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1

Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For

Filip M. G. Tack; Thomas Vanhaesebroeck; Marc G. Verloo; Kurt Van Rompaey; Eric Van Ranst

2005-01-01

2

Investigation of mercury levels in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the management hierarchy of municipal solid waste (MSW), incineration with energy recovery is a desired and viable\\u000a option often used in densely populated and economically developed cities. The gaseous and particulate mercury (Hg) emitted\\u000a from MSW incinerators may accumulate in the soil entering via dry and wet deposition. To investigate the soil Hg level and\\u000a estimate the effects of

Jun-Jian Wang; Hong-Wei Zhao; Xiu-Ping Zhong; Si-Fang Kong; Yang-Sheng Liu; Hui Zeng

3

Bioavailability and stability of mercury sulfide in Armuchee (USA) soil  

SciTech Connect

Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mercury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US ) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sulfide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavailable to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sulfide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solubility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil. (authors)

Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET ), Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd. Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Matta, Frank B. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, MS 39762 (United States)

2007-07-01

4

Effects of Mercury Release from Amalgam Dental Restorations During Cremation on Soil Mercury Levels of Three New Zealand Crematoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of

A. K. Nieschmidt; N. D. Kim

1997-01-01

5

Effects of mercury release from amalgam dental restorations during cremation on soil mercury levels of three New Zealand crematoria  

SciTech Connect

A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of mercury during cremation. Mercury is liberated during cremation both because dental amalgams are unstable at cremation temperatures (650-700{degrees}C) and because the free mercury metal is highly volatile. In New Zealand, 58% of deaths are followed by cremation and this figure is likely to rise in the future. This increasing use of cremation as the method of corpse disposal, coupled with the fact that each amalgam restoration is approximately 50% mercury, implies that a significant amount of mercury may be emitted into the environment every year. This study examines mercury released from crematoria in New Zealand. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Nieschmidt, A.K.; Kim, N.D. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

1997-05-01

6

Mercury in shallow Savannah River Plant soil  

SciTech Connect

Soil concentrations of adsorbed mercury at 999 sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were determined by Microseeps Limited of Indianola, PA. The sites were in and around the 643-C Burial Ground, at the Savannah River Swamp adjacent to TNX Area, and at a background area. The Burial Ground was chosen as a test site because of a history of disposal of radioactive mercury there prior to 1968. Extremely low traces of mercury have been detected in the water table beneath the Burial Ground. Although the mercury concentrations at the majority of these sites are at background levels, several areas appear to be anomalously high. In particular, an area of large magnitude anomaly was found in the northwest part of the Burial Ground. Three other single point anomalies and several other areas of more subtle but consistently high values were also found. Several sites with anomalous mercury levels were found in an area of the Savannah River flood plain adjacent to TNX Area.

Carlton, W.H.; Price, V.; Cook, J.R.

1988-10-01

7

Assessing the Mercury Content in Mediterranean Calcareous Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil constitutes the greatest reservoir of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems and is the main pollution route for aquatic systems and the food chain. We determined the mercury total content in Mediterranean calcareous soils by thermal decomposition, amalgamation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and on the base of the background level and geochemical baseline concentration concepts the contamination degree in some agricultural soils were assessed. Fifty-three samples from five soil use groups (natural, dry land, greenhouse, irrigated and rice farming soils) were analysed. The results showed that the levels of mercury in these soils were 9.4 to 1585 ?g kg-1. Soil organic matter has been related to mercury content in soils. The background level, geochemical baseline concentrations and the reference value were established from natural soils being the followings: 25.1, 9.8-64.3, and 64.3 ?g kg-1. These results indicated that rice farming soils (gleyic-calcaric Fluvisols, Fluvaquents), irrigated soils (calcaric Fluvisols, Xerofluvents) and some greenhouse soils (cumulic Anthrosols) presented much higher levels, indicating contamination. Hg accumulation in these soils was associated with local anthropogenic sources.

Gil, C.; Ramos-Miras, J.; Roca-Pérez, L.; Boluda, R.; Bech, J.

2010-05-01

8

Modelling of mercury emissions from background soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of volatile mercury species from natural soils are believed to be a significant contributor to the atmospheric burden of mercury, but only order-of-magnitude estimates of emissions from these sources are available. The scaling-up of mercury flux measurements to regional or global scales is confounded by a limited understanding of the physical, chemical and biochemical processes that occur in the

M. T. Scholtz; B. J. Van Heyst; W. H. Schroeder

2003-01-01

9

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VOLATILIZATION OF MERCURY FROM SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury volatilization from soils amended to 1 ppm mercury with mercuric nitrate ceased within 1 week after application. During the first week, 20% of the applied mercury was lost from a silty clay-loam soil and 43% was lost from a loamy sand soil. Volatilization of Hg from the l...

10

Detoxification of mercury and organomercurials by nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal inhibitory concentration values of HgCl2 and 5 organomercurials were determined against 24 mercury-resistant N2-fixing soil bacteria previously isolated from soil and identified in our laboratory. These bacterial strains also displayed\\u000a multiple antibiotic resistant properties. Typical growth pattern of a highly mercury-resistantBeijerinckia sp (KDr2) was studied in liquid broth supplemented with toxic levels of mercury compounds. Four bacterial strains were

S. Ray; R. Gachhui; K. Pahan; J. Chaudhury; A. Mandal

1989-01-01

11

Ammonium thiosulphate enhanced phytoextraction from mercury contaminated soil--results from a greenhouse study.  

PubMed

According to the 'hard and soft' acid-base principle, mercury is a 'soft metal' and will preferentially form soluble chemical complexes with sulphur-containing ligands. In this work mercury uptake by Chenopodium glaucum L. growing on mercury-contaminated soil was promoted using ammonium thiosulphate. The relative geochemical fractionation of mercury in the soil was subsequently investigated as a function of plant growth with and without thiosulphate amendment. The results indicate that the solubility of mercury is significantly increased through the application of thiosulphate to the soil. Substantially higher mercury levels were found in C. glaucum L. treated with 2 g kg(-1) thiosulphate of soil when compared to the non-treated plants. Compared with initial soil, soluble and exchangeable fractions were increased both in planted and planted treated plants. However, no significant difference was observed between the soils of the planted and planted treated plants. The oxide-bound mercury concentration was significantly decreased for the planted soil (treated and non-treated) at the end of the experiment. Moreover, this fraction was highly correlated with the plant tissue mercury concentration. Taken together, thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction could be used to reduce environmental risk apparent for mercury-contaminated soil through reducing the oxide bound fractions, while managing the bioavailable fractions (compared with no treated plant). PMID:21122988

Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Qiu, Guangle; Ping, Li; Bao, Zhengduo

2010-11-03

12

The relationship between mental retardation and developmental delays in children and the levels of arsenic, mercury and lead in soil samples taken near their mother's residence during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate the association between lead, mercury, and arsenic in the soil near maternal residences during pregnancy and mental retardation or developmental disability (MR/DD) in children. The study was conducted using 6,048 mothers who did not move throughout their pregnancies and lived within six strips of land in South Carolina and were insured by Medicaid between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2002. The mother child pairs were then followed until June 1, 2008, through their Medicaid reimbursement files, to identify children diagnosed with MR/DD. The soil was sampled for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and As based on a uniform grid, and the soil concentrations were Kriged to estimate chemical concentration at individual locations. We identified a significant relationship between MR/DD and As, and the form of the relationship was nonlinear, after controlling for other known risk factors.

Liu, Yuan; McDermott, Suzanne; Lawson, Andrew; Aelion, C. Marjorie

2010-01-01

13

Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W. W.; Learned, R. E.; Meuschke, J. L.

1969-01-01

14

Total gaseous mercury emissions from soil in Guiyang, Guizhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guiyang is located in the Circum-Pacific Global Mercuriferous Belt, and mercury concentrations in soil in this area are enriched. In situ total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and soil surface were intensively measured at four sampling sites in Guiyang from 21 May to 16 June 2003. Overall, net emissions were obtained from all sampling sites. Soil mercury concentration and solar radiation are proved to be the two most important parameters to control mercury emissions from soil. Meanwhile, a rain event can enhance mercury emission rate significantly. A simple model based on the linear correlation between mercury flux and solar radiation was applied to scale up mercury emissions from soil zones with different mercury concentration ranges. It is observed that mercury emission fluxes from soil in Guiyang are one order of magnitude higher than the value used in early models to represent emissions from global mercuriferous belts which is 1.1 ng m-2 h-1. The annual mercury emission from soil in Guiyang is calculated to be 408 kg, which highlights that natural emissions from soil contribute significantly to the elevated TGM concentrations in the ambient air in Guiyang.

Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; Hou, Yamin; Tang, Shunlin

2005-07-01

15

Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

2000-04-01

16

Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved

Yi Su; Fengxiang Han; Safwan Shiyab; Jian Chen; David L. Monts

2007-01-01

17

Effects of mercury on microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent soil pollutant that affects soil microbial activity. We monitored the changes in soil microbial\\u000a biomass and activity of enzymes, including alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity,\\u000a and o-diphenol oxidase (o-DPO) in three soils contaminated with different concentrations of Hg. Increasing levels of Hg, from 0.5 to 10 µmol\\/g of dried\\u000a soil, generally depressed

Cristiano Casucci; Benedict C. Okeke; William T. Frankenberger

2003-01-01

18

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31

19

Mercury levels in fishes from some Missouri lakes with and without known mercury pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercurial fungicides used in golf greens can lead to elevated mercury levels in fish from lakes receiving greens drainage. The largemouth bass is the most sensitive indicator with levels ranging from 1-7 mg mercury\\/g of wet tissue in fish taken from lakes that receive drainage from treated greens. Many lakes with no known source of mercury contamination produce bass that

S. R. Koirtyohann; R. Meers; L. K. Graham

1974-01-01

20

Potential anthropogenic mobilisation of mercury and arsenic from soils on mineralised rocks, Northland, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Eroded roots of hot spring systems in Northland, New Zealand consist of mineralised rocks containing sulfide minerals. Marcasite and cinnabar are the dominant sulfides with subordinate pyrite. Deep weathering and leached soil formation has occurred in a warm temperate to subtropical climate with up to 3 m/year rainfall. Decomposition of the iron sulfides in natural and anthropogenic rock exposures yields acid rock drainage with pH typically between 2 and 4, and locally down to pH 1. Soils and weathered rocks developed on basement greywacke have negligible acid neutralisation capacity. Natural rainforest soils have pH between 4 and 5 on unmineralised greywacke, and pH is as low as 3.5 in soils on mineralised rocks. Roads with aggregate made from mineralised rocks have pH near 3, and quarries from which the rock was extracted can have pH down to 1. Mineralised rocks are enriched in arsenic and mercury, both of which are environmentally available as solid solution impurities in iron sulfides and phosphate minerals. Base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) are present at low levels in soils, at or below typical basement rock background. Decomposition of the iron sulfides releases the solid solution arsenic and mercury into the acid rock drainage solutions. Phosphate minerals release their impurities only under strongly acid conditions (pH<1). Arsenic and mercury are adsorbed on to iron oxyhydroxides in soils, concentrated in the C horizon, with up to 4000 ppm arsenic and 100 ppm mercury. Waters emanating from acid rock drainage areas have arsenic and mercury below drinking water limits. Leaching experiments and theoretical predictions indicate that both arsenic and mercury are least mobile in acid soils, at pH of c. 3-4. This optimum pH range for fixation of arsenic and mercury on iron oxyhydroxides in soils is similar to natural pH at the field site of this study. However, neutralisation of acid soils developed on mineralised rocks is likely to decrease adsorption and enhance mobility of arsenic and mercury. Hence, development of farmland by clearing forest and adding agricultural lime may mobilise arsenic and mercury from underlying soils on mineralised rocks. In addition, arsenic and mercury release into runoff water will be enhanced where sediment is washed off mineralised road aggregate (pH 3) on to farm land (pH>6). The naturally acid forest soils, or even lower pH of natural acid rock drainage, are the most desirable environmental conditions to restrict dissolution of arsenic and mercury from soils. This approach is only valid where mineralised soils have low base metal concentrations. PMID:15644268

Craw, D

2004-12-15

21

Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, Chinese brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 parts-per-million (ppm) and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, or Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. We have observed mercury translocation from roots to shoot for Chinese fern and two Indian mustard varieties. (authors)

Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

2007-07-01

22

The role of natural purified humic acids in modifying mercury accessibility in water and soil  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the influence of different humic acids (HAs, extracted from lignite, compost, and forest soil) on mercury mobility and availability both in a model solution and in soil samples from a mercury-polluted region. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), which is capable of measuring: (i) free metal in solution: (ii) dissociated metal complexes previously mobilized by HA; (iii) mobilized metal-HA complexes that liberate metals by dissociation or by exchange reaction between the metal-HA complexes and the chelating groups on the resin-gel, was used in solutions and soils. The DGT measurements in solution, together with ultrafiltration, allowed estimation of the lability of Hg-HA complexes. Ultrafiltration results were also compared with predictions made by the windermere humic-aqueous model (WHAM). According to both these different approaches, Hg{sup 2+} resulted nearly 100% complexed by HAs, whereas results from ultrafiltration showed that 32 to 72% of the CH{sub 4}Hg{sup +} was bound to the HAs, with higher values for compost and lower values for forest and Aldrich HA. The DGT-measured mercury in soils was below 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1}, irrespective of the extent of the contamination. Addition of HA increased the concentration of DGT-measured mercury in soil solution up to 100-fold in the contaminated soil and up to 30-fold in the control soil. The level of the increase also depended on the HA. The smallest increase (about 10 times) was found for lignite HA in both control and contaminated soils. The addition of forest HA gave the largest increases in DGT-measured mercury, in particular for the contaminated soil. Overall, the results demonstrated that DGT can be used for estimating the lability of mercury complexes in solution and for verifying enhanced mercury mobility when HA is added to contaminated soils.

Cattani, I.; Zhang, H.; Beone, G.M.; Del Re, A.A.M.; Boccelli, R.; Trevisan, M. [University of Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

2009-03-15

23

Removal of Mercury from Clayey Soils Using Electrokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous sites have been polluted with mercury as a result of accidental spills and improper disposal practices, and these mercury-contaminated sites may have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Innovative and cost-effective remediation techniques are urgently needed, and this study was performed to investigate the use of electrokinetics for mercury-contaminated soils. Initially, batch tests were performed on two

Krishna R. Reddy; Carlos Chaparro; Richard E. Saichek

2003-01-01

24

Two-stage process recovers mercury from tainted soil  

SciTech Connect

Mercury Recovery Services, Inc. (MRS; New Brighton, PA) has developed a two-stage process for recovering mercury from soil and industrial wastes, which obviates the need for costly pollution-control equipment. Using proprietary additives to break mercury-chloride and mercury-sulfide bonds, the process yields pure mercury, which is easily recovered, and innocuous chloride and sulfide salts, which remains in the soil or sludge. The basic MRS system consists of three parallel furnaces, a condenser, an exhaust treatment system, and a control center. The 12-ton/d system can be transported on two trailers, and a 4-ton/d unit fits on a single trailer. Depending on the soil being treated, additional crushing, shredding or sizing equipment may also be required. A larger, stationary, 110-lb/d system is under development.

Gruber, W.

1996-01-01

25

Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment.  

PubMed

The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide. PMID:16781764

Farella, N; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Daigle, S

2006-06-16

26

Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden mercury mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils collected near the Almaden, Spain, mercury mine reflected increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg) with proximity to the mine due to weathered mineral deposits and to atmospheric deposition of Hg from the smelter. Extractions with NaHCOâ or NHâOAc removed small amounts of Hg from both control (20 km from the mine; total Hg = 2.3 ..mu..g\\/g) and mine site

S. E. Lindberg; D. R. Jackson; J. W. Huckabee; S. A. Janzen; M. J. Levin; J. R. Lund

1979-01-01

27

Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

2012-01-01

28

Health effects of ingestion of mercury-polluted urban soil: an animal experiment.  

PubMed

Rio Grande, the southernmost Brazilian port and industrial center, is marked by mercury-polluted ground cover. This pollution varies spatially, with levels exceeding 1,000 ?g kg(-1) in 30% of the urban territory. The risk of Hg impact as a result of deliberate and involuntary geophagy is increased by restrained urban conditions in combination with the large proportion of the population living at low-income levels. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that ingestion of Hg-polluted soil by rats results in significant alterations in animal health such as stagnation in body weight increase, and significant mercury accumulation in the liver and kidney. The consumption of Hg-contaminated urban soil also provoked changes in hematological profiles of experimental animals by increasing the number of platelets. The present study indicates the potential for the local population of Rio Grande living in mercury-polluted districts, specifically young children, to experience health disturbances. PMID:21451960

Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Mirlean, Nicolai; Carrazzoni, Daniela; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Goulart, Gianni Peraza; Baisch, Paulo

2011-03-31

29

Estimations of historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from mercury refining and present-day soil concentrations of total mercury in Huancavelica, Peru.  

PubMed

Detailed Spanish records of cinnabar mining and mercury production during the colonial period in Huancavelica, Peru were examined to estimate historical health risks to the community from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor resulting from cinnabar refining operations. Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of Hg were released to the atmosphere in Huancavelica from Hg production. AERMOD was used with estimated emissions and source characteristics to approximate historic atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor. Modeled 1-hour and long-term concentrations were compared with present-day inhalation reference values for elemental Hg. Estimated 1-hour maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values, while some areas closest to the smelters exceeded present-day emergency response guideline levels. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded the EPA Reference Concentration (RfC) by a factor of 30 to 100, with areas closest to the smelters exceeding the RfC by a factor of 300 to 1000. Based on the estimated historical concentrations of Hg vapor in the community, the study also measured the extent of present-day contamination throughout the community through soil sampling and analysis. Total Hg in soils sampled from 20 locations ranged from 1.75 to 698 mg/kg and three adobe brick samples ranging from 47.4 to 284 mg/kg, consistent with other sites of mercury mining and use. The results of the soil sampling indicate that the present-day population of Huancavelica is exposed to levels of mercury from legacy contamination which is currently among the highest worldwide, consequently placing them at potential risk of adverse health outcomes. PMID:22542225

Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole; Halabi, Susan; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Richter, Daniel deB; Heine, Paul; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Vandenberg, John

2012-04-26

30

Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils  

SciTech Connect

The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

1995-05-01

31

Soils as an Important Sink for Mercury in the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the behaviour of mercury in lateritic soil profiles found in the Serra do Navio and Tartarugalzinhoareas of the State of Amapá in Northern Brazil. The Hg contents are high in the upper horizons of the soil profiles(100–300 µg kg-1), and decrease to less than 100 µg kg-1 at depths of 200 or 300 cm. The higher

S. M. B. de Oliveira; A. J. Melfi; A. H. Fostier; M. C. Forti; D. I. T. Fávaro; R. Boulet

2001-01-01

32

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

Cicero, C.A.

1996-05-08

33

Mercury exposure in French Guiana: Levels and determinants  

SciTech Connect

Mercury is used widely for gold extraction in French Guiana and throughout the entire Amazon basin. To evaluate contamination among the general population, the authors chose individuals who attended 13 health centers and maternity hospitals dispersed geographically across the territory and served Guiana`s different populations. Five hundred individuals (109 pregnant women, 255 other adults, and 136 children) who received care at one of the centers were selected randomly for this study. Each individual answered a questionnaire and provided a hair sample. The authors determined mercury in hair with atomic absorption spectrometry. The following mean levels of mercury were observed: 1.6 {micro}g/g among pregnant women; 3.4 {micro}g/g among other adults; and 2.5 {micro}g/g among children. Diet factors contributed the most to mercury levels, especially consumption of freshwater fish and livers from game. Other factors, including age, dental amalgams, use of skin-lightening cosmetics, and residence near a gold-mining community, did not contribute significantly to mercury levels. Overall, 12% of the samples contained mercury levels in excess of 10 {micro}g/g, but in some Amerindian communities up to 79% of the children had hair mercury levels that exceeded 10 {micro}g/g. The results of this study indicated that (a) diet played a predominant role in total mercury burden, and (b) in some communities, mercury contamination exceeded safe levels.

Cordier, S.; Mandereau, L. [Inst. National de Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Villejuif (France); Grasmick, C. [Direction Generale de la Sante, Paris (France); Paquier-Passelaigue, M. [Direction Dept. des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Cayenne (France); Weber, J.P. [Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec (Canada); Jouan, M. [Reseau National de Sante Publique, St. Maurice (France)

1998-07-01

34

Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the current community of Potosí and vicinity is at risk of adverse health effects from historical mercury contamination.

Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

2011-12-01

35

Evaluation of mercury in urine as an indicator of exposure to low levels of mercury vapor.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a pooled analysis to investigate the relationship between exposure to elemental mercury in air and resulting urinary mercury levels, specifically at lower air levels relevant for environmental exposures and public health goals (i.e., < 50 microg/m3 down to 1.0 microg/m3). Ten studies reporting paired air and urine mercury data (149 samples total) met criteria for data quality and sufficiency. The log-transformed data set showed a strong correlation between mercury in air and in urine (r = 0.774), although the relationship was best fit by a series of parallel lines with different intercepts for each study R2 = 0.807). Predicted ratios of air to urine mercury levels at 50 microg/m3 air concentration ranged from 1:1 to 1:3, based on the regression line for the studies. Toward the lower end of the data set (i.e., 10 microg/m3), predicted urinary mercury levels encompassed two distinct ranges: values on the order of 20 microg/L and 30-60 microg/L. Extrapolation to 1 microg/m3 resulted in predicted urinary levels of 4-5 and 6-13 microg/L. Higher predicted levels were associated with use of static area air samplers by some studies rather than more accurate personal air samplers. Urinary mercury predictions based primarily on personal air samplers at 1 and 10 microg/m3 are consistent with reported mean (4 microg/L) and upper-bound (20 microg/L) background levels, respectively. Thus, although mercury levels in air and urine are correlated below 50 microg/m3, the impact of airborne mercury levels below 10 microg/m3 is likely to be indistinguishable from background urinary mercury levels.

Tsuji, Joyce S; Williams, Pamela R D; Edwards, Melanie R; Allamneni, Krishna P; Kelsh, Michael A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Sheehan, Patrick J

2003-01-01

36

Extractability and mobility of mercury from agricultural soils surrounding industrial and mining contaminated areas.  

PubMed

This study focussed on a comparison of the extractability of mercury in soils with two different contamination sources (a chlor-alkali plant and mining activities) and on the evaluation of the influence of specific soil properties on the behaviour of the contaminant. The method applied here did not target the identification of individual species, but instead provided information concerning the mobility of mercury species in soil. Mercury fractions were classified as mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile. The fractionation study revealed that in all samples mercury was mainly present in the semi-mobile phase (between 63% and 97%). The highest mercury mobility (2.7 mg kg(-1)) was found in soils from the industrial area. Mining soils exhibited higher percentage of non-mobile mercury, up to 35%, due to their elevated sulfur content. Results of factor analysis indicate that the presence of mercury in the mobile phase could be related to manganese and aluminium soil contents. A positive relation between mercury in the semi-mobile fraction and the aluminium content was also observed. By contrary, organic matter and sulfur contents contributed to mercury retention in the soil matrix reducing the mobility of the metal. Despite known limitations of sequential extraction procedures, the methodology applied in this study for the fractionation of mercury in contaminated soil samples provided relevant information on mercury's relative mobility. PMID:20932549

Reis, Ana Teresa; Rodrigues, Sónia Morais; Davidson, Christine M; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C

2010-10-06

37

Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.  

PubMed

This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ? base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

2011-08-04

38

Phyto extraction and accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soil contaminated with different mercury compounds  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Site, where mercury contamination is a major concern in the Y-12 Watershed area. In order to cost effectively implement those remediation efforts currently planned for FY09, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds from the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal accumulating wild plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2} and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation; and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 ppm and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contaminated HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in Oak Ridge flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. (authors)

Su, Y.; Han, F.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L. [Mississippi State Univ., Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Starkville, MS (United States)

2007-07-01

39

Environmental Emission of Mercury During Gold Mining by Amalgamation Process and its Impact on Soils of Gympie, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- The aims of this study were to estimate the total amount of mercury released to the environment during 60 years of gold mining (1867-1926) at Gympie, Queensland, Australia and to measure the mercury levels in soil samples surrounding the mining activity. We estimated that 1902 tonnes of mercury was released to the environment and about 1236 tonnes of which was released to the air. The mean mercury in the soil samples in the vicinity of the Scottish battery varied from 1.07 to 99.26 ?g g-1 as compared to 0.075 ?g g-1 as background mercury concentrations. The maximum mercury concentration measured in sediments of the Langton Gully was 6.12 ?g g-1. These results show that large amount of mercury was used in this area during gold mining. Since mining is active in the area and Langton Gully flows into Mary River, we therefore, recommend that mercury concentration in air and fish should be monitored.

Dhindsa, H. S.; Battle, A. R.; Prytz, S.

40

The effect of long-term mercury pollution on the soil microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-term exposure to mercury on the soil microbial community was investigated in soil from three different sites along a pollution gradient. The amount of total and bioavailable mercury was negatively correlated to the distance from the center of contamination. The size of the bacterial and protozoan populations was reduced in the most contaminated soil, whereas there was

Anne Kirstine Müller; Kamma Westergaard; Søren Christensen; Søren Johannes Sørensen

2001-01-01

41

MERCURY BAKEOFF: TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON FOR THE TREATMENT OF MIXED WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AT BNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Over440 yd,of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury was generated during a ComprehensiveEnvironmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action atBrookhaven,National Laboratory (BNL). The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Scienceand,Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of severaltechnologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and

P. D. KALB; J. W. ADAMS; L. W. MILIAN; G. PENNY; J. BROWER; A. LOCKWOOD

1999-01-01

42

Mercury Mobilization in a Contaminated Industrial Soil for Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using plants for mercury (Hg) removal from a contaminated industrial soil, increasing the metal's bioaccessibility by using mobilizing agents: ammonium thiosulphate [(NH4)2S2O3] and potassium iodide (KI). The selected plant species were Brassica juncea and Poa annua. The addition of the mobilizing agents promoted Hg uptake by plants, with respect

Francesca Pedron; Gianniantonio Petruzzelli; Meri Barbafieri; Eliana Tassi; Paolo Ambrosini; Leonardo Patata

2011-01-01

43

[Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].  

PubMed

Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange flux is remarkably negatively linearly correlated to air mercury concentration and positively linearly correlated to air temperature. Furthermore, there is a general positive linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and soil temperature on the surface of earth after snow melting. PMID:23668111

Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

2013-02-01

44

Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.  

PubMed

Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

2012-10-07

45

Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.  

PubMed Central

Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean.

Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

2003-01-01

46

Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.  

PubMed

Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

2003-04-01

47

Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation, may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in southern Poland. The uptake and distribution of mercury by these plants were investigated, and the growth and vitality of the plants through a part of one vegetative cycle were assessed. The highest concentrations of mercury were found at the roots, but translocation to the aerial part also occurred. Most of the plant species tested displayed good growth on mercury contaminated soil and sustained a rich microbial population in the rhizosphere. The microbial populations of root-free soil and rhizosphere soil from all species were also examined. An inverse correlation between the number of sulfur amino acid decomposing bacteria and root mercury content was observed. These results indicate the potential for using some species of plants to treat mercury contaminated soil through stabilization rather than extraction. The present investigation proposes a practical cost-effective temporary solution for phytostabilization of soil with moderate mercury contamination as well as the basis for plant selection. PMID:17492484

Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Galimska-Stypa, Regina; Kucharski, Rafa?; Zielonka, Urszula; Ma?kowski, Eugeniusz; Gray, Laymon

2007-05-11

48

Relationships between leaching of methylmercury from the soil and the basic characteristics of alkali soil polluted by mercury in Guizhou China.  

PubMed

To determine the relationship between soluble methylmercury and soil characteristics which was contaminated by mercury, several experiments were conducted. As a result, a good correlation was founding between the leached methylmercury level from soil and the EC (electronic conductivity) level of soil. Moreover, to grasp the relationship between soluble methylmercury and soluble anions from soil, several anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO(4) (2-)) were measured using the ion chromatography method. Although the correlation coefficient was small (r = 0.40), only a correlation between the level of SO(4) (2-) and leached methylmercury was recognized. PMID:19050818

Matsuyama, A; Taniguchi, Y; Yasuda, Y

2008-12-03

49

Trace-level mercury removal from surface water  

SciTech Connect

Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water.

Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

1998-06-01

50

Mercury pollution in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon: mercury level of head hair and health effects.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern about the potential neurotoxic effects of exposure to methylmercury for the 6 million people living in the Amazon, even in regions situated far away from the gold mines (garimpos), considered to be the major source of mercury pollution. In November 1998, a spot investigation on mercury contamination was conducted in three fishing villages (Barreiras, Rainha, and Sao Luiz do Tapajos) on the Tapajos River, an effluent of the Amazon, situated several hundred kilometers downstream from the gold-mining areas. A total of 132 fishermen and their families volunteered for the current study. As was anticipated, the total mercury levels in the head hair collected from the fishing villages were relatively high (14.1-20.8 ppm on the average) and the number of subjects with a high total mercury level over 10 ppm (the least upper bound of a normal value) was 103 (78.0%) in total, along with various symptoms, thereby suggesting wide mercury contamination in the Tapajos River basin. Moreover, in view of the absence of other diseases (e.g., alcoholism or malaria), a high intake of fish containing a methylmercury level, and high hair mercury levels in addition to the various symptoms such as sensory disturbance (especially glove-and-stocking type, which is characteristic of Minamata disease), tremor, failure in two-point discrimination, and slight balancing failure, several subjects examined were diagnosed with mild Minamata disease. The findings obtained suggest, thus, that the mercury pollution in the Amazon should be crucially observed for head hair mercury level and health in a much broader region. PMID:11686639

Harada, M; Nakanishi, J; Yasoda, E; Pinheiro, M C; Oikawa, T; de Assis Guimarâes, G; da Silva Cardoso, B; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H

2001-10-01

51

Fluxes of new and old mercury from mercury amendments to Puerto Rico soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico receives high loading of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition. We hypothesized that high-organic soils with white-rot decomposition would retain more of this mercury than low-organic soils with brown-rot decomposition. In order to test this hypothesis, four paired intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 20-cm depth) were extracted in acrylic tubes from a hillslope in the low-elevation Tabonuco forest within the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico. One core of each pair was taken from an organic-rich microsite (above a debris dam) with white rot, and the other was taken from an adjacent bare-soil area (below the debris dam) with brown rot. The soil cores were amended with 384 ng of 202Hg (8 applications of 48 ng, twice per week for 4 weeks, April - May, 2006). Total water added was equivalent to 271 mm rainfall (close to the 4-week average) but Hg loading was about ten times the average loading. Ambient rainfall was excluded. Leachate passed through a funnel to a collection bottle and was composited for each core. Despite rapid throughput of the amendment solution, about 90% of the spike (new) Hg was retained in the soil columns. Our hypothesis was rejected in that there was no difference in retention in the white-rot (89.1 /- 0.8%) and brown-rot (91.5 +/- 2.8%) columns. Moreover, the white-rot soils leached 34% more native (old) Hg than the brown-rot soils. The greater leaching of native Hg is consistent with the higher DOC concentration in the white rot soil leachate (4.1 +/- 1.7 mg/L) compared to the brown-rot soil leachate (1.7 +/- 0.6 mg/L). The amount of native (old) Hg leached from the columns was roughly similar to the amount of spike (new) Hg that passed through the columns. We surmise that the greater DOC mobilized from the white- rot soils complexed and transported greater amounts of Hg from the large pool of native Hg in the soil. The relative amounts of spike Hg throughput and native Hg mobilization are consistent with other recent results from Hg isotope application to an entire hillside.

Shanley, J. B.; Lodge, D. J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Olson, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

2008-12-01

52

Hair Mercury Levels of Residents in China, Indonesia, and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used gold-amalgamation cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and ECD-gas chromatography to analyze total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair samples obtained from 362 residents in Harbin, China; Medan, Indonesia; and Tokushima, Japan. In this study, the authors initially questioned whether mercury levels in hair differed among different study areas, and if there were differences, they questioned the contributing factors.

