminous coal fly ashes, and mixtures of these materials as stabilized soil was assessed. In addition, the potential for Hg release from crushed stabilized material mixed into soil simulating degradation over time was investigated. In general, atmospheric Hg deposition was measured for the ash and materials made using the ash with the higher Hg concentration, whereas the second ash material and materials generated using this ash exhibited emission as the dominant flux. Fluxes measured from stabilized material were less than that measured for the pure ash material but of the same direction. Although the stabilized and degraded stabilized materials exhibited Hg fluxes that were significantly different from base soils, values were within the range reported for low Hg-containing background soils. Because of limitations of the experimental design (i.e., reduced light exposures and measurement of flux from dry materials) reported fluxes are most likely underestimates of that which would occur in the natural environment. Materials made to simulate degradation of the stabilized material did not exhibit higher releases than the stabilized material alone. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP; EPA method 1312) results showed that the chemistry of a soil, especially pH, may influence the amount of Hg released to soil solutions, with more acidic soils potentially enhancing Hg release. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Mercury, copper and zinc contamination in soils and fluvial sediments from an abandoned gold mining area in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Cesar; Silvia Egler; Helena Polivanov; Zuleica Castilhos; Ana Paula Rodrigues

    Mercury, zinc and copper contamination was evaluated in soils and fluvial sediments from an abandoned gold mining site at\\u000a Descoberto Municipality (southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Metals bioavailability and potential mobility were studied\\u000a through physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization, geoaccumulation indexes calculations, mercury speciation and\\u000a determination of potentially bioavailable contents of zinc and copper. Values of pH were in the

  1. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-07-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with CO, ozone, aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 135 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events were unrelated to daytime/nighttime patterns and lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~ -0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM, but the mechanism remain unclear. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, we propose that in situ production of RGM may have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of some RGM prior to reaching the laboratory, and that GEM oxidation is an important tropospheric Hg sink. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent mercury and that high RGM levels are not limited to the upper troposphere.

  2. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1 - Simulations of beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    Mae Sexauer Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ashamended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1--Simulations of beneficial use.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Ericksen, Jody; Fernandez, George C

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low-permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ash-amended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. PMID:18512444

  4. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg?1 As and 8800 mg kg?1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg?1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg?1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  5. Mercury in soil near a long-term air emission source in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, M.L.; Susong, D.D.; Olson, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeastern Idaho, a 500??C fluidized bed calciner was intermittently operated for 37 years, with measured Hg emission rates of 9-11 g/h. Surface soil was sampled at 57 locations around the facility to determine the spatial distribution of Hg fallout and surface Hg variability, and to predict the total residual Hg mass in the soil from historical emissions. Measured soil concentrations were slightly higher (p<0.05) within 5 km of the source but were overall very low (15-20 ng/g) compared to background Hg levels published for similar soils in the USA (50-70 ng/g). Concentrations decreased 4%/cm with depth and were found to be twice as high under shrubs and in depressions. Mass balance calculations accounted for only 2.5-20% of the estimated total Hg emitted over the 37-year calciner operating history. These results suggest that much of the Hg deposited from calciner operations may have been reduced in the soil and re-emitted as Hg(0) to the global atmospheric pool.

  6. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, R.W.; McKenzie, A.D.; Forsyth, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g?1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g?1 for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g?1 for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g–1 maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g?1 maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%), PMID:21623497

  7. Successful Characterization and Remedial Contour of Highly Contaminated Mercury Soil at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13593

    SciTech Connect

    White, Aaron; Rigas, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)] [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An area known as the 81-10 pad within the footprint of the Y-12 National Security Complex, suspected to be heavily contaminated with mercury, was slated for characterization in support of a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) milestone to be accomplished by September 30, 2012. A full remedial design report (RDR) required the soil in Exposure Unit -9 (EU-9) to be fully characterized for a number of contaminates of concern including mercury. The goal of this characterization effort was to determine what soil, if any, would need to be removed for the protection of industrial workers and impacts to the surface and ground water. Funding for this project was made available using buy-back scope under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The EU-9 soil unit involved 3 different classifications which were determined as follows: Class 1: Known to have been impacted, contamination is likely; Class 2: Suspected to have been impacted, contamination is unknown; Class 3: Area not known to have been impacted, contamination unlikely. Due to various sampling and analysis events since the 1980's, significant mercury contamination was expected under the concrete pad of an area known as 81-10. Mercury contamination outside of the boundary of this pad within the EU-9 footprint was not known and therefore an original planned estimate of 1,461 cubic meters of material were expected to be heavily contaminated with mercury requiring removal, treatment and disposal. Through the use of a highly effective nature and extent sampling and analysis design that involved a hybrid of statistically-based and judgmental sampling, the actual remedial contour requiring removal was approximately 717 cubic meters, roughly 12% of the original estimate. This characterization approach was executed in full compliance with the Record of Decision (ROD) [1] documents that were agreed upon by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. In addition, the RDR was completed ahead of the FFA milestone date of September 30, 2012. (authors)

  8. Projecting the Population-level Effects of Mercury on the Common Loon in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, D. C.; Mitro, M. G.; Gleason, T. R.

    2001-05-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is a top-level predator in aquatic systems and is at risk to mercury contamination. This risk is of particular concern in the Northeast, the region of North America in which loons have the highest mean body concentration of methylmercury (MeHg). We used matrix population models to project the population-level effects of mercury on loons in four states in the Northeast (New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine) exhibiting different levels of risk to MeHg. Four categories of risk to MeHg (low, moderate, high, and extra high) were established based on MeHg levels observed in loons and associated effects observed at the individual and population levels in the field (e.g., behavior and reproductive success). We parameterized deterministic matrix population models using survival estimates from a 12-year band-resight data set and productivity estimates from a 25-year data set of nesting loon observations in NH. The juvenile loon survival rate was 0.55 (minimum) and 0.63 (maximum) (ages 1-3), and the adult loon survival rate was 0.95 (ages 4-30). The mean age at first reproduction was 7. The mean fertility was 0.26 fledgelings per individual at low to moderate risk; there were 53% fewer fledged young per individual at high to extra high risk. Productivity was weighted by risk for each state. The portion of the breeding population at high to extra high risk was 10% in NY, 15% in VT, 17% in NH, and 28% in ME. We also constructed a stochastic model in which productivity was randomly selected in each time step from the 25 estimates in the NH data set. Model results indicated a negative population growth rate for some states. There was a decreasing trend in population growth rate as the percentage of the loon population at high to extra high risk increased. The stochastic model showed that the population growth rate varied over a range of about 0.05 from year to year, and this range decreased as the percentage of the loon population at high to extra high risk increased. These results suggest that an increase in risk to mercury that effects a change in reproductive success may have a negative population-level effect on loons.

  9. Mercury in municipal solid waste in China and its control: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2012-01-17

    Although a potentially significant and preventable source of environmental pollution, mercury in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not received adequate attention in China. Discarded mercury-containing products, if not recycled, ultimately release mercury to air, soil, and groundwater, even after being properly collected and disposed of in MSW management facilities. This review presents an overview on mercury in MSW and describes the emissions associated with landfilling, incineration, and composting in China. Besides end-of-pipe technologies for controlling mercury emissions from MSW management, strategies for controlling mercury in MSW are also discussed, focusing on mercury source reduction and recycling. Batteries and fluorescent lamps contribute to approximately three-quarters of mercury in MSW, and are expected to remain as significant sources of mercury in the near future. Reducing or eliminating the mercury contents in household products, particularly batteries and fluorescent lamps, should be the top priority in controlling mercury in MSW, while it is also important to set mercury contents in consumer products at acceptable and achievable levels based on a life-cycle approach. Meanwhile, cost-effective recycling programs should be developed targeting products containing elemental mercury, such as medical thermometers and sphygmomanometers, and waste products with high mercury contents (e.g., button cells) as well. PMID:22136661

  10. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    PubMed

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams. PMID:6326346

  11. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  12. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S. [Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sherwood, J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R. [ETAS Corporation (United States)

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  13. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  14. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  15. Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

  16. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ??g/L. The wells are finished in the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of New Jersey's Coastal Plain; background concentrations of Hg in water from this system are < 0.01 ??g/L. Evidence of contributions from point sources of Hg, such as landfills or commercial and industrial hazardous-waste sites, is lacking. During 1996-2003, the USGS collected water samples from 203 domestic, irrigation, observation, and production wells using ultraclean techniques; septage, leach-field effluent, soils, and aquifer sediments also were sampled. Elevated concentrations of NH4, B, Cl, NO3, and Na and presence of surfactants in domestic-well water indicate that septic-system effluent can affect water quality in unsewered residential areas, but neither septage nor effluent appears to be a major Hg source. Detections of hydrogen sulfide in ground water at a residential area indicate localized reducing conditions; undetectable SO4 concentrations in water from other residential areas indicate that reducing conditions, which could be conducive to Hg methylation, may be common locally. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly chlorinated solvents, also are found in ground water at the affected areas, but statistically significant associations between presence of Hg and VOCs were absent for most areas evaluated. Hg concentrations are lower in some filtered water samples than in paired unfiltered samples, likely indicating that some Hg is associated with particles or colloids. The source of colloids may be soils, which, when undisturbed, contain higher concentrations of Hg than do disturbed soils and aquifer sediments. Soil disturbance during residential development and inputs from septic systems are hypothesized to mobilize Hg from soils to ground water. ?? Springer 2006.

  17. Response of rice to soil phosphorus levels 

    E-print Network

    Quddus, Mohammad Abdul

    1962-01-01

    'ble phosphorus (P. Porno P 03) in the thx'ee soilsx as determined by smmoni4m biosrbonste method ~ . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ . ~ ~ 9 ~ Influence of soil applied phosyhorus under green- house oonditions on the extractable yhosyhorus (pep. m, P20...

  18. High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

  19. The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

  20. Mercury levels in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the Warta Mouth National Park, northwestern Poland.

    PubMed

    Lanocha, Natalia; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain of raccoon in Europe. It studied Hg concentration in 24 raccoons from the Warta Mouth National Park, northwestern Poland by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The highest total Hg concentrations in the raccoon were found in the liver (maximum, 18.45 mg/kg dry weight), while the lowest in the brain (maximum, 0.49 mg/kg dw). In adult raccoons, Hg concentrations in the liver, kidney, and brain were higher than in immature individuals (p<0.001), while similar in skeletal muscle in both age groups. Our results are consistent with studies by other authors conducted in North America in areas with similar environmental conditions. PMID:24736978

  1. Glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein levels in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonhi exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, A; Bhavan, P Saravana; Geraldine, P

    2012-01-01

    Healthy juveniles of M. malcolmsoniiwere exposed to 24.1 microg l(-1) of mercury (96 hr LC50: 145 microg l(-1) Hg) for a period of 21 days. The hepatopancreas and gills of the prawns were sampled on 8th, 15th and 22nd day of exposure. Accumulation and elimination of Hg, activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) level were studied. Mercury accumulation was found to be higher in the hepatopancreas (88.60 microg g(-1)) and lower in the gills (67.8 microg g(-1)). However, Hg elimination was found to be faster in the gills (62%) and slower in the hepatopancreas (58%). Therefore, the rate of Hg elimination did not match the rate of its uptake. The activity of GST was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (5.94-9.13 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)) on all sampling days when compared with controls (3.454.23 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)). Similarly, the content of GSH was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (0.80-1.43 micromol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with controls (0.55-1.00 micromol g(-1) protein). These results indicate the formation of glutathione conjugate in test prawns to eliminate Hg. The induction of MT level was also found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (57.50-75.76 nmol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with control (20.24-45.22 nmol g(-1) protein). This indicates the fact that sequestration of Hg has occurred for its easy elimination. Thus, induction of GST-GSH and MT ensured protection and adaptation of test prawns to thrive in Hg contaminated environment. PMID:23033656

  2. A Contribution to the Establishment of Reference Values for Total Mercury Levels in Hair and Fish in Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. O. Santos; V. M. Câmara; I. M. Jesus; E. S. Brabo; E. C. B. Loureiro; A. F. S. Mascarenhas; K. F. Fayal; G. C. Sá Filho; F. E. S. Sagica; M. O. Lima; H. Higuchi; I. M. Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Studies on mercury levels in the Amazonian Region have typically lacked background or reference parameters. A sectional study on Hg concentration in hair and fish was conducted, together with an assessment of the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to Hg poisoning, in four communities in the Amazon Basin not impacted by gold mining, located either by a river course

  3. Understanding mercury demethylation is the key to decrease the high environmental levels of the neurotoxin methyl-Hg in lakes.

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    Understanding mercury demethylation is the key to decrease the high environmental levels of the neurotoxin methyl-Hg in lakes. This year over 130 countries agreed to the UN's Minamata Convention's 100,000 lakes have fish that are unsafe to eat due to Hg, Sweden's early concern and deep involvement

  4. POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE COMMON LOON TO MERCURY IN TWO CANADIAN PROVINCES: A MATRIX MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data collected from Common Loon Gavia immer populations in two Canadian provinces to demonstrate a matrix population modeling approach for evaluating population-level responses to stressors and to understand how these populations may have responded to mercury contaminatio...

  5. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mark C; Kolka, Randy; Wickman, Trent; Nater, Ed; Woodruff, Laurel

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO(3)(-)-N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman rho=0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r(2)=0.73, with an overall 10 ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. PMID:19349066

  6. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabriel, M.C.; Kolka, R.; Wickman, T.; Nater, E.; Woodruff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO3--N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman ?? = 0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r = 0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r2 = 0.73, with an overall 10??ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-10-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols) showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~-0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent mercury, that high RGM levels are not limited to upper tropospheric air masses, but that the build-up of high RGM in the troposphere is limited to the presence of dry air.

  8. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: case studies of two polar seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J

    2013-10-15

    The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue ?(15)N values for baseline ?(15)N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline ?(15)N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators. PMID:23993395

  9. Potential effect of land-leveling on soil fertility in a Brazilian rice soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo E. Preve; D. C. Martens

    1990-01-01

    Land-leveling to improve water management in lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is becoming common in many countries. This technique exposes subsoil by removal and deposition of surface soil from high- to low-lying areas. The potential effect of land-leveling on soil fertility was studied in samples from an alluvial soil at depths of 0- to 5-, 5- to 15-, and

  10. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 ?g/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 ?g/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  11. Relating land cover characteristics and common loon mercury levels using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Kramar, David; Goodale, Wing M; Kennedy, L M; Carstensen, L W; Kaur, Taranjit

    2005-03-01

    This effort models the relationship between mercury (Hg) levels in the common loon (Gavia immer) and land cover types as defined by the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We constructed the model within the framework of a GIS to analyze the spatial relationships between land cover types and blood Hg levels in male common loons. Thiessan polygons were used to generate the territory for each loon. We created 150, 300, and 600-m buffers around the Thiessan polygons and modeled the relationships that existed in each distance class. Within the 150-m buffer, three cover types, crop land, shrub land, and wetland were significantly related to blood Hg levels (r2 = 0.552, p < 0.001), which may indicate that the proximity of these cover types influences Hg availability in loon territories. Cropland exhibited a negative relationship with blood Hg levels and may play a role in reducing the amount of available Hg within the study area while wetlands and shrub lands exhibit a positive relationship. The study area consisted of five major lakes and eleven smaller ponds in northwest Maine, and data included a total of 61 male common loon blood Hg samples. PMID:15931970

  12. Low-level mercury in children: associations with sleep duration and cytokines TNF-? and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Gump, Brooks B; Gabrikova, Elena; Bendinskas, Kestutis; Dumas, Amy K; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; MacKenzie, James A

    2014-10-01

    There is a sizeable literature suggesting that mercury (Hg) exposure affects cytokine levels in humans. In addition to their signaling role in the immune system, some cytokines are also integrally associated with sleep behavior. In this cross-sectional study of 9-11 year old children (N=100), we measured total blood Hg in whole blood, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and objectively measured sleep and activity using actigraphy. Increasing blood Hg was associated with significantly shorter sleep duration and lower levels of TNF-?. IL-6 was not associated with sleep or blood Hg. This study is the first to document an association between total blood Hg and sleep (albeit a small effect), and the first to consider the associations of total blood Hg with cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in a pediatric sample. Further research using alternative designs (e.g., time-series) is necessary to determine if there is a causal pathway linking low-level Hg exposure to sleep restriction and reduced cytokines. PMID:25173056

  13. Mercury Levels in Mink ( Mustela vison ) and River Otter ( Lontra canadensis ) from Northeastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Yates; David T. Mayack; Kenneth Munney; David C. Evers; Andrew Major; Taranjit Kaur; Robert J. Taylor

    2005-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems have received mercury released from anthropogenic sources. The northeast region of North America is at especially high risk because of local and regional emission sources, prevailing wind patterns, and certain hydrological and biogeochemical features. Here we examine regional variation in total mercury (Hg) in brain, liver, and fur from otter and mink collected across New York, New England,

  14. Reduced Levels of Mercury in First Baby Haircuts of Autistic Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy S. Holmes; Mark F. Blaxill; Boyd E. Haley

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant

  15. Soil organic matter must be restored to near original levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A. (Wallace Laboratories, El Segundo, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Burning of fossil fuels globally helps put 3 billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year more than is removed by all carbon sinks, By far the best use of that carbon would be to arrange sufficient extra plan growth and then transfer that plant growth into new stable soil organic matter. Twenty or more years of such effort would immensely improve the soils of the world. Any fraction of it would help decrease the threat of global greenhouse warming. A great worldwide goal should be to increase levels of soil organic matter levels considerably. It should be possible. The most important research relating to soil organic matter is perhaps yet to be done. Elucidation of the regulators involved in the build-up and decomposition processes of various types of soil organic matter deserves high priority. It should be possible to develop technologies where the regulators can be managed and controlled for the beneficial purpose of increasing levels of soil organic matter. The role of calcium in stabilizing soil organic matter needs more study. Genetic engineering of specific microorganisms may be needed to increase levels of soil organic matter.

  16. Relationship between blood mercury levels and components of male song in Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni).

    PubMed

    McKay, Jennifer L; Maher, Christine R

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) adversely affects the health and behavior of exposed wildlife; however, behavioral effects remain largely unknown. Changes in avian singing behavior may affect a male's fitness because song reveals male quality and thus influences female mate choice and male territory-holding ability. Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) live exclusively on salt marshes and risk high levels of Hg exposure and bioaccumulation. We recorded songs of male Nelson's sparrows at two locations with different Hg exposure to determine if total blood Hg concentration was related to song characteristics, as previously reported for other species. Males with higher blood Hg levels sang at higher maximum tonal frequency, but blood Hg and site location did not influence low tonal frequency and bout duration, contrary to predictions based on other species. Within the contaminated site, Hg levels were related to bouts per minute and gap duration, such that males at that site sang faster songs. Hg influences hormones and alters brain development, raising questions about specific effects on the brains and singing behavior of male Nelson's sparrows. PMID:22945769

  17. Superpredation increases mercury levels in a generalist top predator, the eagle owl.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Rui; Tavares, Paula C; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Rabaça, João E; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Superpredation can increase the length of the food chain and potentially lead to mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in top predators. We analysed the relationship of Hg concentrations in eagle owls Bubo bubo to diet composition and the percentage of mesopredators in the diet. Hg levels were measured in the adult feathers of eagle owls from 33 owl territories in the south-western Iberian Peninsula, and in three trophic levels of their prey: primary consumers, secondary consumers and mesopredators. In addition, we studied 6,181 prey in the eagle owl diet. Hg concentrations increased along the food chain, but the concentrations in eagle owls showed considerable variation. The Hg concentration in eagle owls increased when the percentage of mesopredators in the diet increased and the percentage of primary consumers decreased. Superpredation is often related to food stress, and the associated increase in accumulation of Hg may cause additional negative effects on vertebrate top predators. Hg levels in these eagle owl populations are relatively low, but future monitoring is recommended. PMID:21298339

  18. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Hagan; Nicholas Robins; Heileen Hsu-Kim; Susan Halabi; Mark Morris; George Woodall; Tong Zhang; Allan Bacon; Daniel de B. Richter; John Vandenberg

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate

  19. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Govarts, Eva; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van De Mieroop, Els; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Schindler, Birgit K; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Van Loco, Joris; Charlier, Corinne

    2014-02-15

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6-11 years) and their mothers (? 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 ?g/g and 0.204 ?g/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 ?g/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 ?g/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 ?g mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. PMID:24333995

  20. A coupled monitoring network to conduct an assessment of mercury transformation and mobilization in floodplain soils: South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, O.; Sparks, D. L.; Landis, R.; Ptacek, C. J.; Hicks, S.; Montgomery, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) was used between 1929 and 1950 by the DuPont plant in the production of rayon acetate fiber in Waynesboro, Virginia and released into the South River. The contamination of Hg was discovered in the 1970s and remained elevated in water, soil, sediments, and biota. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the processes that govern biogeochemical transformation and mobilization of Hg in floodplain soils at South River Mile 3.5, characterize geochemical gradients in soils and how they change over time, and to enable targeted sampling at Hg loading hot spots. The biogeochemical data will play a supporting role and be used to further develop our understanding of the processes controlling the leaching of Hg and our conceptual model. Our over-arching hypothesis is to test if leaching of bank soils is a significant source of dissolved or colloidal inorganic Hg. This effort requires an interdisciplinary geochemical approach and sensor technology to understand the interactions between floodplain soil, groundwater, and river. Our investigation will include 10 months' worth data from a number of state-of-the-art in-situ monitoring sensors, such as custom-designed redox probes, soil moisture, temperature, pressure, and conductivity installed at the site. Our preliminary results showed that the concentration of total Hg in soils was up to 900 mg/kg (wet weight).There is a significant redox gradient across the floodplain soil profile. Within the top 40 -70 cm, major changes in redox conditions from oxidizing (Eh ?+600 mV) to very reducing (Eh ?-300 mV) corresponded to heavy rainfall and overbank flooding events. High variations in stream stage may govern the surface water - groundwater exchange facilitating the downward or upward movement of the capillary fringe and saturated zone through the soil horizons, affecting soil redox potential, stability of Hg-bearing minerals and leaching of inorganic Hg into dissolved and colloidal phases. These phases may be directly transported to the South River or methylated within the saturated zone of the bank and subsequently released.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in feathers of common loons (Gavia immer) in the Northeastern United States and age differences in mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Pokras, M; Chafel, R; Gochfeld, M