Qiuyang Feng; Yasuo Suzuki; Akinori Hisashige

1998-01-01

53

Mercury  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury.

Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

1988-01-01

54

Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.  

PubMed

The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

2011-10-19

55

HIGH-CONTAMINATED SOIL WITH MERCURY IN BAY OF VLORA (ALBANIA) AND ITS POSSIBLE REMEDIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-contaminated soil with mercury in bay of Vlora (Albania) and its possible remediation. Most of mercury pollution was caused by Chlorine-alkali unit where mercury cathode was used for NaCl brine electrolyses and by PVC unit where HgCl2 was used as a catalyst for the C2H3Cl monomer synthesis. We evaluated the mercury pollution within a former PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plant area

Arjan BEQIRAJ; Alqi ÇULLAJ; Petrit KOTORRI

56

Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the soil gaseous mercury (Hg) reservoir is an important component of the soil Hg emission process, little is known of the behavior of gaseous Hg in soil pores and the processes governing the ultimate evasion of Hg from soil surfaces. In this study, gaseous Hg in background forest soil in the northeastern United States was examined during 2003 and

Jeffrey M. Sigler; Xuhui Lee

2006-01-01

57

Studies of Mercury in High Level Waste Systems  

SciTech Connect

During nuclear weapons production, nuclear reactor target and fuel rods were processed in F- and H-Canyons. For the target rods, a caustic dissolution of the aluminum cladding was performed prior to nitric acid dissolution of the uranium metal targets in the large canyon dissolvers. To dissolve the aluminum cladding and the U-Al fuel, mercury in the form of soluble mercury (II) nitrate was added as a catalyst to accelerate the dissolution of the aluminum. F-Canyon began to process plutonium-containing residues that were packaged in aluminum cans and thus required the use of mercury as a dissolution catalyst. Following processing to remove uranium and plutonium using the solvent extraction process termed the Plutonium-Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process, the acidic waste solutions containing fission products and other radionuclides were neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The mercury used in canyon processing is fractionated between the sludge and supernate that is transferred from the canyons to the tank farm. The sludge component of the waste is currently vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The vitrified waste canisters are to be sent to the federal repository for High Level Waste. The mercury in the sludge, presumably in an oxide or hydroxide form is reduced to elemental mercury by the chemical additions and high temperatures, steam stripped and collected in the Mercury Collection Tank. The mercury in the dilute supernate is in the form of mercuric ion and is soluble. During evaporation, the mercuric ion is reduced to elemental mercury, vaporizes into the overheads system and is collected as a metallic liquid in the Mercury Removal Tank.

Wilmarth, W.R.

2003-09-03

58

[Geochemical characteristics of radon and mercury in soil gas in Lhasa, Tibet, China].  

PubMed

The geochemical characteristics of radon and mercury in soil gas in Lhasa and vicinity are investigated based on the measurements of Rn and Hg concentrations, and environmental quality for Rn and Hg in soil gas was evaluated by means of the index of geoaccumulation. The data of Rn and Hg of 1 579 sampling site indicate that the values of environmental-geochemical background of Rn and Hg are 7 634.9 Bq/m3, 41.5 ng/m3 with standard deviations of 2.7 Bq/m3, 2.2 ng/m3, respectively. The environmental quality for Rn in soil gas is better in the west and east parts of studied area, but becomes moderate pollution (level III) in the north part of the central area. Rn is derived from radioactive elements in granitic sediments in the intermountain basin and granite base, which are the major sources of pollution. The environmental quality for Hg in soil gas becomes gradually polluted from the suburban to the center of urban, and the highest pollution reaches level IV. The background of Hg in soil gas is mainly controlled by compositions of sediments, but the Hg pollution caused by human waste and religionary use of mercury. PMID:17633651

Zhou, Xiao-Cheng; Du, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chuan-Yuan; Cao, Zhong-Quan; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei

2007-03-01

59

Absorption and accumulation characteristics of plants to soil mercury in Huainan mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to investigate the mercury belong to the secondary standard, according to GB15618-1995. concentration of the dominant plant species and their The mean contents of stem-leaf and root mercury ranged from corresponding soils, discuss the absorption and accumulation 0.029 to 0.271mg\\/kg and from 0.056 to 0.191mg\\/kg, respectively. characteristics of plants to soil mercury. It is

Duo-xi Yao; Zhi-guo Zhang; Jun Meng; Qing Yang

2011-01-01

60

Development and application of a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) for the investigation of the kinetics of mercury emissions from soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements at different locations suggest that the emission of mercury from soils may play a more pronounced role in the global mercury cycle as suggested by global emission inventories and global mercury cycling models. For up scaling and modelling of mercury emissions from soils a comprehensive assessment of the processes controlling the emission of mercury from soils is imperative.

Enno Bahlmann; Ralf Ebinghaus; Wolfgang Ruck

2006-01-01

61

Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.

2012-01-01

62

Increased blood mercury levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to dementia and death. In addition to several\\u000a genetic parameters, various environmental factors may influence the risk of getting AD. In order to test whether blood levels\\u000a of the heavy metal mercury are increased in AD, we measured blood mercury concentrations in AD patients (n = 33), and compared

C. Hock; G. Drasch; S. Golombowski; F. Müller-Spahn; B. Willershausen-Zönnchen; P. Schwarz; U. Hock; J. H. Growdon; R. M. Nitsch

1998-01-01

63

Mercury levels and liver pathology in feral fish living in the vicinity of a mercury cell chlor-alkali factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three barbels (Barbus graellsii), 30 bleaks (Alburnus alburnus) and 4 sediment samples were collected from four areas of the Cinca River (NE Spain), upstream and downstream of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. Mercury concentration in sediments downstream of the plant was about 25 times higher than the concentration upstream. Mercury levels in the muscle and liver of barbels downstream of

Demetrio Raldúa; Sergi Díez; Josep M. Bayona; Damià Barceló

2007-01-01

64

Mercury  

MedlinePLUS

... of the lungs Medication to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ... McGraw Hill; 2008:chap 365. Baum CR. Mercury: Heavy metals and inorganic agents. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

65

Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site  

SciTech Connect

As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

2012-11-30

66

Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

New findings on the environmental fate of Hg indicate that lakes can be contaminated by long distance transport on mercury vapor in the atmosphere and that higher levels of Me Hg in fish are associated with acidification of lakes and with the creation of hydroelectric reservoirs. Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the disposition and metabolism of

Thomes W. Clarkson

1989-01-01

67

Modeling the sensitivity of soil mercury storage to climate-induced changes in soil carbon pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial amounts of mercury (Hg) in the terrestrial environment reside in soils and are associated with soil organic carbon (C) pools, where they accumulated due to increased atmospheric deposition due to anthropogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to examine potential sensitivity of surface soil Hg pools to global change variables, particularly affected by predicted changes in soil C pools, in the contiguous US. To investigate, we included a soil Hg component in the Community Land Model based on empirical statistical relationships between soil Hg / C ratios and precipitation, latitude and clay; and subsequently explored the sensitivity of soil C and soil Hg densities (i.e. areal-mass) to climate scenarios in which we altered annual precipitation, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and temperature. Our model simulations showed that current sequestration of Hg in the contiguous US accounted for 15 230 metric tons of Hg in the top 0-40 cm of soils. In the simulations, these soil Hg pools were most sensitive to changes in precipitation because of strong effects on soil C pools plus a direct effect of precipitation on soil Hg / C ratios. Soil Hg pools were predicted to increase beyond present-day values following an increase in precipitation amounts and decrease following a reduction in precipitation. We found pronounced regional differences in sensitivity of soil Hg to precipitation, which were particularly high along high-precipitation areas along the West and East Coasts. Modeled increases in CO2 concentrations to 700 ppm stimulated soil C and Hg densities, while increased air temperatures had small negative effects on soil C and Hg. The combined effects of increased CO2, increased temperature, and increased or decreased precipitation were strongly governed by precipitation and CO2 showing pronounced regional patterns. Based on these results, we conclude that the combination of precipitation and CO2 should be emphasized when assessing how climate-induced changes in soil C may affect sequestration of Hg in soils.

Hararuk, O.; Obrist, D.; Luo, Y.

2012-08-01

68

Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an international Hg flux intercomparison at the Steamboat Springs, Nevada, geothermal area, several dynamic soil flux chambers and micrometeorological gradient systems were operated over desert soils in early September 1997. A series of unanticipated convective rain cells impacted the site with the first rainfall in ˜90 days, and the initial 4-cm rainfall increased soil moisture from ˜0.01 to 0.06% (vol/vol). Several chambers were operating prior to the events, and two were deployed over wet soils following rainfall. Rainfall resulted in an immediate and steep rise in ambient air Hg concentrations and soil Hg emissions which persisted for 12-24 hours. Fluxes increased most quickly and to a greater degree over the wettest soils, and the rate of increase was related to chamber design and flushing rate. The flux response was also apparent in the micrometeorological data. In general, soil emissions increased by an order of magnitude following the rain, and reached levels ˜6 times above those at the same time the previous day. These fluxes were significantly correlated with temperature, radiation, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture. After drying for ˜40 hours, selected soil plots were manually irrigated with low-Hg-distilled water. Mercury emissions responded similarly across the three treated sites, uniformly increasing from ˜60 ng m-2 h-1 pretreatment to ˜650 ng m-2 h-1 posttreatment, which was a factor of ˜6 higher than adjacent control soils. Possible causes of the increases in flux include soil gas displacement, desorption of Hg° by water molecules, and desorption of Hg(II) and subsequent reduction in solution. The kinetics of the flux response, combined with local soil and climatic conditions, suggest that Hg emissions were responding primarily to soil moisture and solar radiation. These data have interesting implications for the role of changing regional climates on biogeochemical cycling of Hg.

Lindberg, S. E.; Zhang, H.; Gustin, M.; Vette, A.; Marsik, F.; Owens, J.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, J.; Kock, H. H.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Poissant, L.; Pilote, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; WallschläGer, D.; Xiao, Z.

1999-09-01

69

Initial investigation of soil mercury geochemistry as an aid to drill site selection in geothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mercury-in-soil survey was conducted at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), Utah, to evaluate mercury soil geochemistry as a method of selecting exploration well sites in a hot-water geothermal system. Samples of -80 mesh soil were collected at 30.5 m intervals along traverses crossing known structures, surficial geothermal alteration, and exploration well sites, and were analyzed

R. M. Capuano; R. W. Bamford

1978-01-01

70

Mercury vapour levels in dental practices and body mercury levels of dentists and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim A study of 180 dentists in the West of Scotland was conducted to determine their exposure to mercury during the course of their work and the effects on their health and cognitive function.Design Data were obtained from questionnaires distributed to dentists and by visiting their surgeries to take measurements of environmental mercury.Methods Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire

K A Ritchie; W H Gilmour; E B Macdonald; I M Dale; R M Hamilton; D A McGowan; V Binnie; D Collington; R Hammersley; F J T Burke

2004-01-01

71

Mercury Deposition Through Litterfall and Subsequent Accumulation in Soils: Influence of Forest Community Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the influence of community type on mercury deposition to forest soils, more precisely to the Oi, Oe, Oa, and A soil horizons. Studies have estimated that roughly half the mercury deposition in forests occurs through litterfall. Because of the importance of litterfall in the mercury deposition process, the presence or absence of forest and the type of forest may have a large impact on the magnitude of the deposition fluxes and the accumulation in soils. Eighteen sites were sampled in 2008 and 2009, throughout Vermont. The sites were located in three distinct Northern Forest community types: Northern Hardwoods, Enriched Northern Hardwoods, and Lowland Spruce-Fir. This poster will present total mercury (THg) concentration in the upper soil horizons at nine sites sampled in 2008 (THg: 59-300 ng/g, n=100), as well as mercury concentration in leaves at five of these sites, for each major tree species present (THg: 23-104 ng/g, n=25). Results were consistent within soil horizons and within tree species. Total leaf mass at senescence was measured at these five sites and an estimate of total mercury mass per hectare deposited yearly through litterfall will be presented for each site. Research has shown that mercury in soils relates to the retention of organic carbon; mercury to carbon ratio has previously been suggested for assessing Hg mobility. Mercury to carbon ratios was calculated for each soil horizon sampled and will be compared. Earthworms are invasive in Vermont and may greatly influence the depth of organic horizons and thus have the potential to affect the ability of soils to act as sink for mercury. Earthworms were detected at some but not all of the sites sampled. The detection or non-detection of earthworms and the associated forest floor depth will be discussed.

Juillerat, J. I.; Ross, D. S.

2009-12-01

72

Mercury distribution and bioaccumulation up the soil-plant-grasshopper-spider food chain in Huludao City, China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate total mercury (THg) distribution and its bioaccumulation up the soil-plant-grasshopper-spider in the Huludao City, which is polluted seriously by chlor-alkali and zinc smelting industry in Northeast of China. Results indicated that average THg concentrations in soil, plant leaves, grasshopper Locusta migratoria manilensis and Acrida chinensis, and spider were 0.151, 0.119, 0.167 and 0.134 mg/kg, respectively. THg spatial distribution suggested that most of mercury came from the chlor-alkali plant and the two zinc smelteries. The highest mercury concentration was found in the wings among different grasshoppers' organs. Although spiders are the predatory, THg concentrations in their bodies were not high, and only on the same level as in grasshoppers, which might be due to spiders' special living habits. In the light of the mercury transportation at every stage of the soil-plant-grasshopper-spider food chain, the bioaccumulation factors were 0.03, 0.79-1.11 and 0.80-1.13 respectively. It suggested that mercury biomagnification up terrestrial food chains was not so large and obvious as it was in the aquatic food chain. PMID:21179955

Zhang, Zhongsheng; Wang, Qichao; Zheng, Dongmei; Zheng, Na; Lu, Xianguo

2010-01-01

73

Distribution and mobility of mercury in soils of a gold mining region, Cuyuni river basin, Venezuela.  

PubMed

An extensive and remote gold mining region located in the East of Venezuela has been studied with the aim of assessing the distribution and mobility of mercury in soil and the level of Hg pollution at artisanal gold mining sites. To do so, soils and pond sediments were sampled at sites not subject to anthropological influence, as well as in areas affected by gold mining activities. Total Hg in regionally distributed soils ranged between 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.40 mg kg(-1), with a median value of 0.11 mg kg(-1), which is slightly higher than soil Hg worldwide, possibly indicating long-term atmospheric input or more recent local atmospheric input, in addition to minor lithogenic sources. A reference Hg concentration of 0.33 mg kg(-1) is proposed for the detection of mining affected soils in this region. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the surrounding soils of pollutant sources, such as milling-amalgamation sites, where soil Hg contents ranged from 0.16 mg kg(-1) to 542 mg kg(-1) with an average of 26.89 mg kg(-1), which also showed high levels of elemental Hg, but quite low soluble+exchangeable Hg fraction (0.02-4.90 mg kg(-1)), suggesting low Hg soil mobility and bioavailability, as confirmed by soil column leaching tests. The vertical distribution of Hg through the soil profiles, as well as variations in soil Hg contents with distance from the pollution source, and Hg in pond mining sediments were also analysed. PMID:21215510

Santos-Francés, F; García-Sánchez, A; Alonso-Rojo, P; Contreras, F; Adams, M

2011-01-06

74

Thermodynamic and kinetic study of the single extraction of mercury from soil using sodium-thiosulfate.  

PubMed

The use of sodium-thiosulfate (Na-thiosulfate) as a reagent for the extraction of mercury (Hg) from soil was investigated. High organic matter content in soil plays a major role in retaining metals. It has previously been reported that using the cold vapour atomic absorption method, powerful reagents such as EDTA, DTPA and cysteine could not release Hg from soil samples. The optimal conditions for using Na-thiosulfate to extract soil-Hg are presented here. Our results show that 50±5% of total Hg was extracted from soil samples using 0.01molL(-1) of the reagent without pH adjustment. Increasing the reagent concentration above this level showed no significant change in Hg extraction. From this extraction three fractions of Hg were obtained, the labile, slowly labile and un-extractable. We further applied the use of a kinetic extraction approach that has never been applied for Hg. We observed a correlation between the first two fractions and the quantity of organic matter content in soils. The labile fraction could be released by using any concentration of the reagent. However, the slowly labile fraction was dependent on time and increased concentrations of Na-thiosulfate. Furthermore, our results suggest that the labile and slowly labile fractions involve two different sites of reduced sulphur groups contained in soil organic matter and Hg levels present in the soil samples did not appear high enough to saturate all these high affinity sulphur sites. The capacity of Na-thiosulfate to reduce (Hg(II)) to (Hg(0)), was determined to be negligible. Our results further suggest the implication of iron (Fe(II)) for reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0). Here we have demonstrated that Na-thiosulfate is an effective reagent in the extraction of Hg from soil, with the particular characteristic of its ability to remove strongly bound Hg from sulphur groups contained in soil organic matter. PMID:20875560

Issaro, N; Besancon, S; Bermond, A

2010-07-24

75

Selenium in soil inhibits mercury uptake and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

A great number of studies have confirmed that mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) antagonism is a widespread phenomenon in microorganisms, fish, poultry, humans, and other mammals. However, by comparison, little attention has been paid to plants. To investigate the influence of Se on the uptake and translocation of methylHg/inorganic Hg (MeHg/IHg) in the rice-soil system, we determined the levels of Se, IHg, and MeHg in different parts of rice plants (including the root, stem, leaf, husk, and grain (brown rice)) and corresponding soils of root zones collected from a Hg mined area, where Hg and Se co-occur due to historic Hg mining and retorting activities. The results showed that, in general, the Se levels were inversely related to the levels of both IHg and MeHg in the grains. In addition, a consistent reduction in translocation of both IHg and MeHg in the aerial shoots (i.e., the stem, leaf, husk, and grain) with increasing Se levels in the soils was observed. Furthermore, the Se levels were positively correlated with the IHg levels in the soils and the roots. These results suggest that Se may play an important role in limiting the bioaccessibility, absorption, and translocation/bioaccumulation of both IHg and MeHg in the aerial rice plant, which may be related to the formation of an Hg-Se insoluble complex in the rhizospheres and/or roots. PMID:22916794

Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Sapkota, Atindra; Meng, Bo; Yao, Heng; Qin, Haibo; Larssen, Thorjørn

2012-08-30

76

Mercury and trace element fractionation in Almaden soils by application of different sequential extraction procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative evaluation of the mercury distribution in a soil sample from Almaden (Spain) has been performed by applying three different sequential extraction procedures, namely, modified BCR (three steps in sequence), Di Giulio–Ryan (four steps in sequence), and a specific SEP developed at CIEMAT (six steps in sequence). There were important differences in the mercury extraction results obtained by the

D. M. Sánchez; A. J. Quejido; M. Fernández; C. Hernández; T. Schmid; R. Millán; M. González; M. Aldea; R. Martín; R. Morante

2005-01-01

77

Current hair mercury levels in Japanese: survey in five districts.  

PubMed

To understand the current Japanese hair mercury levels, we planned a survey of hair mercury among the general populations of different regions in Japan. The present paper, as the first report of the survey, summarized the results obtained in five districts, Minamata, Kumamoto, Tottori, Wakayama and Chiba. Hair samples were collected at beauty salons, barbershops and primary schools in each district with questionnaires on age, sex, amount and species of fish usually consumed, hair-dyed and artificial hair waving "permanent wave." The total mercury levels of 3686 hair samples collected were analyzed by an oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation method. The geometric mean of the total mercury concentration was significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 2.55 microg/g and 1.43 microg/g, respectively. The sex difference was also observed on hair samples without artificial waving, i.e., 2.64 microg/g and 1.64 microg/g, respectively. The geometric mean in each district varied from 2.23 to 4.79 microg/g for males and from 1.23 to 2.50 microg/g for females. The average hair mercury levels were highest in Chiba among the five districts both in males and females. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of the mercury level with age, sex, amount of daily fish consumption, tuna and bonito as usually consumed fish, artificial waving and Chiba as a residential area. In the laboratory experiment, we found that the treatment of hair samples with a lotion for artificial waving caused a 30%-reduction in the mercury content. Furthermore, longitudinal hair analysis showed a marked difference in the concentration between the hair root and the tip of the hair taken from artificially waved females; higher values were observed at the hair root. These results suggested that artificial waving significantly removes hair mercury and that hair analysis at the hair root should be necessary to estimate an accurate methylmercury exposure for waved persons. PMID:12703660

Yasutake, Akira; Matsumoto, Miyuki; Yamaguchi, Masako; Hachiya, Noriyuki

2003-03-01

78

Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals  

PubMed Central

Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n=515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06±1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49±0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5’), or both (SEPP1 3’UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption).

Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

2012-01-01

79

Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 105g?1 soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad

N. A. Sorkhoh; N. Ali; H. Al-Awadhi; N. Dashti; D. M. Al-Mailem; M. Eliyas; S. S. Radwan

2010-01-01

80

Binding and mobility of mercury in soils contaminated by emissions from chlor-alkali plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlor-alkali plants are known to be an important source of Hg emissions to the atmosphere and related contamination of soils in their vicinity. In the present study, the results of Hg speciation and mobility of Hg in soils affected by Hg emissions from three chlor-alkali plants are compared. Solid phase mercury speciation analyses was carried out using a mercury–thermo-desorption technique

H. Biester; G. Muller; H. F. Scholer

2002-01-01

81

A small dose of ethanol increases the exhalation of mercury in low-level-exposed humans.  

PubMed

Inorganic mercury is mainly eliminated by urinary and fecal excretion, but it is also eliminated by exhalation and sweat. There are only a few reports on exhalation of mercury in humans. In volunteers with short-term mercury exposure, an increased exhalation of mercury was found after alcohol intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury in end-exhaled air and the influence of ethanol on mercury exhalation in subjects with long-term mercury exposure from diet, amalgam fillings, or the work environment. Fourteen subjects, with different grades of mercury exposure, were given 0.2 g ethanol/kg body weight. Measurements of mercury in end-exhaled air were performed before and after alcohol intake. Mercury in end-exhaled air could be detected in all subjects. In 10 individuals without amalgam fillings the mercury concentration was 3 to 12 pg/L. A marked increase, in general about fivefold, in mercury concentrations in end-exhaled air was seen in all subjects 30 min after intake of alcohol, regardless of the level of mercury exposure. Higher ethanol doses resulted in higher mercury levels in end-exhaled air and longer time periods before a return to background levels. An increase was seen even after an ethanol dose of only 0.1 g ethanol/kg body weight (about 0.08 L wine). The decrease in exhaled mercury at higher alcohol doses followed approximately zero-order kinetics and probably reflects the elimination of ethanol in tissues. In conclusion, low levels of mercury can be detected in end-exhaled air also in individuals without amalgam fillings. About a fivefold increase was seen 30 min after alcohol intake, and the relative increase seemed to be independent of the body burden of mercury. Exhalation of mercury represents only a small percentage of the total elimination of mercury. PMID:10872631

Sällsten, G; Kreku, S; Unosson, H

2000-05-26

82

Modelling the sensitivity of soil mercury storage to climate-induced changes in soil carbon pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial amounts of mercury (Hg) in the terrestrial environment reside in soils and are associated with soil organic carbon (C) pools, where they accumulated due to increased atmospheric deposition resulting from anthropogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to examine potential sensitivity of surface soil Hg pools to global change variables, particularly affected by predicted changes in soil C pools, in the contiguous US. To investigate, we included a soil Hg component in the Community Land Model based on empirical statistical relationships between soil Hg / C ratios and precipitation, latitude, and clay; and subsequently explored the sensitivity of soil C and soil Hg densities (i.e., areal-mass) to climate scenarios in which we altered annual precipitation, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperature. Our model simulations showed that current sequestration of Hg in the contiguous US accounted for 15 230 metric tons of Hg in the top 0-40 cm of soils, or for over 300 000 metric tons when extrapolated globally. In the simulations, US soil Hg pools were most sensitive to changes in precipitation because of strong effects on soil C pools, plus a direct effect of precipitation on soil Hg / C ratios. Soil Hg pools were predicted to increase beyond present-day values following an increase in precipitation amounts and decrease following a reduction in precipitation. We found pronounced regional differences in sensitivity of soil Hg to precipitation, which were particularly high along high-precipitation areas along the West and East Coasts. Modelled increases in CO2 concentrations to 700 ppm stimulated soil C and Hg accrual, while increased air temperatures had small negative effects on soil C and Hg densities. The combined effects of increased CO2, increased temperature and increased or decreased precipitation were strongly governed by precipitation and CO2 showing pronounced regional patterns. Based on these results, we conclude that the combination of precipitation and CO2 should be emphasised when assessing how climate-induced changes in soil C may affect sequestration of Hg in soils.

Hararuk, O.; Obrist, D.; Luo, Y.

2013-04-01

83

Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America.  

PubMed

Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 ?g g(-1). Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine areas are explained by atmospheric transportation of mercury with the northeastern trade winds followed by wet deposition. Contrary to gold mining areas, where mercury is bound to drifting sediments, in "pristine" areas the mercury is freely available for bio-accumulation and uptake. Impacts on piscivorous reptiles, birds, and mammals are unknown, but likely to be negative. PMID:22669686

Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn A; Quik, Jan H M; Mol, Jan H A; van der Lugt, Frank

2012-06-06

84

The use of soil mercury and radon gas surveys to assist the detection of concealed faults in Fuzhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil gas approaches have been proven useful for detecting buried faults in field survey. How about their applicability in urban area? A trial soil gas survey has been conducted in an attempt to evaluate this in Fuzhou City, Southeastern China. The detection was performed by measuring the adsorbed mercury, free mercury and radon gases in soil in the sites such

Guangcai Wang; Chenglong Liu; Jihua Wang; Wuzhou Liu; Peiren Zhang

2006-01-01

85

Effect of root metabolism on the post-depositional mobilization of mercury in salt marsh soils  

SciTech Connect

Salt marsh soils are an efficient sink for trace metals associated with particulate material in tidal waters and have been proposed as monitors for trace metal contamination in coastal areas, on the basis that vertical profiles provide a record of loading rates. However, the complex nature of the biogeochemical processes occurring in these soils, may prevent this use, since post-depositional mobilization of some trace metals may occur, resulting in their release to pore water, vertical movement through the soil column and exchange with overlying waters. This paper presents and compares the vertical profiles of mercury in soil cores taken under a Spartina altermilflora marsh and in adjacent mod flats without plant cover to characterize the role played by this plant on the post-depositional movement of mercury through the soil and on the possibility of using such profiles as indicators of mercury loading rates in coastal areas. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Marins, R.V. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil)]|[Mineral Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lacerda, L.D. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil); Goncalves, G.O.; Paiva, E.C. de [Mineral Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1997-05-01

86

Total mercury concentrations in an industrialized catchment, the Thur River basin (north-eastern France): geochemical background level and contamination factors.  

PubMed

River bottom sediments and soils were collected from the industrialized Thur River basin (north-eastern France) to assess mercury contamination. The regional geochemical background level of total mercury was evaluated to calculate mercury contamination factors (Fc) in soils and river bottom sediments. Our estimate of the mean background mercury levels in river sediments and soils, not affected by human activities, was 232 ng x g(-1) (range: 27-406 ng x g(-1)). Sediments contaminated by the effluent from a chlor-alkali plant yielded the highest contamination factors (Fc=1784). Contamination factors of surficial soils within 1 km of the industrial site range from 6.3 to 43.6. This contamination is attributed to diffuse atmospheric deposition from this local plant. However, even upstream from this industrial area elevated contamination factors were recorded for river bottom sediments (Fc=3.2 to 26.4) and for one alluvial soil profile (Fc=10). This is possibly due to past pollution resulting from waste water discharges. Mercury contamination in the different horizons of alluvial soils is not correlated with soil organic carbon content, but may be the result of occasional accidental pollution arising from the introduction of contaminated suspended particulate matter by the Thur River during periods of flooding. PMID:12738301

Rémy, S; Prudent, P; Hissler, C; Probst, J L; Krempp, G

2003-07-01

87

REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

2004-09-25

88

Factors influencing total mercury levels among Lebanese dentists.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study is to examine the various factors, which contribute to high levels of mercury (Hg) in the hair of Lebanese dentists. The survey, which was carried out on ninety-nine dentists in the greater Beirut area, included a structured questionnaire designed to provide information about the parameters that influenced their occupational exposure to Hg. These included: precautionary measures, dental fillings, work habits and lifestyle of the tested dentists. The study showed that two of the four investigated precautionary measures had a significant effect on Hg level. The results revealed that, at the 95% confidence levels, Hg concentration in hair was significantly lower among the dentists who always used gloves and masks. Multiple regression analysis showed that the use of masks (P = 0.055) had significant effects on mercury accumulation in hair. In addition, dentists who saw more than eight patients per day had marginally higher mercury levels in their hair than those who did not. Since it was shown that precautionary measures could limit exposure to Hg concentration, then the use of protective measures needs to be emphasized. PMID:12389787

Harakeh, Steve; Sabra, Nada; Kassak, Kassem; Doughan, Bassel

2002-10-01

89

Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7mg\\/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these

Cecilia Johnsson; Gerd Sallsten; Andrejs Schutz; Anna Sjors; Lars Barregarda

90

Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7?g\\/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these

Cecilia Johnsson; Gerd Sällsten; Andrejs Schütz; Anna Sjörs; Lars Barregård

2004-01-01

91

Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is a toxic element found throughout the environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury in soils are quite hazardous to plants growing in these soils and also the runoff of soils to nearby water bodies contaminates the water, endangering the flora and fauna of that region. This makes continuous monitoring of mercury very essential. This work compares two potential spectroscopic methods (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS)) at their optimum experimental conditions for mercury monitoring. For LIBS, pellets were prepared from soil samples of known concentration for generating a calibration curve while for SIBS, soil samples of known concentration were used in the powder form. The limits of detection (LODs) of Hg in soil were calculated from the Hg calibration curves. The LOD for mercury in soil calculated using LIBS and SIBS is 483 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. The detection range for LIBS and SIBS is discussed.

Srungaram, Pavan K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Singh, Jagdish P.

2013-09-01

92

Mercury mobilization in soil from a rainfall event in a Tropical forest (French Guyana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) distribution was achieved in a pristine Amazonian forested area during a rainfall event along a basin thalweg. Hg concentrations were measured in both surface runoff and underground waters and soils. Total Hg concentrations in the particulate and dissolved phase were related to the main hydrological processes in order to trace the fate of mercury during the flood event. Rainfall waters were also collected to assess the amount of Hg from atmospheric deposition and foliage leaching. Total Hg concentrations were found relatively homogenous over thé basin and were typical of remote area (9 ng l^{-1}). In addition, air samples collected at the same site, at the ground level and at different heights (1-40m), which allowed us to determine temporal and spatial variability of total gaseous atmospheric Hg. Finally, dynamic flux chambers experiments were carried out to directly determine the exchanges of gaseous Hg at the soil/atmosphere interface, in order to better understand the role of the atmospheric compartment within the forest ecosystem.

Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Grimaldi, M.; Stoichev, T.; Grimaldi, C.; Dutin, G.; Donard, O. F. X.

2003-05-01

93

Mercury levels in the Cree population of James Bay, Quebec, from 1988 to 1993/94  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: High levels of mercury in the Cree population of James Bay, Que., have been a cause of concern for several years. This study examines changes in mercury levels within the Cree population between 1988 and 1993/94 and identifies potential determinants of high mercury levels. METHODS: Data on mercury levels among the Cree were obtained through a surveillance program undertaken by the Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay. In 1988 and again in 1993/94 surveys were carried out in all 9 Cree communities of northern Quebec. Hair samples were obtained and analysed for mercury content. Analyses were carried out to determine the proportion of people who had mercury levels in excess of established norms. Changes in mercury levels between 1988 and 1993/94 and determinants of high levels were estimated by means of regression methods. RESULTS: The proportion of the Cree population with mercury levels in excess of 15.0 mg/kg declined from 14.2% in 1988 to 2.7% in 1993/94. Wide variations in mercury levels were observed between communities: 0.6% and 8.3% of the Eastmain and Whapmagoostui communities respectively had mercury levels of 15.0 mg/kg or greater in 1993/94. Logistic regression analyses showed that significantly higher levels of mercury were independently associated with male sex, increasing age and trapper status. There was a correlation between the mercury level of the head of the household and that of the spouse. INTERPRETATION: Mercury levels in the Cree of James Bay have decreased in the recent past. Nevertheless, this decrease in mercury levels may not be permanent and does not necessarily imply that the issue is definitively resolved.