    1994-03-01

    Feathers serve as a useful, non-destructive approach for biomonitoring some aspects of environmental quality. Birds can eliminate over 90% of their body burden of mercury by sequestration in growing feathers, and they molt their feathers at least annually. Thus mercury concentrations should not vary in avian feathers as a function of age. We tested the null hypothesis that there are no age differences in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, copper, chromium and manganese in the feathers of immature and adult common loons Gavia immer from the Northeastern United States where the species is declining. Adults had significantly higher mean levels of mercury (20245 ppb) than immature loons (9677 ppb), but there were no age-related differences for other elements. Even with the small number of immatures, females had significantly higher levels of mercury than males, although the gender difference was not significant for adults. PMID:24213705

  2. Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States. PMID:21647946

  3. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  4. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sampling protocols, including sample timing, collection methods, preservation, and preparation, can strongly influence the results of any analysis. Organic soil horizons are a large pool of mercury (Hg) in most temperate, forested sites; minimizing the potential for under- or over- estimates in this medium is critical for discerning the fate and transport of Hg. Detailed guidance is available for ultra-clean and semi-clean handling for Hg sampling in surface waters. However, neither guidance regarding the proper time of year to sample soils nor methodological studies regarding post-sampling preservation and handling were available in the scientific literature for soil Hg sampling. Here we report on pilot work that (1) provides data for Hg in soils (O-horizon) through an entire year, to determine whether seasonality affects Hg estimates; and (2) documents the effect of treating a soil with acidic water prior to preparation and analysis. We collected O-horizon soil samples monthly from a single plot during 2008, and analyzed them for total Hg. Each month, samples were split; half were ‘control’ samples (dried then analyzed) and half were ‘acidified’ (treated with acidic (pH 2.0) ultrapure water prior to drying and analysis). We observed: (1) a three-fold range of Hg values (148-446 ppb) for the control samples (all collected within the same 2-m2 plot), varying across the twelve months in 2008 during which samples were collected; (2) differences of ~15-20% between acidified and control samples; and, (3) an apparent loss of ~100 ppb of Hg (~22%) if acidification of the dry sample was delayed a day or more. Soils collected when the antecedent period had been wet lost Hg when soils were treated with pH 2.0 solution, potentially because soluble Hg in solution could have been leached during acid treatment. This finding may help to explain why researchers have seen large pulses of Hg in streamwater flux during snowmelt. Further, our results may help to inform ongoing scientific discussions regarding the fate of ‘old’ Hg versus ‘new’ Hg. If ‘new’ Hg is subject to rapid transformations that depend, in part, on antecedent weather conditions, this could account for some of the temporal variability in the proportion of ‘new’ Hg in streamwater flux. Although potential mechanisms that explain the temporal variability and acidification effect need to be more thoroughly studied, our results clearly demonstrate that there is large variability within the O-horizon component of watershed-scale budgets of Hg. The effects of long storage times, heating or air-drying samples, and freezing samples have not been explicitly discussed in the literature, though potential sources of variability, including those we investigated, are listed by US EPA. A standardized sampling protocol for soils, based on rigorous tests of field and laboratory handling and preparation, should be developed to support cross-site comparison such as that proposed in the national mercury monitoring network.

  5. Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.K.; Vanarsdale, A.; Keeler, G.J.; Chalmers, A.; Poissant, L.; Kamman, N.C.; Brulotte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative risk for ecosystems to exhibit excessive biotic mercury contamination. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in aerosol, vapor, and liquid phases from four observation networks were used to estimate regional surface concentration fields. Statistical models were developed to relate sparsely measured mercury vapor and aerosol concentrations to the more commonly measured mercury concentration in precipitation. High spatial resolution deposition velocities for different phases (precipitation, cloud droplets, aerosols, and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) were computed using inferential models. An empirical model was developed to estimate gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition. Spatial patterns of estimated total mercury deposition were complex. Generally, deposition was higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Elevation, land cover, and proximity to urban areas modified the general pattern. The estimated net GEM and RGM fluxes were each greater than or equal to wet deposition in many areas. Mercury assimilation by plant foliage may provide a substantial input of methyl-mercury (MeHg) to ecosystems. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric K; Vanarsdale, Alan; Keeler, Gerald J; Chalmers, Ann; Poissant, Laurier; Kamman, Neil C; Brulotte, Raynald

    2005-03-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative risk for ecosystems to exhibit excessive biotic mercury contamination. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in aerosol, vapor, and liquid phases from four observation networks were used to estimate regional surface concentration fields. Statistical models were developed to relate sparsely measured mercury vapor and aerosol concentrations to the more commonly measured mercury concentration in precipitation. High spatial resolution deposition velocities for different phases (precipitation, cloud droplets, aerosols, and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) were computed using inferential models. An empirical model was developed to estimate gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition. Spatial patterns of estimated total mercury deposition were complex. Generally, deposition was higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Elevation, land cover, and proximity to urban areas modified the general pattern. The estimated net GEM and RGM fluxes were each greater than or equal to wet deposition in many areas. Mercury assimilation by plant foliage may provide a substantial input of methyl-mercury (MeHg) to ecosystems. PMID:15931958

  7. The processing of simulated high-level radioactive waste sludges containing nitrites and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Hutson, N.D.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of formic acid with simulated alkaline sludge containing mercury and nitrite was studied in an engineering-scale facility. Quantification of offgas production was performed, with the major offgases being CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. A small amount of CO was also found. The NO{sub x} was scrubbed in the offgas condenser and formed very acidic solutions of nitrous and nitric acids. These acids dissolved mercury that was stripped from the sludge. However, the overall efficiency of mercury stripping was greater than expected, and the final mercury concentration in the sludge was lower than expected. The NO{sub x} in the offgas also caused large temperature rises in the offgas system due to the exothermic reaction of NO with O{sub 2}. This temperature rise had a detrimental effect on the performance of the Formic Acid Vent Condenser, such that redesign is being contemplated. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. DEVELOPING SOIL SCREENING LEVELS FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), as part of a collaborative effort among USEPA, DoD, DOE, states, universities and industry, is developing Ecological Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) for approximately 24 of the most common contaminants founrd at Superfund sites. Eco-SSLs ...

  9. Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Lindberg; H. Zhang; M. Gustin; A. Vette; F. Marsik; J. Owens; A. Casimir; R. Ebinghaus; G. Edwards; C. Fitzgerald; J. Kemp; H. H. Kock; M. Majewski; L. Poissant; M. Pilote; P. Rasmussen; F. Schaedlich; D. Schneeberger; J. Sommar; R. Turner; D. Wallschlaeger; Z. Xiao

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international Hg flux intercomparison at the Steamboat Springs, Nevada, geothermal area, several dynamic soil flux chambers and micrometeorological gradient systems were operated over desert soils in early September 1997. A series of unanticipated convective rain cells impacted the site with the first rainfall in ~90 days, and the initial 4-cm rainfall increased soil moisture from ~0.01

  10. Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Graduate Seminar "Trees Adaptation to Mercury Contaminated Soils

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    in contaminated soil with heavy metals is mainly due to phenotypic plasticity and/or microbial community G Plot F Plot E Plot D Plot B Plot A Plot H East Fork Poplar Creek #12;5 Soil Sampling · During the months of June - 2007 and October - 2007 and June - 2008 and October - 2008 soil samples

  11. Mercury levels in walleyes from Wisconsin lakes of different water and sediment chemistry characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.C.; Noonan, K.C.; Guenther, P.M.; Brasino, T.L.; Rasmussen, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three lakes throughout Wisconsin were sampled in 1985-86 to determine the water and sediment chemistry characteristics that were associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in walleyes. Mean mercury concentrations for each of three different length classes of walleyes increased as the parameters lake pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, or chlorophyll-a decreased. Low values for these parameters characterized most lakes in northern Wisconsin. Mean mercury concentrations exceeded the Wisconsin health standard of 0.5 micrograms (ug) Hg/g wet weight of fish for all walleye length classes in lakes with pH values < 6.0, for walleyes > or = to 15.0 inches in lakes with pH 6.0-6.9, and for walleyes > or = 20.0 in. in all lake pH categories. Apparently the older, larger walleyes in hard water as well as soft water lakes can accumulate enough mercury to warrant concern. Sediment mercury concentrations were generally < or = 0.02 ug/g dry weight for all study lakes, but sediment mercury and organic matter were higher in lakes with pH values < 7.0 than in lakes with pH > or = 7.0. Models were developed and tested to predict mercury concentrations in a 17-in. walleye for each lake. The best model derived from the study and tested on an independent dataset used alkalinity and calcium as independent variables. Clearly, walleyes from soft water, poorly buffered, low pH lakes have the highest concentrations of mercury, but the reasons for these higher concentrations require further study. 67 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast. PMID:19582498

  13. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to be chlorinated, mostly as Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury (90%) or HgO (4%).

  14. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-03-20

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and Cs{sup +} ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. Distribution constants, Kd`s, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

  15. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-03-20

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], UO[sub 2][sup 2+], and Cs[sup +] ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H[sup +] and Ca[sup 2+]. Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

  16. Mercury levels in surface waters of the Carson River-Lahontan reservoir system, Nevada: Influence of historic mining activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Bonzongo; K. J. Heim; J. J. Warwick; W. B. Lyons

    1996-01-01

    Total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and other operationally defined Hg species were determined on water samples collected from a river-reservoir system impacted by historic mine wastes. Simultaneously, a comprehensive study was undertaken to determine the influence of some major physico-chemical parameters on the fate of Hg within the system. Total Hg levels showed an increase from background concentrations of 4

  17. Regional differences in mercury levels in aquatic ecosystems: A discussion of possible causal factors with implications for the Tennessee river system and the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslin, J. Devereux

    1994-07-01

    Concern about mercury pollution from atmospheric deposition has risen markedly in the last decade because of high levels of mercury in freshwater fish from relatively pristine waters. Whereas high concentrations have been found principally in Canada, the northern United States, and Scandinavia, they have also recently been observed throughout much of Florida. Recent surveys of the Tennessee River system, however, have found no locations where fish levels exceed EPA guidelines for fish consumption. This paper evaluates a number of factors that may cause certain regions in the northern hemisphere to experience unacceptable fish mercury levels while other regions do not. Relevant regional differences include: (1) Waters of the Tennessee River system are generally nonacidic (pH>6) and well buffered, whereas 16%, 22%, and 40% of the lakes in upper Midwest, Northeast, and Florida, respectively, have acid-neutralizing capacities below 50 µeq/liter. Acidity correlates highly with fish mercury levels in a number of lake surveys, and experimental manipulations of acidity have significantly raised fish mercury levels. (2) The ratio of land area to water surface area in the Tennessee Valley averages about 30, whereas it is 15 in the upper Midwest and 6 in Florida. Low ratios allow mercury in precipitation to be directly deposited to aquatic bodies, without an opportunity for the mercury to be sequestered by terrestrial ecosystems. (3) Stream organic matter concentrations in Florida, the upper Midwest, and Sweden are 2 10 times those in the Tennessee Valley. Mercury binds strongly to organic matter, and organic matter transport in runoff is a major pathway by which mercury enters aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Effects of reservoir drawdown and refill on mercury levels in fish and other biota

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoe, C.H.; Salice, C.; Yabnochko, G.; Grasman, B.T.; Youngblood, T. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Mercury bioavailability from contaminated sediments is controlled by methylation, related to bacterial activity and degradable organic material. These variables may be affected by large changes in water level and chemistry in a reservoir. At Par Pond, a 1,200 ha impoundment on the USDOE Savannah River Site, South Carolina, potential failure of an earthen dam prompted lowering the reservoir by 3 meters over a two month period in 1991, decreasing water volume about 70%. The reservoir was refilled over a two month period in 1995. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were sampled at quarterly intervals before, during and after the drawdown. Length and weight were determined, and liver and muscle analyzed for total Hg. Hg was also measured in top level predators (alligators), forage fish, macrophytes and invertebrates. From Fall 1991 Winter 1994--5, Hg ranged from 0.05 to 2.0 ug/g wet mass in bass muscle, and was strongly related to fish size, based on about 400 fish. Condition factor rose soon after drawdown, then declined as forage populations collapsed. Using fish size as covariate, bass muscle Hg was greater in spring 1992 than all other sampling dates. However, after 3 years of drawdown, there was no overall trend in bass Hg. Forage species differed in Hg, with highest concentrations in brook silversides (0.13 {micro}g Hg/g wet mass in 2 g fish). Alligators contained up to 20 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass in liver. Refill caused inundation of terrestrial plants on exposed sediments, and microbial action associated with the decay of these may enhance Hg methylation. Experiments with caged fish are underway to measure uptake rates.

  19. Analysis of mercury levels in historical bone material from syphilitic subjects--pilot studies (short report).

    PubMed

    Kepa, Ma?gorzata; Koz?owski, Tomasz; Szostek, Krzysztof; Drozd, Alicja; Walas, Stanis?aw; Mrowiec, Halina; Stepa?czak, Beata; G?ab, Henryk; Grupa, Ma?gorzata

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the remains of seven individuals with typical symptoms of tertiary syphilis in terms of mercury content in bones, thereby verifying whether they were subjected to treatment and, if they were, how long their organisms were exposed to toxic mercury fumes. Mercury was used, mainly in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period, as a preventive measure in case of individuals suffering from syphilis, a venereal disease, and also leprosy. Syphilitic patients treated this way should demonstrate increased concentration of mercury in their bones. The skeletons studied in the present work originate from various archaeological sites in southern and north-central Poland. The analyses concerned individuals with diagnosed syphilis as well as healthy individuals who constituted the control group. The analyses were performed by the LA-ICP-MS technique, with the use of laser Nd: YAG, Macro, 266 nm, New Wave, USA, coupled with Spectrometer Elan DRC-e Perkin Elmer, USA. The content analysis of the studied bone material revealed with high probability that the contact method of mercurial treatment was used only in the case of two women from north-central Poland, deceased at the turn of the 15th century at the earliest. PMID:22928357

  20. Bioconcentration of mercury by mushroom Xerocomus chrysenteron from the spatially distinct locations: levels, possible intake and safety.

    PubMed

    Dry?a?owska, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in specimens of Red Cracking Bolete (Xerocomus chrysenteron) (Bull.) Quél. and overlying soil (0-10cm) collected from 22 spatially distributed sites in Poland during 1996-2013 to assess the potential of this species to bioconcentrate Hg and possible intake by humans. The mean Hg concentrations ranged from 80 to 630 for caps and from 28 to 380ng/g dry matter (dm) for stipes. Decrease in the potential of this mushroom species to bioconcentrate Hg both in caps and stipes was observed when the Hg content in soil substratum increased from 15 to 75-94ng/g dm. A maximum median value for bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Hg determined for caps was 18 for soil with Hg content at 15ng/g dm and decreased to 0.97-3.8 for soils that contained Hg at 37-94ng/g dm. Caps of X. chrysenteron consumed at a volume of 300g daily in a week can yield an exposure amount of Hg at 0.0168-0.1323mg (0.00024 to 0.00189mg/kg body mass); these values are well below the provisionally tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) for inorganic Hg. PMID:24927386

  1. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 ?g/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 ?g/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 ?g/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 ?g/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is warranted to protect children from environmental exposure. PMID:26035667

  2. Correlates between Feeding Ecology and Mercury Levels in Historical and Modern Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype (‘coastal’ or ‘inland’) for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet. PMID:23671561

  3. REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS FOR FISH AND FISH-EATING BIRDS IN CARSON RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves conducting a literature search with the goal of identifying "robust" methods for measuring mercury concentrations in biological tissues. Mercury is a significant contaminant of concern in Region 9, due in large part to the extensive mining activities of the...

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury levels in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in British Columbia, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Liver samples from 70 bald eagles found dead or dying in British Columbia between 1988 and 1993 were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury levels. A subset of 11 eagles found around the Strait of Georgia, an area of known pulp mill pollution, in summer (and therefore presumably resident birds) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Levels of DDE and PCBs ranged from less than 1 mg/kg to 190 and 65 mg/kg respectively. Levels of other organochlorines were generally less than 1 mg/kg, with the exception of some chlordane-related compounds which were occasionally over 2 mg/kg. All birds analyzed for PCDDs/PCDFs contained detectable levels of the major 2,378-substituted isomers. Some birds had extremely high levels, one eagle collected near a kraft pulp mill site contained: 400 ng/kg 2378-TCDD, 1400 ng/kg 12378-PnCDD and 4400 ng/kg 123678-HxCDD. All but two eagles had > 1 mg/kg dry wt. of mercury in liver; most contained less than 1 0 mg/kg d.w. but one bird had 130 mg/kg, a level of toxicological concern. All carcasses were autopsied and cause of death determined wherever possible. The relationship between cause of death and sublethal exposure to OCs and Hg is analyzed and discussed.

  5. A comparison of the dynamics and bioconcentration of mercury in Oregon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Curtis, L. [East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    The authors assessed the extent of mercury pollution and its bioconcentration effects in fish in two Oregon reservoirs. Cottage Grove and Dorena Reservoirs are located in same ecoregions but distinguished by the history of mercury mining in the formers watershed. Past mercury mining activity deposited up to 271 {micro}g/g mercury and 2.6 mg/g sulfur in soils of near Black Butte Mine, OR. Sediment mercury concentration in the main tributary of Cottage Grove Reservoir, which drains the tailings of the past mercury mine, was ten times higher than in sediment from other tributaries to the reservoir. However there was no significantly difference between mercury concentration in each tributary of Dorena Reservoir, which has no mercury mining history in its watershed. Average mercury concentration in sediment of Cottage Grove Reservoir (0.67 {micro}g/g dw) was higher than of Dorena Reservoir (0.12 {micro}g/g dw). The authors also determined percent volatile solid and grain size effect in sediment. Maximum mercury concentration exceeded the FDA limit 1 {micro}g/g ww for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Cottage Grove Reservoir. All fish species (largemouth bass, bluegill, crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus)) from Cottage Grove Reservoir had significantly higher levels of mercury than from Dorena Reservoir. Fish weight and age was positively correlated with mercury concentration in both-reservoirs and seasonal variation of mercury concentration in fish was examined. These results indicate that the Black Butte Mine is the main source of mercury and mercury bioconcentration in fish represents a management problem in Cottage Grove Reservoir.

  6. Effects of phosphate buffer capacity on critical levels and relationships between soil tests and labile phosphate in wheat growing soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. R. Holford

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine soils from northern New South Wales were used to examine the effects of phosphate buffer capacity on (i) the extraction of labile phosphate by four soil tests, (ii) the relationships between the four soil tests, and (iii) the critical level of each soil test required for near-maximum yield of wheat under field conditions. The results confirmed the principle, recently

  7. A Meta-analysis of Mercury Levels in Lavaca Bay Texas

    E-print Network

    Pillado, Maria C.

    2014-05-07

    Lavaca Bay is a secondary bay to Matagorda Bay on the central Texas Coast. In 1970 Texas Department of Health (TDH) closed parts of Lavaca Bay to the harvesting of oysters due to mercury contamination as a result of contaminated wastewater...

  8. Effects of sublethal levels of DDT, malathion and mercury on tissue proteins of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Ramalingam

    1982-01-01

    Liver and muscle total proteins declined inSarotherodon mossambicus subjected to sublethal concentrations of ddt, malathion and mercury. The results indicate their role in maintenance of energy\\u000a supply irrespective of the nature of the toxicant. The qualitative variations in serum protein pattern also support the quantitative\\u000a changes in tissues.

  9. Monitoring of mercury, lead and cadmium levels in seafoods during the years 1993–1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale Gallo; Luigi Serpe

    1998-01-01

    The results of mercury, lead and cadmium analyses in seafoods from Campania and Calabria during the years 1993–1995 are herein reported. We analysed 1795 food samples and carried out 3532 determinations about metal concentrations. The data were evaluated to calculate the frequency of illegal samples in respect to the limits permitted by Italian legislation; moreover, we reported the distribution of

  10. Influence of illegal gold mining on mercury levels in fish of North Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula, (Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joice L. Kambey; A. p. Farrell; L. i. Bendell-young

    2001-01-01

    North Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula currently is experiencing intense illegal gold mining activity. It has been estimated that 200 t of mercury are used annually in Indonesia in the recovery of gold from the illegal mines. To date no study has assessed the environmental impact of this illegal activity on the nearby aquatic biota. To address this concern, we compared tissue

  11. A Meta-analysis of Mercury Levels in Lavaca Bay Texas 

    E-print Network

    Pillado, Maria C.

    2014-05-07

    Lavaca Bay is a secondary bay to Matagorda Bay on the central Texas Coast. In 1970 Texas Department of Health (TDH) closed parts of Lavaca Bay to the harvesting of oysters due to mercury contamination as a result of contaminated wastewater...