Dumont, C; Girard, M; Bellavance, F; Noel, F

1998-01-01

94

Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were

Marcelo D. Almeida; Luiz D. Lacerda; Wanderley R. Bastos; João Carlos Herrmann

2005-01-01

95

Mercury and arsenic pollution in soil and biological samples around the mining town of Obuasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of soils, plantain (Musa paradisiaca), water fern (Ceratopteris cornuta), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mud fish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) were collected from Obuasi and its environs, which is the most active gold mining town in Ghana. The distribution of mercury and arsenic in these samples from fourteen sampling sites was determined. The annual average surficial soil concentrations

E. H. Amonoo-Neizer; David Nyamah; S. B. Bakiamoh

1996-01-01

96

Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ngg(-1) at the soil surface to 150 ngg(-1) at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ngg(-1) at the topsoil to 135 ngg(-1) at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mgm(-2) to 18.5 mgm(-2), for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. PMID:15885862

Almeida, Marcelo D; Lacerda, Luiz D; Bastos, Wanderley R; Herrmann, João Carlos

2005-09-01

97

Mercury  

MedlinePLUS

... Releases and Spills Fish Consumption Advisories Consumer Products Mercury News December 2012. EPA Finalizes Clean Air Standards ... if one is requested. Learn more Ban on Mercury Exports will begin January 1, 2013 By federal ...

98

Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph shows mosaic images of Mercury, captured by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. The images are accompanied by a brief description and history, some statistical facts, and a list of significant dates in the exploration of Mercury.

99

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure  

SciTech Connect

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: abkobal@volja.net; Prezelj, Marija [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krsnik, Mladen [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gibicar, Darija [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Osredkar, Josko [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

100

Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury may provide answers to questions regarding the formation and evolution of our Solar System. This article reviews what\\u000a is known about Mercury from the Mariner 10 flybys of 1974 and 1975 and from thirty years of ground-based telescopic observations\\u000a with ever improving instrumentation. Many new discoveries, such as possible water ice at Mercury’s polar regions, make the\\u000a anticipation of

Robert G. Strom; Ann L. Sprague

101

Human hair mercury levels in Tucuruí area, State of Pará, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental mercury contamination at the Tucuruí water reservoir was studied by measuring the amount of mercury in human hair samples collected from fishermen and their families. Samples were also collected from the Parakanã Indian reservation in the vicinity to give information about the background levels in the area. The mercury concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.9 to 240

Tuija Leino; Martin Lodenius

1995-01-01

102

Hair mercury levels, fish consumption, and cognitive development in preschool children from Granada, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main source of human exposure to mercury is the consumption of fish contaminated with methylmercury, which may adversely affect early neurodevelopment. This study assessed mercury levels in hair of preschoolers in Spain, where fish consumption is elevated, with the aim of investigating the influence of their fish intake and other factors on mercury exposure, and evaluating their association with

Carmen Freire; Rosa Ramos; Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Sergi Díez; Jesús Vioque; Ferrán Ballester; Mariana-Fátima Fernández

2010-01-01

103

Gaseous mercury emissions from subtropical forested and open field soils in a national nature reserve, southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total gaseous mercury flux measurements of forested and open field soils in the subtropical forest zones, in Chongqing, Southwestern China were monitored from April 2011 to March 2012 to provide insight into the characteristics of gaseous mercury flux with and without vegetation covers. Samples were collected from surfaces of forest and open field as the most representative terrestrial surfaces in Jinyun Mountain. Simultaneously meteorological parameters at the soil level relating GEM fluxes to soil temperature, air humidity, solar radiation were analyzed and variations of atmospheric GEM concentration were examined. The results showed that annual averaged fluxes from soil in the forest and open-air site were 14.23 ng m2 h-1 and 20.74 ng m2 h-1 respectively, with a clear seasonal variation for each surface. The soil surface displayed the largest difference between evening and daytime flux, particularly in spring and summer in open field surface (i.e., with low flux in evening (1.93 ng m2 h-1) to high flux in daytime (97.86 ng m2 h-1) in summer). GEM fluxes in the open-air site were positively correlated with solar irradiation and soil temperature, and inversely correlated with air humidity. In the forest site, GEM fluxes showed weaker correlation with meteorological variables. Based on the whole year experiments and field tests, it can be found that in some season (especially fall), the mercury emission fluxes were more highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. The regression results demonstrated that each surface displayed similar responses to time series change in meteorological parameters. A comparison between one year periods in the two sites showed much larger emission from the open field with forest conversion to bare soil.

Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Sun, Rongguo; Shen, Yuanyuan; Huang, Lixing

2013-01-01

104

Mercury and Methylmercury in Upland and Wetland Acid Forest Soils of a Watershed in NE-Bavaria, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are global pollutants, but little information is available on their distribution and mobility in soils and catchments of Central Europe. The objective of this study was to investigate the pools and mobility of Hg and CH3Hg+ in different forest soils. Upland and wetland forest soils, soil solutions and runoff were sampled. In upland soils the

D. Schwesig; G. Ilgen; E. Matzner

1999-01-01

105

Potential cultivation of Hordeum vulgare L. in soils with high mercury background concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work was carried out under close-to-real conditions to study mercury uptake by Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in lysimeter experiments. The soil in the lysimeter experiment was obtained from a test plot located near Almadén (Spain) and had a mean mercury content of 22.9 mg kg. A sequence of four crops was sown starting in autumn 2000 and repeated on

M. J. Sierra; R. Millán; A. I. Cardona; T. Schmid

2011-01-01

106

Potential Cultivation of Hordeum Vulgare L. in Soils With High Mercury Background Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work was carried out under close-to-real conditions to study mercury uptake by Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in lysimeter experiments. The soil in the lysimeter experiment was obtained from a test plot located near Almadén (Spain) and had a mean mercury content of 22.9 mg kg. A sequence of four crops was sown starting in autumn 2000 and repeated on

M. J. Sierra; R. Millán; A. I. Cardona; T. Schmid

2011-01-01

107

A chromosomally based luminescent bioassay for mercury detection in red soil of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A luminescent reporter gene system was constructed by fusing the mercury-inducible promoter, P\\u000a \\u000a merT\\u000a , and its regulatory gene, merR, with a promoterless reporter gene EGFP. A stable and nonantibiotic whole-cell reporter (BMB-ME) was created by introducing\\u000a the system cassette into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida strain and then applied it for mercury detection in the red soil of China.

He Wei; Han Cheng; Mao Ting; Zhong Wen-Hui; Lin Xian-Gui

2010-01-01

108

Environmental contamination and risk assessment of mercury from a historic mercury mine located in southwestern China.  

PubMed

A field survey of mercury pollution in environmental media and human hair samples obtained from residents living in the area surrounding the Chatian mercury mine (CMM) of southwestern China was conducted to evaluate the health risks of mercury to local residents. The results showed that mine waste, and tailings in particular, contained high levels of mercury and that the maximum mercury concentration was 88.50 ?g g(-1). Elevated mercury levels were also found in local surface water, paddy soil, and paddy grain, which may cause severe health problems. The mercury concentration of hair samples from the inhabitants of the CMM exceeded 1.0 ?g g(-1), which is the limit recommended by the US EPA. Mercury concentrations in paddy soil were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in paddy roots, stalks, and paddy grains, which suggested that paddy soil was the major source of mercury in paddy plant tissue. The average daily dose (ADD) of mercury for local adults and preschool children via oral exposure reached 0.241 and 0.624 ?g kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively, which is approaching or exceeds the provisional tolerable daily intake. Among the three oral exposure routes, the greatest contributor to the ADD of mercury was the ingestion of rice grain. Open-stacked mine tailings have resulted in heavy mercury contamination in the surrounding soil, and the depth of appreciable soil mercury concentrations exceeded 100 cm. PMID:22722913

Li, Yonghua

2012-06-22

109

ASSESSING MERCURY LEVELS IN THE WASTEWATER OF AN AGING RESEARCH LABORATORY BUILDING  

PubMed Central

Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations.

Ragan, Gregory A.; Gregory Alvord, W.

2007-01-01

110

An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

1989-04-01

111

[Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].  

PubMed

In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features of daily change of mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere have been formed. PMID:23243844

Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

2012-09-01

112

Mercury speciation and effects on soil microbial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study Hg toxicity on soil microbes and their activities, it is necessary to understand its various forms in soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate Hg speciation in four soil types spiked with Hg (300 mg kg soil) and its effects on soil microbial respiration and enzymes (amidohydrolases and phosphatase) activities. An assessment of the chemical forms,

Irenus A. Tazisong; Zachary N. Senwo; Miranda I. Williams

2012-01-01

113

Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. PMID:23651778

Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

2013-05-05

114

The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption.

Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

2006-01-01

115

Mercury and Selenium in Fish from the Savannah River: Species, Trophic Level, and Locational Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We

Joanna Burger; Karen F. Gaines; C. Shane Boring; Warren L. Stephens; Joel Snodgrass; Michael Gochfeld

2001-01-01

116

Mercury levels in dental students and faculty measured by neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Samples of head hair, fingernails, and toenails were taken from 61 dental students and faculty members. The mercury levels were analyzed using a simple neutron activation analysis technique which proved to be easily applicable to large numbers. Significant results were found for the head hair and fingernail groups. There may be a correlation between the higher mercury levels and increased pressure of work, which might result in decreased standards of mercury hygiene. PMID:6928964

Sinclair, P M; Turner, P R; Johns, R B

1980-05-01

117

Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: implications for population health risk.  

PubMed

Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. PMID:16752202

Diawara, Moussa M; Litt, Jill S; Unis, Dave; Alfonso, Nicholas; Martinez, Leeanne; Crock, James G; Smith, David B; Carsella, James

2006-06-04

118

Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks that were fed the diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury reproduced as well as controls, and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury grew faster in the first week of life than did controls....The greatest harm to reproduction associated with the diet containing 3 ppm mercury was an increase in duckling mortality, but reduced egg laying and increased embryonic mortality also occurred....During the peak of egg laying, eggs laid by controls tended to be heavier than eggs laid by ducks fed either level of mercury; however, there seemed to be no eggshell thinning associated with mercury treatment. Levels of mercury reached about 1 ppm in eggs from ducks fed a dietary dosage of 0.5 ppm mercury and between 6 and 9 ppm in the eggs from ducks fed 3 ppm mercury.

Heinz, G.

1974-01-01

119

The Effect of Wildfire on Soil Mercury Concentrations in Southern California Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) stored in vegetation and soils is known to be released to the atmosphere during wildfires, increasing atmospheric\\u000a stores and altering terrestrial budgets. Increased erosion and transport of sediments is well-documented in burned watersheds,\\u000a both immediately post-fire and as the watershed recovers; however, understanding post-fire mobilization of soil Hg within\\u000a burned watersheds remains elusive. The goal of the current

Megan P. Burke; Terri S. Hogue; Marcia Ferreira; Carolina B. Mendez; Bridget Navarro; Sonya Lopez; Jennifer A. Jay

2010-01-01

120

MERCURY IN MUSHROOMS AND SOIL OF THE TARNOBRZESKA PLAIN, SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury was quantified in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from the Tarnobrzeska Plain in south-eastern part of Poland in 1995. In total, 405 samples each of caps, stalks or whole fruiting bodies and 221 samples of soil (0–10 cm layer) were examined. The area under investigation can be considered generally as unpolluted

Jerzy Falandysz

2002-01-01

121

Mercury in Red Aspen Boletes (Leccinum aurantiacum) mushrooms and the soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication reports data on the mercury contents of Red Aspen Boletes (Leccinum aurantiacum) mushrooms and the forest soils substrate layer (0–10 cm) underneath the fruit bodies collected from nine spatially distant sites across Poland. Total Hg concentration in soil substrate in seven of the nine sites studied varied from 0.0078 ± 0.0012 to 0.028 ± 0.007 ?g\\/g dry weight (dw) and

Jerzy Falandysz; Izabela Kowalewska; Innocent C. Nnorom; Ma?gorzata Drewnowska; Gra?yna Jarzy?ska

2012-01-01

122

An evaluation of mercury levels in Louisiana fish: trends and public health issues.  

PubMed

To characterize statewide fish tissue mercury levels in edible finfish the first comprehensive analysis of Louisiana's fish tissue mercury database was conducted. Analyses were based on fifteen years of fish tissue mercury data collected from 368 waterbodies between 1994 and 2008 (n=14,344). The overall objectives of this study were to establish baseline fish tissue mercury levels; and evaluate species-specific temporal and spatial trends in fish tissue mercury levels. Fish tissue mercury levels ranged from 0.001 ppm (the detection limit) to 5.904 ppm for king mackerel; with an overall geometric mean of 0.218 ppm. Ninety-five percent of samples had mercury levels below the FDA's action level of 1.0 ppm for methylmercury in commercial food. Forty-four percent of all samples had mercury levels above the U.S. EPA's methylmercury fish tissue criterion of 0.3 ppm for sportfish. Species of potential concern include cobia, king mackerel, blackfin tuna, greater amberjack, spotted bass, bowfin, largemouth bass and freshwater drum. There was a significant but small decline in statewide length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels between 1994-1999 to 2003-2008 (p<0.05). The highest fish mercury levels were observed in Pearl, Calcasieu, Mermentau, Ouachita, Pontchartrain and Sabine basins. Length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels were significantly higher in wetlands and rivers/streams vs. lakes; and in wetlands vs. estuaries (p<0.05). Data were analyzed from a public health perspective to make recommendations for optimizing monitoring and outreach. PMID:20855108

Katner, Adrienne; Sun, Mei-Hung; Suffet, Mel

2010-09-19

123

SEVERAL MECHANISMS OF MERCURY RESISTANCE FOUND IN SOIL ISOLATES FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Abdrashitova, Svetlava A., M.A. Ilyushchenko, A. Yu Kalmykv, S.A. Aitkeldieva, Wendy J. Davis-Hoover and Richard Devereux. In press. Several Mechanisms of Mercury Resistance Found in Soil Isolates from Pavlodar, Kazakhstan (Abstract). To be presented at the Battelle Conference on...

124

Latent Effect of Soil Organic Matter Oxidation on Mercury Cycling within a Southern Boreal Ecosystem  

EPA Science Inventory

The focus of this study is to investigate processes causing the observed spatial variation of total mercury (THg) in the soil O horizon of watersheds within the Superior National Forest (Minnesota) and to determine if results have implications toward understanding long-term chang...

125

Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

126

Field Demonstration Quality Assurance Project Plan: Field Analysis of Mercury in Soil and Sediment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Demonstration of innovative field devices for the measurement of mercury in soil and sediment is being conducted under the EPA's SITE Program in February 2003 at the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oa...

J. Nicklas J. Evans

2003-01-01

127

Fish mercury levels in relation to characteristics of hydroelectric reservoirs in Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury levels in fish have been demonstrated to increase after impoundment with augmented levels of mercury predicted to decline as the reservoir ages. Previous research in Newfoundland predicted return rates in the order of 10 to 12 years for landlocked Atlantic salmon or ouananiche (Salmo salar) and 7 years for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). In order to test the validity

K. J. French; M. R. Anderson; D. A. Scruton; L. J. Ledrew

1998-01-01

128

Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report  

SciTech Connect

Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.

Looney, B.B.

2000-08-18

129

Mercury pollution in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon Mercury level of head hair and health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing concern about the potential neurotoxic effects of exposure to methylmercury for the 6 million people living in the Amazon, even in regions situated far away from the gold mines (garimpos), considered to be the major source of mercury pollution. In November 1998, a spot investigation on mercury contamination was conducted in three fishing villages (Barreiras, Rainha, and

Masazumi Haradaa; Maria da Conceicao; N. Pinheiroc; Hideki Ohnod

130

Transport and transformation of mercury through soils from contrasting watersheds: Implications for resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watersheds exert a strong influence on Hg cycling, and several studies have shown that characteristics such as soil type, glacial deposits, land use, and land cover control the fate and transport of Hg. Our ongoing research on several Northern Temperate rivers, suggest that more complex influences govern the formation, transport and partitioning of MeHg than previously understood. For instance, forested systems have been considered net sinks for MeHg, mainly delivered via direct atmospheric precipitation. However, forested systems can be a net source of MeHg if both subsurface deposits are highly conductive and proper redox conditions exist, or if discharge to a receiving stream passes through a microbially active hyporheic zone. Particle and colloidal partitioning of MeHg strongly influences bioavailability, and is dependent on surficial deposit types, dissolved organic carbon composition, and the susceptibility of the watershed to erosion. Similarly, inputs to watersheds are predicted to be highly dependent on atmospheric speciation and partitioning of Hg. In the Mercury Experiment To Assess Atmospheric Loading In Canada and the United States (METAALICUS), newly deposited Hg is differentiated from the standing pool using stable isotope amendments. The results will provide the first direct evidence of a watershed response to changing atmospheric inputs of mercury, and will inform pending controls on mercury emissions. Newly deposited mercury is initially retained on the watershed, and subsequent release is dependant on aging and complex soil-solute interactions. Mercury fate assessment models and management scenarios should incorporate these diverse watershed processes.

Babiarz, C. L.; Hurley, J. P.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stoor, R.; Manolopoulos, H.; Meyer, M.; Shafer, M.

2004-12-01

131

Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken.\\u000a Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated\\u000a through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning\\u000a levels of mercury

Aristeo Renzoni

1992-01-01

132

A Prospective Clinical Study on Blood Mercury Levels Following Endodontic Root-end Surgery with Amalgam  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the blood mercury levels before and after endodontic surgery using amalgam as a root-end filling material. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients requiring periradicular surgery participated in this prospective clinical study. A zinc-free amalgam was employed as root-end filling material. Blood samples were collected at three intervals: immediately before, immediately after and one week postoperatively. Mercury content of the blood was determined using gold amalgamation cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Obtained data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired t-test. Results The mean (SD) of blood mercury levels was 2.20 (0.24) ng/mL immediately before surgery, 2.24 (0.28) ng/mL immediately after surgery and 2.44 (0.17) ng/mL one week after the periradicular surgery. The blood mercury level one week post-operative was significantly higher than both blood mercury levels immediately before (P<0.001) and immediately after (P=0.005) the surgery. Conclusion Placement of an amalgam retroseal during endodontic surgery can increase blood mercury levels after one week. The mercury levels however, are still lower than the toxic mercury levels. We suggest using more suitable and biocompatible root-end filling materials.

Saatchi, Masoud; Shadmehr, Elham; Talebi, Seyed Morteza; Nazeri, Mohsen

2013-01-01

133

Mercury Release from Soils and Sediments in the Sacramento River Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury released into water from soils and sediments contaminated by cinnabar (HgS) and gold mining is a major environmental concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. To better understand the conditions resulting in Hg solubilization from these contaminated materials, six soil and sediment samples from the Coastal Range and the Sierra Nevada were subject to batch leaching experiments under varying conditions. Sequential extraction analyses of the soils and sediments indicated that most of the mercury was present as (1) Hg as HgS in samples affected by HgS mining, which occurred in the Coastal Range, (2) Hg bound to metal oxides in a background serpentine soil from the Coastal Range, (3) Hg bound to sediment organic matter in lake sediments from Camp Far West Reservoir, and (4) elemental Hg in a sluice sediment from Starr Tunnel. The effects of pH, ionic strength, inorganic ions (chloride, calcium), simple organic ligands (mercaptoacetic acid, salicylic acid, EDTA), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the release of Hg were investigated. Leaching experiments confirmed that the water-soluble fraction was small (9 to 350 ng/L) compared to the amounts of Hg associated with the solid samples (1 to 36 ?g/g total mercury); however, these concentrations would be sufficient to result in increased methylation by sulfate-reducing bacteria in wetland systems. An increase in mercury release was observed with (1) increasing pH due to solubilization of soil organic matter, (2) decreasing ionic strength due to colloid stabilization, and (3) increasing chloride concentration due to the formation of complexes with mercury. The presence of calcium strongly inhibited mercury release. Among the organic ligands, mercaptoacetic acid, which binds Hg very strongly, was the most effective at solubilizing Hg. DOM, in the form of organic matter isolates, was also very effective at solubilizing Hg for all samples except the lake sediment sample, with the most aromatic organic matter isolates being the most reactive. The results of this study indicate that DOM is very important in the mobilization of Hg from soils and sediments and will influence the dissolution, mobilization, and bioavailability of mercury in wetlands associated with the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta area.

Suess, E.; Aiken, G. R.; Ryan, J. N.; Gasper, J. D.

2007-12-01

134

LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE REMEDIATION OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury, in contrast to other toxic metals, cycles between the atmosphere, land, and water. During this cycle, it undergoes a series of complex chemical and physical transformations. Because of these transformations, it is found in the environment not only as simple inorganic and...

135

Effect of teeth amalgam on mercury levels in the colostrums human milk in Lenjan.  

PubMed

Human milk is usually the only source of food for infants during the first 4 to 5 months of their life. Maternal environmental mercury exposure is directly related to fish consumption or amalgam filling. In this research, 38 human milk samples were collected from mothers of Lenjan area who were not occupationally exposed with mercury. Mercury concentration in human milk was determined by AMA254 Mercury Analyzer. A level of mercury was examined in relation to somatometric, demographic and dental amalgam parameters. Obtained results showed that only dental amalgam significantly increased the mercury level in human milk (p?< 0.001). The mean mercury concentrations in milk of mothers without teeth fillings (n?= 13), with one to three teeth fillings (n?= 10), and four to eight teeth fillings (n?= 15) were 2.87, 5.47, and 13.33 ?g/l, respectively. The result of this study also showed a positive correlation of mercury milk levels with the number of teeth fillings of the mother (p?< 0.05, r?= 0.755). The estimated weekly intake of mercury of a breastfed infant in this study was, in some cases, higher than provisional tolerance weekly intake recommended by FAO/WHO, which pose a threat to their health. PMID:21494835

Norouzi, Elaheh; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-04-15

136

Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

2004-03-31

137

Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

1998-02-01

138

Sequential analysis of hair mercury levels in relation to fish diet of an Amazonian population, Brazil.  

PubMed

Several studies in the Amazonian Basin have shown that riverine populations are exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption. It has been suggested that seasonal variations in hair mercury observed through sequential analyses may be related to the changes in fish species ingested by the local communities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between fish-eating practices and seasonal variation in mercury exposure. A group of 36 women from a village located on the banks of the Tapajós River, a major tributary of the Amazon, comprised the present study population. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic characteristics, fish-eating practices and other relevant information. The women also provided hair samples of at least 24 cm in length for mercury analysis. Hair total and inorganic mercury concentration was measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption analytical method. Trigonometric regression analysis was done to assess the seasonal variation of total mercury levels. Variations in inorganic mercury were examined by repeated measures analysis of variance, and analysis of contrast variable with a polynomial transformation. The results showed that hair mercury levels varied with the season. Higher levels were observed in months corresponding to the dry season, with lower levels in the rainy season. Herbivorous fish predominated the diet for 47.2% of the women during the dry season, but this rose to 72.2% during the rainy season. Those who reported eating fish daily had higher mercury levels in hair compared to those who only ate fish a few times per week. Retrospective mercury analyses, evaluated by the quantity of mercury present in each centimeter of hair, indicate that mean mercury level of the population decreased over the 2 years prior to the study. The percentage of inorganic mercury over the total mercury in hair increased towards the extremities of the hair strand. Higher percentages of inorganic mercury were found for the group who ate more fish (on a daily consumption basis). These results support the assumption that there are seasonal variations in methylmercury exposure and also a relationship between type of fish species consumed and the resulting hair mercury levels. PMID:11346043

Dolbec, J; Mergler, D; Larribe, F; Roulet, M; Lebel, J; Lucotte, M

2001-04-23

139

Mercury and selenium in fish from the Savannah river: species, trophic level, and locational differences.  

PubMed

Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: upstream, along, and downstream the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear material production facility. We test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue as a function of species, trophic level, and location along the river. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury levels, with bowfin (Amia calva) having the highest levels, followed by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pickerel (Esox niger). Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) had the lowest levels of mercury. As expected, these differences generally reflected trophic levels. There were few significant locational differences in mercury levels, and existing differences were not great, presumably reflecting local movements of fish between the sites examined. Selenium and mercury concentrations were positively correlated only for bass, perch (Perca flavescens), and red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Mercury levels were positively correlated with body mass of the fish for all species except American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus). The mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue from the Savannah River are similar to or lower than those reported in many other studies, and in most cases pose little risk to the fish themselves or to other aquatic consumers, although levels in bowfin and bass are sufficiently high to pose a potential threat to high-level consumers. PMID:11683594

Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Boring, C S; Stephens, W L; Snodgrass, J; Gochfeld, M

2001-10-01

140

Identification of the double acceptor levels of the mercury vacancies in HgCdTe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence and temperature-dependent Hall measurements of nonintentionally doped HgCdTe epilayers were compared. These films were grown by liquid phase epitaxy and postannealed under different conditions as follows: a p-type annealing was used to control the mercury vacancy concentration and a n-type annealing under saturated Hg atmosphere was used to fill the mercury vacancies. The comparison of the photoluminescence measurements with Hall effect measurements allows us to identify the two acceptor energy levels of the mercury vacancy and to evidence its ``negative-U'' property corresponding to a stabilization of the ionized state V- of the mercury vacancy compared to its neutral state V0.

Gemain, F.; Robin, I. C.; de Vita, M.; Brochen, S.; Lusson, A.

2011-03-01

141

Chapter A5. Section 6.4.B. Low-Level Mercury  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Collecting and processing water samples for analysis of mercury at a low (subnanogram per liter) level requires use of ultratrace-level techniques for equipment cleaning, sample collection, and sample processing. Established techniques and associated quality-assurance (QA) procedures for the collection and processing of water samples for trace-element analysis at the part-per-billion level (NFM 3-5) are not adequate for low-level mercury samples. Modifications to the part-per-billion procedures are necessary to minimize contamination of samples at a typical ambient mercury concentration, which commonly is at the subnanogram-per-liter level.

Lewis, Michael Edward; Brigham, Mark E.

2004-01-01

142

Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k(0) standardization neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for other trace elements. Comparison of different analytical methods, as well as the distribution of data were critically evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Due to the nugget effect (cinnabar particles representing more than 90% of the mercury), homogeneity for T-Hg determination was difficult to achieve. The intercomparison exercise indicated that in order to obtain comparable results for total mercury (T-Hg) sample decomposition by HF must be performed. These data are then in good agreement with non-destructive methods such as k(0)-INAA. Accepted reference values calculated taking into account the results obtained by six and three laboratories, respectively, were 67.1+/-11.3 mg kg(-1) for T-Hg and 4.0+/-1.3 ng g(-1) for MeHg (95% confidence intervals). However, the results obtained for Hg fractionation displayed significant differences in the organically bound fraction and elemental Hg. Results obtained by two laboratories using totally different analytical protocols for other elements showed excellent agreement for most elements. In summary, the results obtained for the SOIL-1 sample were of sufficient quality to suggest its use for quality control in laboratories dealing with mercury contaminated soils. PMID:16757094

Kocman, David; Bloom, Nicolas S; Akagi, Hirokatso; Telmer, Kevin; Hylander, Lars; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Smodis, Borut; Ikingura, Justinian R; Horvat, Milena

2006-06-06

143

Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure\\u000a for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province,\\u000a Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 ?g\\/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 ?g\\/g for T-Hg and\\u000a Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations

Ping Li; Xinbin Feng; Guangle Qiu; Lihai Shang; Guanghui Li

2009-01-01

144

Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.  

PubMed

Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area. PMID:23653314

Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

2013-05-08

145

Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial

Flavia L Barbieri; Jacques Gardon

2009-01-01

146

Dry deposition of gaseous elemental mercury to plants and soils using mercury stable isotopes in a controlled environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0(g)) by three plant species and two soil types was measured using mercury vapor enriched in the 198 isotope ( 198Hg 0(g)). The plant species and soil types were: White Ash ( Fraxinus Americana; WA); White Spruce ( Picea Glauca; WS); Kentucky Bluegrass ( Poa Partensis; KYBG); Plano Silt Loam (4% organic matter; PSL); and Plainfield Sand/Sparta Loamy Sand (1.25-1.5% organic matter: PS). The plants and soils were exposed to isotopically enriched Hg 0(g) in a 19 m 3 controlled environment room for 7 days under optimal plant growth conditions (20 °C, 140 Wm -2 between 300 nm and 700 nm; 70% RH) and atmospherically relevant Hg 0(g) concentrations. Mercury was recovered from the samples using acidic digestions and surface leaches, and then analyzed for enrichments in 198Hg by ICPMS. The method was sensitivity enough that statistically significant enrichments in 198Hg were measured in the plant foliage at the end of Day 1. Whole leaf digestions and surface-selective leaches revealed that accumulative uptake was predominantly to the interior of the leaf under the conditions studied. Uptake fluxes for WA increased between the first and third days and remained constant thereafter (WA; Day 1 = 7 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Days 3-7 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1; where m 2 refers to one sided leaf area). KYBG demonstrated similar behavior although no Day 3 measurement was available (Day 1 = 7.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1). Fluxes to White Spruce were lower, with little difference between Days 1 and 3 followed by a decrease at Day 7 (WS; Days 1-3 = 5 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 2.4 ± 0.2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1). Uptake of Hg to soils was below the method detection limit for those media (PSL = 3 × 10 -2 ng m -2 s -1; PS = 3 × 10 -3 ng m -2 s -1) over the 7 day study period. Foliar resistances calculated for each species compared well to previous studies.

Rutter, Andrew P.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Creswell, Joel E.; Olson, Michael R.; Robinson, Michael; Collins, Ryan M.; Parman, Andrew M.; Katzman, Tanya L.; Mallek, Justin L.

2011-02-01

147

Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.  

PubMed

Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury. PMID:22432295

Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

2011-01-01

148

Mercury Levels along the Food Chain and Risk for Exposed Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury was not regarded as a pollutant of primary importance until many deaths due to mercury poisoning occurred in the 1950s. More recently, adverse health effects have been documented at relatively low exposure levels, and monitoring data must now be interpreted in this light. The Mediterranean basin has been studied in great detail over the past 20 years because of

A. Renzoni; F. Zino; E. Franchi

1998-01-01

149

Evaluation of mercury levels in Pangasius and Cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus

V. Ferrantelli; G. Giangrosso; A. Cicero; C. Naccari; A. Macaluso; F. Galvano; N. D’Orazio; G. E. Arcadipane; F. Naccari

2012-01-01

150

Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks

Gary Heinz

1974-01-01

151

Elevated mercury levels in pregnant woman linked to skin cream from Mexico.  

PubMed

Mercury exposure during pregnancy can have serious health effects for a developing fetus including impacting the child's neurologic and cognitive development. Through biomonitoring in a low-income Latina population in California, we identified a patient with high levels of mercury and traced the source to face creams purchased in a pharmacy in Mexico. PMID:23685000

Dickenson, Carrie A; Woodruff, Tracey J; Stotland, Naomi E; Dobraca, Dina; Das, Rupali

2013-05-16

152

Effects of Mercury and Selenium on Serum Transaminase Levels of Quail, Hens and Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three studies were conducted in an effort to quantitatively evaluate some of the early effects and nutrient interactions of methyl mercury (CH3-HG) in Cotournix quail, Leghorn hens, and Sprague-Dawley rats. Mercury was added to the diets at levels ranging...

S. O. Welsh J. H. Soares B. R. Stilling H. Lagally

1973-01-01

153

Size and biomagnification: How Habitat selection explains beluga mercury levels.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population increased during the 1990s; levels have since declined but remain higher than the 1980s. The diet of this beluga population is not well-known, thus it is difficult to assess dietary Hg sources. During the summer, the Beaufort Sea belugas segregate by length, sex, and reproductive status corresponding to habitat use that may result in feeding differences and ultimately Hg uptake. To test this hypothesis, we examine beluga dietary variation using fatty acid profiles and determine which biological variables best predict diet Relationships between biological variables and fatty acids were further evaluated with stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in liver and muscle. Hg concentrations in muscle were better related to liver delta15N than muscle delta15N. Stable isotopes and fatty acids are compared in their ability to describe dietary Hg processes in beluga. Fatty acids provided support for influences of whale behavior on dietary Hg uptake, whereas stable isotopes inferred tissue Hg metabolic rates. Here, we show beluga length drives diet variability leading to differences in Hg uptake and biomagnification processes dominate beluga Hg levels over Hg bioaccumulation over time. PMID:18589955

Loseto, L L; Stern, G A; Ferguson, S H

2008-06-01

154

Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy.  

PubMed

Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500ngm(-2)h(-1), which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28°C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. PMID:23477569

Fantozzi, L; Ferrara, R; Dini, F; Tamburello, L; Pirrone, N; Sprovieri, F

2013-03-08

155

Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury.Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level.Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values.Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries.Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels.Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214-1218;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206115. PMID:23811414

Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin D; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Emmett, Pauline M; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

2013-06-26

156

Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214–1218;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206115

Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

2013-01-01

157

Effects of mercury on reproduction, avoidance, and heat shock protein gene expression of the soil springtail Folsomia candida.  

PubMed

Based on the Cambisols of Beijing (used as agricultural soils), toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the effects of mercury (Hg) on reproduction and avoidance of Folsomia candida (Hexapoda: Collembola), as well as the transcriptional responses of the hsp70 gene, under different Hg concentrations and at different exposure times. Results showed that the hsp70 gene of the springtail was the most sensitive parameter to soil Hg stress, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.42 mg/kg. The EC50 values based on reproduction and avoidance tests were 9.29 and 3.88 mg/kg, respectively. The expression level of the hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated when soil Hg concentration was over 0.25 mg/kg (lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]). In addition, responses of this gene expression were strongly induced after 48 h exposure under 1 mg/kg soil Hg, which probably was due to the fast and sensitive response of the gene transcription to Hg stress. Thus, the results suggested that the responses of the hsp70 gene and individual-level effects (reproduction and avoidance) could be integrated to provide helpful information for environmental monitoring and assessment of contaminated soils. PMID:20821491

Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Mei; Luan, Yun-Xia; He, Ji-Zheng

2010-03-01

158

Diffuse soil degassing of radon and mercury from abandoned underground coal mines in Southeastern Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of coal in Southeastern Ohio is associated to the production of acid mine drainage and poor water quality in rivers and streams. Water recharge to the underground coal mines occurs preferentially throughout subsidence features in areas where the overburden is thinner than around 60 feet, usually close to river and streams. Gases released from the coal beds such as methane and mercury, as well as radon generated in the rocks can diffuse throughout the overlying fractured rocks and soils and discharge to the atmosphere. The purpose of this research was to compare the gases released from mined and unmined areas in Southeastern Ohio. Radon and mercury concentrations were measured at 40 cm depth using a Pylon AB-5 Radiation Detector and an Arizona Mercury Analyzer respectively. An area of 59 miles2 (151 km2) close to the town of Corning, Ohio, was investigated. Distance between points was around 600-1000 m. Approximately half of the area was mined underground and half was not. Our results indicate that radon concentration is considerable higher in the mined areas. Mercury concentrations are more variable and do not correlate with mined areas. Accumulation of gases released in basements of houses located in zones of high soil radon concentration will be investigated.

Ruiz, V. E.; Lopez, D. L.

2002-12-01

159

Mercury Levels in an Urban Pregnant Population in Durham County, North Carolina  

PubMed Central

The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data from a prospective, cohort study of pregnant women from an inland area in the US South, we sought to understand the fish consumption habits and associated mercury levels across subpopulations. Over 30% of women had at least 1 ?g/L of mercury in their blood, and about 2% had blood mercury levels above the level of concern during pregnancy (?3.5 ?g/L). Mercury levels were higher among Asian/Pacific Islander, older, higher educated, and married women. Fish consumption from any source was reported by 2/3 of the women in our study, with older women more likely to consume fish. Despite eating more fish meals per week, lower income, lower educated women had lower blood mercury levels than higher income, higher educated women. This suggests the different demographic groups consume different types of fish. Encouraging increased fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure requires careful crafting of a complex health message.

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon; Maxson, Pamela J.

2011-01-01

160

Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and...

M. O. Barnett R. R. Turner T. J. Henson L. A. Harris R. E. Melton

1994-01-01

161

Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Mercury. These data include planet size, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, and albedo. Images of the planet include general surface features such as crater basins, the Caloris Basin, and other images taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft.

162

Mercury-resistant rhizobial bacteria isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing in high Hg-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity. PMID:22246528

Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Quiñones, Miguel A; Fajardo, Susana; López, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

2012-01-14

163

Importance of Forest Composition on Mercury Deposition through Litterfall and Accumulation in Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upland forests receive greater atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) than non-forested areas. In addition to wet deposition of Hg, forests are subjected to Hg deposition in throughfall and litterfall: dry deposition to leaves may be subsequently leached in throughfall; elemental Hg may enter leaves and be later deposited in the leaf litter (litterfall). This research evaluated the importance of forest type on the Total Hg (THg) flux in litterfall and on THg accumulation in organic soil horizons. Eighteen research sites were sampled throughout Vermont, USA. Mercury concentration was measured in senescing leaves of dominant tree species (16 species in total) in three forest types (low-elevation coniferous, mixed, and deciduous/Northern Hardwood forest). Leaf traps were used to measure the litterfall flux. Upper soil horizons were sampled and analyzed for mercury and carbon. Mercury concentration in senescing leaves varied significantly between tree species. Some hardwood species had higher THg concentration in leaves than coniferous species. Striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum) had significantly higher THg concentration than any other species. Total Hg concentration was negatively correlated with leaf height on the tree. Leaf surface-to-weight ratio was positively correlated with THg. The calculated THg flux in litterfall varied from 12 to 28 ug/m2/yr; there was no significant difference between forest types. Results showed an unexpectedly high THg concentration in understory trees. The assumption that needles have greater THg concentration than leaves needs to be revisited; forest structure needs to be taken into account. Total Hg concentration and THg to carbon ratio were consistent within soil horizons but differed among horizons. Similar to other studies, THg concentration was lower in the Oi horizon (litter layer) and peaked in the Oe horizon (fermentation layer) before declining in the humified Oa and/or A horizons. Mineral soil (A horizons) tended to have greater THg pools due to their greater bulk density compared with organic soil horizons (e.g. Oa). Deciduous sites had on average thinner Oe horizons and shallower mineral A horizons compared to sites with more coniferous species. Because of these two factors, deciduous sites had greater THg pools in the upper soil profile (9 cm) than sites with more coniferous species. These results indicate that factors affecting the depth of organic soil horizons need to be taken into account when comparing THg pools between sites. Soil pools are affected both by the THg concentration and the density of the soil.

Juillerat, J. I.; Ross, D. S.

2010-12-01

164

Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

Looney, B.B.

2001-02-23

165

Relation of blood cadmium, lead, and mercury levels to biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Exposures to cadmium, lead, and mercury are associated with adverse health effects, including cardiovascular disease, which may be promoted by lipid peroxidation. The authors examined cadmium, lead, and mercury in relation to plasma levels of F(2)-8? isoprostanes (isoprostane), 9-hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 252 women from western New York State (2005-2007). Healthy premenopausal women were followed for ?2 menstrual cycles, with biomarkers of lipid peroxidation being assessed ?8 times per cycle. Metals were measured at baseline in whole blood. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the association between cadmium, lead, and mercury and lipid peroxidation biomarkers. Median cadmium, lead, and mercury levels were 0.30 ?g/L, 0.86 ?g/dL, and 1.10 ?g/L, respectively. Blood cadmium, lead, and mercury were not associated with increases in isoprostane, TBARS, 9-HODE, or 13-HODE levels. Isoprostane levels decreased 6.80% (95% confidence interval: -10.40, -3.20) per 1% increase in mercury. However, after adjustment for a simulated strong confounding factor, such as precisely measured fish consumption, the observed association was attenuated, suggesting that this unexpected association could be attributable to unmeasured confounding. In this population of healthy premenopausal women with low exposure levels, cadmium, lead, and mercury were not associated with elevated lipid peroxidation biomarkers. PMID:22302120

Pollack, Anna Z; Schisterman, Enrique F; Goldman, Lynn R; Mumford, Sunni L; Perkins, Neil J; Bloom, Michael S; Rudra, Carole B; Browne, Richard W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

2012-02-02

166

Relation of Blood Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury Levels to Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation in Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Exposures to cadmium, lead, and mercury are associated with adverse health effects, including cardiovascular disease, which may be promoted by lipid peroxidation. The authors examined cadmium, lead, and mercury in relation to plasma levels of F2-8? isoprostanes (isoprostane), 9-hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 252 women from western New York State (2005–2007). Healthy premenopausal women were followed for ?2 menstrual cycles, with biomarkers of lipid peroxidation being assessed ?8 times per cycle. Metals were measured at baseline in whole blood. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the association between cadmium, lead, and mercury and lipid peroxidation biomarkers. Median cadmium, lead, and mercury levels were 0.30 ?g/L, 0.86 ?g/dL, and 1.10 ?g/L, respectively. Blood cadmium, lead, and mercury were not associated with increases in isoprostane, TBARS, 9-HODE, or 13-HODE levels. Isoprostane levels decreased 6.80% (95% confidence interval: ?10.40, ?3.20) per 1% increase in mercury. However, after adjustment for a simulated strong confounding factor, such as precisely measured fish consumption, the observed association was attenuated, suggesting that this unexpected association could be attributable to unmeasured confounding. In this population of healthy premenopausal women with low exposure levels, cadmium, lead, and mercury were not associated with elevated lipid peroxidation biomarkers.

Pollack, Anna Z.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Goldman, Lynn R.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Perkins, Neil J.; Bloom, Michael S.; Rudra, Carole B.; Browne, Richard W.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

2012-01-01

167

Mercury levels in freshwater fish of the state of South Carolina.  

PubMed

Samples of fish from freshwater sources of rivers, lakes and ponds all over the state of South Carolina were collected during the Summer of 1974 and 1975. The fish collected were Bass, Bluegill, Redbreast, Catfish, Shad, Carp, Crappie, Mudfish and Pike. Samples were analyzed using the flameless atomic absorption procedure outlined by Hatch and Ott, and Uthe et al as modified for use with Perkin-Elmer, Coleman MAS-50 mercury analyzer. Triplicate samples of fish tissue were analyzed by wet digestion method. The mean mercury levels in ppb were determined for baseline mercury levels. A significant finding of this report is that those species for which fish of widely differing weights were analyzed, larger fish had higher mercury levels. Mercury levels exceeding the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 500 ppb for fish tissues have been found in the Mudfish from Edisto River and Pike fish from Lake Murray. Higher levels of mercury occurred in the highly vascularized blood tissues of liver and kidney than in muscle. Carnivorous and bottom-feeding fishes are the most reliable indicators of mercury pollution. PMID:836979

Koli, A K; Williams, W R; McClary, E B; Wright, E L; Burrell, T M

1977-01-01

168

Levels of selenium in relation to levels of mercury in fish from Mjoesa, a freshwater lake in southeastern Norway  

SciTech Connect

In addition to its role as a micro nutrient, selenium exerts an antagonistic effect in mercury poisoning. The levels of selenium in fish from water systems contaminated with mercury are therefore of great interest. This is especially so in Norway, a country known as a low-selenium area. The present paper reports levels of selenium and their relationship to mercury accumulation in the flesh of fish from Mjoesa. For comparison, fish from five lakes in the surrounding area were also included in the investigation.

Froeslie, A.; Norheim, G.; Sandlund, O.T.

1985-04-01

169

The Effect of Wildfire on Soil Mercury Concentrations in Southern California Watersheds  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg) stored in vegetation and soils is known to be released to the atmosphere during wildfires, increasing atmospheric stores and altering terrestrial budgets. Increased erosion and transport of sediments is well-documented in burned watersheds, both immediately post-fire and as the watershed recovers; however, understanding post-fire mobilization of soil Hg within burned watersheds remains elusive. The goal of the current study is to better understand the impact of wildfire on soil-bound Hg during the immediate post-fire period as well as during recovery, in order to assess the potential for sediment-driven transport to and within surface waters in burned watersheds. Soils were collected from three southern California watersheds of similar vegetation and soil characteristics that experienced wildfire. Sampling in one of these watersheds was extended for several seasons (1.5 years) in order to investigate temporal changes in soil Hg concentrations. Laboratory analysis included bulk soil total Hg concentrations and total organic carbon of burned and unburned samples. Soils were also fractionated into a subset of grain sizes with analysis of Hg on each fraction. Low Hg concentrations were observed in surface soils immediately post-fire. Accumulation of Hg coincident with moderate vegetative recovery was observed in the burned surface soils 1 year following the fire, and mobilization was also noted during the second winter (rainy) season. Hg concentrations were highest in the fine-grained fraction of unburned soils; however, in the burned soils, the distribution of soil-bound Hg was less influenced by grain size. The accelerated accumulation of Hg observed in the burned soils, along with the elevated risk of erosion, could result in increased delivery of organic- or particulate-bound Hg to surface waters in post-fire systems.

Ferreira, Marcia; Mendez, Carolina B.; Navarro, Bridget; Lopez, Sonya; Jay, Jennifer A.

2010-01-01

170

The Effect of Wildfire on Soil Mercury Concentrations in Southern California Watersheds.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) stored in vegetation and soils is known to be released to the atmosphere during wildfires, increasing atmospheric stores and altering terrestrial budgets. Increased erosion and transport of sediments is well-documented in burned watersheds, both immediately post-fire and as the watershed recovers; however, understanding post-fire mobilization of soil Hg within burned watersheds remains elusive. The goal of the current study is to better understand the impact of wildfire on soil-bound Hg during the immediate post-fire period as well as during recovery, in order to assess the potential for sediment-driven transport to and within surface waters in burned watersheds. Soils were collected from three southern California watersheds of similar vegetation and soil characteristics that experienced wildfire. Sampling in one of these watersheds was extended for several seasons (1.5 years) in order to investigate temporal changes in soil Hg concentrations. Laboratory analysis included bulk soil total Hg concentrations and total organic carbon of burned and unburned samples. Soils were also fractionated into a subset of grain sizes with analysis of Hg on each fraction. Low Hg concentrations were observed in surface soils immediately post-fire. Accumulation of Hg coincident with moderate vegetative recovery was observed in the burned surface soils 1 year following the fire, and mobilization was also noted during the second winter (rainy) season. Hg concentrations were highest in the fine-grained fraction of unburned soils; however, in the burned soils, the distribution of soil-bound Hg was less influenced by grain size. The accelerated accumulation of Hg observed in the burned soils, along with the elevated risk of erosion, could result in increased delivery of organic- or particulate-bound Hg to surface waters in post-fire systems. PMID:20936165

Burke, Megan P; Hogue, Terri S; Ferreira, Marcia; Mendez, Carolina B; Navarro, Bridget; Lopez, Sonya; Jay, Jennifer A

2010-03-16

171

Fish consumption patterns and mercury exposure levels among women of childbearing age in Duval County, Florida.  

PubMed

Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing age in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and age. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing age, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels. PMID:23397644

Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek

172

Mercury levels of small fishes: influence of size and catch area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assessed small fishes as potential feed fishes with the lowest mercury levels. The mercury levels\\u000a of four small pelagic fishes and a benthic fish from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, i.e., spotted chub mackerel Scomber australasicus, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, round scad Decapterus punctatus, and bastard halibut Paralichthys

Wen Jye Mok; MokManabu Seoka; Yasuyuki Tsukamasa; Ken-ichi Kawasaki; Masashi Ando

173

Tissue levels of mercury determined in a deceased worker after occupational exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) levels in autopsy samples from a thermometer worker who had been exposed over a\\u000a long period to, and monitored for, mercury vapor. Case report: Hg and Se levels were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis in a worker who had commited suicide 4 weeks\\u000a after the end of 14 years of exposure

L. Barregård; G. Sällsten; N. Conradi

1999-01-01

174

Cinnabar is different from mercuric chloride in mercury absorption and influence on the brain serotonin level.  

PubMed

The toxicity of cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercury sulphide (HgS), has long been referred to soluble mercury chloride (HgCl2 ). To investigate whether the speciation of mercury plays a role in its disposition and toxicity, we hereby investigated and compared cinnabar with soluble HgCl2 and pure insoluble HgS in mice on mercury absorption, tissue distribution and in relation to the biological effects. The male C57BL/6J mice were treated by oral administration of various doses of cinnabar, with 0.01 g/kg of HgCl2 for comparison, or the same dose of cinnabar or pure HgS (0.1 g/kg), once a day for 10 consecutive days. The total mercury contents in serum and tissue (brain, kidney, liver) were measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS). The biological effects investigated involved monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, 5-HT) in brain as an indicator of therapeutic function, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) as a marker of hepatic damage, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as markers for renal function. The mercury absorption of cinnabar or HgS was much less than that of HgCl2 . The mercury levels in brains of the cinnabar group were only slightly changed and kept in a steady-state with the dose elevated. Cinnabar or HgS suppressed brain 5-HT levels. HgCl2 could not cause any changes in brain 5-HT although the mercury level increased considerably. The results revealed that cinnabar or HgS is markedly different from HgCl2 in mercury absorption, tissue distribution and influence on brain 5-HT levels, which suggests that the pharmacological and/or toxicological effects of cinnabar undertake other pathways from mercuric ions. PMID:23302034

Wang, Qi; Yang, Xiaoda; Zhang, Baoxu; Yang, Xiuwei; Wang, Kui

2013-02-07

175

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-03-31

176

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt....

2010-07-01

177

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt....

2013-07-01

178

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt....

2009-07-01

179

Potential cultivation of Hordeum vulgare L. in soils with high mercury background concentrations.  

PubMed

Experimental work was carried out under close-to-real conditions to study mercury uptake by Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in lysimeter experiments. The soil in the lysimeter experiment was obtained from a test plot located near Almadén (Spain) and had a mean mercury content of 22.9 mg kg(-1). A sequence of four crops was sown starting in autumn 2000 and repeated on a yearly basis until 2004. The first crop was grown in the field prior to the extraction of 5 one-cubic-meter lysimeters. The succeeding crops were sown in the lysimeter experiments at the CIEMAT Research Centre (Madrid, Spain). Samples of root and shoot were obtained during the four seasons. Concentrations of mercury at plant maturity in roots vary between I and 3 mg kg(-1) and in straw and grain the concentrations range from 72 to 480 microg kg(-1) and from 5 to 257 microg kg(-1), respectively. In order to assess the potential risk for human health and animal feed, an evaluation of the mercury content in the edible part of the crop has been carried out. According to legislation, there is no human health intoxication risk with a balanced consumption; otherwise, the forage use would have to be controlled. PMID:21972517

Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Cardona, A I; Schmid, T

2011-09-01

180

Solubility and changes of mercury binding forms in contaminated soils after immobilization treatment  

SciTech Connect

Mobility at different pH and binding forms of mercury (Hg) have been investigated in three Hg-contaminated soils after immobilization treatment with alkali-polysulfide (APS) and trimercapto-s-triazine trisodium salt solution (TMT). Changes of solid-phase Hg binding forms after immobilization were determined by Hg pyrolysis. Hg concentrations in the water extracts of all samples increased after treatments due to the formation of soluble mercury sulfides (APS treatment), and the mobilization of humic acid bound Hg at the high pH of the reagents. In contrast, Hg concentrations decreased sharply at low pH due to decomposition of soluble mercury sulfides and precipitation of humic acid-bound Hg. Inorganic Hg compounds such as Hg{sup 0} or HgCl{sub 2} are effectively transformed to mercury sulfides by APS treatment, whereas TMT could transform HgCl{sub 2} but not Hg{sup 0}. Both reagents were found to affect humic acid bound Hg by way of increasing Hg desorption temperatures, although APS was found not to desorb Hg completely from humic acids and TMT-Hg complexes are actually incorporated into humic acids.

Biester, H.; Zimmer, H. [Inst. of Environmental Geochemistry, Heidelberg (Germany)

1998-09-15

181

Head Hair Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Some Ghanaian Individuals for the Estimation of Their Exposure to Mercury: Preliminary Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of human exposure to mercury in some individuals in Ghana was evaluated by analysing samples of human head hair\\u000a for total mercury and methylmercury. The average level of total mercury was 0.843 ?g g?1 (in range of 0.119–4.140, n = 123) and that of methylmercury was 0.787 ?g g?1 (in range of 0.208–1.847, n = 42). Mercury was present in the hair samples almost completely in

Ray B. Voegborlo; Akito Matsuyama; Anthony A. Adimado; Hirokatsu Akagi

2010-01-01

182

Mercury in polluted soils: speciation using micro-XRF, micro-XRD, and micro- and bulk XAFS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, mercury speciation was assessed for soil samples collected inside and outside an industrial polluted area of National environmental interest located in "Val Basento" (Basilicata, Italy). Hg concentration in these soil samples ranged from 12 up to 240 mg/kg. Mercury chemical forms in these samples were identified by a combination of sequential extraction procedures, thermal desorption analyses, and different bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting high intensity synchrotron generated X-rays. Bulk XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectra were collected for direct Hg-speciation in soil samples sieved at 2mm as well as in the clay fraction (<2um), where the highest amount of mercury was concentrated. The interpretation of the complex mixture of Hg-chemical forms in the soil samples was made simpler by performing, beside bulk XAS investigations, microanalyses on soil thin sections by combined u-XRF/u-XRD (micro X-ray Fluorescence/micro X-ray Diffraction) and u-XANES, with a resolution of 20 um. The information deriving from the micro-scale was then used to understand the bulk data. m-XRF maps were collected to localize microscopic Hg-containing particles in areas of several hundreds of mm2. Simultaneous to u-XRF spectra, microdiffraction patterns were collected in each point of the map, to identify possible crystalline Hg-mineral forms or mineral associations. Once points of interest were localized, u-XANES spectra were also collected. In general, two main representative XANES spectra (S1 and S2) were observed from Hg-rich spots at the microscopic level. Interestingly, all the bulk XANES spectra from all soil samples could be fitted by a linear combination of the microscopic S1 and S2 spectra. Therefore, by fitting the S1 and S2 spectra by means of known standard spectra it was then possible to decipher Hg-speciation for all the soil samples. In conclusion, the main constituents in the soil samples were cinnabar (HgS), metacinnabar, corderoite (Hg3S2Cl2), and amorphous Hg-S-Cl phases, in different proportions. The presence of these amorphous forms was suggested by EXAFS and XRD structural analyses. The speciation obtained is also in agreement with the chemical behaviour of the soil samples as assessed by sequential extractions and thermal desorption analyses. The chemical species identified are typical of soils contaminated with wastes produced by chlor-alkali plants. Actually, a chlor-alkali plant was active in the area during the 1960-80's, and now is no more existing. In conclusion, notwithstanding the diffuse Hg-pollution in the investigated area, it seems that Hg is speciated in scarcely soluble and hardly mobilisable forms. The determination of the chemical forms of toxic elements in polluted soils is an indispensable step to identify the source of pollution, to formulate a correct risk assessment and to develop effective remediation strategies.

Terzano, R.; Santoro, A.; Spagnuolo, M.; Vekemans, B.; Medici, L.; Janssens, K.; Goettlicher, J.; Denecke, M. A.; Mangold, S.; Ruggiero, P.

2009-04-01

183

Total mercury and methylmercury levels in commercially important fishes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of mercury in the muscle and other tissues was determined in 23 species of fishes and invertebrates. This\\u000a study reveals species-specific patterns of mercury accumulation in the muscle of tuna and alfonsino. Consistently high levels\\u000a of total mercury were found in Beryx splendens (0.78±0.56 ?g\\/g), Atlantic Thunnus thynnus (0.42±0.06 ?g\\/g), Pacific T. thynnus (0.59±0.34 ?g\\/g), Thunnus obesus (0.98±0.34

Yumiko Yamashita; Yuji Omura; Emiko Okazaki

2005-01-01

184

Total mercury in Yellow Knights (Tricholoma equestre) mushrooms and beneath soils.  

PubMed

Mercury has been determined in caps, stipes and whole fruiting bodies of Yellow Knights mushrooms and the beneath top layer of soils from ten geographically distant locations in Poland. The Yellow Knights can be considered as an effective accumulator of total Hg. The mean values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Hg in caps of Yellow Knights for nine of the locations ranged from 22 ± 9 to 75 ± 13 (total range 9.0-90) and for stipes from 13 ± 7 to 52 ± 9 (total 4.4-93). The top layer (0-10 cm) of soils in these nine sites contained Hg with mean (±SD) concentration ranging from 0.019 ± 0.003 to 0.046 ± 0.007 ng/g dry weight. Mercury was less accumulated (BCF 4.9 ± 2.7 for a whole fruiting bodies) by Yellow Knights that emerged at the most contaminated site, where soil contained 0.059 ± 0.028 ng Hg/g dw. The potential of Yellow Knights communities to bioconcentrate Hg (determined as BCF) in fruiting bodies varied between the localities more than tenfold and decreased highly with increase of Hg content of the top soil. PMID:22869392

Ma?kiewicz, Dawid; Falandysz, Jerzy

2012-08-07

185

Where does the mercury in gaseous fluxes from soil come from? An applied stable isotope experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux of gaseous mercury from soils is controlled by a number of physico-chemical factors including temperature, soil mercury concentration, boundary layer conditions, soil moisture, and often most notably, solar radiation. It has been presumed that the shallowest soils constitute the main source of Hg for evasion since this Hg is closer to the surface and since the organic horizon and shallow A-horizon soils generally have the most organic matter, where Hg is sorbed and accumulated. The evidence for the predominance of near surface soil as the principal source of Hg for evasion has generally been correlational in nature however and no direct experimental evidence currently exists. This experimental laboratory study directly assessed the depth from which Hg evades by labeling different soil layers (1cm in thickness) with an enriched Hg stable isotope and measuring Hg fluxes under constant, but relatively low light conditions. Fluxes were measured using a dynamic flux chamber coupled to high-precision air pumps and gold traps. The gold traps were thermally desorbed and Hg isotopes were measured by ICP-MS. Under dry soil conditions, we found that most labeled Hg fluxes were very low, with no discernible pattern in relation to tracer depth. In some dry condition measurements where tracer fluxes were significant (up to 69 ng/m2 h), they were four or more times less than measurements made with wetter soils. When soils were wetted to field capacity and then allowed to dry over time, measured surface fluxes peaked approximately 24 hours after wetting and quickly declined. The largest fluxes (270 ng/m2 h) measured after wetting were observed when the isotope enriched layer constituted the surface layer. Significant fluxes were measured after wetting when the enriched layer was at 0, 1 and 2 cm, and fluxes generally decreased exponentially with depth. Fluxes after wetting, when the enriched layer was 5cm below the surface, were non-significant. Our data provide direct evidence to corroborate previous assumptions that the upper 2 cm of soil do indeed constitute the principal zone of Hg source and Hg transport for soil Hg emissions to the atmosphere.

Mazur, Maxwell; Eckley, Chris; Mitchell, Carl

2013-04-01

186

Mercury flux measurements in a naturally enriched area: Correlation with environmental conditions during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international intercomparison of micrometerological techniques and dynamic flux chamber methods applied to measure mercury fluxes was conducted from September 1 to 4, 1997, during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) in Reno, Nevada. Nine research groups from four countries met in the Steamboat Springs, Nevada Geothermal Area, to participate in the first international flux intercomparison ever attempted for mercury. The highly heterogeneous soil Hg concentrations and complex landscape within the study area (4 ha) were unfavorable for spatial intercomparison of Hg fluxes between the research groups. However, reliable and correlated Hg fluxes were measured between our micrometerological technique and a dynamic flux chamber method (r2 = 0.29), run side by side (5 m). Hg fluxes and their relationships with environmental factors were complex. After ˜90 days of dry condition, a series of storm events impacted the site and increased the soil moisture from <0.5 to 6.6%. This appeared to promote strong Hg evasion during the transition period from dry to wet soil conditions. However, the subsequent relationship between soil moisture and Hg flux was significantly negatively correlated. Multivariate analysis was applied to extract the principal components (principal component analysis). Three principal components were extracted (explained up to 79% of the total variance) and discussed with respect to their environmental signification. Environmental conditions under southern wind sectors were optimal to promote Hg fluxes. Turbulence rather than Hg air concentrations seemed to be the main factor promoting the determined Hg fluxes during this study.

Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Casimir, Alain

1999-09-01

187

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

188

Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings. During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate blood mercury level (BML) and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43). Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire, and then 5 ml blood samples were obtained from them. After preparation, mercury concentration of each sample was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption device. Pearson correlation test and regression models served for statistical analysis. Results: The mean blood concentration of mercury was 6.3 ?g/l (SD=1.31 range 4.15–8.93). BML was positively associated with age, years in practice, working hours per day, number of amalgam restorations per day, number of amalgam removal per week, sea food consumption, working years in present office, using amalgam powder, using diamond bur for amalgam removal, dry sterilization of amalgam contaminated instruments, and deficient air ventilation. Conclusion: BML of dentists in Hamadan was higher than standards. Working hours and number of amalgam restorations per day were significantly correlated with blood mercury.

Kasraei, Sh.; Mortazavi, H.; Vahedi, M.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Assary, MJ.

2010-01-01

189

Mercury bioaccumulation and prediction in terrestrial insects from soil in Huludao City, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Mercury accumulation was investigated by constructing and testing empirical equations based on mercury in soil (C(s)) and in 10 terrestrial insects (C(i)). C(s) ranged from 0.13 to 41.01 mg/kg. C(i) differed with species and the highest was found in dragonfly. C(s) and C(i) showed a good linear fit, and a simple equation was used in predicting C(i) when insects were classified into one Insecta group (r = 0.3399, p = 0.0037). The taxonomy can affect validities of empirical equations, which fit field data well when insects were grouped by feeding habits, and when grouped by species, empirical equations were suitable only for certain insects. PMID:22527000

Zhang, Zhongsheng; Song, Xiaolin; Wang, Qichao; Lu, Xianguo

2012-04-22

190

Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 ?g kg(-1)) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha(-1)) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha(-1)). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. PMID:23911621

Richardson, Justin B; Friedland, Andrew J; Engerbretson, Teresa R; Kaste, James M; Jackson, Brian P

2013-07-31

191

Mercury levels in hair from people eating large quantities of Swedish freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations in hair were related to fish-eating habits in a group of 50 people reported to have a high consumption of freshwater fish. Mercury levels in hair ranged from 0.3 to 10.8 mg/kg with a mean +/- SD of 3.2 +/- 2.3 mg/kg. The average mercury level in hair from men was significantly higher than that in hair from women (3.8 +/- 2.6 mg/kg versus 2.4 +/- 1.8 mg/kg. Seven individuals (14%) had levels above 6 mg/kg. In people with equal fish consumption, significantly higher mercury levels were found in the hair of those eating fish from lakes Mälaren and Vättern than in those eating fish from Lake Hjälmaren. It has been reported that fish from the latter lake contains approximately 0.2 mg/kg mercury, whereas fish from the other two lakes contains approximately 0.4 mg/kg. The mean mercury level in hair was higher in the group eating freshwater fish more than three times a week (greater than or equal to 500 g fish flesh/week) than in the group eating less, although the difference was of borderline significance. Within couples (n = 16) eating equal numbers of fish meals per week, the men had significantly higher levels (mean 3.7 mg/kg) than the women (mean 2.5 mg/kg). The results from the present study show that people with a high consumption of Swedish freshwater fish have elevated levels of mercury in their hair, when compared with previously reported levels in the hair of Swedish pregnant women. PMID:2394276

Oskarsson, A; Ohlin, B; Ohlander, E M; Albanus, L

192

The relationship between Adirondack lake pH and levels of mercury in yellow perch.  