  12. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

  13. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Low-level Prenatal Mercury Exposure From Maternal Fish Consumption in a Mediterranean Cohort: Study Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Horvat, Milena; Sofianou-Katsoulis, Aikaterini; Spiric, Zdravko; Mazej, Darja; Little, D’Anna; Prasouli, Alexia; Mariuz, Marika; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Nakou, Sheena; Barbone, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxic environmental pollutant. However, the literature on the neurodevelopmental effect of low-level prenatal mercury exposure from maternal fish intake is inconsistent. We assessed the association between prenatal mercury exposure and infant neurodevelopment in coastal areas of 4 Mediterranean countries. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that planned to enroll approximately 1700 mother–infant pairs. Pregnant women and their newborn children were recruited in selected hospitals of the study areas. Biological samples, including maternal hair and cord blood, were collected from mothers and children, and the concentrations of mercury and other elements were measured. Exposures to lifestyle, environmental, and social factors were assessed through questionnaires. The main outcome was child neurodevelopment at 18 months, as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Conclusions This cohort has a number of strengths. First, mercury concentration was measured in several biological samples, which allows for a better understanding of mercury kinetics and is useful for sensitivity analyses. Therefore, we expect to be able to adjust for the potential confounding effects of lifestyle and social factors and for the effects of other elements that were measured in the biological samples. Finally, this is a multinational study and thus permits assessment of the relation between mercury and child neurodevelopment in different populations. PMID:23269124

  14. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2014-05-20

    Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 ?g/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 ?g/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 ?g/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude. PMID:24678891

  15. Mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic levels in three pelagic fish species from the Atlantic Ocean: Intra- and inter-specific variability and human health risks for consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vieira; S. Morais; S. Ramos; C. Delerue-Matos; M. B. P. P. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Three commonly consumed and commercially valuable fish species (sardine, chub and horse mackerel) were collected from the Northeast and Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean in Portuguese waters during one year. Mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic amounts were determined in muscles using graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Maximum mean levels of mercury (0.1715±0.0857mg\\/kg, ww) and arsenic (1.139±0.350mg\\/kg, ww) were

  16. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  17. Selenium speciation analysis at trace level in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Tolu; Isabelle Le Hécho; Maïté Bueno; Yves Thiry; Martine Potin-Gautier

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an analytical methodology to determine speciation of selenium present in soils at trace level (?gkg?1). The methodology was based on parallel single extractions and high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICPMS). Two complementary chromatographic separations were used to confirm Se species identity. Different extractants, selected on the basis of

  18. Spatial analysis and hazard assessment of mercury in soil around the coal-fired power plant: a case study from the city of Baoji, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Lingqing

    2008-02-01

    Based on systematic sampling of soil around the coal-fired power plant (CFPP), the content of Hg was determined, using atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The result shows that the content of Hg in soil is different horizontally and vertically, ranges from 0.137 to 2.105 mg/kg (the average value is 0.606 mg/kg) and is more than the average content of Hg in Shaanxi, Chinese and world soil. In this study, spatial distribution and hazard assessment of mercury in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of mercury and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of the Hg concentration higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the Hg concentration in soils was apparent. These results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental Hg pollution and decision support.

  19. Alteration of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae exposed to mercury chloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes endocrine disorder to human and other organisms. But little is known about the response of the thyroid functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to mercury in teleosts and the few studies that are available have not yielded consistent results. In this study, expression profiles of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?) genes were determined in whole-body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Hg(2+) (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) for 4 days, as well as the thyroid hormones (THs) levels. Moreover, the 96-h lethal concentration of Hg(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 0.32 mg/l. The results showed that crh, tg, tr? and tr? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tsh? and slc5a5 was not significantly changed in our study. Besides, the THs levels increased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Hg(2+) could alter some genes expression in the HPT axis which could be used as the potential biomarkers for evaluating the environmental Hg(2+)-induced stress in fish. PMID:25064382

  20. Styrofoam debris as a potential carrier of mercury within ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Graca, Bo?ena; Be?dowska, Magdalena; Wrzesie?, Patrycja; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2014-02-01

    The present paper falls within the trend of research into interactions between various pollutants emitted anthropogenically into the environment and focuses on mercury and styrofoam debris. The study covers part of the Southern Baltic's drainage area. Apart from styrofoam and beach sand, the research involved mosses, which are bioindicators of atmospheric metal pollution. The research has shown that mercury present in the environment becomes associated with styrofoam debris. The median for mercury concentrations in virgin styrofoam samples (0.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)) and in beach sand samples (0.69 ng g(-1) d.w.) was an order of magnitude lower than in the styrofoam debris (5.20 ng g(-1) d.w.). The highest mercury content observed in styrofoam debris (3,863 ng g(-1) d.w.) exceeded the standards for bottom sediment and soil. The binding of mercury to styrofoam debris takes place in water, and presumably also through contact with the ground. A significant role in this process was played by biotic factors, such as the presence of biofilm and abiotic ones, such as solar radiation and the transformations of mercury forms related to it. As a result, mercury content in styrofoam debris underwent seasonal changes, peaking in summertime. Furthermore, the regional changes of mercury content in the studied debris seem to reflect the pollution levels of the environment. PMID:24057963

  1. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    PubMed

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants. PMID:25282998

  2. Application of speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry to evaluate extraction methods for determining mercury speciation in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, G M Mizanur; Kingston, H M Skip

    2004-07-01

    Extraction techniques commonly used to extract methylmercury or mercury species from various matrixes have been evaluated regarding their potential to transform inorganic mercury to methylmercury, or vice versa, during sample preparation steps by applying speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Two of the five tested methods were highly prone to form inorganic mercury from methylmercury. Some published methods converted methylmercury to inorganic mercury approximately 100% (including the spiked CH(3)(201)Hg(+)). In other methods, as much as 45% of methylmercury was converted to inorganic mercury during extraction. The methods evaluated included cold acid extraction and sonication. Other methods, such as the proposed EPA RCRA Draft Method 3200, microwave-assisted extraction, and another sonication-based methods induced very little or no methylmercury transformation to inorganic mercury. Among these three methods, the proposed Draft EPA Method 3200 was found to be the most efficient. PMID:15228324

  3. Mercury and Organochlorines in Black Bream, Acanthopagrus butcheri, from the Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia: Evidence for Temporal Increases in Mercury levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fabris; T. Theodoropoulos; A. Sheehan; B. Abbott

    1999-01-01

    Total mercury and organochlorine insecticide (?-HCH, lindane, ?-HCH, heptachlor, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, ?- and ?-endosulfan, dieldrin, 4,4?–DDE, endrin, 4,4?-DDD, 4,4?-DDT) concentrations were measured in black bream from 10 widely separated sites within the estuarine Gippsland Lakes, Victoria south-east Australia. Mercury concentrations (mean 0.22 ?g g?1 wet weight) in the axial muscle tissues were below the maximum concentration in fish

  4. Levels of Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead in Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) Stranded on the Brazilian Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia M. Vega; Salvatore Siciliano; Paulo R. G. Barrocas; Sandra S. Hacon; Reinaldo C. Campos; Silvana do Couto Jacob; Paulo Henrique Ott

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic\\u000a penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast.\\u000a In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 ?g\\/g. However, the Cd and

  5. Mercury levels of Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows at wintering grounds in Virginia, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. CristolFletcher; Fletcher M. Smith; Claire W. Varian-Ramos; Bryan D. Watts

    Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions and the susceptibility of\\u000a their wetland habitats to climate change, these two new species are of conservation concern. Both species are known to bioaccumulate\\u000a mercury at breeding sites in New England, USA where their ranges overlap, with the

  6. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A. [Univ. of Cartagena (Colombia)] [and others] [Univ. of Cartagena (Colombia); and others

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Assessment of Soil Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, and Lead at an Agricultural Landscape Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Bin Liu; Peng-Tao Guo; Wei Wu; Zheng-Yin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of arsenic and heavy metal concentrations and distributions is essential in the design of environmental regulatory strategies. The present study was undertaken as a preliminary survey on soil contamination in a representative agricultural area of southwestern China. The objectives were: (1) to characterize the variability of As, Cr, Hg, and Pb; (2) to assess the effect of land use

  8. Mercury exposure and children's health.

    PubMed

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate

    2010-09-01

    Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic. The development of the child in utero and early in life is at particular risk. Mercury is ubiquitous and persistent. Mercury is a global pollutant, bio-accumulating, mainly through the aquatic food chain, resulting in a serious health hazard for children. This article provides an extensive review of mercury exposure and children's health. PMID:20816346

  9. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS FROM PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as part of a collaborative effort among government and industry representatives, is developing Ecologic Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) for approximately 25 of the most common pollutants found at Superfund sites. As part of this effort, ...

  11. Ectomycorrhizal heavy metal accumulation as a contributing factor to heavy metal levels in organic surface soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Ove Berthelsen; Rolf Arnt Olsen; Eiliv Steinnes

    1995-01-01

    Samples from the top organic layer of coniferous forest soils were collected at several locations in Southern Norway, a region with high surface soil levels of Pb, Cd and Zn. Soil samples and samples of different morphological types of ectomycorrhiza were analyzed with respect to Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. Despite low levels in surface soils in the area, Cu

  12. Dynamics of Maize Carbon Contribution to Soil Organic Carbon in Association with Soil Type and Fertility Level

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition. PMID:25774529

  13. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  14. Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

  15. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

    1999-10-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated. PMID:10622434

  16. National estimates of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels in the Korean general adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam-Soo Kim; Byung-Kook Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To assess the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean general adult population using a representative\\u000a sample.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied blood concentrations of three heavy metals in a representative sample of 1,997 Koreans as part of the Third Korean\\u000a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) performed in 2005.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The geometric means of the blood lead,

  17. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Biomonitoring Examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Young Son; Jinheon Lee; Domyung Paek; Jong-Tae Lee

    2009-01-01

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To

  18. Cadmium in Soil and Winter Wheat Grain in Southern Sweden: I. Factors Influencing Cd Levels in Soils and Grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan. E. Eriksson; Mats Söderström

    1996-01-01

    The guideline level for Cd contents in cereals of 100 ?g kg proposed by the Codex Committee on Cereals, Pulses and Legumes has increased concern regarding Cd levels in Swedish winter wheat. In this study, Cd levels in soil and grain and factors influencing these variables were investigated in Skåne, the southernmost province in Sweden. In 1992, soils and winter

  19. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  20. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  1. Contamination assessment of mercury and arsenic in roadway dust from Baoji, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Loretta Y.; Wang, Lijun; Lei, Kai; Huang, Jing; Zhai, Yuxiang

    The physicochemical properties and the contamination levels of mercury and arsenic in roadway dust from Baoji, NW China were investigated using an Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Contamination levels were assessed based on the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. The results show that magnetic susceptibilities of roadway dust were higher than Holocene loess-soil of central Shaanxi Loess Plateau. The mean contents of organic matter, PM10 and PM100 were 8.8%, 21.8% and 98.6%, respectively. Mercury concentration ranged from 0.48 to 2.32 ?g g -1, with a mean value of 1.11 ?g g -1, 17.1 times the Chinese soil mercury background value and 37 times the Shaanxi soil mercury background value. Arsenic concentration ranged from 9.0 to 42.8 ?g g -1, with a mean value of 19.8 ?g g -1, 1.8 times the Chinese and Shaanxi soil arsenic background values. The geoaccumlation index and enrichment factor indicate that mercury in the dust mainly originated from anthropogenic sources with ratings of "strongly polluted" and "strongly to extremely polluted", whereas arsenic in dust originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources, with a ratings of "moderately to strongly polluted" and "strongly polluted". Industrial activities, such as a coal-fired power station, coke-oven plant, and cement manufacturing plant, augmented by vehicular traffic, are the anthropogenic sources of mercury and arsenic in the roadway dust.

  2. LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS, PCBS AND HG IN RURAL SOILS OF US

    EPA Science Inventory

    No systematic survey of dioxins in soil has been conducted in the US. Soils represent the largest reservoir source of dioxins. As point source emissions are reduced emissions from soils become increasingly important. Understanding the distribution of dioxin levels in soils is ...

  3. Changes in Soil Nitrate-N Levels from Late Summer to Early Spring in Montana

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    their N rates based on fall soil sampling. Methods We measured soil nitrate levels in the upper 2 feet (if 2011 Number 55 Introduction Most soil sampling is conducted from August to November in Montana because of better soil sampling conditions and because it provides more time for growers to make fertilizer

  4. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Ecos, Enrique; Richter, Daniel; Vandenberg, John

    2015-06-01

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor was released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential samples, total Hg in hair, and self-reported questionnaire data regarding factors influencing exposure (e.g., frequency of fish consumption, occupation). Total Hg concentrations in hair from 118 participants ranged from 0.10 to 3.6 µg/g, similar to concentrations found in the USA and lower than concentrations in other Hg-exposed populations around the world. Pearson's correlation coefficients for data in this study suggest that there is a positive correlation between concentrations of total Hg in hair and concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust; however, these correlations are not statistically significant. Results of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified that total Hg concentrations in hair were significantly related to gender (p < 0.001), living in a neighborhood where smelters were previously located (p = 0.021), smoking status (p = 0.003), frequency of house cleaning (p = 0.019), and frequency of fish consumption (p = 0.046). These results highlight the need for further studies to better characterize Hg exposure in Huancavelica, particularly as related to residential contamination. A comprehensive analysis of residential Hg contamination and exposure in Huancavelica will guide the development and implementation of mitigation and remediation strategies in the community to reduce potential health risks from residential Hg exposure. PMID:25467206

  5. Root zone soil moisture from the assimilation of screen-level variables and remotely sensed soil moisture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Draper; J.-F. Mahfouf; J. P. Walker

    2011-01-01

    In most operational NWP models, root zone soil moisture is constrained using observations of screen-level temperature and relative humidity. While this generally improves low-level atmospheric forecasts, it often leads to unrealistic model soil moisture. Consequently, several NWP centers are moving toward also assimilating remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture observations. Within this context, an EKF is used to compare the assimilation

  6. Mercury contamination in bank swallows and double-crested cormorants from the Carson River, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.; Brewer, R.; Peterson, S.C.; Mach, C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An ecological risk assessment was performed in conjunction with a remedial investigation at the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) in northwestern Nevada. Large quantities of mercury used in the processing of gold and silver during mining operations in the mid to late 1800s are distributed throughout the Carson River ecosystem. Previous investigations indicated elevated levels of mercury in soil, sediment, water, and the aquatic food chain. Bird exposure to mercury was determined by measuring total mercury and monomethyl mercury in blood and feather samples from 15 unfledged double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and in blood, feather, and liver samples from 18 juvenile bank swallows (Riparia riparia) at both the CRMS and uncontaminated background locations. Monomethyl mercury accounted for 90 to 98% of the total mercury in the samples. Total mercury concentrations in bird tissues collected at the CRMS were significantly higher than at background locations. Average total mercury concentrations (wet weight) for the swallow blood, liver, and feather samples collected at the CRMS were 2.63, 3.96, and 2.01 mg/kg, respectively; compared with 0.74, 1,03, and 1.84 mg/kg, respectively at the background area. Average total mercury concentrations for cormorant samples collected at the CRMS were 17.07 mg/kg for blood, and 105.1 1 mg/kg for feathers. Cormorant samples collected at the background location had average total mercury concentrations of 0.49 mg/kg for blood and 8.99 mg/kg for feathers. Results are compared with published residue-effects levels to evaluate avian risks.

  7. Ecosystem Responses to Changed Atmospheric Mercury Load: Results from Seven Years of Mercury Loading to Lake 658

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gilmour; R. Harris; C. Kelly; J. Rudd; M. Amyot; J. Hurley; C. Babiarz; M. Paterson; P. Blanchfield; K. Beaty; K. Sandilands; H. Hintelmann; D. Krabbenhoft; M. Tate; S. Lindberg; G. Southworth; V. St. Louis; J. Graydon

    2009-01-01

    The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments\\/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we are conducting the METAALICUS study, a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to

  8. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used. PMID:22442930

  9. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, new jersey coastal plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia L. Barringer; Zoltan Szabo

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ?g\\/L. The wells are finished in the areally

  10. ON-SITE MERCURY ANALYSIS OF SOIL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES BY IMMUNOASSAY AND ASV

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two field methods for Hg, immunoassay and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), that can provide onsite results for quick decisions at hazardous waste sites were evaluated. Each method was applied to samples from two Superfund sites that contain high levels of Hg; Sulphur Bank Me...

  11. Mercury and selenium levels in lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in relation to a harmful red tide event.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Adams, Douglas H; Reyier, Eric A; Basu, Niladri

    2011-05-01

    Tissue levels of mercury (Hg; total, organic) and selenium (Se) were assessed in juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from Florida nearshore waters collected during a harmful algal bloom (HAB, brevetoxin) event and compared with sharks not exposed to HABs. In all sharks studied, total Hg levels in the muscle were generally present in a molar excess over Se (which may protect against Hg toxicity) and mean muscle Hg levels (0.34 microg/g) exceed safe human consumption guidelines. While there was generally no difference in tissue Hg and Se levels following exposure of sharks to HABs, hepatic Hg levels were significantly lower (56% reduction) in the HAB-exposed sharks compared to controls. As Hg and HABs are globally increasing in scope and magnitude, further work is warranted to assess their interactions and biotic impacts within aquatic ecosystems, especially for a species such as the lemon shark that is classified as a near-threatened species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. PMID:20625820

  12. Mercury in the ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

  13. Introduction of mercury resistant bacterial strains to Hg(II) amended soil microcosms increases the resilience of the natural microbial community to mercury stress

    SciTech Connect

    de Lipthay, Julia R.; Rasmussen, Lasse D.; Serensen, Soren J.

    2004-03-17

    Heavy metals are among the most important groups of pollutant compounds, and they are highly persistent in the soil environment. Techniques that can be used for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments thus need to be evolved. In the present study we evaluated the effect of introducing a Hg resistance plasmid in subsurface soil communities. This was done in microcosms with DOE subsurface soils amended with 5-10 ppm of HgCl2. Two microcosms were set up. In microcosm A we studied the effect of adding strain S03539 containing either the Hg resistance conjugative plasmid, pJORD 70, or the Hg resistance mobilizable plasmid, pPB117. In microcosm B we studied the effect of adding strain KT2442 with and without pJORD70. For both microcosms, the effect on the resilience of the indigenous bacterial community as well as the effect on the soil concentration of Hg was evaluated.

  14. ORGANIC MULCHES AFFECT SOIL AND LEAF NUTRIENT LEVELS OF YOUNG PECAN TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wheeler G. Foshee; William D. Goff; Michael G. Patterson; Kenneth M. Tilt; W. Alfred Dozier; Laura S. Tucker; James S. Bannon

    1999-01-01

    Soil and leaf nutrient levels were compared from young pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) trees mulched with leaves, pine bark nuggets, pine straw, grass clippings, or chipped limbs; and from unmulched trees with bermudagrass sod. Soil beneath grass-clipping mulch showed an increase in soil potassium (K) levels as compared to all other treatments except chipped limbs. Foliar iron (Fe)

  15. LASERS: Pulsed laser based on a resonance—metastable level transition in mercury ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, S. V.; Petrash, G. G.

    1995-09-01

    The method of doubled pulses was used to achieve pulsed lasing due to the 5d106p2P3/2—5d96s2 2D5/2 transition in the mercury ion (? = 398 nm), similar to efficient lasing transitions in copper and gold atoms. Discharge tubes with inner diameters 4 and 8 mm and 30 cm long were used. They were filled with neon or helium as the buffer gases. There was a significant difference between lasing in the narrow and wide tubes. In the wide tube it was possible to observe lasing only when the delay between the pulses was short; the beam was not ring-shaped, contrary to what was found earlier for the narrow tube. Lasing was observed even when the delay between the two pulses was less than 5 ?s, but lasing disappeared when heating of the tube became stronger as the pulse repetition frequency was increased. Possible population and inversion mechanisms were analysed.

  16. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish. PMID:25087497

  17. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna.

    PubMed

    Buckman, Kate L; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Vivien F; Chalmers, Ann; Broadley, Hannah J; Agee, Jennifer; Jackson, Brian P; Chen, Celia Y

    2015-07-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10-40× increase, mean?±?standard deviation [SD]: 20.1?±?24.8 ng g(-1) dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10-30× increase, mean?±?SD: 2045?±?2669 ng g(-1) dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3-7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean?±?SD: 33.5?±?9.33 ng g(-1) dry wt; MeHg mean?±?SD: 0.52?±?0.21?ng g(-1) dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23?ng L(-1) ) and dissolved (0.76?ng L(-1) ) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2-9?ng g(-1) d(-1) dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1?ng g(-1) d(-1) dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1649-1658. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25732794

  18. Bulk and rare earth abundances in the Luna 16 soil levels A and D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillum, D. E.; Ehmann, W. D.; Wakita, H.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the abundances of major, minor, and trace elements by means of sequential INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in two Luna 16 soils, at levels A (about 7 cm depth) and D (about 30 cm depth). Abundances of the bulk elements in Luna 16 soils generally agree with the values reported by Vinogradov (1971). Elemental abundances of both bulk and trace elements are nearly the same for the two A and D soil levels. Overall, the chemical compositions of the two Luna 16 soils are more closely related to Apollo 11 soil 10084 than to Apollo 12 and 14 soils, with the exception of TiO2 abundances.-

  19. US mercury recyclers provide expanded process capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Queneau; L. A. Smith

    1994-01-01

    In the United States today, emphasis is on minimizing use of and exposure to mercury. Mercury-contaminated materials are treated for Hg recovery before being landfilled. Major feedstocks include batteries, thermometers, switches, thermocouples, chloralkali waste, charcoal, lighting wastes, chloralkali waste, charcoal, lighting wastes, residues from remediation activities and soils. Major soil sources include natural gas pipelines, and DOE sites. There is

  20. Mercury spills require special cleanup methods, protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ceaser, A.V. [Omni/ajax, Great Meadows, NJ (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Cleaning up liquid mercury usually involves one or two chemical processes--insolubilization and/or amalgamation. Both turn liquid mercury into a non-vaporizing form. Insolubilization most often involves turning mercury into a sulfide. Amalgamation combines liquid mercury with metal powder to produce a solid, non-mobile form. The minimum protection requires for working on mercury-spill cleanups involves equipment specially designed for mercury exposures, including respirators, gloves, goggles and shoe covers. In some cases, full-body protection may be required. Other equipment includes gold-film-type mercury-vapor detectors, probably the most sensitive and efficient units available for mercury cleanups; gas detection tubes; and high-intensity halogen lamps, which often reveal liquid mercury to the eye. If the mercury spill is in a confined area, it should be ventilated immediately. Indoor heating systems should be shut off to reduce vaporization. If an amalgamating powder is not available immediately, responders can cover the suspected area with polyethylene sheeting or spray, and apply an acrylic wash over the surface. In most soil contamination cases, the mercury is at or close to the surface. The contaminated soil should be excavation to 50% beyond the depth of contamination to ensure complete removal. This excavated soil can be taken off site, and the mercury removed through distillation or through magnetic means, using amalgamating powder. The latter process involves slurring the contaminated soil in water and stirring in the magnetic powder. In some cases, a mild acid may have to be added to maintain a pH of no less than 4 or higher than 6. After adequate mixing, the amalgamated mercury may be removed using a plastic-covered magnet as described previously. The soil should be tested on-site for any remaining mercury. In all procedures, the use of corrosion-resistant, plastic equipment should be employed.

  1. The impact of a low humus level in arable soils on microbial properties, soil organic matter quality and crop yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Beyer; K. Sieling; K. Pingpank

    1999-01-01

    In arable soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Northwest Germany) nearly 30% of the total organic C (TOC) stored in former times\\u000a in the soil has been mineralized in the last 20 years. Microbial biomass, enzyme activities and the soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a composition were investigated in order to elucidate if a low TOC level affects microbial parameters, SOM quality and crop\\u000a yield.

  2. DEVELOPING ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS: BENCHMARK VALUES FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES, PLANTS, AND MICROBIAL FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils are repositories for environmental contaminants (COCs) in terrestrial ecosystems. Time, effort, and money repeatedly are invested in literature-based evaluations of potential soil-ecotoxicity......

  3. Does shift in oxygen level in soil air affect the trace gases emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    malghani, S.; Gleixner, G.; Trumbore, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic processes in soil such as, trace gasses emissions are influenced by presence or absence of oxygen as it is a dominant final acceptor of electrons for number of biochemical processes. However, it is unknown that trace gases emissions from soil are influenced by the level of oxygen or not. To understand the impact of oxygen level on CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions, five contrasting soils which differ in land use and other properties, were incubated at constant temperature and moisture in an automated chamber measurement system. Automated system continuously (30 mL/min) flushed the chambers holding soil samples with inlet air of known composition and the outlet air, sampling the headspace of the column, was connected to an automated multiport stream selection valve (Valco) that directed the air stream from different columns sequentially to instrumental part (LiCOR6262,PICARRO2101i and PICCARO2301). Other greenhouse gases and isotopes (?13C & D) of CH4 were sampled weekly using 2L flasks. Oxygen levels in inlet air were switched weekly, started from 20% followed by 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0%, and all levels were repeated in reverse fashion (from 1 to 20%).The results showed that soil respiration was higher in soils that were rich in soil organic matter with higher microbial biomass. Three out of five soils exhibited a gradual decrease in soil respiration while shifting higher to lower O2 levels but no such impact was recorded during gradual increase in O2 level. The lowest respiration rates in all soil types were recorded under anaerobic conditions. Forest soils were rich in soil organic carbon and respired more CO2 than grassland or cropland soils. All soils oxidized CH4, except one grassland soil which was acidic in nature (pH=4.1), in the presence of O2 at all levels. Amount of CH4 oxidized varied among soil types and was highest in forest soils. Under anaerobic condition CH4 oxidation was not observed in any soil, while two soils (cropland and one grassland) emitted methane but at very low concentrations. Large amount of N2O emissions were recorded under 0% O2 level, and the amount of N2O emitted was higher in forest soils than grassland soils. In conclusion, the variable impact of oxygen levels on trace gases emissions depends on soil and trace gas type.

  4. Mercury accumulation in grass and forb species as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and mercury exposures in air and soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Millhollen; D. Obrist; M. S. Gustin

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for atmospheric Hg° uptake by grassland species as a function of different air and soil Hg exposures, and to specifically test how increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations may influence foliar Hg concentrations. Four common tallgrass prairie species were germinated and grown for 7 months in environmentally controlled chambers using two different

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER STUDIES OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is released into the environment through both natural and anthropogenic pathways. The cycling and fate of mercury in atmospheric, soil, and water ecosystems is impacted by various factors, including chemical transformation and transport. An understanding of these proces...

  6. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  7. A field study on factors influencing Cd levels in soils and in grain of oats and winter wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan E. Eriksson

    1990-01-01

    The influence of selected factors on Cd levels in soils and in grain of oats and winter wheat was investigated. Soil and grain were sampled at sites randomly distributed over Sweden. Organic soils generally had higher Cd contents and lower pH levels than mineral soils, and plants growing in organic soils tended to have higher Cd contents than plants growing

  8. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  9. Levels of metals in soils and vegetation in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schuhmacher; S. Granero; M. Bellés; J. M. Llobet; J. L. Domingo

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of ten metals were determined in soil and vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Soil and common grass samples were obtained at various sites within 4 km from the incinerator. The potential exposure levels of neighborhood to metals was also investigated. In soils, the highest metal concentrations were found for Mn, Pb

  10. Effect of high ammonium levels on nitrification, soil acidification, and exchangeable cation dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Zasoski

    1993-01-01

    In almond orchards which are fertilized and irrigated with drip systems, fertilizers are applied to a relatively small soil volumes several times during the growing season. Where NH4?based fertilizers are used, high NH4 levels are anticipated in soil solution and on exchange sites. The effects of high NH4 concentration on nitrification, soil acidification, and exchangeable cation dynamics were studied in

  11. Mercury Issues and Complexities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Redefining the Conceptual Model - 12277

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark; Southworth, George; Watson, David [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Looney, Brian; Eddy-Dilek, Carol [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Ketelle, Richard [Restoration Services Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Releases of mercury from an industrial facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the 1950's and early 1960's resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater within the facility, as well as downstream surface waters. Remediation efforts, which began in the 1980's, have decreased waterborne mercury concentrations near the facility, but elevated levels of mercury remain in the soil, sediment, water, and biota. Widespread distribution of mercury sources and complex mercury transport pathways are some of many challenges at the site. For effective environmental management and closure decision making relative to mercury contamination at the facilities, an up-to-date conceptual model of mercury source areas, processes, likely flow paths, and flux was deemed necessary. Recent facility and reconfiguration efforts, site characterizations, remedial actions, and research are facilitating the collection of new mercury data in Oak Ridge. To develop the current model, a multi-organizational team reviewed existing conceptual models from a variety of sources, consolidated historical data and source information, gathered input from local experts with extensive site knowledge, and used recently collected mercury data from a variety of sampling programs. The developed site conceptual model indicates that the nature and extent of mercury concentration and contaminant flux has significantly changed in the ten years since flux-based conceptual models were used for previous remedial action decisions. A new water treatment system has effectively reduced mercury inputs to the creek and is removing substantially greater quantities of mercury from groundwater than was expected. However, fish concentrations in downstream waters have not responded to decreased water concentrations in the stream. Flux from one large out-fall at the creek's headwaters appears to be a greater percentage of the overall flux leaving the site than previous years, albeit year to year variation in flux is large, and the many small sources of mercury identified in the model may also be important if the goal is to reach very low mercury levels in stream water and fish. The conceptual model is a key reference in helping to prioritize future remedial actions, defining future monitoring, conducting numerical modeling efforts, and evaluating research needs. (authors)

  12. Bonding of methyl mercury to reduced sulfur groups in soil and stream organic matter as determined by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and binding affinity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin; Skyllberg, Ulf; Frech, Wolfgang; Bleam, William F.; Bloom, Paul R.; Petit, Pierre Emmanuel

    2002-11-01

    We combined synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and binding affinity studies to determine the coordination, geometry, and strength of methyl mercury, CH 3Hg (II), bonding in soil and stream organic matter. Samples of organic soil (OS), potentially soluble organic substances (PSOS) from the soil, and organic substances from a stream (SOS) draining the soil were taken along a short "hydrological transect." We determined the sum of concentrations of highly reduced organic S groups (designated Org-S RED), such as thiol (RSH), disulfane (RSSH), sulfide (RSR), and disulfide (RSSR), using sulfur K-edge XANES. Org-S RED varied between 27% and 64% of total S in our samples. Hg LIII-edge EXAFS analysis were determined on samples added CH 3Hg (II) to yield CH 3Hg (II)/Org-S RED ratios in the range 0.01-1.62. At low ratios, Hg was associated to one C atom (the methyl group) at an average distance of 2.03 ± 0.02 Å and to one S atom at an average distance of 2.34 ± 0.03 Å, in the first coordination shell. At calculated CH 3Hg(II)/Org-S RED ratios above 0.37 in OS, 0.32 in PSOS, and 0.24 in SOS, the organic S sites were saturated by CH 3Hg +, and O (and/or N) atoms were found in the first coordination shell of Hg at an average distance of 2.09 ± 0.01 Å. Based on the assumption that RSH (and possibly RSSH) groups take part in the complexation of CH 3Hg +, whereas RSSR and RSR groups do not, approximately 17% of total organic S consisted of RSH (+ RSSH) functionalities in the organic soil. Corresponding figures for samples PSOS and SOS were 14% and 9%, respectively. Competitive complexation of CH 3Hg + by halide ions was used to determine the average binding strength of native concentrations of CH 3Hg (II) in the OS sample. Using data for Org-S RED, calculated surface complexation constants were in the range from 10 16.3 to 10 16.7 for a model RSH site having an acidity constant of mercaptoacetic acid. These values compare favorably with identically defined stability constants (log K1) for the binding of methyl mercury to thiol groups in well-defined organic compounds.

  13. Investigation of mercury concentrations in fur of phocid seals using stable isotopes as tracers of trophic levels and geographical regions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Investigation of mercury concentrations in fur of phocid seals using stable isotopes as tracers seal (Ommatophoca rossii), Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), ringed seals (Phoca hispida

  14. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils at different levels of resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth-Anne Sandaa; Vigdis Torsvik; Øivind Enger; Frida Lise Daae; Tonje Castberg; Dittmar Hahn

    1999-01-01

    The impact of heavy metal contamination on soil bacterial communities was studied in soils amended for many years with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. At the broad level of resolution, DNA reassociation analysis indicated a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity from 16?000 bacterial genomes (g soil [wet wt])?1 in the non-contaminated soil to 6400 bacterial genomes

  15. Growth of three species of Bidens under different levels of soil moisture content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyokazu Suehiro; Kazuo Hozumi; Kichiro Shinozaki

    1984-01-01

    By the assumption that both soil moisture and soil air affect plant growth as linear factor, the relationship between mean\\u000a plant dry weight and soil moisture content was newly formulated. Its applicability to actual growth data was tested by growing\\u000a three species ofBidens under different levels of soil moisture content. The growth data ofBidens well satisfied the new formula. The

  16. Mercury levels in lichens from different host trees around a chlor-alkali plant in New Brunswick, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Sensen; David H. S Richardson

    2002-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes along five transects starting from a chlor-alkali plant located at Dalhousie, New Brunswick, a landfill site and a nearby electricity generating station. Lichen samples were collected from white birch (Betula papyrifera) and spruce (Picea sp.) or balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Average lichen background mercury values were 0.088±0.005 ?g\\/g from white

  17. A human health risk assessment of mercury species in soil and food around compact fluorescent lamp factories in Zhejiang Province, PR China.

    PubMed

    Shao, D D; Wu, S C; Liang, P; Kang, Y; Fu, W J; Zhao, K L; Cao, Z H; Wong, M H

    2012-06-30

    This study investigated total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in a major production center of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) located in Gaohong, Zhejiang Province, China. This was a result of the growing concern associated with the release of mercury into the environment from such components. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for THg and MeHg of 157±11 (61-518)ng/gdw and 0.28±0.07 (0.07-0.67)ng/gdw in agricultural soil, respectively, and 18.6±6.5 (3.2-47.8)ng/gww and 0.11±0.03 (0.02-0.37)ng/gww in vegetable samples, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between THg in vegetables and corresponding soil samples (r=0.64, p<0.01). THg and MeHg in sediment samples had respective concentrations ranging from 28 to 1019ng/gdw and 0.11 to 3.15ng/gdw. Mud skipper bought from the local market contained the highest Hg (THg: 170±45ng/gww, MeHg: 143±37ng/gww) amongst all fish species (THg: 14-170; MeHg: 11-143ng/gww) of the study. The risk assessment indicated that fish consumption should not result in a MeHg EDI exceeding the RfD (0.1?g/kgbw/d) for both adults and children, when MeHg bioaccessibility is taken into account. PMID:22575176

  18. Toxic element contamination and the occurrence of mercury-resistant bacteria in Hg-Contaminated soil, sediments, and sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Olson; S. M. Cayless; S. Ford; J. N. Lester

    1991-01-01

    River sediment, sludge, and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Hg, MeHg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Volatile solids, chloride, sulphate, and sulphide were also assessed. Heavy metal contamination was present in all the samples, particularly soil and sediment. The 'k values for Cu were less than those for Hg and lower for soil than for river

  19. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties. PMID:24080414

  20. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Hills, R.G. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  1. IMPACT OF HIGH SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON SOIL BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OXISOLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the Cerrado region of Brazil to be agriculturally productive, large amount of P fertilizer must be added to overcome the P-fixation capacity of these Oxisol soils. Additions of large amounts of fertilizer affect the chemistry of the soil and may affect the soil physical and biological properties...

  2. Distribution and residue level of mercury, cadmium and lead in Korean birds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doo Pyo; Honda, Katsuhisa; Tatsukawa, Ryo (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)); Won, Pyongoh (Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea))

    1989-10-01

    In Korea, some bird species have experienced a reduction in numbers since 1960's. This may be due to the destruction of habitats by industrialization, direct or indirect disturbance by people, and increase in the use of toxic contaminants such as organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. In particular, construction of heavy metals. In particular, construction of heavy industrial complexes during the last decade accelerated changes in the environmental quality, which might have influenced the wildlife populations in various ways. However, data on residue levels of contaminants such as organochlorine compounds and toxic metals in Korean birds are very scarce. The present investigation, which examines the tissue distribution of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) in 16 bird species in Korea, and the residue levels in relation to the feeding habits and habitats, was done in an attempt to learn the general levels of metal pollution in Korean birds.

  3. Northern Idaho House Dust and Soil Lead Levels Compared to the Bunker Hill Superfund Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Spalinger; Margrit C. von Braun; Varduhi Petrosyan; Ian H. von Lindern

    2007-01-01

    House dust has been identified as a major exposure medium for lead (Pb) in children. High levels of Pb in soil and house dust\\u000a have been recorded at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site (BHSS) in northern Idaho, an historic mining and smelting district. Soil\\u000a and dust remediation at the site was required; however, regional background soil and dust Pb levels

  4. Evaluation of SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithms Using SMOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann; Shi, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission are global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolution, respectively. SMAP will provide soil moisture with a spatial resolution of 10 km with a 3-day revisit time at an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3 [1]. In this paper we contribute to the development of the Level 2 soil moisture algorithm that is based on passive microwave observations by exploiting Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite observations and products. SMOS brightness temperatures provide a global real-world, rather than simulated, test input for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture algorithm. Output of the potential SMAP algorithms will be compared to both in situ measurements and SMOS soil moisture products. The investigation will result in enhanced SMAP pre-launch algorithms for soil moisture.

  5. A Screening Level Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Mercury in Florida Everglades Food Webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie E. Duvall; Mace G. Barron

    2000-01-01

    A screening level probabilistic assessment of risks was performed on three species of piscivorous wildlife at the top of Everglades aquatic food webs: the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the great egret (Egretta alba), and the raccoon (Procyon lotor varius). Ranges of dietary exposure concentrations (and probability distribution functions) were derived for two general areas of the Everglades: Shark Slough and

  6. Superpredation increases mercury levels in a generalist top predator, the eagle owl

    E-print Network

    Penteriani, Vincenzo

    effects on vertebrate top predators. Hg levels in these eagle owl populations are relatively low consequences for some raptor species resulting from the bioaccumulation of these chemicals, including low´vora, Portugal P. C. Tavares CVRM-Geo-Systems Centre, Instituto Superior Te´cnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049

  7. Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

    PubMed Central

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Shen, Danny D.; Liberato, Noelle; Grant, Kimberly S.; Cernichiari, Elsa; Clarkson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Thimerosal is a preservative that has been used in manufacturing vaccines since the 1930s. Reports have indicated that infants can receive ethylmercury (in the form of thimerosal) at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for methylmercury exposure, depending on the exact vaccinations, schedule, and size of the infant. In this study we compared the systemic disposition and brain distribution of total and inorganic mercury in infant monkeys after thimerosal exposure with those exposed to MeHg. Monkeys were exposed to MeHg (via oral gavage) or vaccines containing thimerosal (via intramuscular injection) at birth and 1, 2, and 3 weeks of age. Total blood Hg levels were determined 2, 4, and 7 days after each exposure. Total and inorganic brain Hg levels were assessed 2, 4, 7, or 28 days after the last exposure. The initial and terminal half-life of Hg in blood after thimerosal exposure was 2.1 and 8.6 days, respectively, which are significantly shorter than the elimination half-life of Hg after MeHg exposure at 21.5 days. Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3). A higher percentage of the total Hg in the brain was in the form of inorganic Hg for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys (34% vs. 7%). The results indicate that MeHg is not a suitable reference for risk assessment from exposure to thimerosal-derived Hg. Knowledge of the toxicokinetics and developmental toxicity of thimerosal is needed to afford a meaningful assessment of the developmental effects of thimerosal-containing vaccines. PMID:16079072

  8. Adsorption-desorption behavior of copper at contaminated levels in red soils from China.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; He, Z L; Huang, C Y; Chen, G C; Calvert, D V

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption-desorption of copper (Cu2+) at contaminated levels in two red soils was investigated. The red soil derived from the Quaternary red earths (clayey, kaolinitic thermic plinthite Aquult) (REQ) adsorbed more Cu2+ than the red soil developed on the Arenaceous rock (clayey, mixed siliceous thermic typic Dystrochrept) (RAR). The maximum adsorption values (M(A)) that are obtained from the simple Langmuir model were 25.90 and 20.17 mmol Cu2+ kg(-1) soil, respectively, for REQ and RAR. Adsorption of Cu2+ decreased soil pH, by 0.8 unit for the REQ soil and 0.6 unit for the RAR soil at the highest loadings. The number of protons released per Cu2+ adsorbed increased sigmoidally with increasing initial Cu2+ concentration for the RAR soil, but the relationship was almost linear for the REQ soil. The RAR soil released about 2.57 moles of proton per mole of Cu2+ adsorbed at the highest Cu2+ loading and the corresponding value for the REQ soil was 1.12. The distribution coefficient (Kd) decreased exponentially with increasing Cu2+ loading. Most of the adsorbed Cu2+ in the soils was readily desorbed in the NH4Ac. After five successive extractions with 1 mol L(-1) NH4Ac (p 5.0), 61 to 95% of the total adsorbed Cu2+ in the RAR soil was desorbed and the corresponding value for the REQ soil was 85 to 92%, indicating that the RAR soil had a greater affinity for Cu2+ than the REQ soil at low levels of adsorbed Cu2+. PMID:12175030

  9. Assessment of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminth levels in soils in Yenagoa Metropolis, Niger Delta.

    PubMed

    Bariweni, Perekibina A; Ekweozor, Ikem K E; Ogbonna, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths in the Yenagoa Metropolis, 480 soil samples were collected from five communities for 12 months. The soil samples were collected along two transects from the waterfront and community playgrounds. Analysis was by standard methods. The results obtained from the study described in this article showed that 44.79% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.34%-49.24%) of the soil samples tested positive for nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common helminth with a prevalence rate of 35% (95% CI = 30.73%-39.27%). Mixed occurrence of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths was 10.21%. Although the community playgrounds had a higher prevalence of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths than the waterfront (p > .05), more cases of mixed occurrence of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths occurred in the waterfront than the community playgrounds (p > .05). The wet season had a higher prevalence rate of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths than the dry season (p < .05). The observed high prevalence of nonzoonotic soil-transmitted helminths in soil is considered a potential public health risk to swimmers and children playing outdoors in the Yenagoa metropolis. PMID:24645421

  10. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  11. Software and system level tests of a test flight mercury ion thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.; Low, C. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A U.S. Air Force technology spacecraft flight is scheduled to carry an Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) as part of its experimental payload. This paper presents the results of the successful flight-software qualification and system-level tests which were performed on IAPS. The software tests were performed with an operating engineering model ion thruster and power processing unit, and failure/off-normal recovery modes, operation with and without temperature telemetry from the thruster vaporizers, and with closed-loop control or fixed setpoint operation of the thruster vaporizers. The system-level tests cover a wide range of thermal and operating conditions with the entire system exposed to a simulated space environment.