PubMed

Levels of total mercury in yellow perch Perca flavescens from Adirondack lakes were studied in relation to characteristics of the lakes to determine why some lakes had fish with higher concentrations of mercury. Almost all mercury in fish is in the form of methylmercury, which can pose significant health hazards to humans who consume such fish. Fish mercury concentrations and water chemistry data were analyzed from eight Adirondack lakes. Four lakes (Halfmoon Lake, Sand Pond, Rock Pond, and Upper Sister Lake) had pH values of less than 5.0. Four other lakes (Lake Adirondack, Kings Flow, Harris Lake, and Lake Kushaqua) had pH values of more than 7.0. The acidic lakes also had high levels of aluminum and low acid-neutralizing capacity relative to the neutral lakes. Yellow perch (n = 100) from the acidic lakes had significantly higher levels of mercury than did those (n = 102) from the neutral lakes (P < 0.001), and the total mercury concentration increased with both length and weight of the fish. We conclude that the pH of the lake water is a major factor in determining the concentration of methylmercury in yellow perch. PMID:21413513

Brown, Donald; Goncharov, Alexey; Paul, Eric; Simonin, Howard; Carpenter, David O

2010-12-01

193

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09

194

Effect of soil organic carbon level on the erodibility of a U.S. Piedmont soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensive soil cultivation and high soil erosion has impoverished levels of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern U.S. Piedmont region. Sound soil management practices that build SOC levels are needed to reduce soil erodibility and restore soil quality. We studied the relationship of SOC con...

195

Effect of soil organic carbon level on the erodibility of a U.S. piedmont soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensive soil cultivation and high soil erosion has impoverished levels of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern U.S. Piedmont region. Sound soil management practices that build SOC levels are needed to reduce soil erodibility and restore soil quality. We studied the relationship of SOC con...

196

Relation between Cord Blood Mercury Levels and Early Child Development in a World Trade Center Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. Methods We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11 September 2001, and measured birth outcomes and child development. Results Levels of total mercury in cord and maternal blood were not significantly higher for women who resided or worked within 1 or 2 miles of the WTC in the month after 11 September, compared with women who lived and worked farther away. Average cord mercury levels were more than twice maternal levels, and both were elevated in women who reported eating fish/seafood during pregnancy. Regression analyses showed no significant association between (ln) cord or maternal blood total mercury and birth outcomes. Log cord mercury was inversely associated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development psychomotor score [Psychomotor Development Index (PDI)] at 36 months (b = –4.2, p = 0.007) and with Performance (b = –3.4, p = 0.023), Verbal (b = –2.9, p = 0.023), and Full IQ scores (b = –3.8, p = 0.002) on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI-R), at 48 months, after controlling for fish/seafood consumption and other confounders. Fish/seafood consumption during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 5.6- to 9.9-point increase in 36-month PDI, and 48-month Verbal and Full IQ scores. Conclusions Blood mercury was not significantly raised in women living or working close to the WTC site in the weeks after 11 September 2001. Higher cord blood mercury was associated with reductions in developmental scores at 36 and 48 months, after adjusting for the positive effects of fish/seafood consumption during pregnancy.

Lederman, Sally Ann; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Rauh, Virginia; Sheets, Stephen E.; Tang, Deliang; Viswanathan, Sheila; Becker, Mark; Stein, Janet L.; Wang, Richard Y.; Perera, Frederica P.

2008-01-01

197

Potential risks of natural mercury levels to wild predator fish in an Amazon reservoir.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic organisms and along food chain. Many studies have reported the problem of mercury exposure in aquatic systems from Amazon basin, but very few have focused on the potential risks to wild fish. The present study reports the bioaccumulation of mercury and alterations in target organs of the predator fish Hoplias malabaricus (traíra) from Samuel reservoir, Amazon basin, Northern Brazil. About 18% of fish had mercury levels in muscle exceeding the safe limit for ingestion through food, established by WHO (0.5 ?g Hg g(-1)). Fish were separated in two groups according to mercury bioaccumulation in liver (<0.2 ?g Hg g(-1)-group I and >0.2 ?g Hg g(-1)-group II) for biomarker comparisons. Catalase activity and number of macrophage centers were statistically higher in group II, confirming the potential of Hg to interfere with redox balance and to recruit defense cells to the liver. Conversely, erythrocyte nuclear alterations were less frequent in group II, indicating a more rigorous selection of erythrocytes or hormesis pattern of response. Glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation, and histopathological analyses were not statistically different in the liver and gills of both groups. Comparison of lipid peroxidation levels of these fish with others captured in Southern Brazil during another study and the high incidence of morphological alterations in the liver and gills suggest that the bioaccumulation of mercury during continuous exposure is posing potential risks to the species. PMID:21927790

da Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

2011-09-17

198

Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury  

SciTech Connect

Historic use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. An evaluation of analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the soils at the Y-12 facility was conducted and these tequniques were used to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collect at the site. These include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption. Hg concentrations determined using XRF, a tool that has been suggestions for quick onsite characterization of soils, were lower than concentrations determined by HgT analysis and as a result this technique is not suitable for the evaluation of Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing Hg(0)l. Hg(0)g headspace analysis can be used to examine the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and when coupled with HgT analysis an understanding of the speciation of Hg in soils can be obtained. Two soil cores collected within the Y-12 complex highlight the heterogeneity in the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. At one location Hg(0)l was distributed throughout 3.2 meters of core whereas the core from a location only 12 meters away only contained Hg(0)l in 0.3 m zone of the core. Sequential extractions, used to examine the forms of Hg in the soils, indicated that at depths within the core that have low Hg concentrations organically associated Hg is dominant. Soil from the zone of groundwater inundation showed reduced characteristics and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this location it appears that Hg transported within the groundwater is a source of Hg to the soil. Overall the characterization of Hg in soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult due to the heterogeneous distribution within the soils and this challenge is enhanced in industrial facilities in which fill material comprise most of the soils and historical and continuing reworking of the subsurface has remobilized the Hg.

Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

2013-01-01

199

Assessment of Mercury in Soils, Crops, Earthworms, and Water when Soil is Treated with Gypsum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from fossil fuel combustion has many potential uses in agriculture, but there is concern about the potential environmental effects of its elevated mercury (Hg) concentration. The wet limestone scrubbing process that removes sulfur from flue gas (and produces gyp...

200

Mercury accumulation in grass and forb species as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and mercury exposures in air and soil.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for atmospheric Hg degrees uptake by grassland species as a function of different air and soil Hg exposures, and to specifically test how increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations may influence foliar Hg concentrations. Four common tallgrass prairie species were germinated and grown for 7 months in environmentally controlled chambers using two different atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg major; 3.7+/-2.0 and 10.2+/-3.5 ng m(-3)), soil Hg (<0.01 and 0.15+/-0.08 micro g g(-1)), and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (390+/-18, 598+/-22 micro mol mol(-1)) exposures. Species used included two C4 grasses and two C3 forbs. Elevated CO(2) concentrations led to lower foliar Hg concentrations in plants exposed to low (i.e., ambient) air Hg degrees concentrations, but no CO(2) effect was apparent at higher air Hg degrees exposure. The observed CO(2) effect suggests that leaf Hg uptake might be controlled by leaf physiological processes such as stomatal conductance which is typically reduced under elevated CO(2). Foliar tissue exposed to elevated air Hg degrees concentrations had higher concentrations than those exposed to low air Hg degrees , but only when also exposed to elevated CO(2). The relationships for foliar Hg concentrations at different atmospheric CO(2) and Hg degrees exposures indicate that these species may have a limited capacity for Hg storage; at ambient CO(2) concentrations all Hg absorption sites in leaves may have been saturated while at elevated CO(2) when stomatal conductance was reduced saturation may have been reached only at higher concentrations of atmospheric Hg degrees . Foliar Hg concentrations were not correlated to soil Hg exposures, except for one of the four species (Rudbeckia hirta). Higher soil Hg concentrations resulted in high root Hg concentrations and considerably increased the percentage of total plant Hg allocated to roots. The large shifts in Hg allocation patterns-notably under soil conditions only slightly above natural background levels-indicate a potentially strong role of plants in belowground Hg transformation and cycling processes. PMID:16631233

Millhollen, A G; Obrist, D; Gustin, M S

2006-05-02

201

Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

Renzoni, Aristeo

1992-09-01

202

Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.  

SciTech Connect

Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

2012-05-15

203

Relationship between the prenatal exposure to low-level of mercury and the size of a newborn’s cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to methylmercury at any stage of central nervous system development could induce alterations and result in severe congenital abnormalities. Total mercury level in maternal hair during pregnancy correlates well with blood levels of methylmercury and with total mercury levels in fetal brain.A prospective study has been conducted and a total of 137 childbearing women living at the coastal region

I. Bilic Cace; A. Milardovic; I. Prpic; R. Krajina; O. Petrovic; P. Vukelic; Z. Spiric; M. Horvat; D. Mazej; J. Snoj

2011-01-01

204

Influence of Methylmercury from Tributary Streams on Mercury Levels in Savannah River Asiatic Clams  

SciTech Connect

Average methylmercury levels in five Savannah River tributary streams sampled 11 times over two years were nearly twice as high as in the Savannah River. Total mercury levels in the tributaries did not differ significantly from the river. All of the tributaries drained extensive wetlands that would be expected to support comparatively high rates of methylation. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) collected from the discharge plumes of Savannah River tributaries were significantly higher than in Asiatic clams collected from the Savannah River upstream from the tributary mouths . These results indicate that streams draining wetlands into coastal plain rivers can create localized areas of elevated methylmercury with resulting increases in the mercury levels of river biota.

Paller, M.H.

2004-03-01

205

High Hair and Urinary Mercury Levels of Fish Eaters in the Nonpolluted Environment of Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair and mercury concentrations of 134 fish-eating subjects in the Lake Murray area and 13 non-fish-eating subjects in the upper-Strickland area, Papua New Guinea, were studied. Hair mercury levels among the subjects in the Lake Murray area (mean = 21.9 ?g\\/g, range = 3.7–71.9 ?g\\/g) and urinary mercury levels (mean = 7.6 ?g\\/g creatinine, range = 1.4–25.6 ?g\\/g creatinine) were

Taku Abe; Ryutaro Ohtsuka; Tetsuro Hongo; Tsuguyoshi Suzuki; Chiharu Tohyama; Atsuhiro Nakano; Hirokatsu Akagi; Tomoya Akimichi

1995-01-01

206

Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almadén mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth.  

PubMed

Although mercury (Hg) mining in the Almadén district ceased in May 2002, the consequences of 2000 years of mining in the district has resulted in the dissemination of Hg into the surrounding environment where it poses an evident risk to biota and human health. This risk needs to be properly evaluated. The uptake of Hg has been found to be plant-specific. To establish the different manners in which plants absorb Hg, we carried out a survey of Hg levels in the soils and plants in the most representative habitats of this Mediterranean area and found that the Hg concentrations varied greatly and were dependent on the sample being tested (0.13-2,695 microg g(-1) Hg). For example, the root samples had concentrations ranging from 0.06 (Oenanthe crocata, Rumex induratus) to 1095 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg, while in the leaf samples, the range was from 0.16 (Cyperus longus) to 1278 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg. There are four well-differentiated patterns of Hg uptake: (1) the rate of uptake is constant, independent of Hg concentration in the soil (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus rotundifolia); (2) after an initial linear relationship between uptake and soil concentration, no further increase in Hg(plant) is observed (e.g., Asparagus acutifolius, Cistus ladanifer); (3) no increase in uptake is recorded until a threshold is surpassed, and thereafter a linear relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil) is established (e.g., Rumex bucephalophorus, Cistus crispus); (4) there is no relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil )(e.g., Oenanthe crocata and Cistus monspeliensis). Overall, the Hg concentrations found in plants from the Almadén district clearly reflect the importance of contamination processes throughout the study region. PMID:17013679

Molina, José Antonio; Oyarzun, Roberto; Esbrí, José María; Higueras, Pablo

2006-09-22

207

Potential application of a semi-quantitative method for mercury determination in soils, sediments and gold mining residues.  

PubMed

An alternative, low cost method for analyzing mercury in soil, sediment and gold mining residues was developed, optimized and applied to 30 real samples. It is semiquantitative, performed using an acid extraction pretreatment step, followed by mercury reduction and collection in a detecting paper containing cuprous iodide. A complex is formed with characteristic color whose intensity is proportional to mercury concentration in the original sample. The results are reported as range of concentration and the minimum detectable is 100 ng/g. Method quality assurance was performed by comparing results obtained using the alternative method and the Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry techniques. The average results from duplicate analysis by CVAAS were 100% coincident with alternative method results. The method is applicable for screening tests and can be used in regions where a preliminary diagnosis is necessary, at programs of environmental surveillance or by scientists interested in investigating mercury geochemistry. PMID:17614168

Yallouz, A V; Cesar, R G; Egler, S G

2007-07-05

208

Risk, mercury levels, and birds: relating adverse laboratory effects to field biomonitoring.  

PubMed

There is an abundance of field data on levels of mercury in a variety of organisms and there are a number of studies that demonstrate the adverse effects of mercury on laboratory animals, but few studies examine the relationship between the two. Thus it is often difficult to determine the ecological relevance of mercury concentrations found in nature, or to predict the ecosystem consequences of current levels. In this paper we review the levels in tissues that are associated with adverse effects in birds from laboratory studies and compare these with levels found in wild bird populations in the New York Bight to provide a basis for interpreting values in avian populations. We use feathers from fledgling birds which would have been fed on locally obtained food to eliminate the problem of where toxic burdens were acquired by more mobile adult birds. Laboratory studies indicate that in some species mercury levels of 1.5 ppm in eggs and/or 5 to 40 ppm in the feathers of birds are associated with adverse effects, including impaired reproduction. We report egg levels in birds that range as high as 3.8 ppm and feather levels that range as high as 10.3 ppm, although means are much lower. The levels in eggs of some wild birds in the New York Bight are within the range known to lower hatchability, embryo and chick survival, and chick weight, all variables that reduce reproductive success. Species with high egg levels include Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger). Levels in feathers of some young wild birds from the New York Bight are within the range associated with reduced hatchability of eggs, behavioral abnormalities of adults, and infertility. Species with dangerously elevated mercury levels in feathers include great egret (Ardea [=Egretta] alba), snowy egret [Egretta thula), and black skimmers. PMID:9417847

Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

1997-11-01

209

Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago.

2009-01-01

210

Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study  

SciTech Connect

Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31

211

SMOS CATDS level 3 Soil Moisture products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since november 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed a ground segment for the SMOS data, known as the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS). Operational since June 2011, it provides data referred to as level 3 products at different time resolutions: daily products, 3 days global products insuring a complete coverage of the Earth surface, 10-days composite products, and monthly averages products. These products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km2. Having global maps at different time resolutions is of interest for different applications such as agriculture, water management, climatic events (especially droughts and floods) or climatology. The soil moisture level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's (European Space Agency) level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-days window. The benefit of using many revisits is expected to improve the retrieved soil moisture. Along with the surface soil moisture, other geophysical parameters are retrieved such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. The aim of this communication is to present the first results from the CATDS dataset and all the different data available. Comparisons with in situ data at different sites will be presented to assess the quality of these data. A comparison with the ESA level 2 SMOS products will also be shown to better understand the difference between these dataset, in terms of quality, coverage, applications and use. We will also present how the CATDS data can capture some special events. For instance, the dataset will be compared with meteorological events (rain events), or extreme events such as droughts or floods.

Berthon, L.; Mialon, A.; Bitar, A. Al; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.

2012-04-01

212

The association between cadmium, lead and mercury blood levels and reproductive hormones among healthy, premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cadmium, lead and mercury have been identified in human follicular fluid and ovarian tissue, and have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in epidemiologic studies; however, few studies have examined the relationship between blood metal levels and reproductive hormones. METHODS Among 252 premenopausal women aged 18–44 years, we examined the association between blood metal levels (cadmium, lead and mercury), cycle length, and reproductive hormones [FSH, LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone] measured at clinically relevant time points in the menstrual cycle. The association between metal levels (continuous) and hormone levels was assessed using linear regression with hormone levels (natural) log transformed and the results interpreted as the percentage difference in hormone level per unit increase in metal level. RESULTS Median (interquartile range) cadmium, lead and mercury levels were 0.30 µg/l (0.19, 0.43), 0.87 µg/dl (0.68, 1.20) and 1.10 µg/l (0.58, 2.10), respectively. Each 1 µg/l increase in cadmium levels was associated with a 21% [95% confidence interval (CI): ?2.9, 49.9] increase in early follicular phase E2 levels after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, lead and mercury. This association decreased when restricted to never smokers (10%; 95% CI: ?19.5, 51.3). Cadmium was also associated with a non-significant 9% (95% CI: ?0.2, 19.9), or 2.7 day, increase in cycle length among never smokers. No associations were observed between lead or mercury and the outcomes in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS Further evaluation of the association between cadmium, E2 and cycle length is warranted, taking into consideration cigarette smoke and its multiple components.

Jackson, L.W.; Howards, P.P.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Schisterman, E.F.

2011-01-01

213

The effects of land use change on mercury distribution in soils of Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon.  

PubMed

This study presents the spatial distribution, degree of contamination and storage capacity of Hg in surface forest and pasture soils from Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon, a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. During that period, average annual gold production was about 6.5 tons, with an estimated Hg annual emission to the environment of about 8.8 tons, 60-80% of it being emitted to the atmosphere. Mercury sources to the region are mining sites and gold-dealer shops at the city of Alta Floresta, where gold is smelted and commercialized. Mercury concentrations in forest soils (15-248 ng g(-1), average=61.9 ng g(-1)) were 1.5-3.0 times higher than in pasture soils (10-74 ng g(-1), average=33.8 ng g(-1)), suggesting strong re-mobilization after deforestation. Highest Hg concentrations were found within a distance of 20-30 km from mining sites in both soil types. The influence of the refining operations within the city of Alta Floresta, however, was less clear. Somewhat higher concentrations were observed only within a 5 km radius from the city center where gold-dealer shops are located. Wind direction controls the spatial distribution of Hg. Background concentrations (15-50 ng g(-1)) were generally found at the outer perimeter of the sampling grid, about 40 km from sources. This suggests that Hg released from mining and refining activities undergoes rapid deposition. Estimated cumulative Hg burdens for the first 10 cm of soil averaged 8.3 mg m(-2) and 4.9 mg m(-2), for forest and pasture soils respectively and compare well with ultisols and hydromorphic oxisols, but were lower than those found in yellow-red and yellow latosols and podsols from other Amazonian areas. Our results show that changing land use in the Amazon is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg deposited on soils from the atmosphere. PMID:14987810

Lacerda, Luiz D; de Souza, Margareth; Ribeiro, Mario G

2004-05-01

214

Symptoms of intoxication in dentists associated with exposure to low levels of mercury.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of occupational exposure of a group of dentists to low levels of mercury. The study population consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (referent group), from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete a questionnaire on demographic variables, suspicious symptoms of intoxication and work practices. Additionally, atmospheric and urinary concentrations of mercury were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique. The data were analysed by ?(2) test, independent sample t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis, where applicable. Both groups were similar as far as most demographic and socioeconomic variables, but age and number of personal amalgam fillings, were concerned. Median of atmospheric concentration of mercury was found to be 3.35 ?g/m(3). Likewise, the urinary concentration of mercury in dentists was estimated to be 3.16 ?g/g creatinine. This value was significantly higher than that of the referent group. Similarly, analysis of the data revealed that neuropsychological, muscular, respiratory, cardiovascular and dermal symptoms were more prevalent in dentists. Our findings indicate that occupational exposure of dentists to mercury, even at low levels, is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of symptoms of intoxication. PMID:21173523

Neghab, Masoud; Choobineh, Alireza; Hassan Zadeh, Jafar; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

2010-12-16

215

Is low-level environmental mercury exposure of concern to human health?  

PubMed

Mercury has long been recognised as toxic, principally in relation to its effects on humans following acute or prolonged high-level occupational exposures and, in the latter half of the last century, from a number of environmental incidents. Recognised target organs are the kidneys, central nervous system and thyroid glands. Recently concern has grown about the potential risks to the human population from current background environmental levels, leading bodies such as the World Health Organisation to call for the reduction or, wherever possible, elimination of the use of mercury. This review considers the strength of the epidemiological evidence on the effects of prolonged low-level exposure to the various forms of mercury. The limited research base suggests that several of the potential targets of long-term environmental exposure to mercury are similar to those occurring from occupational exposure including the renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. However, the evidence also suggests that, particularly in the case of organic mercury compounds, the most sensitive endpoint is central nervous system toxicity, especially in relation to exposure during the in utero period and childhood. It also appears that those human populations which have traditionally consumed diets high in seafoods are at greatest risk. While the extent of risk to the general population that may arise from existing environmental exposure levels appears limited, this conclusion is based on an incomplete dataset and therefore the general consensus view that exposure to mercury in its various forms should be minimised where practical, appears to be justified. A number of potential areas of further research are suggested as being pre-requisite to the development of a more rigorous risk assessment. PMID:19850321

Holmes, P; James, K A F; Levy, L S

2009-10-21

216

Mercury distribution and bioaccumulation up the soil-plant-grasshopper-spider food chain in Huludao City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate total mercury (THg) distribution and its bioaccumulation up the soil-plant-grasshopper-spider in the Huludao City, which is polluted seriously by chlor-alkali and zinc smelting industry in Northeast of China. Results indicated that average THg concentrations in soil, plant leaves, grasshopper Locusta migratoria manilensis and Acrida chinensis, and spider were 0.151, 0.119, 0.167 and

Zhongsheng Zhang; Qichao Wang; Dongmei Zheng; Na Zheng; Xianguo Lu

2010-01-01

217

Hydraulic Conductance and Mercury-Sensitive Water Transport for Roots of Opuntia acanthocarpa in Relation to Soil Drying and Rewetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought-induced changes in root hydraulic conductance (LP) and mercury-sensitive water transport were examined for distal (immature) and mid-root (mature) regions of Opuntia acanthocarpa. During 45 d of soil drying, LP decreased by about 67% for distal and mid-root regions. Afte r8di nrewetted soil, LP recovered to 60% of its initial value for both regions. Axial xylem hydraulic conductivity was only

Pierre Martre; Gretchen B. North; Park S. Nobel

2001-01-01

218

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials  

SciTech Connect

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2006-07-15

219

Variation and distribution of total mercury in water, sediment and soil from northern Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical freshwater lake, is an important resource, ecologically and economically. THg distribution in the northern parts of the lake are not well known, so to answer this gap, patterns in total mercury (THg) in water, soil and two dated sediment cores from northern Lake Victoria were determined. Water THg concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 5.8

L. M. Campbell; R. E. Hecky; R. Muggide; D. G. Dixon; P. S. Ramlal

2003-01-01

220

Variation and distribution of total mercury in water, sediment and soil from northern Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical freshwater lake, is an important resource, ecologi- cally and economically. THg distribution in the northern parts of the lake are not well known, so to answer this gap, patterns in total mercury (THg) in water, soil and two dated sediment cores from north- ern Lake Victoria were determined. Water THg concentrations ranged from 0.7

L. M. CAMPBELL; R. E. HECKY; R. MUGGIDE; D. G. DIXON

2003-01-01

221

Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most pervasive and bio-accumulative metals in the environment. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of a class of soil-deliverable FeS nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of Hg in two field-contaminated soils from a New Jersey site and one sediment from an Alabama site. The nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a particle size of 34.3 ± 8.3 nm (standard deviation), whereas dynamic light scattering gave a hydrodynamic diameter of 222.5 ± 3.2 nm. Batch tests showed that at an FeS-to-Hg molar ratio of 28:1-118:1, the nanoparticles reduced water-leachable Hg by 79%-96% and the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) based leachability by 26%-96%. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the nanoparticles were deliverable in the sediment/soil columns under moderate injection pressure. However, once the external pressure was removed, the delivered nanoparticles remained virtually mobile under typical groundwater flow conditions. When the Hg-contaminated soil and sediment were treated with 52-95 pore volumes of a 500 mg l(-1) FeS nanoparticle suspension, water-leachable Hg was reduced by 90%-93% and TCLP-leachable Hg was reduced by 65%-91%. The results warrant further field demonstration of this promising in situ remediation technology. PMID:22743738

Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Kaback, Dawn; Zhao, Dongye

2012-06-28

222

Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples.  

PubMed

Simple and accessible analytical methods compared to conventional methods such as US EPA Method 7471B and ASTM-D6414 for the determination of mercury (Hg) in soil and coal samples are proposed. The new methods are consisted of fewer steps without the Hg oxidizing step consequently eliminating a step necessary to reduce excess oxidant. In the proposed methods, a Hg extraction is an inexpensive and accessible step utilizing a disposable test tube and a heating block instead of an expensive autoclave vessel and a specially-designed microwave. Also, a common laboratory vacuum filtration was used for the extracts instead of centrifugation. As for the optimal conditions, first, best acids for extracting Hg from soil and coal samples was investigated using certified reference materials (CRMs). Among common laboratory acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and aqua regia), aqua regia was most effective for the soil CRM whereas HNO3 was for the coal CRM. Next, the optimal heating temperature and time for Hg extraction were evaluated. The most effective Hg extraction was obtained at 120°C for 30min for soil CRM and at 70°C for 90min for coal CRM. Further tests using selected CRMs showed that all the measured values were within the allowable certification range. Finally, actual soil and coal samples were analyzed using the new methods and the US EPA Method 7473. The relative standard deviation values of 1.71-6.55% for soil and 0.97-12.11% for coal samples were obtained proving that the proposed methods were not only simple and accessible but also accurate. PMID:23683353

Park, Chul Hee; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Lauren Jong-Eun; Lee, Tai Gyu

2013-05-16

223

Trace level analysis of mercury using urease in combination with an ammonia gas sensitive semiconductor structure  

SciTech Connect

A method for the determination of mercury(II)ions at trace levels is described. The method is based on the profound inhibitory effect of mercury on the enzyme urease. The activity of the enzyme was determined by the rate of ammonia produced from urea as followed by an ammonia gas sensitive iridium thin metal film-oxide-semiconductor (IrTMOS) structure. Two systems were investigated. For the initial urease activity studies, a simple microcell was used. Also a test plate, containing dry reagent strips with all necessary chemicals was developed, making the analytical procedure very simple to perform. The test volume applied was 2 ..mu..l and the sensitivity to standard of mercury(II) ions is at least 0.005..mu..M (1.0 ng/ml). One sample could be analyzed in less than 8 minutes. Furthermore, the kinetics of sensor response versus enzyme activity is discussed.

Winquist, F.; Lundstroem, I.; Danielsson, B.

1988-10-01

224

PROLONGATION OF HUMAN NEUTROPHIL SURVIVAL BY LOW-LEVEL MERCURY VIA INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of organic and inorganic mercury compounds have been reported previously to induce cell death by apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC), but little is known about their potential effects on the viability and death of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In contrast to MNC, PMN are known to undergo readily spontaneous apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro.

Eliane Moisan; Sylvie Arbour; Nhi Nguyen; Marie-Josée Hébert; Denis Girard; Jacques Bernier; Michel Fournier; Edouard Kouassi

2002-01-01

225

Impact of Consumption of Freshwater Fish on Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood, Urine, and Alveolar Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exposure to methylmercury occurs mainly via consumption of fish. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of freshwater fish consumption on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and end-exhaled air. Twenty subjects without dental amalgam fillings were recruited from sport-fishing societies. They ranged in age from 61 to 87 yr. Six individuals ate freshwater fish at

Cecilia Johnsson; Andrejs Schütz; Gerd Sällsten

2005-01-01

226

Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: Fish consumption as a determinant of exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration

Zohreh Salehi; Abbas Esmaili-Sari

2010-01-01

227

Factors Affecting Mercury and Selenium Levels in New Jersey Flatfish: Low Risk to Human Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some fish contain high levels of mercury (Hg), which could pose a risk to fish eaters themselves or their children. In making decisions about fish consumption, people must decide whether to eat fish, how much to eat, what species to eat, and what size fish to eat, as well as suitable (or unsuitable) locations, among other factors. Yet to make

Joanna Burger; Christian Jeitner; Mark Donio; Sheila Shukla; Michael Gochfeld

2009-01-01

228

Locational Differences in Mercury and Selenium Levels in 19 Species of Saltwater Fish from New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few

Joanna Burger; Christian Jeitner; Michael Gochfeld

2011-01-01

229

Mercury in soils, lakes, and fish in Voyageurs National Park (Minnesota): importance of atmospheric deposition and ecosystem factors.  

PubMed

Concentrations of methylmercury in game fish from many interior lakes in Voyageurs National Park (MN, U.S.A.) substantially exceed criteria for the protection of human health. We assessed the importance of atmospheric and geologic sources of mercuryto interior lakes and watersheds within the Park and identified ecosystem factors associated with variation in methylmercury contamination of lacustrine food webs. Geologic sources of mercury were small, based on analyses of underlying bedrock and C-horizon soils, and nearly all mercury in the 0- and A-horizon soils was derived from atmospheric deposition. Analyses of dated sediment cores from five lakes showed that most (63% +/- 13%) of the mercury accumulated in lake sediments during the 1900s was from anthropogenic sources. Contamination of food webs was assessed by analysis of whole, 1-year-old yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a regionally important prey fish. The concentrations of total mercury in yellow perch and of methylmercury in lake water varied substantially among lakes, reflecting the influence of ecosystem processes and variables that affect the microbial production and abundance of methylmercury. Models developed with the information-theoretic approach (Akaike Information Criteria) identified lake water pH, dissolved sulfate, and total organic carbon (an indicator of wetland influence) as factors influencing methylmercury concentrations in lake water and fish. We conclude that nearly all of the mercury in fish in this seemingly pristine PMID:17120551

Wiener, J G; Knights, B C; Sandheinrich, M B; Jeremiason, J D; Brigham, M E; Engstrom, D R; Woodruff, L G; Cannon, W F; Balogh, S J

2006-10-15

230

Mercury levels and potential risk from subsistence foods from the Aleutians.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has been devoted to contaminants (mainly PCBs and mercury) in subsistence foods (particularly fish) from various parts of the world. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury levels in a full range of subsistence foods from a particular region. While managers and scientists compute risk based on site-specific data on contaminant levels and consumption rates, a first step in making risk decisions by subsistence peoples is knowledge about the relative levels of mercury in the foods they eat. This study examined levels of mercury in subsistence foods (edible components) from several islands in the western Aleutians of Alaska, including algae (4 species), invertebrates (9 species), fish (15 species) and birds (5 species). Samples were gathered by both subsistence hunters/fishers and by scientists using the same equipment. Another objective was to determine if there were differences in mercury levels in subsistence foods gathered from different Aleutian islands. We tested the null hypotheses that there were no interspecific and interisland differences in mercury levels. Because of variation in distribution and the nature of subsistence hunting and fishing, not all organisms were collected from each of the islands. There were significant and important differences in mercury levels among species, but the locational differences were rather small. There was an order of magnitude difference between algae/some invertebrates and fish/birds. Even within fish, there were significant differences. The highest mean mercury levels were in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon, 0.277 ppm), yellow irish lord (Hemilepidotus jardani, 0.281 ppm), great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus, 0.366 ppm), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, 0.329 ppm) and its eggs (0.364 ppm), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba, 0.494 ppm). Mercury levels increased with increasing weight of the organisms for limpets (Tectura scutum), and for 11 of the 15 fish species examined. Nine of the 15 fish species had some samples over the 0.3 ppm level, and 7 of 15 fish had some samples over 0.5 ppm. For birds, 95% of the pigeon guillemot muscle samples were above the 0.3 ppm, and 43% were above 0.5 ppm. While health professionals may argue about the risk and benefits of eating fish, and of eating alternative protein sources, the public should be provided with enough information for them to make informed decisions. This is particularly true for subsistence people who consume large quantities of self-caught foods, particularly for sensitive sub-populations, such as pregnant women. We argue that rather than giving people blanket statements about the health benefits or risks from eating fish, information on mean and maximum mercury levels should also be provided on a wide range of subsistence foods, allowing informed decisions, especially by those most at risk. PMID:17590413

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Stamm, Tim; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Dan; Patrick, Robert; Weston, Jim

2007-06-27

231

Potential side effects of dental amalgam restorations. (II). No relation between mercury levels in the body and mental disorders.  