  12. The Role of Vegetation in Mercury Cycling at Mercury Enriched Mine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frescholtz, T. F.; Frescholtz, T. F.; Gustin, M. S.; Gustin, M. S.; Schorran, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    The role of plants in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) is not quantified. The goals of this study were to determine the role of forest plants in the exchange of Hg between soil and the atmosphere at a variety of air and soil Hg concentrations, and to differentiate between root uptake versus atmospheric uptake as the source of Hg in foliar tissue. Using large growth chambers (1.5m3) or ecopods, uptake of Hg in foliar surfaces was determined as a function of air and soil Hg concentrations. Replicate ecopods were used to expose the above ground portion of 15 quaking aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) grown in three soil concentrations (five in 0.03, five in 6 and five in 25 ug Hg/g soil) to three air Hg concentrations (1.5, 15 and 70 ng Hg/m3 air). Mercury containing soils were generated by mixing topsoil with Hg contaminated mill tailings from the Carson River Superfund site. In addition, a single plant gas exchange system was used to monitor real-time fluxes of Hg associated with foliar surfaces. In ecopod experiments, at all exposures, foliar Hg concentrations were found to increase over time. In ecopods with 1.5 ng/m3 air, plants grown in 25 ug/g soils had significantly higher levels of mercury in the leaf tissue than plants grown in control soils, indicating that at background air concentrations uptake of Hg via the roots occurs. In plants grown in 70 ng/m3 air there was no significant difference in leaf Hg concentrations as a function of soil Hg concentration demonstrating that at high air concentrations, atmospheric uptake is the primary means of foliar Hg accumulation. Plants grown in low Hg soil exhibited significant increases in leaf concentration with each increase in atmospheric concentration. Single plant experiments demonstrated that Hg is transferred from the soil to the atmosphere via the plant pathway. Implications of this study are that vegetation at mining contaminated sites may act as sources and sinks of atmospheric Hg as a function of both soil and air Hg concentrations.

  13. Soil pH change after surface application of lime related to the levels of soil disturbance caused by no-tillage seeding machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Flower; W. L. Crabtree

    2011-01-01

    On acid soils, no-tillage farmers are often advised to apply lime to the soil surface without incorporation by tillage. As such, it can take a number of years before the subsoil acidity is decreased. However, no-tillage seeders vary in the level of soil disturbance caused during seed placement. The consequence of such variations in soil disturbance for the effectiveness of

  14. Short-Term Effects of Land Leveling on Irrigation-Related Some Soil Properties in a Clay Loam Soil

    PubMed Central

    Öztekin, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies conducted on the short-term effects of land leveling on soil water holding capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-term effects of land leveling on the magnitudes, variances, spatial variability, and distributions of surface (0–20?cm) and subsurface (20–40?cm) soil properties of bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, water holding capacity and particle size fractions. The study was conducted in a 1.2?ha field with clay loam soil located on the low terraces of Yesilirmak River, Tokat, Turkey. According to the paired t-test results, water holding capacity, and bulk density significantly increased, while permanent wilting point (P ? 0.001) and field capacity (P ? 0.05) significantly decreased for surface soil due to land leveling. The reasons for the increases in WHC values in both cut and fill areas (29%, and 12%, resp.) of surface soil are look like the much more decreases in PWP values than those of FC values and the increases in BD values. The moderate positive linear relationship between the surface soil clay contents and cut depths through cut areas (r = 0.64) was also determined in this study. PMID:23843730

  15. Elevated concentrations of methyl mercury in streams after forest clear-cut: a consequence of mobilization from soil or new methylation?

    PubMed

    Skyllberg, Ulf; Westin, Mattias Björkman; Meili, Markus; Björn, Erik

    2009-11-15

    Concentrations of inorganic, mercuric mercury (Hg(II)), methyl mercury (MeHg) and ancillary chemistry measured in first-order streams draining 0-4 (N = 20) and 4-10 (N = 27) year-old clear-cuts of former Norway Spruce Picea abies (Karst.) forest stands were compared with concentrations in streams draining >70 year-old Norway Spruce reference stands (N = 10). Concentrations of MeHg, and ratios of MeHg TOC(-1) and Hg(II) TOC(-1), were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated in 0-4 year-old clear-cuts, as compared to references. The only ancillary variable showing a significant elevation for 0-4 year-old clear-cuts was Mn (p < 0.02). The 4-10 year-old clear-cuts showed intermediate concentrations with nonsignificant differences as compared to references. pH, nitrate, sulfate, Ca, Fe, TOC, TON, and the aromaticity of TOC (SUVA(254 nm)) showed nonsignificant differences between clear-cut age classes and references. Assuming that MeHg and Hg(II) are mobilized from soil to stream to a similar relative extent as a consequence of clear-cutting, a calculation showed that (1)/(6) of the elevated MeHg concentration was due to enhanced mobilization from soil and (5)/(6) was due to new methylation of Hg(II) 0-4 years after clear-cut. New methylation after clear-cut is suggested to be stimulated by an increased availability of electron donors for methylating bacteria, as a consequence of degradation of logging residue ("slash") and soil organic matter. A subdivision of sites situated above and below the highest postglacial coastline (HC) revealed a significant elevation of MeHg, MeHg TOC(-1) and Hg(II) TOC(-1) (p < 0.05) beyond their references in 0-4 year-old clear-cuts above (but not below) the HC. This suggests that postglacial deposits of FeS(s) and FeS(2)(s) were not an important factor for elevation of MeHg after clear-cut. PMID:20028048

  16. A screening level probabilistic risk assessment of mercury in Florida Everglades food webs.

    PubMed

    Duvall, S E; Barron, M G

    2000-11-01

    A screening level probabilistic assessment of risks was performed on three species of piscivorous wildlife at the top of Everglades aquatic food webs: the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the great egret (Egretta alba), and the raccoon (Procyon lotor varius). Ranges of dietary exposure concentrations (and probability distribution functions) were derived for two general areas of the Everglades: Shark Slough and the southcentral Everglades (highly contaminated with Hg), and the northern Everglades (a lower Hg contaminated area in and near Water Conservation Area 1). Ranges of toxicity reference values and probability distribution functions were derived from literature on the toxicity of dietary methyl Hg to birds and mammals. Probability distributions of risk estimates for each receptor were generated using Monte Carlo simulations and indicated that piscivorous wildlife feeding in the south-central region of the Everglades are at high risk from consumption of Hg-contaminated prey. Alligators had 100% exceedences of chronic risk thresholds, and great egrets had 99% exceedences. In the northern Everglades, exceedences of chronic risk thresholds were substantially lower but were still present (6-34% exceedences). Results support previous studies suggesting that top predators of the Everglades may be at risk from Hg contamination and indicate that Hg risks are location-dependent. PMID:11139184

  17. Mercury vapour (Hg(0)): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G Mark; Brecher, Ronald W; Scobie, Hugh; Hamblen, Jane; Samuelian, John; Smith, Cindy

    2009-02-01

    There are four published reference exposure levels (RELs) for Hg(0), ranging from 0.09microg/m(3) to 1microg/m(3). All RELs were derived from the same toxicological database, predominantly of male chloralkali workers. Some key factors are apparent which make the use of that database questionable for REL derivation. Occupational studies of chloralkali workers are not an appropriate basis for a REL for Hg(0). Concomitant exposure to chlorine gas (Cl(2)) diminishes uptake and effects of Hg(0) exposure. There are gender differences in Hg(0) uptake, distribution and excretion, with females at potentially greater risk from Hg(0) exposure than males. Studies of chloralkali workers focused almost exclusively on adult males. Recent investigations of dental professionals (dentists, technicians, assistants) have failed to define a threshold in the dose-response relationship linking Hg(0) with neurobehavioural outcomes, an observation generally ignored in Hg(0) REL development. Finally, there is a growing database on genetic predisposition to health effects associated with Hg(0) exposure. Based on these considerations, we propose a different key study for REL derivation, one that involved male and female dental professionals without concomitant Cl(2) exposure. Adjusting the LOEAL to continuous exposure and applying appropriate UF values, we propose a Canadian REL for Hg(0) of 0.06microg/m(3). PMID:18992295

  18. Geomorphic controls on mercury accumulation in soils from a historically mined watershed, Central California Coast Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Historic Hg mining in the Cache Creek watershed in the Central California Coast Range has contributed to the downstream transport of Hg to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Different aspects of Hg mobilization in soils, including pedogenesis, fluvial redistribution of sediment, volatilization and eolian transport were considered. The greatest soil concentrations (>30 mg Hg kg-1) in Cache Creek are associated with mineralized serpentinite, the host rock for Hg deposits. Upland soils with non-mineralized serpentine and sedimentary parent material also had elevated concentrations (0.9-3.7 mg Hg kg-1) relative to the average concentration in the region and throughout the conterminous United States (0.06 mg kg-1). Erosion of soil and destabilized rock and mobilization of tailings and calcines into surrounding streams have contributed to Hg-rich alluvial soil forming in wetlands and floodplains. The concentration of Hg in floodplain sediment shows sediment dispersion from low-order catchments (5.6-9.6 mg Hg kg-1 in Sulphur Creek; 0.5-61 mg Hg kg-1 in Davis Creek) to Cache Creek (0.1-0.4 mg Hg kg-1). These sediments, deposited onto the floodplain during high-flow storm events, yield elevated Hg concentrations (0.2-55 mg Hg kg-1) in alluvial soils in upland watersheds. Alluvial soils within the Cache Creek watershed accumulate Hg from upstream mining areas, with concentrations between 0.06 and 0.22 mg Hg kg-1 measured in soils ~90 km downstream from Hg mining areas. Alluvial soils have accumulated Hg released through historic mining activities, remobilizing this Hg to streams as the soils erode.

  19. Rice Yield and Soil Chemical Properties as Affected by Precision Land Leveling in Alluvial Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Walker; William L. Kingery; Michael S. Cox; J. Larry Oldham; Patrick D. Gerard; F. Xiang Han

    2003-01-01

    Once the slope is created, levees can be constructed so that a flood depth of between 10 and 20 cm can In 1998 and 1999, two soil series representative of a large percentage be maintained. of rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing hectarage in the Mississippi Delta were sampled in increments to a depth of 120 cm. Measurements Soils that have

  20. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Fang; D. H. Nam; N. Basu

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and

  1. Sorption behavior of cesium on various soils under different pH levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Giannakopoulou; C. Haidouti; A. Chronopoulou; D. Gasparatos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the sorption behavior of Cs in four different soils (sandyloam, loam, clayloam and clay) by using batch experiment. Cs sorption characteristics of the studied soils were examined at 4mgL?1 Cs concentration, at various pH levels, at room temperature and with 0.01M CaCl2 as a background electrolyte. Among different soils the decrease of kd (distribution

  2. Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Basu; A M Scheuhammer; R D Evans; M OBrien; H M Chan

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and

  3. Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 µg g?1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

  4. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  5. Foliar anatomical and morphological variation in Nothofagus pumilio seedlings under controlled irradiance and soil moisture levels.

    PubMed

    Ivancich, Horacio S; Lencinas, María V; Pastur, Guillermo J Martínez; Esteban, Rosina M Soler; Hernández, Luis; Lindstrom, Ivone

    2012-05-01

    Foliar anatomy and morphology are strongly related to physiological performance; therefore, phenotypic plasticity in leaves to variations in environmental conditions, such as irradiance and soil moisture availability, can be related to growth rate and survivorship, mainly during critical growth phases, such as establishment. The aim of this work was to analyze changes in the foliar internal anatomy (tissue proportions and cell dimensions) and external morphology (leaf length, width and area) of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser seedlings growing in a greenhouse under controlled irradiance (three levels) and soil moisture (two levels) during one growing season (measured three times), and to relate them to physiological traits. Three irradiance levels (4, 26 and 64% of the natural incident light) and two soil moisture levels (40 and 80% soil capacity) were evaluated during November, January and March. Internal foliar anatomy of seedlings was analyzed using digital photographs of histological cuttings, while leaf gross morphology was measured using digital calipers and image analysis software. Most internal anatomical variables presented significant differences under different irradiance levels during the growing season, but differences were not detected between soil moisture levels. Palisade parenchyma was the tissue most sensitive to irradiance levels, and high irradiance levels (64% natural incident light) produced greater values in most of the internal anatomical variables than lower irradiance levels (4-24% natural incident light). Complementarily, larger leaves were observed in medium and low irradiance levels, as well as under low soil moisture levels (40% soil capacity). The relationship of main results with some eco-physiological traits was discussed. Foliar internal anatomical and external morphological plasticity allows quick acclimation of seedlings to environmental changes (e.g., during harvesting). These results can be used to propose new forest practices that consider soil moisture and light availability changes to maintain high physiological performance of seedlings. PMID:22499597

  6. Cooperative learning in a Soil Mechanics course at undergraduate level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pinho-Lopes; J. Macedo; F. Bonito

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of the Bologna Process enforced a significant change on traditional learning models, which were focused mainly on the transmission of knowledge. The results obtained in a first attempt at implementation of a cooperative learning model in the Soil Mechanics I course of the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, are presented and discussed. The

  7. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  8. Mercury in vegetation of the Mount Amiata area (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Bargagli, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Maserti, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the mercury mining area of Mount Amiata metal contents were determined in plant parts of Pinus nigra, Cedrus atlantica and Cytisus scoparius, in lichens and in soil. Mercury concentrations were higher in vegetation growing on spoil banks of abandoned roasted cinnabar than near geothermal power plants. Green plant parts accumulated mercury to a greater extent than branch and root wood, and a mercury concentration increase was found in ageing pine and cedar needles. Moreover, in the most contaminated location, mercury contents in cedar needles decreased with the distance from the ground. Considerations and hypothesis were made on mercury uptake by plants in this area.

  9. Soil Potassium Levels in Pastures of Northeast Dairy and Beef Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive levels of soil potassium (K) can lead to increased concentration of K in forages, causing metabolic disorders in ruminants, especially in pre-parturition cows and heifers. Composite soil samples (15 to 20 cores) were taken from pastures on five farms in the northeast USA: two farms in Pen...

  10. Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nadal; M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo

    2004-01-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 soil and 12 wild chard samples collected in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban\\/residential zones and in presumably unpolluted sites (control samples). In soils, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1002

  11. Implications of increased carbon dioxide levels for carbon input and turnover in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. van de Geijn; J. A. van Veen

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of the plant-soil system in its interaction with the changing climate is discussed. It is shown that processes at the level of organic matter inputs into the soil and the fluxes and pools involved in the global cycle are not known in sufficient detail to allow an estimation of the future quantitative shifts. Even the direction in which

  12. Soil Charcoal in Old-Growth Rain Forests from Sea Level to the Continental Divide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beyhan Titiz; Robert L. Sanford Jr

    2007-01-01

    Soil charcoal is an indicator of Holocene fires as well as a palaeoecological signature of pre-Colombian land use in Neotropical rain forests. To document rain forest fire history, we examined soil charcoal patterns in continuous old-growth forests along an elevational transect from sea level to the continental divide on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. At 10 elevations we sampled

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

  14. Elemental mercury exposure among children of thermometer plant workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hudson; R. L. Vogt; J. Brondum; L. Witherell; G. Myers; D. C. Paschal

    1987-01-01

    Because evidence of mercury exposure was found among workers of a mercury thermometer-manufacturing plant in March 1984, the Vermont Department of Health studied the workers' children for both exposure to mercury and evidence of mercury toxicity. The median urine mercury level of 23 workers' children was 25 micrograms\\/L. This was significantly higher than the level (5 micrograms\\/L) among 39 children

  15. Estimation of water saturated permeability of soils, using 3D soil tomographic images and pore-level transport phenomena modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; S?awi?ski, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi

    2014-05-01

    There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the sample was performed. Steady-state Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible laminar flows were used for that purpose. Resulting from modelling values of the soil saturated permeabilities were compared with results from measurements, made using constant head permeameter. Differences in this results were discussed. The study was partially funded from the National Science Centre (Poland) upon the contract: UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/07544.

  16. Assessing the potential for re-emission of mercury deposited in precipitation from arid soils using a stable isotope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, J.A.; Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.E.; Olund, S.D.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    A solution containing 198Hg in the form of HgCl2 was added to a 4 m2 area of desert soils in Nevada, and soil Hg fluxes were measured using three dynamic flux chambers. There was an immediate release of 198Hg after it was applied, and then emissions decreased exponentially. Within the first 6 h after the isotope was added to the soil, ???12 ng m-2 of 198Hg was emitted to the atmosphere, followed by a relatively steady flux of the isotope at 0.2 ?? 0.2 ng m-2 h-1 for the remainder of the experiment (62 days). Over this time, -200 ng m-2 or 2% of the 198Hg isotope was emitted from the soil, and we estimate that ???6% of the isotope would be re-emitted in a year's time. During the experiment, dry deposition of elemental Hg from the atmosphere was measured with an average deposition rate of 0.2 ?? 0.1 ng m-2 h-1. Emission of ambient Hg from the soil was observed after soil wetting with the isotope solution and after a storm event. However, the added moisture from the storm event did not affect 198Hg flux. Results suggest that in this desert environment, where there is limited precipitation, Hg deposited by wet processes is not readily re-emitted and that dry deposition of elemental Hg may be an important process. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  17. Determination of mercury in environmental samples: a constant challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, N M

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercury in environmental samples is described. The laboratory maintenance for low mercury contamination in air and glassware is also described. Sample preparation is discussed. Mercury analysis is performed by cold vapor atomic absorption. This method can measure mercury content at concentration levels ranging from parts-per-trillion to mg/g. (DC)

  18. Evidence that northern pioneering pines with tuberculate mycorrhizae are unaffected by varying soil nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Chapman, William Kenneth; Paul, Leslie

    2012-11-01

    Tuberculate mycorrhizae on Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) have previously been shown to reduce acetylene, but an outstanding question has been to what degree these structures could meet the nitrogen requirements of the tree. We compared the growth, tissue nitrogen contents, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios of P. contorta growing in gravel pits to the same species growing on adjacent intact soil. Trees growing in severely nitrogen deficient gravel pits had virtually identical growth rates and tissue nitrogen contents to those growing on intact soil that had nitrogen levels typical for the area. ?(15)N values for trees in the gravel pits were substantially lower than ?(15)N values for trees on intact soil, and isotope ratios in vegetation were lower than the isotope ratios of the soil. The form of soil nitrogen in the gravel pits was almost exclusively nitrate, while ammonium predominated in the intact soil. Discrimination against (15)N during plant uptake of soil nitrate in the highly N-deficient soil should be weak or nonexistent. Therefore, the low ?(15)N in the gravel pit trees suggests that trees growing in gravel pits were using another nitrogen source in addition to the soil. Precipitation-borne nitrogen in the study area is extremely low. In conjunction with our other work, these findings strongly suggests that P. contorta and its microbial symbionts or associates fix nitrogen in sufficient amounts to sustain vigorous tree growth on the most nitrogen-deficient soils. PMID:22677953

  19. Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Loya, Wendy M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Karberg, Noah J; King, John S; Giardina, Christian P

    2003-10-16

    In the Northern Hemisphere, ozone levels in the troposphere have increased by 35 per cent over the past century, with detrimental impacts on forest and agricultural productivity, even when forest productivity has been stimulated by increased carbon dioxide levels. In addition to reducing productivity, increased tropospheric ozone levels could alter terrestrial carbon cycling by lowering the quantity and quality of carbon inputs to soils. However, the influence of elevated ozone levels on soil carbon formation and decomposition are unknown. Here we examine the effects of elevated ozone levels on the formation rates of total and decay-resistant acid-insoluble soil carbon under conditions of elevated carbon dioxide levels in experimental aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands and mixed aspen-birch (Betula papyrifera) stands. With ambient concentrations of ozone and carbon dioxide both raised by 50 per cent, we find that the formation rates of total and acid-insoluble soil carbon are reduced by 50 per cent relative to the amounts entering the soil when the forests were exposed to increased carbon dioxide alone. Our results suggest that, in a world with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global-scale reductions in plant productivity due to elevated ozone levels will also lower soil carbon formation rates significantly. PMID:14562100

  20. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production. PMID:15162854

  1. Measuring and Monitoring Soil Carbon Sequestration at the Project Level

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-05-26

    This paper presents an overview of the status of soil carbon sequestration (SCS) and discusses methods for measuring and monitoring carbon changes in agricultural and grassland soils. The topics reviewed include: soil sampling, analysis, models and remote sensing. Significant scientific and technological advances in the area of SCS have been achieved during the last 15 years. A number of feasibility or pilot projects are underway worldwide under a variety of environmental and socioeconomic situations. To further advance the field of SCS, more projects like these will have to be implemented in order to develop an internationally-accepted and adaptable framework that can guide landowner, energy, and government groups in the development of SCS projects. The formation of a collaborative network for this type of SCS projects can be very helpful to compare the methodologies in use across diverse environments and to exchange data for laboratory quality controls and verification of simulation models among other purposes. These projects will also be useful to advance new methodologies that integrate many of the novel concepts discussed in the previous sections as well as many yet to be discovered.

  2. [Hygienic estimation of the levels of chemical substances in the soil of the Orengurg region].

    PubMed

    Bystrykh, V V; Perepelkin, S V; Mozgov, S M; Amerzianova, N M; Kadeshnikov, S A; Gorlov, A V; Karpov, A I; Muzaleva, O V

    2002-01-01

    Soil pollution has been comprehensively assessed in the agroindustrial region and its sources were defined. The results of ecological and hygienic assessment of natural and anthropogenic soil pollution suggest that there are increased concentrations of boron, chromium, nickel, and lead and deficient levels of iodine throughout the territory. There are higher levels of metal accumulation in the soil of the Eastern area. Soil pollution with lead, zinc, copper, tin, manganese, chromium, and nickel was higher in the urban area than in rural one, that with vanadium was higher in the rural area. The following 4 types of correlating associations of metals in the soil were identified: cobalt--nickel--chromium; copper--zinc; baron--zirconium; vanadium--manganese--boron. PMID:12476823

  3. The SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data assimilation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Crow, W. T.; Kimball, J. S.; Koster, R. D.; Liu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in January 2015 and will provide L-band radar and radiometer observations that are sensitive to surface soil moisture (in the top few centimeters of the soil column). For several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, knowledge of root zone soil moisture (defined here nominally as soil moisture in the top 1 m of the soil column) is needed. The SMAP mission will therefore provide a value-added Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product with the two key objectives: (i) to provide estimates of root zone soil moisture based on SMAP observations, and (ii) to provide a global surface and root zone soil moisture product that is spatially and temporally complete. The L4_SM algorithm uses an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to merge SMAP observations with soil moisture estimates from the NASA GEOS-5 Catchment land surface model. The model describes the vertical transfer of soil moisture between the surface and root zone reservoirs and will be driven with observation-based surface meteorological forcing data, including precipitation, on a global 9 km Earth-fixed grid. The presentation provides an overview of the SMAP L4_SM algorithm and pre-launch validation. Specifically, an L4_SM prototype product based on the assimilation of observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was validated using in situ measurements from SMAP core validation sites (densely instrumented watersheds) and from more than 100 single-profile sensors scattered across the United States. The validation results indicate that the prototype soil moisture product satisfies the formal RMSE requirement for the L4_SM product of 0.04 m3/m3 (after removal of the long-term mean bias). An examination of the observation-minus-forecast residuals from the L4_SM system suggests where the system could be improved further.

  4. Optimisation of cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of high levels of total mercury in activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D ARIJA G IBIÈAR; V ESNA J EREB; R ADOJKO J AÆIMOVIÆ; T ATJANA D IZDAREVIÈ; E LISABETH; C. P AIVA; R ICARDO M ELAMED; L UIS G ONZAGA; S. S OBRAL; M ILENA H ORVAT

    The relative efficiency of digestion\\/leaching procedures for the determination of high mercury concen trations in activated carbon obtained from natural gas treatment facilities was investigated. The method is based on acid digestion\\/leaching, reduction by SnCl 2 , gold amalgamation and detection by cold vapour atomic spectrometry. Sample decomposition was c arried out in sealed Pyrex ampoules and closed Teflon vials,

  5. Mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from Sfax coasts of Tunisia: levels and risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawssan Mezghani-Chaari; A. Hamza; A. Hamza-Chaffai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mercury (Hg) contents of three marine fish and common seafood species (Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa and Sepia officinalis) at two sampling sites in the gulf of Gabes, i.e. Sidi Mansour (polluted site) and Kerkennah (control site). These species\\u000a are frequently consumed by the population living at the Sfax coasts of Tunisia,

  6. A Comparison of Mercury Levels in Feathers and Eggs of Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ) in the North American Great Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Hughes; P. J. Ewins; K. E. Clark

    1997-01-01

    .   Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three\\u000a “naturally formed” lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991–1994.\\u000a Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from

  7. Population-modulation study of the filling of mercury ion levels in a He-Hg discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Latush; M. F. Sem; G. D. Chebotarev

    1984-01-01

    The branching ratios for the lines at 615.0 nm and 794.5 nm and the ratios of the partial chargeexchange cross sections are determined through a comparison of the intensities of spectral lines of the mercury ion in a He-Hg discharge with and without emission at the 615.0-nm line (by the population-modulation method). Absolute values are found for the partial cross

  8. The effect of soil moisture levels on evapotranspiration from cotton and grain sorghum

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Arland David

    1964-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE LEVELS ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM COTTON AND GRAIN SORGHUM A Thesis By ARLAND DAVID SCHNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1964 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE LEVELS ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM COTTON AND GRAIN SORGHUM A Thesis By ARLAND DAVID SCHNEIDER Approved a~ o style and content by: (Gommittee member...

  9. Inorganic and methylmercury levels in plasma are differentially associated with age, gender, and oxidative stress markers in a population exposed to mercury through fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the concentrations of plasma methylmercury (Me-Hg) and inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in a population exposed to Me-Hg. In addition, associations between each form of mercury (Hg) and gender, age, plasma selenium (Se), and oxidative stress markers were also investigated. The mean plasma I-Hg level was 5.7 ?g/L while the mean for plasma Me-Hg was 3.6 ?g/L, representing approximately 59 and 41% of the total Hg in blood, respectively. However, several plasma samples contained higher percentages of Me-Hg. Age displayed a direct linkage with plasma I-Hg levels, whereas gender did not correlate with any of the Hg species. In addition, fish intake was only correlated with and a predictor of plasma Me-Hg, suggesting that plasma I-Hg levels originated endogenously through a demethylation reaction that needs to be verified. Further, plasma Me-Hg was markedly correlated with adverse effects to a greater extent than plasma I-Hg and may be considered a valuable, reliable internal dose biomarker for Hg in chronically Me-Hg- exposed individuals. PMID:24555648

  10. Dissolved Gaseous Mercury Concentrations and Mercury

    E-print Network

    O'Driscoll, Nelson

    % of total annual mercury inputs to the system, and studies on the Great Lakes (Canada-United States) showDissolved Gaseous Mercury Concentrations and Mercury Volatilization in a Frozen Freshwater Fluvial to examine dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), mercury volatilization, and sediment interactions in a frozen

  11. Community level physiological profiles (CLPP), characterization and microbial activity of soil amended with dairy sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha(-1) and 26 Mg·ha(-1)) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  12. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha?1 and 26 Mg·ha?1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  13. Evaluation of Garden Crop Mercury Uptake and Potential Exposure from Consumption of Garden Crops Grown on Floodplain Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Berti; Annette Guiseppi-Elie; Elizabeth Quinn; Richard H. Jensen; Dean Cocking

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Hg uptake from soil into garden crops to help assess the significance of human consumption of crops as a potential route of exposure to Hg. Locations for both a floodplain and a control garden were identified within the Augusta Forestry Center near Crimora, VA, USA, which is about 16 river-km downstream from the city of Waynesboro, along

  14. Nutrient levels modify saltmarsh responses to increased inundation in different soil types.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joanne X W; Van Colen, Carl; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Saltmarshes have been depleted historically, and cumulative stressors threaten their future persistence. We examined experimentally how nutrient availability (high vs. low) affects the responses of Spartina maritima to increased inundation in two mineral soil types (low vs. medium organic). Increased inundation, one of the effects of accelerated sea level rise, had negative effects on most plant growth parameters, but the magnitude varied with soil and nutrient levels, and between plants from different locations. Average differences between inundation treatments were largest at high nutrient conditions in low organic matter soils. We conclude that saltmarsh vegetation would be more drastically affected by increased inundation in low than in medium organic matter soils, and especially in estuaries already under high nutrient availability. This knowledge enhances the prediction of changes at the foreshore of saltmarshes related to sea level rise, and the development of site-specific conservation strategies. PMID:25594372

  15. The effect of soil Ca level in four soil pH?Mg combinations on the Ca and Mg level in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Hall Jr; D. A. Hegwood

    1975-01-01

    The effect of soil Ca additions on the Mg and Ca level of corn (Zea mays L.) growing at pH?Mg combinations of 5.0–230 mg Mg\\/pot, 4. 9–650 mg Mg\\/pot, 6. 8–230 mg Mg\\/pot and 6.3–2,080 mg Mg\\/pot was studied in greenhouse pot culture for a growth period of 74 days in Tifton loamy sand. Each pot contained 11.35 Kg soil,

  16. A Regulatory Analysis of EPA's Proposed Rule to Reduce Mercury Emissions from Utility Boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    EPA's proposed rule for mercury reductions from coal-fired utility boilers is unlikely to provide significant health benefits, both because mercury exposure at current levels is unlikely to be causing harm, and because even in a best case scenario the mercury rule could reduce mercury in fish by no more than a few percent. The claim that reducing mercury in fish

  17. Levels of mercury in muscle and liver of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) from the northern region of Japan: a comparison with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver samples of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) caught off the northern region of Japan and compared them with those of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) caught in the same region. The average body length of male star-spotted dogfish specimens was significantly smaller than that of female specimens, reflecting the slower growth rate of male fish. Hg concentrations in liver and muscle increased with increases in body length and estimated age of both male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens. However, the relationships between Hg concentration in liver or muscle and body length or estimated age of male specimens differed markedly from those of female specimens, reflecting differences in growth rate and cessation of growth on reaching maturity. Marked increases in Hg concentration in liver of male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens were observed slightly later than increases in Hg concentration in muscle of those specimens due to growth cessation. These marked increases in Hg in liver may reflect increases in Hg due to the formation of mercury selenide. Similar results were previously reported in spiny dogfish specimens, except spiny dogfish showed only trace levels of Hg in liver (Endo et al., Chemosphere 77:1333-1337, 2009). The greater lipid content in liver and the larger liver size in spiny dogfish may explain the much lower levels of Hg observed in liver of spiny dogfish compared with those in the star-spotted dogfish. PMID:23271344

  18. Environmental mercury and its toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kevin M; Walker, Ernest M; Wu, Miaozong; Gillette, Chris; Blough, Eric R

    2014-03-01

    Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects. PMID:24744824

  19. Electrochemical determination of mercury: a review.

    PubMed

    Martín-Yerga, Daniel; González-García, María Begoña; Costa-García, Agustín

    2013-11-15

    Mercury is a metal that has been extensively studied, in large part due to its high toxicity. Therefore, mercury levels must be monitored in different sample types using analytical methods. This review summarizes the electrochemical methods that have been used for mercury analysis in a variety of samples. A critical evaluation of the methods and electrode materials employed for mercury analysis is presented according to the following classifications: bare electrodes, chemically modified electrodes and nanostructured electrodes. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of electrode material regarding mercury analysis are also presented. PMID:24148521

  20. Response of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) to zinc fertilization and its critical level in soils of semi-arid tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldeep Singh; VK Gupta

    1986-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment the response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) to zinc fertilization was examined using 27 soils from the semi-arid tropics. The critical level of DTPA extractable soil Zn was evaluated. Zinc additions to the soil increased the dry matter yield of six weeks old plant shoot, grain and straw significantly at the 5 mg kg-1 level, but tended

  1. Cloud-resolving simulations of mercury scavenging and deposition in thunderstorms

    E-print Network

    Nair, U. S; Wu, Y.; Holmes, C. D; Ter Schure, A.; Kallos, G.; Walters, J. T

    2013-01-01

    throughout the United States contain mercury at levels thatMercury De- position Network (MDN) in the Eastern United States.mercury in the troposphere: Model for- mation and results for Florida, the northeastern United States,

  2. An evaluation of elemental mercury vapor exposure to children due to silver-mercury dental amalgam restorations 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Ronald Dale

    1989-01-01

    was the Bacharach J. W. Mercury Vapor Sniffer, Model MV-2. This instrument measures the concentration of mercury vapor in air. The ultraviolet photometer detector inside the instrument operates on the principle that energy is absorbed by the mercury molecule... of elemental mercury from dental restorations. The mean mercury vapor concentration in the oral cavity of test subjects exceeded the recommended 24-hour ambient air exposure level of 0. 015 mg Hg/m . A regression analysis of the data resulted...

  3. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  4. The behavior of mercury in the soil with special emphasis on complexation and adsorption processes - A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schuster

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of Hg in the soil is mainly controlled by adsorption and desorption processes depending on complexation, the\\u000a most important ligands in solution being OH?, Cl?, and organic anions. Since the solubility of HgCl2 and Hg(OH)2 is rather high, the affinity of Hg to these ligands leads to an increased mobility. This is especially true for HgCl2, whereas the

  5. EVALUATION, ASSESSMENT, AND DETERMINATION OF RISK TO HIGH TROPHIC LEVEL PISCIVORES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC: A SPATIAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY OF MERCURY IN VIRGINIA AND NEW ENGLAND BALD EAGLE (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I predict that some portion of the Virginia bald eagle population will exhibit levels at or above those considered detrimental to productivity and reproductive success. The analysis of independent variables and their relationship to elevated blood mercury levels will help t...

  6. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reed C.; Rudd, John W. M.; Amyot, Marc; Babiarz, Christopher L.; Beaty, Ken G.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Bodaly, R. A.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Graydon, Jennifer A.; Heyes, Andrew; Hintelmann, Holger; Hurley, James P.; Kelly, Carol A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Lindberg, Steve E.; Mason, Robert P.; Paterson, Michael J.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Robinson, Art; Sandilands, Ken A.; Southworth, George R.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Tate, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wildlife worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. PMID:17901207

  7. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  8. Mercury volatilization from salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lora M.; Reinfelder, John R.

    2009-06-01

    In situ volatilization fluxes of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), were estimated for tidally exposed salt marsh sediments in the summer at the urban/industrial Secaucus High School Marsh, New Jersey Meadowlands (Secaucus, New Jersey) and in the early autumn at a regional background site in the Great Bay estuary (Tuckerton, New Jersey). Estimated daytime sediment-air mercury volatilization fluxes at the Secaucus High School Marsh ranged from -375 to +677 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive (land to air flux) in 16 out of 20 measurement events. At the Great Bay estuary, mercury fluxes measured continuously over a 48-h period ranged from -34 to +81 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive during the day and negative at night. At both sites, mercury volatilization fluxes peaked at midday, and cumulative mercury fluxes exhibited strong positive correlations with cumulative solar radiation (r2 = 0.97, p < 0.01) consistent with a light-driven mercury volatilization efficiency of about 15 ng Hg mol PAR-1 or about 0.06 ng Hg kJ-1. No significant correlations were found between mercury fluxes and wind speed, air temperature, or tide height at either site. Thus despite a tenfold difference in sediment mercury concentration, photochemistry appears to be the dominant factor controlling mercury volatilization from these salt marsh sediments. The average mercury volatilization flux estimated for the Great Bay salt marsh in this study (17 ng m-2 h-1) compares well with other micrometeorological mercury fluxes for nonpoint source contaminated salt marsh and forest soils (8-18 ng m-2 h-1) and is more than 10 times higher than the average mercury emission flux from land (˜1 ng m-2 h-1). Annual mercury emissions from salt marsh wetlands may be comparable to individual industrial emissions sources in coastal states of the eastern United States.

  9. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended. PMID:24801656

  10. US mercury recyclers provide expanded process capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B. (Hazen Research, Golden, CO (United States)); Smith, L.A. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1994-02-01

    In the United States today, emphasis is on minimizing use of and exposure to mercury. Mercury-contaminated materials are treated for Hg recovery before being landfilled. Major feedstocks include batteries, thermometers, switches, thermocouples, chloralkali waste, charcoal, lighting wastes, chloralkali waste, charcoal, lighting wastes, residues from remediation activities and soils. Major soil sources include natural gas pipelines, and DOE sites. There is also substantial recycling of flowable mercury using triple distillation. US mercury consumption is about one-third that of five years ago, reflecting restricted use of the hazardous metal to essential applications for which there is no viable substitute. Apparent US mercury consumption in 1992 was about 1.4 million pounds. About 40 percent of this volume was used in measurement and control instruments, and dental applications. Approximately 30 percent was used in the chloralkali industry, and most of the balance was used in electrical and electronic applications. The supply of mercury needed by domestic consumers is met by output from domestic mercury recycling companies. This article summarizes the treatment capabilities of US plants that recover mercury from various secondary sources.

  11. Modeling Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, M. H.; Killen, R. M.; M, N.; Sarantos, M.; Crider, D. H.; Vervak, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    Mercury has a tenuous exosphere created by the combined effects of solar radiation and micrometeoroid bombardment on the surface and the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury's magnetic field and surface. Observations of this exosphere provide essential data necessary for understanding the composition and evolution of Mercury's surface, as well as the interaction between Mercury's magnetosphere with the solar wind. The sodium component of the exosphere has been well observed from the ground (see review by Killen et al., 2007). These observations have revealed a highly variable and inhomogeneous exosphere with emission often peaking in the polar regions. Radiation acceleration drives exospheric escape producing a sodium tail pointing away from the sun which has been detected up to 1400 Mercury radii from the planet (Potter et al. 2002; Baumgardner et al. 2008). Calcium has also been observed in Mercury's exosphere showing a distribution distinct from sodium, although also variable (Killen et al. 2005). During the first two encounters with Mercury by MESSENGER, observations of the exosphere were made by the UltraViolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS). Sodium and calcium emission were detected during both flybys, and magnesium was detected for the first time in Mercury's exosphere during the second flyby. The spatial distributions of these species showed significant, unexpected differences which suggest differences in the mechanisms responsible for releasing them from the surface. We present a Monte-Carlo model of sodium, magnesium, and calcium in Mercury's exosphere. The important source mechanisms for ejecting these species from the surface are sputtering by solar wind ions, photon-stimulated desorption, and micrometeoroid impact vaporization. Thermal desorption on the dayside does not supply enough energy to significantly populate the exosphere, although it does play a role in redistributing volatiles over the surface. In addition, atomic calcium can be produced from the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules, such as CaO, which can be formed in impact vapors. The primary loss processes are the escape of neutrals ejected with sufficient energy and photoionization. The former process is supplemented by radiation pressure which accelerates neutrals anti-sunward such that escaping neutrals form a tail pointing away from the sun. Because Mercury's heliocentric distance and radial velocity vary during its orbit, both loss processes are functions of Mercury's true anomaly. We also consider the spatial distribution of the surface source. Impact vaporization is roughly isotropic over the surface, although there may be a leading/trailing asymmetry in the impact rate due to Mercury's orbital motion. Sputtering is confined to regions where the solar wind can impact the surface, which is shielded somewhat by the internal magnetic field. The surface regions vulnerable depend on the solar wind conditions. References: Baumgardner et al., GRL, 35, L03201, 2008. Killen, R.M. et al., Space Sci. Rev. 132, 433-509, 2007. Killen, R.M. et al., Icarus, 173, 300-311, 2005. Potter et al., Meteoritics & Planetary Sci., 37, 1165, 2002.

  12. Soil carbon levels in pastures in the humid United States under different fertility levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With current global climate change concerns, there is increased interest in the role of agriculture in CO2 release or sequestration. Tillage based practices tend to release soil carbon while non-tillage practices and forage crops tend to sequester carbon. There is a need for greater quantification...

  13. Anthropogenic Mercury Accumulation in Watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Drohan, P. J.; Lawler, D.; Grimm, J.; Grant, C.; Eklof, K. J.; Bennett, J.; Naber, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is a critical environmental stress that affects ecosystems and human health. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited over large geographic areas to downwind landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. The northern Appalachian Mountains are downwind of major atmospheric mercury emissions sources. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the region. Here, we explored mercury accumulation in forested landscapes - in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at 10 forested locations, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. To quantify mercury accumulation in terrestrial environments, we measured soil mercury concentrations within and surrounding 12 vernal pools spanning various physiographic settings in the region. Given that vernal pools have large inputs of water via precipitation yet do not have any stream discharge outflow, they are likely spots within the forested landscape to accumulate pollutants that enter via wet atmospheric deposition. To quantify mercury accumulation in aquatic environments, we sampled mercury concentrations in streams draining 35 forested watersheds, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains.

  14. Measuring mercury in coastal fog water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Mercury, a heavy metal neurotoxin, accumulates in sea life, in some cases reaching levels that make seafood unsafe for humans to eat. How mercury gets into aquatic organisms is debated, but part of the pathway could include mercury carried in precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog. The contribution of mercury in fog water in particular is not well known, especially in foggy coastal areas such as coastal California. To learn more, Weiss-Penzias et al. measured total mercury and monomethyl mercury concentrations in fog water and rainwater samples taken from four locations around Monterey Bay, California, during spring and summer 2011. They found that the mean monomethyl mercury concentrations in their fog water samples were about 34 times higher than the mean concentrations in their rainwater samples. Therefore, the authors believe that fog is an important, previously unrecognized source of mercury to coastal ecosystems. They also explored potential sources of mercury, finding that biotically formed monomethyl mercury from oceanic upwelling may contribute to monomethyl mercury in fog. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL050324, 2012)

  15. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or

  16. SMOS CATDS Level 3 products, Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperature: Presentation and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Lucie; Mialon, Arnaud; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Cabot, François; Bircher, Simone; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-04-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since November 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) ground segment. It provides spatial and temporal synthesis products (referred to as Level 3) of soil moisture, which are now covering the whole SMOS operation period since January 2010. These products have different time resolutions: daily products, 3-day global products (insuring a complete coverage of the Earth's surface), 10-day composite products, and monthly averaged products. Moreover, a new product provides brightness temperatures at H and V polarizations which are computed at fixed incidence angles every 5 degrees. All the CATDS products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km². The soil moisture Level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's Level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-day window. Using many revisits is expected to improve the quality of the retrieved soil moisture. This communication aims at presenting the CATDS soil moisture and brightness temperature products as well as other geophysical parameters retrieved on the side, such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. Furthermore, we illustrate the validation of this database, including the comparison of the Level 3 soil moisture to in-situ measurements available from various sites (Australia, US, southwest of France, Spain, Denmark, West Africa, French Alps), spanning different surface conditions.

  17. Demonstrations to Support Change to the >260 ppm Mercury Treatment Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, Gregory Albert; Maio, Vincent Carl; Morris, M. I.; Lewis, J.; Randall, P.; Rieser, L.