PubMed

A group of 50 consecutive patients, referred for self-reported complaints which they related to dental amalgam restorations, was compared with control patients matched by age, sex and postal zip code. All patients were subjected to a psychiatric examination and a set of rating scales and questionnaires, and the symptoms were related to the mercury levels in blood, urine and hair. A psychiatric diagnosis was established in 70% of the patients in the index group versus 14% in the control group. The prevailing symptoms were anxiety, asthenia and depression. Mercury levels in blood, urine and hair were similar among index cases and controls, and were far below critical levels of mercury intoxication. There was no correlation between mercury levels and the severity of the reported symptoms. Therefore, mercury was not a likely cause of the complaints. Instead, the reported symptoms were part of a broad spectrum of mental disorders. PMID:9249191

Bratel, J; Haraldson, T; Ottosson, J O

1997-06-01

232

Multifractal analysis of soil porosity based on mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil pore space is composed of a continuum of pores extremely variable in size which include structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores > 20 mm in diameter, i.e. with an upper size limit of the order of centimetres. Thus, a ratio of at least 106 is displayed in soil pore sizes. Soil pore size distribution directly influences many soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Characterization of soil structure may be achieved by pore size distribution analysis. There is not a unique method for determining soil pore size distributions all over the size scale. Mercury injection porosimetry and N2 adsorption isotherms are techniques commonly used for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in selected ranges. The Hg injection technique provides pore size distributions in the range from about 50 nm to 100 m, whereas N2 adsorption isotherms may be used for finer pores ranging in size from about 2 to 500 nm. In this work, multifractal formalism has been used to describe Hg injection porosimetry and N2 adsorption isotherms measured in a Mollisol and in a Vertisol with four different soil use intensities, ranging from native, never cultivated, land to continuous cropping. Three samples per treatment were analyzed resulting in a total of twelve samples per soil. All the Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms exhibited multifractal behaviour as shown by singularity spectra and Rényi dimension spectra. The capacity dimension, D0, for both Hg injection and N2 adsorption data sets was not significantly different from 1.00. However, significantly different values of entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2, were obtained for mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption experimental data. For instance, entropy dimension, D1, values extracted from multifractal spectra of Hg intrusion porosimetry were on average 0.913 and varied from 0.889 to 0.939. However, the corresponding figures for N2 adsorption isotherms were on average 0.507 with a range from 0.401 to 0.666. The entropy dimension D1 is a measure of diversity and in our study case gauges the concentration degree of the pore size distribution on a specific pore size range. Values of D1 for Hg injection curves were close to 1.00 and consequently they indicate more or less homogeneous pore size distribution pattern distributed over the range of pore sizes measured with this method. In opposite D1 values for N2 adsorption isotherms were much lower, which reflects clustering and indicates that most of the measure concentrates in a small size domain for finer pore scales. The use of multifractal indixes as indicators for characterizing soil structure and as well as for deriving soil physical properties is discussed. Acknowledgements. This work was financed by by MEC (Spain) under project CGL2005-08219-C02-01.

Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.

2009-04-01

233

Threshold increases in soil lead and mercury from tropospheric deposition across an elevational gradient.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition is the primary mechanism by which remote ecosystems are contaminated, but few data sets show how fluxes change and control soil metal burdens at the landform scale. We present mercury (Hg), lead ((210)Pb and total Pb), and cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) measurements in organic (O) soil horizons at high-resolution elevation intervals of ?60 m from 540 to 1160 m on Camels Hump in northern Vermont, USA. Across this gradient, average O horizon Hg ranges from 0.99 mg m(-2) in the low elevation deciduous forest zone to 7.6 mg m(-2) in the higher elevation coniferous forest at 1030 m. We measure two pronounced threshold increases in soil metal burdens above 801 and 934 m, corresponding to the two most common altitudes of cloud base, which coincide with changes in vegetation species. Lead-210, a unique tracer of tropospheric deposition, also increased from 3200 Bq m(-2) to 11500 Bq m(-2) in O horizons, exhibiting threshold responses at the same elevations as Hg and total Pb. Concentrations of (210)Pb and Hg in foliage double from 760 to 900 m elevation, indicating enhanced deposition across the transition from deciduous to coniferous forest. In contrast, (7)Be is constant across the entire elevational gradient because of its upper atmospheric source. This indicates that the effects of orographic precipitation have a smaller control on soil contaminant burdens than the coupled cloudwater deposition-vegetation scavenging effect in the presence of upwind sources. By measuring soil contaminants and unique tracers of atmospheric deposition, we show that tropospheric fluxes of Hg and Pb are higher by a factor of 2 in high-elevation coniferous forests than in adjacent lowlands. Total O horizon Hg and Pb burdens increase by over 4-fold with elevation because of the compounding effects of enhanced deposition and longer metal residence times at higher elevations (>50 years). PMID:22759071

Stankwitz, Clare; Kaste, James M; Friedland, Andrew J

2012-07-16

234

Optimization of a simple field method to determine mercury volatilization from soils—Examples of 13 sites in floodplain ecosystems at the Elbe River (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury fluxes between soil and atmosphere have often been determined by using dynamic flux chambers and micrometeorological methods to assess ecological risks. However, both systems are complex, stationary, and expensive impeding measurements of Hg emissions at various field sites.The mobile, easy to handle, and cost-effective field method to determine total gaseous mercury (TGM), according to [Böhme, F., Rinklebe, J., Stärk,

Jörg Rinklebe; Mark Overesch; Rainer Wennrich; Hans-Joachim Stärk; Sibylle Mothes; Heinz-Ulrich Neue

2009-01-01

235

Fish consumption patterns and blood mercury levels in Wisconsin Chippewa Indians.  

PubMed

Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin at high blood levels (> 400 micrograms/l) and is thought to cause neurologic symptoms at substantially lower levels in susceptible adults and infants. Given that levels of methylmercury in fish in northern Wisconsin lakes can be high (> 1 ppm, FDA standard) and Chippewa Indians take large amounts of fish from these lakes, the extent of their exposure to methylmercury was investigated. Using tribal-maintained registries, 465 Chippewa adults living on reservation were selected randomly and were invited to participate; 175 (38%) participated in the study. In an effort to characterize nonrespondents, 75 nonrespondents were selected randomly and were followed up aggressively. An additional 152 volunteers who were selected nonrandomly also participated in the study. Subjects completed a questionnaire about fish consumption patterns and had blood drawn for mercury determination. Sixty-four persons (20%) had blood mercury levels in excess of 5 micrograms/l (i.e., upper limit of normal in nonexposed populations); the highest level found was 33 micrograms/l. Fish consumption was higher in males and the unemployed. Blood mercury levels were highly associated with recent walleye consumption (p = .001). Methylmercury levels in some Wisconsin Chippewa were found to be elevated, but were below the levels associated with adverse health effects. We recommend a continuation of efforts to limit exposures in this high-risk population. PMID:8117148

Peterson, D E; Kanarek, M S; Kuykendall, M A; Diedrich, J M; Anderson, H A; Remington, P L; Sheffy, T B

236

Mercury levels in plasma and urine after removal of all amalgam restorations: The effect of using rubber dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to determine whether removal of all amalgam restorations might significantly affect mercury levels in plasma and urine and whether the use of rubber dams might reduce patient exposure to mercury during amalgam removal.

Anders Berglund; Margareta Molin

1997-01-01

237

National Resources Conservation Service: Soils: College Level Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students and educators looking for resources on the world of soil science will want to bookmark this useful site. Created by the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, the site includes college-level appropriate material on soil biology, soil risks, soil quotations, and urban soil issues. The "Soil Risks & Hazards" area contains two key documents that can be best used by students seeking to understand potential soil-related hazards in and around different parts of the US. Moving along, "The Twelve Soil Orders" leads to a page created by the University of Idaho about the soil taxonomy created by the USDA in 1975. The "Soil Quotations" area has some rather compelling quotes from biologists, soil scientists, and poets about the nature and importance of soil. The site is rounded out by the "Agriculture in the Classroom" link, which leads to state agricultural profiles created by the USDA.

2011-06-26

238

National Resources Conservation Service: Soils: College Level Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students and educators looking for resources on the world of soil science will want to bookmark this useful site. Created by the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, the site includes college-level appropriate material on soil biology, soil risks, soil quotations, and urban soil issues. The "Soil Risks & Hazards" area contains two key documents that can be best used by students seeking to understand potential soil-related hazards in and around different parts of the US. Moving along, "The Twelve Soil Orders" leads to a page created by the University of Idaho about the soil taxonomy created by the USDA in 1975. The "Soil Quotations" area has some rather compelling quotes from biologists, soil scientists, and poets about the nature and importance of soil. The site is rounded out by the "Agriculture in the Classroom" link, which leads to state agricultural profiles created by the USDA.

239

Remote sensing of Mercury-contaminated soils through plant reflection spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial extent of Hg contamination is often poorly known because current methods used to identify and map Hg soil contamination on a regional scale are time consuming and expensive. Here we test whether vegetation growing in Hg-contaminated soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR, 350-2500nm) spectra. Previous work indicates that Hg can cause chemical and structural changes in plant tissue, including chlorophyll substitution and cell damage, which we predict may alter the reflectance spectra of plants in a measurable way. To test this hypothesis, Mustard Spinach plants (n=21) were grown in mercury-spiked soils and in Hg-contaminated soils collected in the field. The plants were grown under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993ppm) of the Mustard Spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentrations of soils (0.091-39.35ppm). Leaf Hg increased throughout the growth cycle but decreased in the plants grown in the Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soil at the end of the growth cycle. Leaf Hg uptake appears to occur through both roots and leaves and may vary as a function of bioavailability of Hg in the soils. Reflectance spectra of leaves were measured under artificial light in the laboratory. The potential spectral effects of Hg on the plants were quantified with selected vegetation indices (VIs) including Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Red Edge Position (REP) and Amplitude (REA) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to foliar Hg concentrations. Correlations between VIs and foliar Hg concentrations are not statistically significant. However, RVI and REP values of plants grown in Hg-spiked and in field-contaminated soils are lower relative to those from the control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle and decrease more rapidly than those from control plants at the end of the growth cycle. These lower RVI and REP values may be related to lower chlorophyll abundances in the Hg-contaminated plants. The timing of the spectral differences suggests that phenology should be a critical component for future studies of both in situ and remote detection of foliar Hg content.

Dunagan, S. C.; Gilmore, M. S.; Varekamp, J. C.

2005-12-01

240

Complete characterization of pore size distribution of tilled and orchard soil using water retention curve, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, and water desorption methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pore size distribution (PSD) affects numerous soil functions and root growth. The PSD is largely influenced by soil management practices. We have compared the PSD in a wide pore size range of conventionally tilled (CT) and orchard (OR) loamy soil, determined by different methods. Water retention curve, mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption isotherm and water desorption isotherm were used to

M. Hajnos; J. Lipiec; R. ?wieboda; Z. Soko?owska; B. Witkowska-Walczak

2006-01-01

241

Evaluation of mercury levels in pangasius and cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic and North Sea, both being commercially important in the Italian market. A comparative analysis of these two imported fish species was carried out as a risk assessment for consumer safety. The results showed the presence of higher mercury levels in pangasius (0.41 ± 0.08 mg kg(-1)) than in cod (0.11 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1)) fillets. These data underline the importance of monitoring on imported fish before marketing, to evaluate better the risk of mercury exposure through fish and seafood consumption, and of selecting safer fishes for consumption by those groups more sensitive to the toxic effects of this metal. PMID:22575000

Ferrantelli, V; Giangrosso, G; Cicero, A; Naccari, C; Macaluso, A; Galvano, F; D'Orazio, N; Arcadipane, G E; Naccari, F

2012-05-11

242

The association between amalgam dental surfaces and urinary mercury levels in a sample of Albertans, a prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between number of dental amalgam surfaces and urinary mercury levels. Methods This study uses participant data from a large philanthropic chronic disease prevention program in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Urine samples were analysed for mercury levels (measured in ?g/g-creatinine). T-tests were used to determine if differences in urine mercury were statistically significant between persons with no dental amalgam surfaces and one or more dental amalgam surfaces. Linear regression was used to estimate the change in urinary mercury per amalgam surface. Results Urinary mercury levels were statistically significantly higher in participants with amalgam surfaces, with an average difference of 0.55 ?g/g-creatinine. Per amalgam surface, we estimated an expected increase of 0.04 ?g/g-creatinine. Measured urinary mercury levels were also statistically significantly higher in participants with dental amalgam surfaces following the oral administration of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonate (DMPS) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) which are used to mobilize mercury from the blood and tissues. Discussion Our estimates indicate that an individual with seven or more dental amalgam surfaces has 30% to 50% higher urinary mercury levels than an individual without amalgams. This is consistent with past literature that has identified seven amalgam surfaces as an unsafe level of exposure to mercury vapor. Our analysis suggests that continued use of silver amalgam dental fillings for restorative dentistry is a non-negligible, unnecessary source of mercury exposure considering the availability of composite resin alternatives.

2013-01-01

243

Mercury and docosahexaenoic acid levels in maternal and cord blood in relation to segmental maternal hair mercury concentrations at parturition.  

PubMed

Fish is a major source of harmful methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the developing brain. In this study, we investigated the correlations among maternal and umbilical cord (cord) MeHg and DHA levels at parturition, and mercury (Hg) concentration in 1-cm incremental segments hair samples which grew during gestation representing monthly MeHg exposure levels throughout the period. Whole blood Hg and plasma DHA levels were measured in blood sample pairs collected from 54 mothers at early gestation and parturition, and in cord blood. Maternal hair samples were collected at parturition, and Hg concentrations were measured in 1-cm incremental segments. Hg level in mothers at parturition was slightly lower than that at early gestation and the level in cord blood were approximately 1.9 times higher than that in mothers at parturition. On the other hand, DHA level in mothers at parturition was approximately 2.3 and 1.6 times higher than those in mothers at early gestation and in cord plasma, respectively. These results indicate that kinetics of these chemicals in mothers during gestation and placental transfer are completely different. However, Hg and DHA levels had significant positive correlation in fetal circulation. The cord blood Hg showed the strongest correlation with maternal hair Hg in the first 1-cm segment from the scalp at parturition (r=0.87), indicating that fetal MeHg level reflects maternal MeHg burden at late gestation. In contrast, maternal and cord plasma DHA concentrations at parturition showed the highest correlation coefficients with Hg in the fifth (r=0.43) and fourth (r=0.38) 1-cm hair segments, suggesting that maternal and fetal DHA levels reflects maternal fish intake during mid-gestation. PMID:22425897

Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man; Domingo, José L; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

2012-03-15

244

Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.  

PubMed

MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

2010-07-22

245

The absorption, blood levels, and excretion of mercury after a single dose of mercury vapor in humans.  

PubMed

Nine healthy volunteers without amalgam fillings were exposed to 400 micrograms/m3 mercury vapor (Hg0) for 15 min, corresponding to 5.5 nmol Hg0/kg body wt (median range: 4.4-7.2). Frequent sampling of blood, urine, and exhaled air was performed for 30 days after exposure. The median retention of Hg0 was 69% of the inhaled dose. During the first 3 days after exposure 7.5-12% of the absorbed dose was lost by exhalation, with the median half time of Hg0 in expired breath being 2.0 days. In blood and plasma, a rapid absorption phase of Hg was seen, followed by a biexponential decline of the curves in both media. A substantial interindividual variation was observed in the area under the concentration-time curves of Hg in blood and plasma. In plasma the median half time of the second phase was 10 days. About 1.0% of the absorbed Hg was excreted via urine during the first 3 days after exposure, whereas the estimated amount excreted during 30 days ranged from 8 to 40%. In order to evaluate the chronic exposure to mercury from dental amalgam in the general population, the daily Hg dose from the fillings were estimated based on the plasma Hg levels found in subjects with amalgam fillings and on the plasma Hg clearance obtained in the present study. The daily Hg dose was estimated to 5-9 micrograms/day in subjects with an ordinary number of amalgam fillings. PMID:9630463

Sandborgh-Englund, G; Elinder, C G; Johanson, G; Lind, B; Skare, I; Ekstrand, J

1998-05-01

246

Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) factsheet contains information about US mercury contamination. Issues discussed include how mercury becomes a toxicological problem through bioaccumulation, human effects of mercury toxicity, and levels of atmospheric mercury. Mercury levels in fish are examined to determine how mercury gets into the environment and into the food chain.

Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Rickert, D. A.

247

Impact of consumption of freshwater fish on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and alveolar air.  

PubMed

Human exposure to methylmercury occurs mainly via consumption of fish. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of freshwater fish consumption on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and end-exhaled air. Twenty subjects without dental amalgam fillings were recruited from sport-fishing societies. They ranged in age from 61 to 87 yr. Six individuals ate freshwater fish at least once a week and were categorized as high consumers. Eight individuals were classified as medium consumers and ate freshwater fish at least once a month but less than once a week. Six individuals were categorized as low consumers and had not eaten freshwater fish in the past 3 mo. Among the high consumers, median concentrations of mercury were 8.6 microg/L in blood, 2.4 microg/g in hair, 10 pg/L in end-exhaled air, and 1.1 microg/g creatinine in urine. The relationship between freshwater fish consumption and mercury was significant in all biological media. The high-consumption group had much higher mercury levels in blood (9-fold), hair (7-fold), alveolar air (3-fold), and urine (15-fold) than the low-consumption group. The latter finding may be explained by demethylation of methylmercury in the body. The ratio between mercury concentration in blood and hair was 1:270. This implies that the typical blood-hair ratio of 1:250, specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990, is valid also for exposure to low amounts of methylmercury. PMID:15762551

Johnsson, Cecilia; Schütz, Andrejs; Sällsten, Gerd

2005-01-22

248

Soil organic carbon buffers heavy metal contamination on semiarid soils: Effects of different metal threshold levels on soil microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, three threshold levels have been accepted for heavy metal concentrations in agricultural soils, depending on soil pH. The aim of this work was to ascertain how the three threshold values proposed for Cd (3, 6.5, and 12.5 mg kg?1) and Zn (300, 650, and 1300 mg kg?1) really affect soil microbial activity. Two soils, a scrubland soil and a forest soil, differing widely

J. L. Moreno; F. Bastida; M. Ros; T. Hernández; C. García

2009-01-01

249

Mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from Sfax coasts of Tunisia: levels and risk assessment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the mercury (Hg) contents of three marine fish and common seafood species (Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa and Sepia officinalis) at two sampling sites in the gulf of Gabes, i.e. Sidi Mansour (polluted site) and Kerkennah (control site). These species are frequently consumed by the population living at the Sfax coasts of Tunisia, particularly by the families of fisherman. Additionally, the hair mercury levels of 55 volunteers (28 women, 27 men) were analysed and the daily total mercury intake through the fish and seafood diet was estimated. The key findings were: (1) the mercury contents of the examined fish and seafood species frequently exceeded the regulatory guideline value of 0.5 mg/kg, (2) no site-specific differences in hair mercury contents were found, (3) fish and seafood consumption is probably the major contributor of mercury exposure in this population, (4) the daily mercury intake through frequent consumption of D. annularis exceeds the US EPA reference dose. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the health risks associated with such high mercury exposure levels in order to allow optimal counseling and therapy of the concerned population and to avoid future impairment of human health, particularly children's health. PMID:21136288

Mezghani-Chaari, Sawssan; Hamza, A; Hamza-Chaffai, A

2010-12-07

250

Development and validation of a simple thermo-desorption technique for mercury speciation in soils and sediments.  

PubMed

An innovative technique for rapid identification and quantification of mercury (Hg) species in soils and sediments was developed using a direct mercury analyser. Speciation was performed by the continuous thermal-desorption of mercury species (temperature range 76-770 °C), in combination with atomic absorption spectrophotometry detection. Standard materials HgCl(2), Hg bound to humic acids and HgS were characterized; thermo-desorption curves of each material showed a well-resolved peak at specific temperature intervals: 125-225 °C, 100-250 °C and 225-325 °C, respectively. Certified reference materials (CRM) BCR(®) 142R, RTC(®) CRM 021, NRC(®) MESS-3 and PACS-2 were tested. Although the CRM were not certified for Hg species, the sum of Hg species obtained was compared to the certified value for total Hg; recoveries were 92%, 100%, 97%, and 95%, respectively. One sediment and three soil samples from mercury contaminated areas (total Hg concentrations 0.067-126 mg kg(-1)) were analysed as well. It was possible to compare peaks of thermo-desorption curves from the samples with those from standard materials and thereby distinguish different Hg species in solid samples. Generally, Hg was present as bound to chloride or humic substances. The precision was satisfactory, as reflected by the relative standard deviations determined for standards and certified reference materials (<11%; n=10). PMID:22967565

Reis, A T; Coelho, J P; Rodrigues, S M; Rocha, R; Davidson, C M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E

2012-06-07

251

Remediation of mercury contaminated sites - A review.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination caused by mercury is a serious problem worldwide. Coal combustion, mercury and gold mining activities and industrial activities have led to an increase in the mercury concentration in soil. The objective of this paper is to present an up-to-date understanding of the available techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with mercury through considering: mercury contamination in soil, mercury speciation in soil; mercury toxicity to humans, plants and microorganisms, and remediation options. This paper describes the commonly employed and emerging techniques for mercury remediation, namely: stabilization/solidification (S/S), immobilization, vitrification, thermal desorption, nanotechnology, soil washing, electro-remediation, phytostabilization, phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. PMID:22579459

Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Xing, Ying; Shang, Lihai

2012-04-21

252

Mercury mobilization in a flooded soil by incorporation into metallic copper and metal sulfide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mercury is a highly toxic priority pollutant that can be released from wetlands as a result of biogeochemical redox processes. To investigate the temperature-dependent release of colloidal and dissolved Hg induced by flooding of a contaminated riparian soil, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments at 5, 14, and 23 °C. Our results demonstrate substantial colloidal Hg mobilization concomitant with Cu prior to the main period of sulfate reduction. For Cu, we previously showed that this mobilization was due to biomineralization of metallic Cu nanoparticles associated with suspended bacteria. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Hg LIII-edge showed that colloidal Hg corresponded to Hg substituting for Cu in the metallic Cu nanoparticles. Over the course of microbial sulfate reduction, colloidal Hg concentrations decreased but continued to dominate total Hg in the pore water for up to 5 weeks of flooding at all temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that Hg became associated with Cu-rich mixed metal sulfide nanoparticles. The formation of Hg-containing metallic Cu and metal sulfide nanoparticles in contaminated riparian soils may influence the availability of Hg for methylation or volatilization processes and has substantial potential to drive Hg release into adjacent water bodies. PMID:23819689

Hofacker, Anke F; Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2013-07-02

253

FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MILESTONE INC.'S DIRECT MERCURY ANALYZER (DMA)-80  

EPA Science Inventory

Milestone's Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to...

254

FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT OHIO LUMEX'S RA-915+/RP-91C MERCURY ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Ohio Lumex's RA915+/91 C mercury analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to c...

255

Mercury levels in sediments and mangrove oysters, Crassostrea rizophorae, from the north coast of Villa Clara, Cuba.  

PubMed

Total mercury levels were quantified in sediments and oyster tissues (Crassostrea rizophorae) from the Sagua la Grande River estuary and offshore mangrove keys 19 km downstream of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) in Villa Clara, Cuba. Relatively elevated total mercury levels were found in sediments from the estuary itself, ranging from 0.507 to 1.81 ?g g(-1) dry weight. However, levels were lower in sediments from the keys farther from the estuary. Oyster mercury levels were always acceptable for human consumption, although levels significantly correlated in sediments and oysters across sampling sites (p < 0.05), which suggests that mercury from the CAP is impacting coastal water quality conditions. PMID:22323046

Olivares-Rieumont, S; Lima, L; Rivero, S; Graham, D W; Alonso-Hernandez, C; Bolaño, Y

2012-02-10

256

Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts

Markus Meili; Kevin Bishop; Lage Bringmark; Kjell Johansson; John Munthe; Harald Sverdrup; Wim de Vries

2003-01-01

257

Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.  

PubMed

The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts. PMID:21166283

Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

2010-08-01

258

Occupational health Blood mercury levels of dental students and dentists at a dental school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the blood mercury levels in dental students and clinical teaching staff in a dental school using amalgam as a restorative material.Setting A dental school in Ege University, Turkey surveyed during one academic year.Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of groups of dental students (n=92) in years I to V, clinical teachers in restorative dentistry (n=16) and controls (n=14).

H Tezel; F Ozata; C Erakin; A Kayali; O S Ertas

2001-01-01

259

Mercury levels in coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and coral skeleton samples from 23 coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panama (1497 km) were evaluated for total mercury (Hg). High levels of pollution were found in the entire region with averages of 18.9 and 71.3 ppb in coral skeletons and sediments respectively. Significantly higher contamination was found in Panamanian corals (21.4 ppb) while

Elia M. Garc; APO AA

260

Blood Levels of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in Residents of Tehran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of toxic trace elements for human blood has been of interest to researchers in the fields of environmental chemistry\\u000a and medical science. The amount of blood toxic elements can reflect the disease state of the person or the environment where\\u000a that person resides or works. Chronic, low-level exposure to toxic metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury

Leila Farzin; Mojtaba Amiri; Hadi Shams; Mohammad Amin Ahmadi Faghih; Mohammad Esmail Moassesi

2008-01-01

261

The soil–air exchange characteristics of total gaseous mercury from a large-scale municipal landfill area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycle of mercury (Hg) from a gigantic landfill area (area ?2.72km2) was investigated by conducting micrometeorological measurements of its exchange rates across soil–air boundary during the spring season of 2000. Based on this field campaign, we attempted to provide various insights into the Hg exchange processes, especially with respect to the decoupling of the mixed signatures of complex source

Ki-Hyun Kim; Min-Young Kim; Gangwoong Lee

2001-01-01

262

Water-air and soil-air exchange rate of total gaseous mercury measured at background sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate and understand the processes of water-air and soil-air exchanges involved at background sites, an intensive field measurement campaign has been achieved during the summer of 1995 using high-time resolution techniques (10 min) at two sites (land and water) in southern Québec (Canada). Mercury flux was measured using a dynamic flux chamber technique coupled with an automatic

Laurier Poissant; Alain Casimir

1998-01-01

263

Monitoring programme on cadmium, lead and mercury in fish and seafood from Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated weekly intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to determine the current levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead in fish and seafood from the market of Comunitat Valenciana, Spain. Levels of total mercury ranged from 0.02 to 3.15 mg kg w.w. (average = 0.073 mg kg w.w.). Cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.66 mg kg w.w. (average = 0.27 mg kg w.w.)

V. Yusà; T. Suelves; L. Ruiz-Atienza; M. L. Cervera; V. Benedito; A. Pastor

2008-01-01

264

Levels of Total Mercury in Marine Organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations\\u000a were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 ± 0.24 mg\\/kg; mean ± SE), European hake (0.59 ± 0.14 mg\\/kg), red\\u000a mullet (0.48 ± 0.09 mg\\/kg), blue whiting (0.38 ± 0.09 mg\\/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 ± 0.08 mg\\/kg) and European flying squid\\u000a (0.25 ± 0.03 mg\\/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster

Monia Perugini; Pierina Visciano; Maurizio Manera; Annalisa Zaccaroni; Vincenzo Olivieri; Michele Amorena

2009-01-01

265

[Mercury levels in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza indigenous community, Munduruku Reservation, Jacareacanga County, State of Pará, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study evaluated fish consumption and mercury levels in fish consumed by an indigenous community in the State of Pará. Eighty fish samples were collected (barbado, surubim, traíra, tucunaré, piranha, aruanã, caratinga, aracu, mandiá, jandiá, and pacu). Mercury analysis was performed using a Mercury Analyzer HG-3500. Average mercury concentration in carnivorous species was 0.293 (g/g (SD=0.104), while in non-carnivorous species it was 0.112 (g/g (SD=0. 036). Brazilian legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit of 0.5 (g/g for fish consumption. No significant correlation was found between fish length or weight and mercury concentration. Types of fish most frequently consumed by the community were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. Carnivorous species, especially tucunaré and traíra, amongst the most frequently eaten, had higher mercury levels than non-carnivorous species. Frequency of consumption is crucial to assess the risk of mercury contamination in communities who lack alternative food sources. PMID:10409785

Brabo, E D; Santos, E D; Jesus, I M; Mascarenhas, A F; Faial, K F

266

Mercury speciation analyses in HgCl(2)-contaminated soils and groundwater--implications for risk assessment and remediation strategies.  

PubMed

Since the 19th century, mercury(II)chloride (HgCl(2)) has been used on wood impregnation sites to prevent wooden poles from decay, leaving behind a legacy of highly contaminated soil/aquifer systems. Little is known about species transformation and mobility of HgCl(2) in contaminated soils and groundwater. At such a site the behaviour of HgCl(2) in soils and groundwater was investigated to assist in risk assessment and remediation. The soil is low in organic carbon and contains up to 11,000 mg Hg/kg. Mercury (Hg) concentrations in groundwater decrease from 230 to 0.5 microg/l within a distance of 1.3 km. Hg species transformations in soil and aqueous samples were analysed by means of solid-phase Hg pyrolysis and CV-AAS. In aqueous samples, Hg species were distinguished between ionic/reactive Hg and complex-bound Hg. Potential mobility of Hg in soils was studied through batch experiments. Most Hg in the soil is matrix-bound HgCl(2), whereas in the aquifer secondary formation to Hg(0) could be observed. Aqueous Hg speciation in groundwater and soil solutions shows that an average of 84% of soluble Hg exists as easily reducible, inorganic Hg species (mostly HgCl(2)). The proportion of complex-bound Hg increases with distance due to the transformation of inorganic HgCl(2). The frequent occurrence of Hg(0) in the aquifer suggests the formation and degassing of Hg(0), which is, in addition to dilution, an important process, lowering Hg concentrations in the groundwater. High percentage of mobile Hg (3-26%) and low seepage fluxes will result in continuous Hg release over centuries requiring long-term groundwater remediation. Results of soluble Hg speciation suggest that filtering materials should be adapted to ionic Hg species, e.g. specific resins or amalgamating metal alloys. PMID:17675134

Bollen, A; Wenke, A; Biester, H

2007-07-18

267

Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups  

SciTech Connect

The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

2006-01-01

268

Determination of Ultratrace Levels of Mercury in SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge by Combustion RNAA  

SciTech Connect

The domestic sludge SRM 2781 was collected from Denver, Colorado, sewage disposal district 1 (DMSDD) in the early 1990s. The DMSDD calls this material 'domestic' because only light industry is present in this district. The term 'domestic' differs from an 'industrial' label by the amount of heavy industry present in the area. The determination of mercury and other toxic elements in these sludges is important to monitor the sources and pathways of environmental exposure to these materials. Analytical results for the determination of total mercury in SRM 2781, domestic sludge, by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) are listed in Table I. These analyses were made to measure the total mercury for use in the certification process of this reference material. The control sample data agreed well with the certified values and confirm the methods, procedures, and corrections used. This RNAA combustion procedure is effective in producing high-quality analytical data at the microgram/kilogram concentration level in both the organic and inorganic matrices of these samples. The procedure has both high sensitivity and freedom from significant reagent blanks when properly performed.