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are working together to justify a change in the Land Disposal Restriction for High Mercury (>260 ppm mercury) waste. The present regulation that requires roasting or retorting is based on recovering and recycling the mercury in the waste. However, most of DOE’s High Mercury waste is radioactively contaminated, eliminating the possibility of its recycle. The radioactive mercury recovered must be amalgamated and disposed. In addition, concern over fugitive emissions from retorting and roasting operations has raised the question of whether such processing is environmentally sound. A change to the regulation to allow stabilization and disposal would reduce the overall environmental threat, if the stabilization process can reduce the leachability of the mercury to regulatory levels. Demonstrations are underway to gather data showing that the High Mercury waste can be safely stabilized. At the same time, comparison tests are being conducted using an improved form of the baseline retorting technology to better quantify the fugitive emission problem and determine the full capability of thermal desorption systems. A first round of demonstrations stabilizing mercury in soil from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been completed. Four groups demonstrated their process on the waste: 1) BNL demonstrated its Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process; 2) Nuclear Fuel Services used their DeHg (de-merk) process, 3) Allied Technology Group used chemical stabilization, and 4) Sepradyne demonstrated their vacuum thermal desorption system. All groups were successful in their tests, reaching regulatory levels for mercury leachability. Data for each group will be presented. DOE, EPA, and the University of Cincinnati are presently working on another series of tests involving treatment of surrogate sludge and soil by commercial vendors. Protocols that better determine the waste form’s ability to withstand leaching are being used to analyze the stabilized surrogates. Results of these and the previous demonstrations will be used to determine whether the High Mercury treatment regulation can be safely changed.

  18. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  19. Effect of soil salinity level and zinc application on growth, yield, and nutrient composition of rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Verma; H. U. Neue

    1984-01-01

    Summary To study the effect of salinity and Zn levels on growth, yield, and nutrient composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.), an experiment was conducted at IRRI with three levels of salinity (ECe 2.5, 5.6, and 8.7) and three levels of Zn (0, 10, and 20 mg Zn\\/kg soil), and two rices (salt-tolerant experimental line IR10198-66-2 and salt-sensitive variety IR28).

  20. An inventory of soil and foliar nutrient levels of three year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on selected East Texas Flatwoods soils

    E-print Network

    Beacher, Gary Robert

    1983-01-01

    . ) in the Flatwcods region of East Texas. )4ean extractable soil phosphorous (P) was fourmo to be below established "critical levels" on twenty-seven of twenty-eight study areas. Extractable soil potassium (K) was within the "critical level" range indicating that a... cotential deficiency of this element exists, especially if nitrogen (N) and P deficiencies are amended. 'Ihe Bray P1 and P2 and the NH4OAc soil extraction methods were closely associated and auld be the preferred extractants for soils...

  1. Determination of sub-nanogram-per-liter levels of mercury in lake water with atmospheric pressure helium microwave induced plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nojiri, Y.; Otsuki, A.; Fuwa, K.

    1986-03-01

    A highly sensitive method for the analysis of Hg was developed utilizing atmospheric pressure He microwave induced plasma (He-MIP) emission spectrometry. Mercury vapor was generated from water samples by reduction and purging and was collected with a gold amalgamation trap. The Hg vapor, removed by heating the trap, was introduced into the He-MIP. The atomic emission line of 253.7 nm was used for the determination of Hg. The detection limit, defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the blank operations, was 0.5 pg in 50 mL of water sample, corresponding to 0.01 ng/L. The method was applied to the determination of ultratrace levels of Hg in lake water samples. The inorganic Hg concentration in subsurface water from unpolluted Lake Mashu was found to be 0.3 ng/L. 29 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Oil Contamination Levels in Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; F. Al-Abdali

    1998-01-01

    Measurements taken for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), total organic carbon (TOC) and trace metals [vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)] in 40 soil samples are used to delineate oil contamination levels and state of oil penetration in soils heavily contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields. All soil horizons in Al-Ahmadi profile contain very

  3. [Effects of soil phosphorus level on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of Ageratina adenophora and chromolaena odorata].

    PubMed

    Wang, Manlia; Feng, Yulong; Li, Xin

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, a comparative study was made on the growth, morphology, biomass allocation, and photosynthesis of two invasive plant species Ageratina adenophora and Chromolaena odorata under five soil phosphorus levels, aimed to know how the test plant species acclimate to the changes of soil phosphorus level, evaluate which plant traits were associated with the invasiveness of the two species, and know whether the increased level of soil phosphorus could facilitate their invasion. The results showed that the two species had considerable phenotypic plasticity and ? phosphorus acclimation ability. At low phosphorus levels, their root mass ratio increased, which could enhance the nutrient capture ability, while at high phosphorus levels, their specific leaf area, maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point, and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents per unit area were high, and the assimilative capacity and area increased, which could facilitate their carbon gain. A. adenophora had higher phosphorus acclimation ability than C. odorata. With the increase of phosphorous level, the relative growth rate, total biomass, branch number, leaf area index, and maximum net photosynthetic rate of the two species increased significantly, and most of the parameters were not decreased significantly under over-optimal phosphorus level. The two species could grow better under high phosphorus levels which were usually excessive and/or harmful for most native species, and enhanced soil phosphorus level might promote their invasion. At high phosphorus levels, the two invasive plant species might shade out native species through increasing their plant height, branch number, and leaf area index. The two species could maintain relatively high growth rate under high phosphorus levels in dry season when native plant species almost stopped growing. The ability that the invasive plant species could temporally use natural resources which native plant species could not use was also associated with their invasiveness. PMID:16836086

  4. Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

    2011-01-01

    A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

  5. Temporal evolution of copper distribution in soil fractions, influence of soil pH and organic carbon level on copper distribution.

    PubMed

    Gunkel, P; Jézéquel, K; Fabre, B

    2002-09-01

    The present paper deals with the temporal evolution, over 6 years, of copper distribution in soil fractions using a sequential extraction procedure isolating five soil fractions which are operationally defined but commonly identified as : F1 = exchangeable metals, F2 = metals bound to organic matter, F3 = metals bound to manganese oxides, = metals bound to iron oxides and F5 = the residual fraction. The soil studied was a silty agricultural soil whose four plots were deliberately enriched with copper sulphate in October 1992 and one of them was also enriched with organic matter, another one with lime and the last one with both organic matter and lime. The great advantage of such an experimental procedure was that the five plots represent the same soil and thus had the same soil texture. It was then possible to fully describe anthropogenic copper behaviour, and to describe clearly the influence of pH and organic carbon level on copper distribution. Furthermore, the plots were subjected to natural climatic conditions allowing a temporal study of copper distribution under natural conditions. The total Cu level as well as Cu-F3 and Cu-F4 were clearly decreasing with time. Copper concentration in artificially defined soil fractions were described with multiple regression equations with the variable total copper content (TCu) and with the variables soil pH and soil organic carbon level when required. Cu-F1 and Cu-F2 depended on soil pH and soil organic carbon level, while Cu-F3 depended only on TCu. Copper level bound to iron oxides depended on soil pH. PMID:12361373

  6. Heavy metals in the soils of Bloemfontein, South Africa: concentration levels and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Clark, J H A; Tredoux, M; van Huyssteen, C W

    2015-07-01

    The possible heavy metal and metalloid contamination in the soils around a coal-generated power station, situated on the eastern end of the central business district of Bloemfontein, central South Africa, was investigated. One-hundred and thirty-three samples (22 dust samples collected inside buildings and 111 soil samples) were collected for the study and analysed for As, Se, Cd, Sb and Hg. The results indicated generally elevated levels for Cd, Sb and Hg, and some localised contamination of As, but no significant increases in the non-metal Se. In fact, Se levels indicated a deficiency of the element in the study area. In general, the dust samples showed elevated levels of all elements (except Se) relative to the soils. A possible source for the enrichment might have been the release of ash, containing trace amounts of these elements, from the local power station; however, because the highest concentration in soils was found in the industrial areas, other processes could have contributed or even have been the sole cause of the elevated levels. High levels of As occur at an abandoned horse race course and were probably caused by the questionable practice of administering As-containing tonics to the horses shortly before they run a race. PMID:26085278

  7. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  8. Elevated mercury concentrations in soils, sediments, water, and fish of the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon: a function of natural enrichments?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. j. Lechler; J. r. Miller; L. d. Lacerda; D. Vinson; J.-C Bonzongo; W. b. Lyons; J. j. Warwick

    2000-01-01

    Previous site-specific investigations have found that mercury concentrations in water, sediments, and biota of the Brazilian Amazon are elevated above global averages, and that these concentrations are a direct result of widespread mercury amalgamation mining operations conducted by non-organized prospectors. In order to assess the regional impacts of Hg contamination from these non-organized gold mining activities, water, sediments, and fish

  9. A Review of Mercury in Seafood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalee S. Rasmussen; Joyce Nettleton; Michael T. Morrissey

    2005-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal released into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is of great interest to consumers as to whether it can cause neurological effects at low dose levels. The effects of organic mercury exposure at high levels have been demonstrated in several large-scale poisonings, particularly those in Japan and Iraq in the 1950s,

  10. Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; )

    2006-05-23

    Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

  11. Approach of regionalisation c-stocks in forest soils on a national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellbrock, Nicole; Höhle, Juliane; Dühnelt, Petra; Holzhausen, Marieanna

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In December 2006, the German government decided to manage forests as carbon sinks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. The National Forest Monitoring data contribute to the fulfilment of these reporting commitments. In Germany, National Forest Monitoring includes the systematical extensive National Soil Condition Survey (BZE) and the detailed case studies (Level-II) which determine the processes within forests. This complex monitoring system is appropriate to Germany's greenhouse gas reporting (THG 2008 to 2012). The representative BZE plots can be used to obtain regional data for the National Carbon Stock Inventory. Here, an approach adopting a combination of geostatistics and regression analysis is preferred. The difficulty of showing the statistical significance of expected small changes while carbon stocks are generally high is one of the major challenges in carbon stock monitoring. However, through intensive preparation and cooperation with the forestry authorities of each federal state, the errors uncured in determining changes in carbon stocks in forest soils, which must be stipulated in greenhouse gas monitoring, could be minimised. In contrast to the detailed soil case studies, in which essentially the sources of error occur repeatedly in carbon stock change calculations, the BZE data can be stratified to form plots with homogenous properties, thereby reducing the standard error of estimate. Subsequently, the results of the stratification are projected across Germany, the reporting unit for greenhouse gas monitoring. National Forest Monitoring The BZE represents a national, systematic sampling inventory of the condition of forest soils. The first BZE inventory (BZE I: 1987 to 1993) was carried out on a systematic 8 x 8 km grid on the same sampling plots adopted in the Forest Condition Survey (WZE). In some areas the network of sampling plots involves 1900 grid points. The first BZE I survey was repeated after 15 years, between 2006 and 2008, by the national and the state authorities in cooperation. Afterwards, extensive laboratory and statistical analyses were conducted. Necessary parameters are listed in table 1. Upscaling approach There are different approaches for presenting extensive carbon stock data (Baritz et al., 2006). The availability of georeference plots means one can merge the point data with map data. In Germany, an approach was tested that used homogenous soil areas und plot-information from the national soil inventory. For every soil area c-stocks were regionalised. Only information form BZE-plots were involved which were characteristic for the soil area. The indicators were soil type and substrate class. For every soil area the forest areas were taken in account to calculate c-stock per forest area. The sum of every c-stock per soil area is the c-stock in forest soils of Germany. Tab.1: List of parameters for the carbon inventory (BZE II) Components Parameters Point level Field sampling Width of depth classes, Fine roots, humus (< 2 cm), dry bulk density, stone content, area of humus layer sampled, height a.s.l., litterfall, deadwood (from 10 cm) Analysis C content, fine soil fraction, weight of humus layer, Carbon stock calculations Carbon stock Regional Level Plot Soil type, parent material, vegetation type or forest Regionalisation Soil and land use maps, statistical models, ecological regions, digital elevation models, climate regions

  12. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  13. Release flux of mercury from different environmental surfaces in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyong; He, Lei; Shi, Xiaojun; Wei, Shiqiang; Feng, Xinbin

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to estimate mercury emission to the atmosphere from different environmental surfaces and to assess its contribution to the local mercury budget in Chongqing, China. Mercury flux was measured using dynamic flux chamber (DFC) at six soil sites of three different areas (mercury polluted area, farmland and woodland) and four water surfaces from August 2003 to April 2004. The mercury emission fluxes were 3.5+/-1.2-8.4+/-2.5 ng m(-2) h(-1) for three shaded forest sites, 85.8+/-32.4 ng m(-2) h(-1) for farming field, 12.3+/-9.8-733.8+/-255 ng m(-2) h(-1) for grassland sites, and 5.9+/-12.6-618.6+/-339 ng m(-2) h(-1) for water surfaces. Mercury exchange fluxes were generally higher from air/water surfaces than from air/soil surfaces. The mercury negative fluxes were found in tow soil sites at overcast days (mean=-6.4+/-1.5 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The diurnal and seasonal variations of mercury flux were observed in all sites. The mercury emission responded positively to the solar radiation, but negatively to the relative humidity. The mercury flux from air/soil surfaces was significantly correlated with soil temperature, which was well described by an Arrhenius-type expression with activation energy of 31.1 kcal mol(-1). The annual mercury emission to the atmosphere from land surface is about 1.787 t of mercury in Chongqing. PMID:16524615

  14. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. McKee; Donald R. Cahoon; Ilka C. Feller

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by man- groves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of

  15. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  16. Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  17. Mercury and methylmercury intake estimation due to seafood products for the Catalonian population (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rodellar; M. Fontcuberta; J. F. Arqués; J. Calderon; L. Ribas Barba; L. L. Serra-Majem

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates mercury and methylmercury levels in fish and fishery products commercialized in the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 2001 to 2007. Combining data of mercury levels in food with the consumption data of 2158 people (as the median of two 24-h recall), the total mercury intake of the Catalonian population was calculated. Mercury was detected in 32.8% of

  18. Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters.

    PubMed

    Basu, N; Scheuhammer, A M; Evans, R D; O'Brien, M; Chan, H M

    2007-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and their brains were dissected into the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The activities of cholinesterase (ChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were measured from each sample and correlated with concentrations of brain Hg from the same animal. Significant negative correlations were found between concentrations of brain Hg and ChE (total Hg: r= -0.42; MeHg: r= -0.33) and MAO (total Hg: r= -0.31; MeHg: r= -0.42) activity in the cerebral cortex. The scatterplots relating concentrations of brain Hg and enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex were wedge-shaped, and could be fitted with quantile regression modeling, suggesting that Hg may act as a limiting factor for ChE and MAO activity. No relationships were found in the cerebellum. These data suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg may influence the activities of ChE and MAO in the cerebral cortex of river otters, and by extension, other fish-eating mammals. PMID:17439924

  19. Detection and Quantification of Unbound Phytochelatin 2 in Plant Extracts of Brassica napus Grown with Different Levels of Mercury1

    PubMed Central

    Iglesia-Turiño, Santiago; Febrero, Anna; Jauregui, Olga; Caldelas, Cristina; Araus, Jose Luis; Bort, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    The mercury (Hg) accumulation mechanism was studied in rape (Brassica napus) plants grown under a Hg concentration gradient (0 ?m–1,000 ?m). Hg mainly accumulated in roots. Therefore, the presence of phytochelatins (PCs) was studied in the roots of the plants. The high stability of the PC-Hg multicomplexes (mPC-nHg) seems to be the main reason for the lack of previous Hg-PC characterization studies. We propose a modification of the method to detect and quantify unbound PC of Hg in plant extracts via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel. We separated the PC from the Hg by adding the chelating agent sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulfonate monohydrate. We only detected the presence of PC after the addition of the chelating agent. Some multicomplexes mPC-nHg could be formed but, due to their large sizes, could not be detected. In this study, only PC2 was observed in plant samples. Hg accumulation was correlated with PC2 concentration (r2 = 0.98). PMID:16920879

  20. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. PMID:21600653

  1. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of ?7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), ?3HCH (?-HCH + ?-HCH + ?-HCH) and ?3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ?DDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the ? isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  2. Levels of Mercury in Scalp Hair of Fishermen and Their Families from Camara de Lobos–Madeira (Portugal): A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gaggi; F. Zino; M. Duccini; A. Renzoni

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is probably one of the most investigated natural and anthropogenic contaminants, especially in aquatic environments. It occurs in nature in a wide variety of physical and chemical states and the fate and behavior of the different forms are related mainly to their physico-chemical and partition properties. Among the inorganic forms, elemental mercury (Hg°) presents a marked tendency to reach

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in feathers of common loons ( Gavia immer ) in the Northeastern United States and age differences in mercury levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Burger; Mark Pokras; Rebecca Chafel; Michael Gochfeld

    1994-01-01

    Feathers serve as a useful, non-destructive approach for biomonitoring some aspects of environmental quality. Birds can eliminate over 90% of their body burden of mercury by sequestration in growing feathers, and they molt their feathers at least annually. Thus mercury concentrations should not vary in avian feathers as a function of age. We tested the null hypothesis that there are

  4. MERCURY IN TREE RINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination caused by release of mercury into the environment is a growing concern. This release occurs due to a variety of anthropogenic activities and natural sources. After release, mercury undergoes complicated chemical transformations. The inorganic forms of mercury releas...

  5. MERCURY STABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish

    1999-07-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury and 188 other trace substances, referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk (1). The EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in two reports: Mercury Study Report to Congress and Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units-Final Report to Congress. The first congressional report addressed both human health and the environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second report addressed the risk to public health posed by emissions of HAPs from steam electricity-generating units. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is also required by the CAAAs to investigate mercury and determine a safe threshold level of exposure. Recently the National Academy of Sciences has also been commissioned by Congress to complete a report, based the available scientific evidence, regarding safe threshold levels of mercury exposure. Although the EPA reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations should be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. It is likely that major sources of mercury emissions, including fossil-fired combustion systems, will be controlled at some point. In fact, municipal waste combustion units are already regulated. In anticipation of additional control measures, much research has been done (and continues) regarding the development of control technologies for mercury emitted from stationary sources to the atmosphere. Most approaches taken to date involve sorbent injection technologies or improve upon removal of mercury using existing technologies such as flue gas desulfurization scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators. Depending on the fly ash chemistry and the form of mercury present in the flue gas, some of these existing technologies can be effective at capturing vapor-phase mercury from the flue gas stream. Although much research has been done on enhancing the removal of mercury from flue gas streams, little research has focused on what happens to the mercury when it is captured and converted and/or transferred to a solid or aqueous solution. The stability (or mobility) of mercury in this final process is critical and leads to the questions, What impact will the increased concentration of mercury have on utilization, disposal, and reuse? and Is the mercury removed from the flue gas really removed from the environment or rereleased at a later point? To help answer these questions, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement did a series of experiments using thermal desorption and leaching techniques. This report presents the results from these tests.

  6. Bacterial Communities in Malagasy Soils with Differing Levels of Disturbance Affecting Botanical Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Leah C.; Schmidt, Alex W.; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L.; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas. PMID:24465484

  7. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  8. Impact of groundwater levels on evaporation and water-vapor fluxes in highly saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J. F.; Hernández, M. F.; Braud, I.; Gironas, J. A.; Suarez, F. I.

    2012-12-01

    In aquifers of arid and hyper-arid zones, such as those occurring in the Chilean Andes high plateau, it is important to determine both the quantity and location of water discharges at the temporal scales of interest to close the basin's water budget and thus, to manage the water resource properly. In zones where shallow aquifers are the main source of water, overexploitation of the water resource changes the dynamics of water, heat and solute transport in the vadose zone. As aquifers are exploited, fluctuations in depth to groundwater are exacerbated. These fluctuations modify both soil structure and evaporation from the ground, which is typically the most important discharge from the water budget and is very difficult to estimate. Therefore, a correct quantification of evaporation from these soils is essential to improve the accuracy of the water balance estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate the evaporation processes and water-vapor fluxes in a soil column filled with a saline soil from the Salar del Huasco basin, Chile. Water content, electrical conductivity and temperature at different depths in the soil profile were monitored to determine the liquid and vapor fluxes within the soil column. The results showed that evaporation is negligible when the groundwater table is deeper than 1 m. For shallower groundwater levels, evaporation increases in an exponential fashion reaching a value of 3 mm/day when the groundwater table is near the surface of the ground. These evaporation rates are on the same order of magnitude than the field measurements, but slightly lower due to the controlled conditions maintained in the laboratory. Isothermal fluid fluxes were predominant over the non-isothermal fluid and water vapor fluxes. The net flux for all the phreatic levels tested in the laboratory showed different behaviors, with ascending or descending flows as a consequence of changes in water content and temperature distribution within the soil. It was found that evaporation from bare soils occurs as a consequence of vapor transport due to the thermal gradients. This vapor transport was also influences by the salinity of the soil.

  9. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  10. Juvenile amphibians do not avoid potentially lethal levels of urea on soil substrate.