Bruce R. Norman; Donald A. Becker; Richard T. Lostritto

2000-11-12

269

Levels of cadmium and mercury in the hair of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Svalbard, Norway  

SciTech Connect

Hair samples of 15 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) collected from anesthetized individuals at Svalbard, Norway, were analyzed for cadmium and total mercury. The mean level of cadmium was 0.860 {+-} 0.321 {micro}g/g dry weight and the mean level of mercury was 0.235 {+-} 0.100 {micro}g/g dry weight. Levels of cadmium and mercury in hair of walruses from other areas are not known. Both cadmium and mercury levels in hair of walruses from Svalbard are relatively low compared to the levels found in the hair of other marine mammal species. It has been documented from a number of marine species, including marine mammals such as ringed seals and polar bears, that both cadmium and mercury levels of Svalbard are lower than in other areas. It is uncertain as to what degree levels in hair reflect levels in internal organs in walruses. In rare and highly endangered species or populations tissue samples can be difficult to collect. In walruses, it is possible to collect hair from anesthetized individuals or at the haul-out sites during molt, to monitor heavy metal levels of the population.

Wiig, O. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Zoological Museum; Renzoni, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Siena (Italy). Dept. di Biologia Ambientale; Gjertz, I. [Norwegian Polar Inst., Tromsoe (Norway)

1999-08-01

270

Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology

1998-02-01

271

Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 2 - Coal fly ash generated stabilized soil and degradation products  

SciTech Connect

The potential for mercury (Hg) releases to the air and water from three soils, two subbituminous coal fly ashes, and mixtures of these materials as stabilized soil was assessed. In addition, the potential for Hg release from crushed stabilized material mixed into soil simulating degradation over time was investigated. In general, atmospheric Hg deposition was measured for the ash and materials made using the ash with the higher Hg concentration, whereas the second ash material and materials generated using this ash exhibited emission as the dominant flux. Fluxes measured from stabilized material were less than that measured for the pure ash material but of the same direction. Although the stabilized and degraded stabilized materials exhibited Hg fluxes that were significantly different from base soils, values were within the range reported for low Hg-containing background soils. Because of limitations of the experimental design (i.e., reduced light exposures and measurement of flux from dry materials) reported fluxes are most likely underestimates of that which would occur in the natural environment. Materials made to simulate degradation of the stabilized material did not exhibit higher releases than the stabilized material alone. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP; EPA method 1312) results showed that the chemistry of a soil, especially pH, may influence the amount of Hg released to soil solutions, with more acidic soils potentially enhancing Hg release. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Mae Sexauer Gustin; Mei Xin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2008-11-15

272

Measurement of Mercury Levels in Concentrated Over-the-Counter Fish Oil Preparations Is Fish Oil Healthier Than Fish?  

Microsoft Academic Search

c Context.—Fish consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have illustrated that the high mercury content in cold-wa- ter fish may negate the cardiovascular benefits of fish meals. Fish oils have similar antiatherogenic properties to fish, and similar studies should be performed to determine the level of mercury in fish oils. Objective.—To determine

Stacy E. Foran; James G. Flood; Kent B. Lewandrowski

273

Hair mercury levels in an urban population from southern Italy: Fish consumption as a determinant of exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury levels in hair of a general population, 237 adults aged between 35–45, in Naples, Italy, were assessed. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire about age, gender, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fish consumption, number, surface and area of dental amalgam fillings. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.221 to 3.402 ?g\\/g and

Sergi Díez; Paolo Montuori; Adele Pagano; Pasquale Sarnacchiaro; Josep M. Bayona; Maria Triassi

2008-01-01

274

Mercury levels of fish in Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir and in River Mojú in Amazonia, in the state of Pará, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

High mercury (Hg) levels were found in fish of Tucuruí reservoir and River Mojú polluted by mercury due to gold mining activities. The highest Hg concentrations were measured in predatory fish (1.3 ± 0.89 mg\\/kg, N = 121), intermediate values in planktivorous and omnivorous fish (0.32 ± 0.20 mg\\/kg, N = 89) and the lowest values in herbivorous fish (0.11

Petri Porvari

1995-01-01

275

Mercury concentration in lichen, moss and soil samples collected from the forest areas of Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic).  

PubMed

The concentration of mercury was determined in samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, the moss Pleurozium schreberi, and the soil humus collected in Polish and Czech Euroregions Praded and Glacensis. The sampling sites were located in Bory Stobrawskie, Bory Niemodli?skie and Kotlina K?odzka in Poland, and in Jeseniki and Gory Orlickie in the Czech Republic. The mean concentrations of mercury accumulated in the lichen (0.129 mg g(-1)), in the moss (0.094 mg g(-1)) and in soil (0.286 mg g(-1)) were fairly close to the corresponding concentrations in other low-industrialized regions. The highest concentrations of mercury were observed in the lichen and the moss samples from Kotlina K?odzka. The primary deposition of mercury was evaluated using the comparison factor, defined as the ratio of a difference between the concentrations of a bioavailable analyte in lichens and in mosses, to the arithmetic mean of these concentrations. PMID:22131015

K?os, Andrzej; Rajfur, Ma?gorzata; Šrámek, Ivo; Wac?awek, Maria

2011-12-02

276

Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1 - Simulations of beneficial use  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ashamended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Mae Sexauer Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2008-05-15

277

Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1--Simulations of beneficial use.  

PubMed

This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low-permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ash-amended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. PMID:18512444

Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Ericksen, Jody; Fernandez, George C

2008-05-01

278

Mercury contamination in the oil and gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contamination of surficial soils and building structures is concern to the oil, natural gas, and utility industries. Spillage from mercury-filled manometers that measure pipeline pressures is a major source of mercury contamination. Because of its chemical characteristics, the mobility of mercury within the soil posed significant health and environmental impacts. Inorganic mercury strongly adsorbs onto fine soil particles and

W. Oberle; L. Warfield; J. Manship

1993-01-01

279

Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains  

SciTech Connect

Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 {micro}g Hg g{sup -1}). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) to tens of thousands of ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid western United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

Gustin, Mae S. [University of Nevada, Reno; Coolbaugh, M. F. [University of Nevada, Reno; Engle, M. A. [University of Nevada, Reno; Fitzgerald, B. C. [University of Nevada, Reno; Keislar, R. E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Lindberg, Steven Eric [ORNL; Nacht, D. M. [University of Nevada, Reno; Quashnick, J. [University of Nevada, Reno; Rytuba, J. J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Sladek, C. [University of Nevada, Reno; Zhang, Hong [ORNL; Zehner, R. E. [University of Nevada, Reno

2003-01-01

280

Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

Gustin, M. S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, S. E.; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R. E.

2003-01-01

281

When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID.

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew

2012-01-01

282

Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts to limit transboundary air pollution is the development of emission-exposure-effect relationships, with the aim of determining the critical level of atmospheric pollution (CLAP, cf. critical load) causing harm or concern in sensitive elements of the environment. This requires a quantification of slow ecosystem dynamics from short-term collections of data. Aiming at an operational tool for assessing the past and future metal contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, we present a simple and flexible modelling concept, including ways of minimizing requirements for computation and data collection, focusing on the exposure of biota in forest soils and lakes to Hg. Issues related to the complexity of Hg biogeochemistry are addressed by (1) a model design that allows independent validation of each model unit with readily available data, (2) a process- and scale-independent model formulation based on concentration ratios and transfer factors without requiring loads and mass balance, and (3) an equilibration concept that accounts for relevant dynamics in ecosystems without long-term data collection or advanced calculations. Based on data accumulated in Sweden over the past decades, we present a model to determine the CLAP-Hg from standardized values of region- or site-specific synoptic concentrations in four key matrices of boreal watersheds: precipitation (atmospheric source), large lacustrine fish (aquatic receptor and vector), organic soil layers (terrestrial receptor proxy and temporary reservoir), as well as new and old lake sediments (archives of response dynamics). Key dynamics in watersheds are accounted for by quantifying current states of equilibration in both soils and lakes based on comparison of contamination factors in sediment cores. Future steady-state concentrations in soils and fish in single watersheds or entire regions are then determined by corresponding projection of survey data. A regional-scale application to southern Sweden suggests that the response of environmental Hg levels to changes in atmospheric Hg pollution is delayed by centuries and initially not proportional among receptors (atmosphere > soils not equal sediments>fish; clearwater lakes > humic lakes). This has implications for the interpretation of common survey data as well as for the implementation of pollution control strategies. Near Hg emission sources, the pollution of organic soils and clearwater lakes deserves attention. Critical receptors, however, even in remote areas, are humic waters, in which biotic Hg levels are naturally high, most likely to increase further, and at high long-term risk of exceeding the current levels of concern: soil organic matter. If environmental Hg concentrations are to be reduced and kept below these critical limits, virtually no man-made atmospheric Hg emissions can be permitted. PMID:12663174

Meili, Markus; Bishop, Kevin; Bringmark, Lage; Johansson, Kjell; Munthe, John; Sverdrup, Harald; de Vries, Wim

2003-03-20

283

Effect of lifestyles on the blood mercury level in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and oral exposure is a main route in the general population. In this study, we estimated the dietary intake of Hg and its relationship with blood Hg levels in Korean adults. The study subjects were recruited from three different districts (rural: 189, coastal: 208 and urban: 184). We used a general questionnaire to collect information about demographic factors, lifestyles and diet. Dietary habits were studied using the 24-h recall method. The estimation of Hg intake was performed using the database of Hg contents in 128 Korean foods based on the previous studies. Blood Hg was analyzed using Direct Mercury Analyzer with the gold-amalgam method. Daily intake of Hg by diet was estimated at 13.57 ?g (0.22 ?g/kg body weight). The geometric mean Hg concentration in whole blood was 3.92 ?g/L. Blood Hg level and Hg intake by diet was higher in coastal areas than in urban or rural areas, respectively. Blood Hg level correlated with the intake of Hg consumed from diet. Seafood was highly responsible and account for 75.6% of total dietary Hg intake. In this study, blood Hg concentrations were found to be significantly affected by sex, age, individual lifestyles and especially the amount of seafood intake, which might play an important role in determining blood Hg levels in Korean adults. PMID:23155199

Kim, N-Y; Ahn, S-J; Ryu, D-Y; Choi, B-S; Kim, H; Yu, I-J; Park, J-D

2012-11-15

284

Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are < 10 ng/L. Additional sampling was conducted at the CSL site in order to better understand sources of Hg and potential Hg transport mechanisms in the areas with Hg-contaminated ground water. At the CSL site, concentrations of Hg were substantially lower (although still exceeding the MCL in some cases) in filtered water samples than in the unfiltered water samples collected previously from the same wells. Surfactants and elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in water from domestic and observation wells indicated septic-system effects on water quality; detections of sulfide indicated localized reducing conditions. Hg concentrations in septage and leach-field effluent sampled at several other households in the region were low relative to the contaminant-level Hg concentrations in water from domestic wells. Relations of Hg concentrations in leach-field effluent to iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barringer, J. L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W. D.; Gallagher, R. A.

2006-01-01

285

Sub-clinical neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with low level of mercury exposure through fish consumption.  

PubMed

In order to assess early neurotoxic effects associated with relatively low levels of mercury absorbed through fish eating, two groups of 22 adult male subjects, habitual consumers of tuna fish, and 22 controls were examined using a cross-sectional field study. The assessment included neurobehavioral tests of vigilance and psychomotor function, hand tremor measurements and serum prolactin assessment. Mercury in urine (U-Hg) and serum prolactin (sPRL) were measured in all exposed subjects and controls, whereas measurements of the organic component of mercury in blood (O-Hg) were available for only 10 exposed and six controls. U-Hg was significant higher among exposed subjects (median 6.5 microg/g of creatinine, range 1.8-21.5) than controls (median 1.5 microg/g of creatinine, range 0.5-5.3). The median values of O-Hg were 41.5 microg/l among the tuna fish eaters and 2.6 microg/l in the control group. Both U-Hg and O-Hg were significantly correlated with the quantity of fish consumed per week. Significant differences in sPRL were found between exposed (12.6 ng/ml) and controls (9.1 ng/ml). Individual sPRL were significantly correlated with both U-Hg and O-Hg levels. The neurobehavioral performance of subjects who consumed tuna fish regularly was significantly worse on color word reaction time, digit symbol reaction time and finger tapping speed (FT). After considering the education level and other covariates, the multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that O-Hg concentration was most significantly associated with individual performance on these tests, accounting for about 65% of the variance in test scores. PMID:12900074

Carta, Plinio; Flore, Costantino; Alinovi, Rossella; Ibba, Antonio; Tocco, Maria Giuseppina; Aru, Gabriella; Carta, Roberta; Girei, Emanuela; Mutti, Antonio; Lucchini, Roberto; Randaccio, Francesco Sanna

2003-08-01

286

Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg?1 As and 8800 mg kg?1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg?1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg?1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

Conko, Kathryn M .; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

2013-01-01

287

REVIEW OF STATE SOIL CLEANUP LEVELS FOR DIOXIN (DECEMBER 2009)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

288

Optical and Electrical Studies of the Double Acceptor Levels of the Mercury Vacancies in HgCdTe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlations between photoluminescence and temperature-dependent Hall measurements were carried out on unintentionally doped HgCdTe epilayers with cadmium composition of 32.7%. These films were grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and post-annealed under different conditions as follows: a p-type annealing was used to control the mercury vacancy concentration, and an n-type annealing under saturated mercury atmosphere was used to fill the mercury vacancies. Comparison of the results obtained by these two characterization techniques allowed us to identify the two acceptor energy levels of the mercury vacancy. Moreover, the "U-negativity" of the vacancy was evidenced: the ionized state V- is stabilized under the neutral state V0 by the dominance of the Jahn-Teller effect over Coulombic repulsion. Finally, three epilayers with different cadmium compositions were also characterized to complete this study.

Gemain, F.; Robin, I. C.; Brochen, S.; De Vita, M.; Gravrand, O.; Lusson, A.

2012-10-01

289

Mercury in seabird feathers: insight on dietary habits and evidence for exposure levels in the western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Breast feathers were used to estimate mercury levels in six marine birds nesting in the tropical western Indian Ocean, i.e. Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Lesser Noddy (Anous tenuirostris), Audubon Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui) and the White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus). Juveniles consistently showed lower plumage mercury than adults. The lowest mean level was noted in juvenile Sooty Terns from the Glorioso Archipelago (0.05 microg g(-1)). The highest levels were obtained for adult Barau's Petrels from Reunion Island (0.96 microg g(-1)). An inter-site analysis of Sooty Tern showed higher mercury levels in birds nesting on Juan de Nova Island. Levels were low in comparison with values reported in the plumage of seabirds worldwide. The potential impacts of the size, the type (fish/cephalopod) and the origin (epi-/meso-pelagic) of prey on mercury intake in birds are discussed. Although the diet composition of individuals within a species appeared to be quite variable, combining results on mercury levels with common knowledge of each species allowed additional information on their dietary and foraging habits to be unraveled. PMID:17659323

Kojadinovic, Jessica; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cosson, Richard P; Le Corre, Matthieu

2007-07-19

290

In Brief: Mountaintop mining under scrutiny; High levels of mercury in U.S. rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed new regulations call for mountaintop surface coal mining in U.S. Appalachian states to reduce ``burying'' and other adverse impacts on streams and watersheds. The draft regulations, issued on 29 May by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies, affects a 12-million-acre area encompassing parts of Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee.The mercury levels in rainfall in 12 U.S. states far exceeds safe standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency, according to a 29 May report by the National Wildlife Federation, a non-profit environmental group.

Showstack, Randy

291

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and ?1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels

Tomoko Ohno; Mineshi Sakamoto; Tomoko Kurosawa; Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Katsuyuki. Murata

2007-01-01

292

Mercury accumulation in the surface layers of mountain soils: a case study from the Karkonosze Mountains, Poland.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to examine total concentrations and pools of Hg in surface layers of soils in the Karkonosze Mountains, dependent on soil properties and site locality. Soil samples were collected from a litter layer and the layers 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, at 68 sites belonging to the net of a monitoring system, in two separate areas, and in three altitudinal zones: below 900 m, 900-1100 m, and over 1100 m. Air-borne pollution was the major source of mercury in soils. Hg has accumulated mainly in the litter (where its concentrations were the highest), and in the layer 0-10 cm. Hg concentrations in all samples were in the range 0.04-0.97 mg kg(-1), with mean values 0.38, 0.28, and 0.14 mg kg(-1) for litter and the layers 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, respectively. The highest Hg concentrations in the litter layer were found in the intermediate altitudinal zone, whereas Hg concentrations in the layer 0-10 cm increased with increasing altitude. Soil quality standard for protected areas (0.50 mg kg(-1)) was exceeded in a few sites. The pools of Hg accumulated in soils were in the range: 0.8-84.8 mg m(-2), with a mean value of 16.5 mg m(-2), and they correlated strongly with the pools of stored organic matter. PMID:21354592

Szopka, Katarzyna; Karczewska, Anna; Kaba?a, Cezary

2011-02-26

293

Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S. [Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sherwood, J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R. [ETAS Corporation (United States)

1996-02-28

294

Potential effect of land-leveling on soil fertility in a Brazilian rice soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-leveling to improve water management in lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is becoming common in many countries. This technique exposes subsoil by removal and deposition of surface soil from high- to low-lying areas. The potential effect of land-leveling on soil fertility was studied in samples from an alluvial soil at depths of 0- to 5-, 5- to 15-, and

Ricardo E. Preve; D. C. Martens

1990-01-01

295

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: Implications for soil carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate (?53 ?m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 ?m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

Garten, Charles T.; Ashwood, Tom L.

2002-12-01

296

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: implications for soil carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate ({ge}53 {micro}m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 {micro}m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL

2002-12-01

297

Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: amalgam as a determinant of exposure.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean+/-SD age of these women was 29.37+/-8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean+/-SD mercury level in the women was 1.28+/-1.38 microg/g in hair and 4.14+/-4.08 microg/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's rho=0.93, P<0.001) and hair (Spearman's rho=0.92, P<0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples. PMID:20034733

Fakour, H; Esmaili-Sari, A; Zayeri, F

2009-12-04

298

Petroleum?related risk factors and soil screening levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop risk?based Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in weathered soils, literature reviews were conducted to identify information regarding toxicology and previously developed oral risk factors for neat petroleum products and their potential surrogates, in particular, long chain petroleum hydrocarbons (LCPHs). Oral reference doses (RfDs) were identified in the literature for hexane; nonane;

Dee Ann Staats; David R. Mattie; Jeffrey W. Fisher

1997-01-01

299

Soil organic matter must be restored to near original levels  

SciTech Connect

Burning of fossil fuels globally helps put 3 billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year more than is removed by all carbon sinks, By far the best use of that carbon would be to arrange sufficient extra plan growth and then transfer that plant growth into new stable soil organic matter. Twenty or more years of such effort would immensely improve the soils of the world. Any fraction of it would help decrease the threat of global greenhouse warming. A great worldwide goal should be to increase levels of soil organic matter levels considerably. It should be possible. The most important research relating to soil organic matter is perhaps yet to be done. Elucidation of the regulators involved in the build-up and decomposition processes of various types of soil organic matter deserves high priority. It should be possible to develop technologies where the regulators can be managed and controlled for the beneficial purpose of increasing levels of soil organic matter. The role of calcium in stabilizing soil organic matter needs more study. Genetic engineering of specific microorganisms may be needed to increase levels of soil organic matter.

Wallace, A. (Wallace Laboratories, El Segundo, CA (United States))

1994-01-01

300

Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.  

PubMed

The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 ?g/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 ?g/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 ?g/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 ?g/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 ?g/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels. PMID:21658770

Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

2011-06-11

301

Mercury mobilization by chemical and microbial iron oxide reduction in soils of French Guyana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron oxy(hydr)oxides (oxides) are important mercury sinks in tropical oxisols and the geochemistry of these two elements are\\u000a thus closely entwined. We hypothesized that bacterial Fe-oxide reduction in anoxic conditions could be a significant mechanism\\u000a for mobilizing associated Hg. Iron oxide and mercury solubilisation in presence of two chemical reducers (ascorbate and dithionite,\\u000a dissolving amorphous and amorphous plus well crystallized

Jennifer Harris-Hellal; Michel Grimaldi; Evelyne Garnier-Zarli; Noureddine Bousserrhine

2011-01-01

302

A study of mercury in the hair of dentists and dental?related professionals in 1985 and subcohort comparison of 1972 and 1985 mercury hair levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists may be exposed to mercury used in dental restorations. An epidemiologic study was conducted in central New York in 1985 comparing the concentration of mercury in the hair of 85 dentists to that of 23 dental?related health professionals (mainly orthodontists and oral surgeons) who do not use mercury. Mercury in the hair of dentists was nominally higher (2.98 ±

Janet M. Scarlett; Walter H. Gutenmann; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

303

Atmospheric mercury incorporation in soils of an area impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Grenoble, France): contribution of canopy uptake.  

PubMed

This study focused on the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and mechanisms of incorporation into soils surrounding a chlor-alkali plant suspected to have emitted up to ~600 kg Hg year(-1) for decades into the atmosphere. Comparison of vertical Hg soil profiles with As, Cu, Ni and Zn (which were not emitted by the plant) support Hg enrichment in surface horizons due to atmospheric Hg inputs from the chlor-alkali plant. Based on chemical extractions and elemental correlations, Hg was found to be weakly leachable and bio-available for plants, and most probably strongly bound to organic matter. In contrast, other trace elements were probably associated with phyllosilicates, iron oxides or with primary minerals. Hg stocks in the surface horizon of a forested soil (1255 mg Hg m(-3)) were two-fold higher than in an agricultural soil (636 mg Hg m(-3)) at a similar distance to the plant. The difference was attributed to the interception of atmospheric Hg by the canopy (most likely gaseous elemental Hg and reactive gaseous Hg) and subsequent litterfall incorporation. Some differences in the ability to trap atmospheric Hg were observed between tree species. The characterization of the litter showed an increasing Hg concentration in the plant material proportional to their degradation stage. In agricultural soils, very low Hg concentrations found in corn leaves and grains suggested a limited uptake via both the foliar and root pathways. Thus, the short-term risk of Hg transfer to agricultural crops and higher levels of the trophic chain appeared limited. A possible risk which remains to be evaluated is the possible transfer of Hg-rich particles from the forest topsoil to downstream aquatic ecosystems during rain and snowmelt events. PMID:23354376

Guédron, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Jouravel, Glorianne; Charlet, Laurent; Sarret, Géraldine

2013-01-23

304

Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO3--N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman ?? = 0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r = 0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r2 = 0.73, with an overall 10??ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Gabriel, M. C.; Kolka, R.; Wickman, T.; Nater, E.; Woodruff, L.

2009-01-01

305

An Investigation of Modifying Effects of Metallothionein Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Association between Mercury Exposure and Biomarker Levels  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent studies have suggested that several genes that mediate mercury metabolism are polymorphic in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metallothionein (MT) genes may underlie interindividual differences in mercury biomarker levels. We studied the potential modifying effects of MT SNPs on mercury exposure–biomarker relationships. Methods: We measured total mercury in urine and hair samples of 515 dental professionals. We also surveyed occupational and personal exposures to dental amalgam and dietary fish consumption, from which daily methylmercury (MeHg) intake was estimated. Log-transformed urine and hair levels were modeled in multivariable linear regression separately against respective exposure surrogates, and the effect modification of 13 MT SNPs on exposure was investigated. Results: The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06 ?g/L) and hair (0.51 ?g/g) were not significantly different from the U.S. general population (0.95 ?g/L and 0.47 ?g/g, respectively). The mean estimated daily MeHg intake was 0.084 ?g/kg/day (range, 0–0.98 ?g/kg/day), with 25% of study population intakes exceeding the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 ?g/kg/day. Multivariate regression analysis showed that subjects with the MT1M (rs2270837) AA genotype (n = 10) or the MT2A (rs10636) CC genotype (n = 42) had lower urinary mercury levels than did those with the MT1M or MT2A GG genotype (n = 329 and 251, respectively) after controlling for exposure and potential confounders. After controlling for MeHg intake, subjects with MT1A (rs8052394) GA and GG genotypes (n = 24) or the MT1M (rs9936741) TT genotype (n = 459) had lower hair mercury levels than did subjects with MT1A AA (n = 113) or MT1M TC and CC genotypes (n = 15), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that some MT genetic polymorphisms may influence mercury biomarker concentrations at levels of exposure relevant to the general population.

Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Basu, Niladri

2012-01-01

306

Prenatal low-level mercury exposure and neonatal anthropometry in rural northern China.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that can negatively affect human health; however, few studies have examined the impact of prenatal low-level Hg exposure on fetal growth. We investigated prenatal exposure levels of Hg and the relationship between Hg levels and neonatal anthropometrics, including birth weight, length, and head circumference. A total of 258 mother-infant pairs were recruited from a rural community located on the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea in northern China between September 2010 and December 2011. We measured maternal and cord whole blood Hg levels and examined their association with neonatal anthropometrics. The geometric means (GMs) of Hg in maternal and cord whole blood were 0.84?gL(-1) and 1.46?gL(-1), respectively. The Hg exposure levels in our study population were much lower than those reported in previous domestic studies. No significant associations were found between maternal or cord blood Hg levels and birth weight, length, and head circumference. However, our results should be interpreted with caution given the high toxicity of Hg and its persistence in the body. Studies focusing on long-term adverse outcomes are needed to further examine the cumulative effects of low-level Hg exposure. PMID:23411084

Ding, Guodong; Cui, Chang; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Yijun; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

2013-02-11

307

Dietary intake, levels in food and estimated intake of lead, cadmium, and mercury.  

PubMed

Since 1980, systematic efforts have been made by the Joint UNEP/FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme to collect information on dietary intake of various contaminants, exemplified by lead, cadmium and mercury. In 1980-88, average adult intakes of lead varied from 1 to 63 micrograms/kg bw/week, approaching or exceeding the Provisional Tolerate Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 25 micrograms/kg bw in four countries providing data. Major sources in food and drinking water differed from country to country. A downward trend was observed consequent on reduction in use of lead-soldered cans and of lead in petrol. Few countries provided data on intakes by infants and children (more vulnerable groups) but the mean exceeded the PTWI in three countries, heavily influenced by levels in water and lowest in infants consuming only breast milk. Average adult intakes of cadmium were, with one exception, below the PTWI of 7 micrograms/kg bw; intakes by children were higher on a body weight basis but still within the PTWI in countries supplying data. Highest levels occurred in offal (mean 320 micrograms/kg) and shellfish (200 micrograms/kg) but, because of amounts consumed, reduction of concentrations in cereals, roots and tubers would be most effective. Important sources of contamination included phosphate fertilizer sewage sludge, plated/galvanized equipment, enamels and glazes. For mercury, average intakes were below the PTWI (300 micrograms/person; 200 micrograms/person or 3.3 micrograms/kg bw as methylmercury) for adults and for breast-fed infants. Contributions from fish varied from 20 to 85%; in some countries because of different dietary habits, cereals or meat may contribute similar amounts. Because of inadequate data on food other than fish, intake estimates are biassed and sometimes based solely on typical levels in fish. PMID:8504867

Galal-Gorchev, H

308

Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey.  

PubMed

We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n=178 individual fish), the mean (±standard error) for total mercury was 0.39±0.02 ?g/g (=0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 ?g/g (=1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30±0.01 ?g/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 ?g/g). Angler-caught fish (n=122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6±1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48±0.021 ?g/g and selenium averaged 0.29±0.01 ?g/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 ?g/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau=0.37; p<0.0001) and weight (0.38; p<0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r(2) (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger fish, but overall selenium was correlated with length (tau=0.14; p=0.006) and weight (tau=0.27; p<0.0001). Length-squared contributed significantly to selenium models, reflecting the non-linear relationship. Inter-year differences were explained partly by differences in sizes. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was below 1:1 in 20% of the fish and 25% of the angler-caught fish. Frequent consumption of large striped bass can result in exposure above the EPA's reference dose, a problem particularly for fetal development. PMID:22226733

Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

2012-01-09

309

Singular and combined effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire on forest floor and soil mercury pools.  

PubMed

A number of factors influence the amount of mercury (Hg) in forest floors and soils, including deposition, volatile emission, leaching, and disturbances such as fire. Currently the impact on soil Hg pools from other widespread forest disturbances such as blowdown and management practices like salvage logging are unknown. Moreover, ecological and biogeochemical responses to disturbances are generally investigated within a single-disturbance context, with little currently known about the impact of multiple disturbances occurring in rapid succession. In this study we capitalize on a combination of blowdown, salvage logging and fire events in the sub-boreal region of northern Minnesota to assess both the singular and combined effects of these disturbances on forest floor and soil total Hg concentrations and pools. Although none of the disturbance combinations affected Hg in mineral soil, we did observe significant effects on both Hg concentrations and pools in the forest floor. Blowdown increased the mean Hg pool in the forest floor by 0.76 mg Hg m(-2) (223%). Salvage logging following blowdown created conditions leading to a significantly more severe forest floor burn during wildfire, which significantly enhanced Hg emission. This sequence of combined events resulted in a mean loss of approximately 0.42 mg Hg m(-2) (68% of pool) from the forest floor, after conservatively accounting for potential losses via enhanced soil leaching and volatile emissions between the disturbance and sampling dates. Fire alone or blowdown followed by fire did not significantly affect the total Hg concentrations or pools in the forest floor. Overall, unexpected consequences for soil Hg accumulation and by extension, atmospheric Hg emission and risk to aquatic biota, may result when combined impacts are considered in addition to singular forest floor and soil disturbances. PMID:22747193

Mitchell, Carl P J; Kolka, Randall K; Fraver, Shawn

2012-07-16

310

Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

Radisav D. Vidic

1999-03-01

311

Mercury, arsenic and selenium exposure levels in relation to fish consumption in the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

In order to assess mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) exposure in the Mediterranean area, total mercury (THg), monomethylmercury (MeHg), Se and As levels were measured in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Italian (n=900), Slovenian (n=584), Croatian (n=234) and Greek (n=484) women. THg, MeHg, As, and Se levels were also determined in blood samples of the same mothers from Italy and Croatia. In addition, THg and MeHg were determined in the same women's hair from all the countries involved in this study and As and Se levels were determined in the mother's urine samples from Italy, Croatia and Greece. Besides recording the consumption of other food items, the frequencies of fish consumption were assessed by detailed food frequency questionnaires, since fish represents an important source of Hg, Se and As in humans. The highest levels of THg and As were found in cord blood (Med((THg))=5.8 ng/g; Med((As))=3.3 ng/g) and breast milk (Med((THg))=0.6 ng/g; Med((As))=0.8 ng/g) from Greek women, while the highest Se levels were found in cord blood (Med=113 ng/g) from Italy. Significant linear correlations were found between Hg, Se and As in blood, cord blood and breast milk. In addition, significant relations were found between the frequencies of total fish consumption and biomarkers of As, MeHg and Se exposure, with the strongest Spearman rank coefficients between frequencies of total fish consumption and THg levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.442, p<0.001) or THg levels in hair (r(s)=0.421, p<0.001), and between frequencies of total fish consumption and As levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.350, p<0.001). The differences in Hg and As exposure between countries were probably due to different amounts of fish consumption and the consumption of different species of fish of different origin, while the highest Se levels in women from Italy were probably the consequence of the more frequent consumption of different non specific food items. Moreover, fish consumption, the possible common source of As, Hg and Se intake, could explain the correlations between the elements determined in cord blood, mother's blood or breast milk. PMID:22999706

Miklav?i?, Ana; Casetta, Anica; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Krsnik, Mladen; Mariuz, Marika; Sofianou, Katia; Spiri?, Zdravko; Barbone, Fabio; Horvat, Milena

2012-09-21

312

The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

1995-07-01

313

Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. PMID:22595529

Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

2012-05-15

314

High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

2010-01-01

315

Glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein levels in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonhi exposed to mercury.  