    PubMed

    Hatch, A C; Belden, L K; Scheessele, E; Blaustein, A R

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of a forest fertilizer (urea) on newly metamorphosed terrestrial amphibians (Western toads, Bufo boreas; Cascades frogs, Rana cascadae; long-toed salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum; and roughskin newts, Taricha granulosa). We examined avoidance behavior of Western toads and Cascades frogs on both paper towel and soil substrates dosed with urea (control and 100 kg N/ha and an additional treatment of 50 kg N/ha for Western toads on soil substrate) and avoidance behavior of long-toed salamanders on soil substrate dosed with urea. We further examined the survival and feeding behavior of all four species exposed to urea on soil substrate (100 kg N/ha) for 5 d. Juvenile Western toads and Cascades frogs avoided paper towels dosed with urea but did not avoid urea-dosed soil substrate. However, Western toads and Cascades frogs both suffered significant mortality when exposed to urea on a soil substrate for 5 d. Furthermore, after adjusting for weight, we found that urea-exposed juvenile Western toads and Cascades frogs consumed significantly fewer prey items (crickets) compared with nonexposed control animals. Long-toed salamanders did not discriminate against soil substrate dosed with urea, and neither long-toed salamanders nor roughskin newts died or reduced prey consumption as a result of urea exposure. Juvenile amphibians may not be able to detect and avoid harmful levels of urea fertilizer on a natural substrate. Furthermore, anthropogenic stressors such as urea fertilizer can significantly reduce the survival and prey consumption of juvenile amphibians. These effects are important to consider in light of possible threats to the conservation status of many amphibian species. PMID:11596767

  11. Metal levels in soils and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) plants in a pyrites mine area at Lousal, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Carlos Fernandes; Fernando S. henriques

    1990-01-01

    Typha latifolia L. is one of the major plant species occurring in a pyrites mine tailing?derived, waterlogged soil at Lousal, south of Portugal. Levels of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were measured in both below? and above?ground tissues of Typha latifolia, as well as in the substrate supporting the plants. Metal levels in the soil, excluding Mn, were found

  12. Short-Term Effects of Land Leveling on Soil Chemical Properties and Their Relationships with Microbial Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Brye; N. A. Slaton; M. Mozaffari; M. C. Savin; R. J. Norman; D. M. Miller

    2004-01-01

    ties to ensure maximum or near-maximum production from graded fields. Spatial variability and distributions of soil chemical properties and The potential agronomic benefits of land leveling the relationships between soil chemical and biological properties are not well characterized in agroecosystems that have been land leveled have been recognized for more than half a century and to facilitate more uniform delivery

  13. Effects of Water Level on Three Wetlands Soil Seed Banks on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Miaojun; Ma, Zhen; Du, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. Methodology We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm) on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. Principal Findings Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. Conclusions/Significance Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank. PMID:24984070

  14. Soil tests for copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in histosols. 1. The influence of soil properties, iron, manganese, and zinc on the level and distribution of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, M.P.; Mathur, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    The authors selected 55 cultivated organic soils from nine areas in eastern Canada that represented important properties of the investigated population, in order to evolve useful tests for plant-available Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the soils. As a first step, the level and distribution of the soil Cu into H/sub 2/O-sol, Ca-exchangeable, free-oxide-associated, weakly complexed, strongly complexed, strongly complexed, carbonate, and sulfide forms were determined by sequential extractions, and the influence of soil properties on the level and distribution of Cu was ascertained. The data revealed that the level of total Cu in the soils, ranging from 8.3 to 537.5 ..mu..g x g/sup -1/ was independent of soil pH; percentage of ash; pyrophosphate index; bulk density; cation exchange capacity; and level of Fe, Mn, and Zn. The Fe (0.15 to 3.57%) and Mn (32.5 to 916.8 ..mu..g x g/sup -1/) levels reflected the degree of decomposition and mineralization (percentage of ash: 6.0 to 53.7) of the organic soils, but Cu was mainly of external origin and thus increased with length of cultivation, due to the general practice of periodic applications of Cu.

  15. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback mechanism is of crucial importance for soil nutrient conservation and the restoration of degraded arid environments.

  16. Inter- and Intra- Field variations in soil compaction levels and subsequent impacts on hydrological extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Coates, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    The rural landscape in the UK is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with about 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Intensification has resulted in greater levels of compaction associated with higher stocking densities. However, there is likely to be a great amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on two of these factors; firstly animal species, namely sheep, cattle and horses; and secondly field zonation e.g. feeding areas, field gates, open field. Field experiments have been conducted in multiple fields in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 140km2. The effect on physical and hydrologic soil characteristics such as bulk density and moisture contents have been quantified using a wide range of field and laboratory based experiments. Results have highlighted statistically different properties between heavily compacted areas where animals congregate and less-trampled open areas. Furthermore, soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk at larger spatial scales. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a ~40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. Here we report results from spatially distributed hydrological modelling using soil parameters gained from the field experimentation. Results highlight the importance of both the percentage of the catchment which is heavily compacted and also the spatial distribution of these fields.

  17. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45?mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120?days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23?mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91?mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003?g d?1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  18. The corticosterone stress response and mercury contamination in free-living tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Melinda D; Lane, Oksana P; Evers, David C; Reed, J Michael; Hoskins, Bart; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    We determined mercury concentrations in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from Massachusetts and Maine with different levels of contamination. Baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations from adults and nestlings (Massachusetts only) were compared with mercury concentrations. In Massachusetts, adult baseline corticosterone was negatively correlated with blood mercury, but showed a nearly-significant positive correlation with feather mercury. There was a negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and blood mercury in nestlings and between baseline corticosterone and egg mercury. There was no relationship between mercury and stress-induced corticosterone in any of the groups, or with baseline corticosterone in Maine sites where mercury levels were lower. The findings suggest blood and egg mercury may be a better indicator of current condition than feather mercury. Further, mercury contamination may not alter stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in tree swallows but appears to have a significant impact on baseline circulating corticosterone. PMID:19360470

  19. Mercury Unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Mercury, the second smallest planet and the closest one to the Sun, may appear to some as a drab, colorless, heavily-cratered world. Not so. New analysis of data returned by the Mariner 10 mission in 1974 and 1975 reveals a surface with lava flows and deposits from explosive volcanic eruptions, variations in composition across its surface and into its crust, and a different chemical composition from the other inner planets. These discoveries were made by Mark Robinson at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona (he is now at Northwestern University) and Paul Lucey of the University of Hawaii. Using improvements in computer and image-processing technologies, and a better understanding of how light reflects off planetary surfaces than was available in the mid-1970s, Robinson and Lucey manipulated the original data and produced a color image of Mercury that depicts compositional differences across its stark surface

  20. Anthropogenic mercury signals in lake sediments from southernmost Patagonia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald

    2013-02-15

    Atmospheric mercury fluxes to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces in the Northern Hemisphere have increased since the Industrial Revolution. However fluxes are not well characterized for the Southern Hemisphere, since environmental archives are comparatively scarce. Mercury records from (210)Pb-dated sediment cores of three South Patagonian lakes were investigated in order to reveal the influence of anthropogenic activities on atmospheric mercury deposition in remote lakes of the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with indicators of organic matter sources (carbon and nitrogen/carbon ratios) and a conservative mineral soil element (zirconium) in the sediments revealed that soil erosion is an important process contributing mercury to these lakes and influenced variation in concentrations through time. However, at ~1900 AD mercury accumulation increased independent from soil erosion and peaked from 1980 to 2000 AD. We attribute this to an increase in atmospheric mercury deposition in this remote region of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean flux ratios, which reflect the increase in modern mercury accumulation compared to pre-1850 AD, lie within a range of 1.4 to 2.4. These values indicate an increase in atmospheric mercury deposition slightly lower than predictions derived from global mercury models that suggest an increase in Hg deposition by a factor of 2 to 3. PMID:23333508

  1. Soils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-08-29

    The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  2. PSYCHROPHILIC PSEUDOMONAS SP. RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    As mercury circulates and deposits globally, the remediation of extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan is critical. High-levels of mercury contamination exist within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and e...

  3. Chemical contaminant reactions and assessment of soil cleanup levels for protection of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargbo, D. M.

    1994-03-01

    About 70 percent of hazardous waste sites listed in the National Priority List (NPL) have some groundwater contamination that may require remediation. Such remediation is inadequate if the unsaturated soils above will continue to act as a source of groundwater contamination. Consequently, for most of these sites, it becomes necessary to determine what the cleanup levels for contaminants in soils should be so that subsequent contribution of contaminants from these soils to groundwater would not exceed groundwater protection levels. Representation of the dynamics of interactions between contaminants and soils is very complex, requiring among others, a thorough understanding of the chemical processes that influence the behavior of the contaminant once it enters the subsurface. Because of such complexities, environmental professionals frequently utilize methods with very simple assumptions that tend to err on the conservative side. While the public may feel protected, the needless spending of dollars could be avoided if attempts are made to incorporate, where possible, such complexities in the modeling efforts so that the system is represented as accurately as possible.

  4. Mercury in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of Hg pollution--an accumulation and desorption experiment with microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Soko?owska, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dubi?ska, Anna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2014-10-01

    Because of its high mobility in ecosystems, mercury is one of the main toxic threats to the environment, and its concentration must be carefully controlled. To fulfill this need, we selected terrestrial mosses with different characteristic life forms: orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. The concentrations of mercury were determined in both species growing together at sites situated approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6km to the north, south, east and west, respectively of five known mercury polluters. The mercury concentrations reflected the emissions produced by the surrounding industry, reaching values of 0.44mgkg(-1) in P. schreberi and 0.79mgkg(-1) in P. commune in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali industry. To determine how long a load of Hg would remain in the mosses after mercury emitters restricted releases of Hg to the atmosphere, accumulation and desorption experiments were performed. We compared the two moss species collected from clean and moderately and heavily mercury-polluted sites. After eight days of exposure to mercury, P. schreberi accumulated up to 25mgkg(-1) of Hg, and P. commune accumulated up to 31mgkg(-1). Both in the field and in the experiment, P. commune accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg than did P. schreberi, most likely because of its surface morphology, which is likely to enhance the capture of metal from the atmosphere. After sixteen days of exposure, mercury changed the structure of the plasma membrane and affected organelles such as the nuclei and chloroplasts, leading to cell disintegration and death. The negative effects of mercury on the functioning of living cells appeared first in the older leaves of P. schreberi. After 64 days growing in the absence of Hg, P. schreberi clearly retained only 10-14% of the initially accumulated Hg, while P. commune retained 10-21%. PMID:25038270

  5. Mercury in Morelet's Crocodile Eggs from Northern Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Rainwater; B. M. Adair; S. G. Platt; T. A. Anderson; G. P. Cobb; S. T. McMurry

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have examined mercury accumulation in crocodilians. However, though most researchers have focused on tissue\\u000a concentrations, few have examined mercury levels in crocodilian eggs. In July 1995, we analyzed mercury in 31 nonviable Morelet's\\u000a crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs collected from eight nests across three localities in northern Belize. All eggs were found to contain mercury. Based\\u000a on an individual

  6. Low-level experimental selenite additions decrease mercury in aquatic food chains and fish muscle but increase selenium in fish gonads.

    PubMed

    Mailman, Mariah; Bodaly, R A; Paterson, Michael J; Thompson, Shirley; Flett, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level addition of selenium (Se) could decrease mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish without imposing Se toxicity. Using a regression design, selenite was added to large mesocosms in a lake to achieve target concentrations ?1.6 ?g/L. (198)Hg (spike Hg) was added to mesocosms to determine changes in Hg bioaccumulation. Adding Se decreased spike total Hg (THg) in fish muscle, ambient THg in fish liver, and bioaccumulation of spike THg in muscle and spike methylmercury (MeHg) in zooplankton and Chironomid larvae relative to controls. Se decreased Hg in the food web but not in water, indicating that the dominant effect of Se on Hg cycling occurs in the food web. Concentrations of Se in gonads of fish were positively correlated with Se concentrations in water but did not exceed reproductive toxicity thresholds after 8 weeks. We conclude that low-level addition of Se decreases MeHg bioaccumulation and increases Se in gonads of fish; however, additions of Se to freshwater systems to decrease Hg in fish should be treated with caution because Se in fish gonads were likely to exceed toxic concentrations if exposed to increased Se for a longer period of time. PMID:23989587

  7. Mercury in a marine pelagic food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE A. KNAUER; JOHN H. MARTIN

    1972-01-01

    Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and anchovies collected in Monterey Bay, California, over a 10-month period were analyzed for total mercury. In general, mercury levels were low and no evidence of food chain amplification was observed. Temporal variations of Hg concentrations in phytoplankton were greater than those for zooplankton; however, no seasonal trends were observed for either group. Plankton samples were also collected

  8. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicated good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg{sup 2+}, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process possesses very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units. These sorbent technologies, used in tandem or individually depending on the treatment needs, can provide DOE sites with a cost-effective method for reducing mercury concentrations to very low levels mandated by the regulatory community. In addition, the technologies do not generate significant amounts of secondary wastes for disposal. Furthermore, the need for improved water treatment technologies is not unique to the DOE. The new, stringent requirements on mercury concentrations impact other government agencies as well as the private sector. Some of the private-sector industries needing improved methods for removing mercury from water include mining, chloralkali production, chemical processing, and medical waste treatment. The next logical step is to deploy one or more of these sorbents at a contaminated DOE site or at a commercial facility needing improved mercury treatment technologies. A full-scale deployment is planned in fiscal year 2000.

  9. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China. PMID:17120105

  10. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Nassif Del Lama; Cristiano Dosualdo Rocha; Wilson Figueiredo Jardim; Jo-Szu Tsai; Peter Crawford Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were

  11. Dietary selenium reduces retention of methyl mercury in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Fjordside, Susanne; Hansen, Maria G; Petrova, Maya B

    2011-11-15

    Adverse effects from organic mercury transported along aquatic food chains are health issues in humans and other top predators. Methyl mercury in organisms at the lower food chain levels is eliminated slowly, and laboratory studies have not clarified the role of selenium in the retention of methyl mercury in fish. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary selenium on the retention of organic and inorganic mercury in freshwater fish. Addition of selenite to the food augmented elimination of methyl mercury (but not inorganic mercury) from goldfish Carassius auratus in a dose dependent manner; selenite caused methyl mercury to be lost from the general body rather than from any specific organ. Seleno-cystine and seleno-methionine (but not selenate) likewise promoted elimination of methyl mercury from goldfish. The threshold for the augmenting effect of selenite on the elimination of methyl mercury in the zebra fish Danio rerio was 0.95 ?g Se g(-1) food; higher concentrations reduced retention of methyl mercury in a dose dependent manner. Selenium concentrations in the food approaching natural background levels increase the elimination of methyl mercury from fish. Thus, selenium levels in a given aquatic food chain may affect mercury contamination along the food chain. PMID:22014184

  12. Influence of a municipal solid waste incinerator on ambient air and soil PCDD\\/Fs levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Eun Oh; Sung-Deuk Choi; Se-Jin Lee; Yoon-Seok Chang

    2006-01-01

    To examine the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on the environment, we measured the levels of PCDD\\/Fs in ambient air and soil samples collected near a MSWI in Bucheon, Korea. The PCDD\\/Fs concentrations in the ambient air samples ranged from 0.22 to 1.16pg I-TEQm?3 (13.39–75.16pgm?3), with an average of

  13. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Slavin; Stamatios M. Krimigis; Mario H. Acuña; Brian J. Anderson; Daniel N. Baker; Patrick L. Koehn; Haje Korth; Stefano Livi; Barry H. Mauk; Sean C. Solomon; Thomas H. Zurbuchen

    2007-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only ˜1000 to

  14. Soil organic matter decomposition follows plant productivity response to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) is an important mechanism for many tidal wetlands to keep pace with sea-level rise. SOM accumulation is governed by the rates of production and decomposition of organic matter. While plant productivity responses to sea-level rise are well understood, far less is known about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated sea-level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea-level rise on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian Global Change Research Wetland, a micro tidal brackish marsh in Maryland, US. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated using a stable carbon isotope approach. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to varying flood duration over a 35 cm range in surface elevation in unplanted mesocoms. In the presence of plants, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (p?0.01, R2?0.59). We conclude that rates of soil carbon loss through decomposition are driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If our result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling carbon sequestration and marsh accretion in response to accelerated sea-level rise.

  15. Utility of EXAFS in characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive mining of large mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in mercury contamination of both the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, dispersal, and ultimate fate of mercury are all affected by its chemical speciation, which can be most readily determined in a direct fashion using EXAFS spectroscopy. EXAFS spectra of mine wastes collected from several mercury mines in the California Coast Range with mercury concentrations ranging from 230 to 1060 mg/kg (ppm) have been analyzed using a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. While some calcines have been found to consist almost exclusively of mercuric sulfide, HgS, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. This experimental approach can provide a quantitative measurement of the mercury compounds present and may serve as an indicator of the bioavailability and toxicity levels of mercury mine wastes.

  16. Mercury and health care

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  17. Mercury levels in muscle of two fish species and sediments from the Cartagena Bay and the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alonso, D; Pineda, P; Olivero, J; González, H; Campos, N

    2000-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) content in sediments and muscle from two fish species were determined in Cartagena Bay and Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, an industrialized bay and an unpolluted estuary in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Sampling was conducted four times during March-November 1996, including both the dry and rainy seasons. Significant differences in Hg concentration were detected both for fish and sediments between the two waterbodies. Hg values ranged from 94 to 10,293 microg/kg dry weight (dw) in sediments from Cartagena Bay and between 20 and 109 microg/kg dw in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta. Highest Hg concentrations were observed for the omnivorous species Eugerres plumieri, and lowest concentrations were found in the detritivorous Mugil incilis. High Hg concentrations in sediments of Cartagena Bay were detected in front of the sewage discharge of an extinct chlor-alkali plant, with decreasing concentrations in stations far from the source. Our results suggest that Hg can be persistent in the sediments of previously exposed ecosystems and that the use of their biological resources should be avoided until decontamination programs guarantee safe levels of the metal in the environment. PMID:15092923

  18. Findings of and treatment for high levels of mercury and lead toxicity in ground zero rescue and recovery workers and lower Manhattan residents.

    PubMed

    Kokayi, Kamau; Altman, Claire Haaga; Callely, Robert W; Harrison, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Olive Leaf Wholeness Center conducted a demonstration project that provided health assessment, testing, and treatment to 160 uniformed service personnel and residents of Lower Manhattan who were exposed to the air at Ground Zero following September 11, 2001, for extended periods of time. The program, known as Project Olive ReLeaf, found that most individuals had eight or more serious health complaints, including severe respiratory problems, digestive problems, skin rashes, sleeplessness, anxiety, depression, weight gains, elevated blood pressure, lethargy, and recurrent headaches. Heavy metal toxicity was suspected as a causal factor for many of these symptoms. Of those tested for heavy metal toxicity, using a challenge urine test, 85% had excessively high levels of lead and mercury. Chelation treatment using dimercaptuosuccinic acid (DMSA), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved sulfur compound, was the primary treatment prescribed. After three to four months of treatment, the first cohort of 100 individuals reported significant (greater than 60%) improvement in all symptoms. (This demonstration program was developed based on the results of an earlier pilot in 2003 for 25 emergency service officers of the New York City Police Department.) In addition, adjunctive therapies to assist with the detoxification process and build the immune system were offered. A small grant has been received to conduct follow-up tests on a sample of those treated with DMSA. PMID:16979103

  19. Air and soil dioxin levels at three sites in Italy in proximity to MSW incineration plants.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Stefano; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Grosso, Mario; Lonati, Giovanni; Mattaini, Paola

    2004-03-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in both air and soil samples were measured at three different sites in Italy, in proximity to three municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) to determine baseline contamination and the contributory role of incinerator emissions. At the first site, located in an agricultural, cattle-breeding, typically flattish area of the Po Valley, the dioxin concentrations had already been measured before the start-up of the new MSWI. These dioxin concentrations were then again measured after two years of continual operation of the incinerator. Despite the presence of the plant, the PCDD/Fs concentrations appear not to have been affected and were found to be in a range of 22-125 fg I-TEQ m(-3) in the air samples and 0.7-1.5 pg I-TEQ g(-1) in the soil samples. The second site is located in an industrial district of the Veneto Region, in the surroundings of an old MSWI that is not equipped with Best Available Technology (BAT) dioxin removal system. The PCDD/Fs concentrations in the air samples were between 144 and 337 fg I-TEQ m(-3). This is a typical range of values for industrial areas, while the soil samples showed contamination levels between 1.1 and 1.4 pg I-TEQ g(-1). The third site lies in the Adige Valley, near a MSWI that has been equipped with BAT for flue gas cleaning. The observed values ranged from 10 to 67 fg I-TEQ m(-3) for the air samples and 0.08-1.2 pg I-TEQ g(-1) for the soil samples. The contributory factors of the varying characteristics of the different areas together with the types of technology adopted at each MSWI plant are discussed. The PCDD/Fs levels are subsequently compared with established values from previous studies. PMID:14659420

  20. Hair mercury concentrations of lactating mothers and breastfed infants in Iran (fish consumption and mercury exposure).

    PubMed

    Okati, Narjes; Sari, Abbas Esmaili; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmood

    2012-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the South Caspian Sea (Iran) have a significant exposure to dietary mercury. This study assesses the biomonitoring of mercury in mothers and breastfed infants in the South Caspian Sea. The mean of mercury concentration in the hair of 93 pairs of mothers and infants was obtained and was 3.55 and 1.89 ?g g(-1), respectively. A statistically significant correlation (R = 0.850, P = 0.000) was seen between mercury concentration in the hair of mothers and infants. The results of this study indicate that hair mercury concentrations exceeded the USEPA reference dose of 1 ?g g(-1) in 82.7 % of mothers and 61.2 % of infants. Also, 31 % of the mothers and 10.7 % of the infants had mercury concentrations more than the WHO "threshold" level (5 ?g g(-1)). The age and fish consumption of mothers were the factors that significantly affected the hair mercury concentration of mothers and infants. Number of dental amalgam fillings of mothers was the factor that only affected mercury in the hair of mothers. According to the results, we can conclude that the main determinant of mercury exposure was the intake of mercury through fish consumption of mothers. PMID:22592844