PubMed

Healthy juveniles of M. malcolmsoniiwere exposed to 24.1 microg l(-1) of mercury (96 hr LC50: 145 microg l(-1) Hg) for a period of 21 days. The hepatopancreas and gills of the prawns were sampled on 8th, 15th and 22nd day of exposure. Accumulation and elimination of Hg, activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) level were studied. Mercury accumulation was found to be higher in the hepatopancreas (88.60 microg g(-1)) and lower in the gills (67.8 microg g(-1)). However, Hg elimination was found to be faster in the gills (62%) and slower in the hepatopancreas (58%). Therefore, the rate of Hg elimination did not match the rate of its uptake. The activity of GST was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (5.94-9.13 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)) on all sampling days when compared with controls (3.454.23 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)). Similarly, the content of GSH was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (0.80-1.43 micromol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with controls (0.55-1.00 micromol g(-1) protein). These results indicate the formation of glutathione conjugate in test prawns to eliminate Hg. The induction of MT level was also found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (57.50-75.76 nmol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with control (20.24-45.22 nmol g(-1) protein). This indicates the fact that sequestration of Hg has occurred for its easy elimination. Thus, induction of GST-GSH and MT ensured protection and adaptation of test prawns to thrive in Hg contaminated environment. PMID:23033656

Yamuna, A; Bhavan, P Saravana; Geraldine, P

2012-01-01

316

Polish Soil Quality Standards Versus Risk-Based Soil Screening Levels for Metals and Arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was derivation of risk-based soil screening levels (RBSSLs) under two basic exposure scenarios - industrial and residential, and their comparison with the relevant soil quality standards (SQSs), applied in Poland as remedial targets. The RBSSLs were derived from standardised sets of equations that are based on the recently updated U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's human

Eleonora Wcis?o

2012-01-01

317

Follow-up of mercury levels in fish, human hair and urine in the Madeira and Tapajós basins, Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal economy of gold mining has contaminated some important river basins in Amazon. Follow-up studies on critical compartments showed some areas with high Hg levels in fish as well as in human hair samples. Average Hg in piscivorous fish in the Madeira river itself was 846 ppb (N=284) with a maximum of 3921 ppb. Mercury in fish from non polluted

O Malm; JRD Guimarães; MB Castro; WR Bastos; JP Viana; FJP Branches; EG Silveira; WC Pfeiffer

1997-01-01

318

POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF THE COMMON LOON TO MERCURY IN TWO CANADIAN PROVINCES: A MATRIX MODELING APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

We used data collected from Common Loon Gavia immer populations in two Canadian provinces to demonstrate a matrix population modeling approach for evaluating population-level responses to stressors and to understand how these populations may have responded to mercury contaminatio...

319

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function.  

PubMed

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and alpha1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91 microg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32 microg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66 microg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84 microg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28 microg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (microg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (microg/g)]. PMID:16890218

Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

2006-08-04

320

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

Ohno, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mineshi [Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan); Kurosawa, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Dakeishi, Miwako [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Iwata, Toyoto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)]. E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

2007-02-15

321

Residential mercury contamination and exposure in Huancavelica, Peru  

EPA Science Inventory

Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released from cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru, much of which was locally deposited. Ambient soil Hg concentrations are among the highest levels in surface soil in the world, rang...

322

Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds.  

PubMed

The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue ?(15)N values for baseline ?(15)N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline ?(15)N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators. PMID:23993395

Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J

2013-08-30

323

Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Simms, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company (United States)

2006-07-01

324

Investigation of increased mercury levels in the fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (Lefpc), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting remediation efforts on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility and within downstream riparian zones. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of aqueous phase elemental mercury (Hg deg. A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC. Small (mg/L) quantities of un-sulphured molasses and peptone were added to some of the Hinds Creek samples to stimulate initial bacterial growth. Other Hinds Creek samples either were dosed with glutaraldehyde to preclude microbial growth, or were wrapped in aluminum foil to preclude Hg photochemical redox effects. The bench-scale testing for Phase II was completed August 2006. The final reporting and the planning for Phase III testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sims, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2007-07-01

325

Acute effects of mercuric chloride on intracellular GSH levels and mercury distribution in the fish Oreochromic aureus  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been much interest in the effects of trace metals on intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Most of the research has been performed on rats. As GSH is ubiquitous in living organisms it is of interest to establish a relationship between mercury intoxication and intracellular GSH levels in fish; especially as fish living in rivers and coastal areas are often expose to mercury as an aquatic pollutant. The role of GSH in fish trace metal toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The distribution of total glutathione (oxidized + reduced) in selected black sea bass organs seems to follow the established pattern for mammalian organs. Thus, it would appear that teleostian and mammalian glutathione metabolism may have many similarities. There are few reports concerning the effects of mercury during the first few hours of exposure. The aim of this investigation is to establish any changes in organ GSH and mercury levels following just 2 h exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/).

Allen, P.; Min, S.Y.; Keong, W.M.

1988-02-01

326

Relating land cover characteristics and common loon mercury levels using geographic information systems.  

PubMed

This effort models the relationship between mercury (Hg) levels in the common loon (Gavia immer) and land cover types as defined by the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We constructed the model within the framework of a GIS to analyze the spatial relationships between land cover types and blood Hg levels in male common loons. Thiessan polygons were used to generate the territory for each loon. We created 150, 300, and 600-m buffers around the Thiessan polygons and modeled the relationships that existed in each distance class. Within the 150-m buffer, three cover types, crop land, shrub land, and wetland were significantly related to blood Hg levels (r2 = 0.552, p < 0.001), which may indicate that the proximity of these cover types influences Hg availability in loon territories. Cropland exhibited a negative relationship with blood Hg levels and may play a role in reducing the amount of available Hg within the study area while wetlands and shrub lands exhibit a positive relationship. The study area consisted of five major lakes and eleven smaller ponds in northwest Maine, and data included a total of 61 male common loon blood Hg samples. PMID:15931970

Kramar, David; Goodale, Wing M; Kennedy, L M; Carstensen, L W; Kaur, Taranjit

2005-03-01

327

Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 ?g/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 ?g/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible.

Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

2011-01-01

328

Impact of Closing Canada's Largest Point-Source of Mercury Emissions on Local Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations.  

PubMed

The Flin Flon, Manitoba copper smelter was Canada's largest point source of mercury emissions until its closure in 2010 after ?80 years of operation. The objective of this study was to understand the variables controlling the local ground-level air mercury concentrations before and after this major point source reduction. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in air, mercury in precipitation, and other ancillary meteorological and air quality parameters were measured pre- and postsmelter closure, and mercury speciation measurements in air were collected postclosure. The results showed that TGM was significantly elevated during the time period when the smelter operated (4.1 ± 3.7 ng m(-3)), decreased only 20% during the year following its closure, and remained ?2-fold above background levels. Similar trends were observed for mercury concentrations in precipitation. Several lines of evidence indicated that while smelter stack emissions would occasionally mix down to the surface resulting in large spikes in TGM concentrations (up to 61 ng m(-3)), the largest contributor to elevated TGM concentrations before and after smelter closure was from surface-air fluxes from mercury-enriched soils and/or tailings. These findings highlight the ability of legacy mercury, deposited to local landscapes over decades from industrial activities, to significantly affect local air concentrations via emissions/re-emissions. PMID:23978035

Eckley, Chris S; Parsons, Matthew T; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Mazur, Maxwell; Tordon, Robert; Elleman, Robert; Graydon, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Pierrette; St Louis, Vincent

2013-09-04

329

Aluminium stabilization controls organic carbon levels in Chilean volcanic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chilean volcanic soils are known to contain large amounts of organic matter (OM) and amorphous (e.g., allophanic) clay. Here, we test the hypothesis that Al, rather than clay content and climatic conditions, is the most important factor for OM levels in volcanic soils. This was achieved by compiling a total of 225 pedons from two national-wide datasets of south-Central Chilean

Francisco Matus; Ximena Amigo; Søren M. Kristiansen

2006-01-01

330

Micronutrient Levels in Sugar Beet in Soils of Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in order to estimate micronutrient levels in plants and soils of 215 farms in Greece cultivated with sugar beet. Soils were analyzed for particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon (C), CaCO3, and DTPA-extractable copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Sugar beet leaves were analyzed for the same metals. Also, aboveground biomass (top), root, and

Th. Matsi; N. Maslaris; N. Barbayiannis

2005-01-01

331

MERCURY LEVELS IN NORTHERN PIKE, ESOX LUCIUS, RELATIVE TO WATER CHEMISTRY IN NORTHERN MINNEOSTA LAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on lakes in northern Minnesota revealed elevated fish mercury concentrations. These results prompted fish consumption advisories on several lakes. As a followup to that work, fish fillet samples were collected for mercury analysis from 98 lakes in northern Minnesota from 1981 through 1983. Northern pike (Esox lucius) was picked as an indicator species because of its distribution throughout

Steven A. Heiskary; Daniel D. Helwig

1986-01-01

332

Determination of trace levels of mercury in water samples based on room temperature phosphorescence energy transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method has been developed for the sensitive determination of mercury in aqueous media by room temperature phosphorescence (RTP). The measurement principle is based on the energy transfer (ET) from a phosphor molecule (acting as a donor) to a Hg-sensitive dye (acceptor). To our acknowledgment this is the first RTP method for mercury measurement developed so far. ?-Bromonaphthalene (BrN)

Blanca San Vicente de la Riva; José M. Costa-Fernández; Wei Jun Jin; Rosario Pereiro; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

2002-01-01

333

Research SummaryA study of the mercury levels in Scottish dentists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim A study of 180 dentists in the West of Scotland was conducted to determine their exposure to mercury during the course of their work and the effects on their health and cognitive function.Design Data were obtained from questionnaires distributed to dentists and by visiting their surgeries to take measurements of environmental mercury.Methods Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire

D Brown

2004-01-01

334

Fish consumption, advisory awareness, and hair mercury levels among women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health collaborated on a 12 state mercury awareness project. The primary goals of this initiative were to evaluate mercury sport fishing advisory awareness among women of childbearing age and assess the methylmercury exposure among this subpopulation. The project, which was conducted between December 1998 and December 1999,

Lynda Knobeloch; Henry A. Anderson; Pamela Imm; Debi Peters; Andrew Smith

2005-01-01

335

The geochemistry of mercury in sedimentary rocks and soils in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mercury contents of 11 sandstone, 11 shale and 6 limestone samples from Pennsylvania average 7, 23 and 9 ppb Hg, respectively, which is lower than the values for sedimentary rocks reported in the literature. The differences may arise because many of the reported high values are from regions characterized by more mineralization and volcanism than is present in central

James M. McNeal; Arthur W. Rose

1974-01-01

336

Mercury Concentrations in Plant Tissues as Affected by FGDG Application to Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from themo-electric coal-fired power plants. The most common practice of FGDG production may trap some of the Mercury (Hg) present in the coal that normally would escape as vapor in the stack gases. Concern for t...

337

Sequencing Bands of Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis Fingerprints for Characterization and Microscale Distribution of Soil Bacterium Populations Responding to Mercury Spiking  

PubMed Central

Two major emerging bands (a 350-bp band and a 650-bp band) within the RISA (ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) profile of a soil bacterial community spiked with Hg(II) were selected for further identification of the populations involved in the response of the community to the added metal. The bands were cut out from polyacrylamide gels, cloned, characterized by restriction analysis, and sequenced for phylogenetic affiliation of dominant clones. The sequences were the intergenic spacer between the rrs and rrl genes and the first 130 nucleotides of the rrl gene. Comparison of sequences derived from the 350-bp band to The GenBank database permitted us to identify the bacteria as being mostly close relatives to low G+C firmicutes (Clostridium-like genera), while the 650-bp band permitted us to identify the bacteria as being mostly close relatives to ?-proteobacteria (Ralstonia-like genera). Oligonucleotide probes specific for the identified dominant bacteria were designed and hybridized with the RISA profiles derived from the control and spiked communities. These studies confirmed the contribution of these populations to the community response to the metal. Hybridization of the RISA profiles from subcommunities (bacterial pools associated with different soil microenvironments) also permitted to characterize the distribution and the dynamics of these populations at a microscale level following mercury spiking.

Ranjard, Lionel; Brothier, Elisabeth; Nazaret, Sylvie

2000-01-01

338

Relationship between blood mercury levels and components of male song in Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni).  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) adversely affects the health and behavior of exposed wildlife; however, behavioral effects remain largely unknown. Changes in avian singing behavior may affect a male's fitness because song reveals male quality and thus influences female mate choice and male territory-holding ability. Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) live exclusively on salt marshes and risk high levels of Hg exposure and bioaccumulation. We recorded songs of male Nelson's sparrows at two locations with different Hg exposure to determine if total blood Hg concentration was related to song characteristics, as previously reported for other species. Males with higher blood Hg levels sang at higher maximum tonal frequency, but blood Hg and site location did not influence low tonal frequency and bout duration, contrary to predictions based on other species. Within the contaminated site, Hg levels were related to bouts per minute and gap duration, such that males at that site sang faster songs. Hg influences hormones and alters brain development, raising questions about specific effects on the brains and singing behavior of male Nelson's sparrows. PMID:22945769

McKay, Jennifer L; Maher, Christine R

2012-09-04

339

Influence of socio-demographic and diet determinants on the levels of mercury in preschool children from a Mediterranean island.  

PubMed

Mercury levels measured in 302 hair samples of 4 year-old children from Menorca (western Mediterranean Sea) are reported. Their concentrations, arithmetic mean 1.4 ?g/g, ranging between 0.040 ?g/g and 10 ?g/g, were higher than in other children inland populations but lower than in previously studied island cohorts, e.g. Faroe, Madeira and Seychelles. 20% of the samples were above the WHO recommended values. Higher concentrations in females than males were observed. Frequent consumption of fish and other seafood were significantly related to the observed mercury concentrations. Oily fish was the main source of this pollutant but shellfish and squid consumption were also associated with high mercury concentrations. Maternal smoking, occupational status or previous siblings were also found to significantly influence the levels of this pollutant. McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities used to assess children's motor and cognitive abilities did not show association with mercury concentrations at 4 years of age. PMID:23959058

Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

2013-08-16

340

Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an international Hg flux intercomparison at the Steamboat Springs, Nevada, geothermal area, several dynamic soil flux chambers and micrometeorological gradient systems were operated over desert soils in early September 1997. A series of unanticipated convective rain cells impacted the site with the first rainfall in ~90 days, and the initial 4-cm rainfall increased soil moisture from ~0.01

S. E. Lindberg; H. Zhang; M. Gustin; A. Vette; F. Marsik; J. Owens; A. Casimir; R. Ebinghaus; G. Edwards; C. Fitzgerald; J. Kemp; H. H. Kock; M. Majewski; L. Poissant; M. Pilote; P. Rasmussen; F. Schaedlich; D. Schneeberger; J. Sommar; R. Turner; D. Wallschlaeger; Z. Xiao

1999-01-01

341

Mercury and selenium levels in lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) in relation to a harmful red tide event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue levels of mercury (Hg; total, organic) and selenium (Se) were assessed in juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from Florida nearshore waters collected during a harmful algal bloom (HAB, brevetoxin) event and compared with sharks not\\u000a exposed to HABs. In all sharks studied, total Hg levels in the muscle were generally present in a molar excess over Se (which\\u000a may

Dong-Ha Nam; Douglas H. Adams; Eric A. Reyier; Niladri Basu

2011-01-01

342

Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.  

PubMed

The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake. PMID:18353804

Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

2008-03-18

343

Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P = 0.035) but not among men (P = 0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density ipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P = 0.001) among women (P = 0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed.

Tsuji, Mayumi; Ando, Tetsuo; Kitano, Takao; Wakamiya, Junji; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori

2012-01-01

344

Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils  

SciTech Connect

Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and Cs{sup +} ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. Distribution constants, Kd`s, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

1992-03-20

345

Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils  

SciTech Connect

Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], UO[sub 2][sup 2+], and Cs[sup +] ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H[sup +] and Ca[sup 2+]. Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

1992-03-20

346

Mercury toxicity in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury poisoning has become a problem of current interest as a result of environmental pollution on a global scale. Natural\\u000a emissions of mercury form two-thirds of the input; manmade releases form about one-third. Considerable amounts of mercury\\u000a may be added to agricultural land with sludge, fertilizers, lime, and manures. The most important sources of contaminating\\u000a agricultural soil have been the

Manomita Patra; Archana Sharma

2000-01-01

347

Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States. PMID:21647946

Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

2011-07-05

348

Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies.

Esteban-Vasallo, Maria D.; Aragones, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo

2012-01-01

349

Factors influencing blood mercury levels of inhabitants living near fishing areas.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-known neuro-toxicant, is usually emitted by industrial and other man-made activities; it is ingested with seafood and shellfish, and accumulates in the human body. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in blood levels of total mercury (T-Hg) and MeHg in residents of 4 coastal sites and 4 inland sites around Taiwan. Meanwhile, the potential question is warranted to find out the association between dietary intake and MeHg accumulation. We found that coastal residents had significantly higher mean blood T-Hg levels (mean: 16.1 ?g/L, range: 0.9-184.9 ?g/L) than inland residents (mean: 11.8 ?g/L, range: 0.8-146.6 ?g/L). The same was for blood MeHg levels: coastal residents (mean: 16.5 ?g/L, range: 0.9-184.9 ?g/L), inland residents (mean: 11.8 ?g/L, range: 2.1-133.4 ?g/L). These elevated levels were positively associated with seafood and shellfish consumption. However, the nature of their residential area may also be an important factor, because the highest T-Hg and MeHg levels were found in residents of a relatively non-industrialized area. To protect vulnerable population-especially children and pregnant women-it is important to know whether locally caught or raised and consumed fish has any source of Hg and MeHg pollution. PMID:22444062

Lee, Ching-Chang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

2012-03-22

350

Mercury levels in road dust and household TSP/PM?.? related to concentrations in hair in Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

Road dust, household total suspended particulate matters (TSP) and PM?.? were collected in urban area of Guangzhou, south of China, to investigate the concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). The household PM?.? concentrations varied between 16.2 and 623 ?g/m³. The average PM?.? level (174 ?g/m³) from all of the locations exceeded 24-h concentration from WHO air quality guideline The average concentrations of THg and MeHg were: 235 ?g/kg and 0.392 ?g/kg in road dust, 600 ?g/kg and 1.49 ?g/kg in TSP; 1006 ?g/kg (104 pg/m³) and 1.40 ?g/kg (0.134 pg/m³) in PM?.?. Risk assessment showed that the Hazardous quotients (HQs) of exposure to Hg and MeHg via road dust and TSP were less than 1, indicating that no adverse risk was manifested. Ingestion of dust was found to constitute a relatively minor pathway of Guangzhou residents' exposure to Hg. Furthermore, human hair samples from 88 Guangzhou citizens were also analyzed to investigate the mercury accumulation in human body in Guangzhou. The average concentrations of THg and MeHg in human hair samples were 869±831 ?g/kg and 104±108 ?g/kg respectively. However, no significant correlations of the mercury species were noted between human hair and road dust, TSP and PM?.?. PMID:22579217

Huang, Minjuan; Wang, Wei; Leung, Homan; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Ming Hung; Cheung, Kwai Chung

2012-05-10

351

Effects of phosphate buffer capacity on critical levels and relationships between soil tests and labile phosphate in wheat growing soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine soils from northern New South Wales were used to examine the effects of phosphate buffer capacity on (i) the extraction of labile phosphate by four soil tests, (ii) the relationships between the four soil tests, and (iii) the critical level of each soil test required for near-maximum yield of wheat under field conditions. The results confirmed the principle, recently

I. C. R. Holford

1980-01-01

352

Hydrolysis of carbohydrates in roach ( Rutilus rutilus (L.)) at different levels of mercury accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that chronic exposure to dietary mercury results in the intensive accumulation of this metal in roach yearlings.\\u000a The concentrations of accumulated mercury in their organisms were proportional to the amount of metal added to water of experimental\\u000a tanks. Increased Hg content in the organisms (0.05–0.16 mg\\/kg) of developing juvenile roaches decreases the activity of digestive\\u000a carbohydrases

I. L. Golovanova; V. T. Komov; V. A. Gremyatchikh

2008-01-01

353

Mercury levels in walleyes from Wisconsin lakes of different water and sediment chemistry characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Forty-three lakes throughout Wisconsin were sampled in 1985-86 to determine the water and sediment chemistry characteristics that were associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in walleyes. Mean mercury concentrations for each of three different length classes of walleyes increased as the parameters lake pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, or chlorophyll-a decreased. Low values for these parameters characterized most lakes in northern Wisconsin. Mean mercury concentrations exceeded the Wisconsin health standard of 0.5 micrograms (ug) Hg/g wet weight of fish for all walleye length classes in lakes with pH values < 6.0, for walleyes > or = to 15.0 inches in lakes with pH 6.0-6.9, and for walleyes > or = 20.0 in. in all lake pH categories. Apparently the older, larger walleyes in hard water as well as soft water lakes can accumulate enough mercury to warrant concern. Sediment mercury concentrations were generally < or = 0.02 ug/g dry weight for all study lakes, but sediment mercury and organic matter were higher in lakes with pH values < 7.0 than in lakes with pH > or = 7.0. Models were developed and tested to predict mercury concentrations in a 17-in. walleye for each lake. The best model derived from the study and tested on an independent dataset used alkalinity and calcium as independent variables. Clearly, walleyes from soft water, poorly buffered, low pH lakes have the highest concentrations of mercury, but the reasons for these higher concentrations require further study. 67 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

Lathrop, R.C.; Noonan, K.C.; Guenther, P.M.; Brasino, T.L.; Rasmussen, P.W.

1989-01-01

354

Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with cognitive and motor function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential cognitive and motor effects from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg0) were examined in the presence and absence of a polymorphism (Val66Met) in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A group of 194 male dentists (DDs) and 233 female dental assistants (DAs) were occupationally exposed to mercury and had no history of kidney or nervous system disorders. Acute exposure was measured using

Diana Echeverria; James S. Woods; Nicholas J. Heyer; Dianne S. Rohlman; Federico M. Farin; Alvah C. Bittner; Tingting Li; Claire Garabedian

2005-01-01

355

Degradation of metaflumizone in soil: impact of varying moisture, light, temperature, atmospheric CO2 level, soil type and soil sterilization.  

PubMed

Soil is a major sink for the bulk of globally used pesticides. Hence, fate of pesticides in soil under the influence of various biotic and abiotic factors becomes important for evaluation of stability and safety. This paper presents the impact of varying moisture, light, temperature, atmospheric CO(2) level, soil type and soil sterilization on degradation of metaflumizone, a newly registered insecticide in India. Degradation of metaflumizone in soil followed the first order reaction kinetics and its half life values varied from ~20 to 150 d. Under anaerobic condition, degradation of metaflumizone was faster (t(½) 33.4 d) compared to aerobic condition (t(½) 50.1 d) and dry soil (t(½) 150.4 d). Under different light exposures, degradation was the fastest under UV light (t(½) 27.3 d) followed by Xenon light (t(½) 43 d) and dark condition (t(½) 50.1 d). Degradation rate of metaflumizone increased with temperature and its half life values ranged from 30.1 to 100.3d. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) level increased the degradation in soil (t(½) 20.1-50.1 d). However, overall degradation rate was the fastest at 550 ppm atmospheric CO(2) level, followed by 750 ppm and ambient level (375 ppm). Degradation of metaflumizone was faster in Oxisol (pH 5.2, Total Organic Carbon 1.2%) compared to Inceptisol (pH 8.15, TOC 0.36%). In sterile soil, only 5% dissipation of initial concentration was observed after 90 d of sampling. Under various conditions, 4-cyanobenzoic acid (0.22-1.86 mg kg(-1)) and 4-trifluoromethoxy aniline (0.21-1.23 mg kg(-1)) were detected as major degradation products. PMID:23102725

Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman; Varghese, Eldho

2012-10-24

356

Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (delta(15)N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs. PMID:19962722

Akearok, Jason A; Hebert, Craig E; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

2009-12-04

357

Selenium speciation analysis at trace level in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an analytical methodology to determine speciation of selenium present in soils at trace level (?gkg?1). The methodology was based on parallel single extractions and high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICPMS). Two complementary chromatographic separations were used to confirm Se species identity. Different extractants, selected on the basis of

Julie Tolu; Isabelle Le Hécho; Maïté Bueno; Yves Thiry; Martine Potin-Gautier

2011-01-01

358

Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates  

SciTech Connect

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

2010-02-01

359

IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of the mercury fed is expected to be chlorinated, mostly as Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, while the remaining mercury would exist either as elemental mercury (90%) or HgO (4%).

Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

2009-03-17

360

Nematode and mercury content in freshwater fish belonging to different trophic levels.  

PubMed

Fish are a protein source for many people in Colombia. However, environmental pollution of some aquatic ecosystems may pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in muscle and their relationship with nematode infections in fish from Dique Channel, a freshwater ecosystem located Northern Colombia. Eight hundred ninety fish specimens belonging to 13 different species were collected. T-Hg concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, previous electrothermal atomization. Nematodes were identified as Contracaecum sp. Species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Sorubim cuspicaudus presented the highest values for Hg and parasite infection (0.09?±?0.01, 0.12?±?0.02 ?g/g; prevalence 100, 100 %, respectively), whereas the lowest were detected in Prochilodus magdalenae (0.02?±?0.002 ?g/g; 0 %). Pooled data revealed a high correlation between trophic level and parasite abundance (??=?0.771; P?=?0.002) as well as with T-Hg (??=?0.786; P?level of the fish species, similarly to what occurs with Hg. Moreover, the co-occurrence of these two stressors involves different types of interactions with morphometric variables that are species-specific. These observations open new doors to the understanding of the interaction between chemical pollutants and organisms. PMID:23494159

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina

2013-03-14

361

Clean conditions for the determination of ultra-low levels of mercury in ice and snow samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory facilities and methods are presented for the determination of ultra-low levels of mercury (Hg) in ice and snow\\u000a samples originating from polar ice caps or temperate regions. Special emphasis will be given to the presentation of the clean\\u000a laboratory and the cleaning procedures. The laboratory is pressurized with air filtered through high efficiency particle filters.\\u000a This first filtration is

C. P. Ferrari; A. L. Moreau; C. F. Boutron

2000-01-01

362

Follow-up of mercury levels in fish, human hair and urine in the Madeira and Tapajós basins, Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal economy of gold mining has contaminated some important river basins in Amazon. Follow-up studies on critical compartments\\u000a showed some areas with high Hg levels in fish as well as in human hair samples. Average Hg in piscivorous fish in the Madeira\\u000a river itself was 846 ppb (N=284) with a maximum of 3921 ppb. Mercury in fish from non polluted

O. Malm; J. R. D. Guimarães; M. B. Castro; W. R. Bastos; J. P. Viana; F. J. P. Branches; E. G. Silveira; W. C. Pfeiffer

1997-01-01

363

Maternal Fish Intake During Pregnancy, Blood Mercury Levels, and Child Cognition at Age 3 Years in a US Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cog- nitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massa- chusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

Emily Oken; Jenny S. Radesky; Robert O. Wright; David C. Bellinger; Chitra J. Amarasiriwardena; Ken P. Kleinman; Howard Hu; Matthew W. Gillman

2008-01-01

364

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

2008-04-09

365

Mercury Exposure and Children's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and

Stephan Bose-O'Reilly; Kathleen M. McCarty; Nadine Steckling; Beate Lettmeier

2010-01-01

366

Soil-Moisture Retention Curves, Capillary Pressure Curves, and Mercury Porosimetry: A Theoretical and Computational Investigation of the Determination of the Geometric Properties of the Pore Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immiscible displacement protocols have long been used to infer the geometric properties of the void space in granular porous media. The three most commonly used experimental techniques are the measurement of soil-moisture retention curves and relative permeability-capillary pressure-saturation relations, as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry experiments. A coupled theoretical and computational investigation was performed that provides insight into the limitations

T. E. Strand; H. F. Wang

2003-01-01

367

Remote sensing of Mercury-contaminated soils through plant reflection spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial extent of Hg contamination is often poorly known because current methods used to identify and map Hg soil contamination on a regional scale are time consuming and expensive. Here we test whether vegetation growing in Hg-contaminated soils has discernible characteristics in visible\\/near-infrared (VNIR, 350-2500nm) spectra. Previous work indicates that Hg can cause chemical and structural changes in plant

S. C. Dunagan; M. S. Gilmore; J. C. Varekamp

2005-01-01

368

A possible approach for setting a mercury risk-based action level based on tribal fish ingestion rates.  

PubMed

Risks from mercury and other contaminants in fish for a large Columbia River dataset are evaluated in this paper for a range of consumption rates. Extensive ethnohistorical, nutritional, recent ethnographic surveys, and other documentation was reviewed to confirm previous determinations that the traditional subsistence fish consumption rate is 500 pounds per capita annually, or 620 g per day (gpd). Lower comtemporary consumption rates for other population subsets are also discussed. The causes of the current suppression of fish consumption are discussed and the cultural, educational, social, and trade and economic impacts of the loss of fish are considered. Action levels for mercury for riverine Tribes in the Columbia Basin are suggested at 0.1 ppm or less based on the combined risk from mercury plus other contaminants, the higher fish consumption rates, the existing cultural deficit due to loss of salmon and other stressors, the health benefits of fish, and the cultural and economic importance of fish. The goal of fish advisories is to reduce fish consumption even further, which shifts the burden of avoiding risk to the very people who already bear the burdens of contaminant exposure, socio-economic impacts and cultural loss. However, because Tribal communities often do not have the choice of giving up more food, income, religion, culture, and heritage in order to avoid contamination, they are forced into choosing between culture and health. Many tribal members choose to incur chemical risk rather than giving up their culture and religion. We believe that lowering the action level for mercury is part of the federal fiduciary responsibility to American Indian Tribes. PMID:17631290

Harper, Barbara L; Harris, Stuart G

2007-07-13

369

Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands  

SciTech Connect

The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed frequently by humans. Mill Creek, the site with the most documented prior contamination, had significantly elevated cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead in goose tissues. - Highlights: {yields} The NJ Meadowlands include extensive wetlands in the urban NYC metropolitan area. {yields} We analyzed eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese at 4 Meadowlands sites. {yields} As, Cd, and Hg were low in all tissues sampled, while Cr was high in feathers. {yields} Pb was higher in goose eggs and feathers than in other Meadowlands bird species. {yields} Pb in muscle and liver was lower and within the range seen in waterfowl elsewhere.

Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)] [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States) [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States)] [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States) [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States) [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)] [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

2011-08-15

370

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

Hung, H. -W.; Daniel, Sheng, G.; Lin, T. -F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C. T.

2009-01-01

371

Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).  

PubMed

Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet. PMID:23671561

Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

2013-05-06

372

A dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary mercury levels: a further assessment of the Casa Pia Children's Dental Amalgam Trial.  

PubMed

Dental amalgams are a commonly used dental restorative material, and amalgams are about 50% mercury (Hg). In our study, urinary Hg levels was examined in children of age 8-18 years, with and without dental amalgam fillings, from a completed clinical trial (parent study) that was designed to evaluate the potential health consequences of prolonged exposure to Hg from dental amalgam fillings. Our study was designed to determine whether there was a significant dose-dependent correlation between increasing Hg exposure from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels. Hg exposure depends on the size and number of teeth with dental amalgams. Overall, consistent with the results observed in the parent study, there was a statistically significant dose-dependent correlation between cumulative exposure to Hg from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels, after covariate adjustment. Further, it was observed that urinary Hg levels increased by 18% to 52% among 8 to 18 year old individuals, respectively, with an average exposure to amalgams, in comparison to study subjects with no exposure to amalgams. The results of our study suggest that dental amalgams contribute to ongoing Hg exposure in a dose-dependent fashion. PMID:21803780

Geier, D A; Carmody, T; Kern, J K; King, P G; Geier, Mark R

2011-07-29

373

DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS FROM PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as part of a collaborative effort among government and industry representatives, is developing Ecologic Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) for approximately 25 of the most common pollutants found at Superfund sites. As part of this effort, ...

374

REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS FOR FISH AND FISH-EATING BIRDS IN CARSON RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involves conducting a literature search with the goal of identifying "robust" methods for measuring mercury concentrations in biological tissues. Mercury is a significant contaminant of concern in Region 9, due in large part to the extensive mining activities of the...

375

Inter and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among

Jason A. Akearok; Craig E. Hebert; Birgit M. Braune; Mark L. Mallory

2010-01-01

376

Influence of illegal gold mining on mercury levels in fish of North Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula, (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula currently is experiencing intense illegal gold mining activity. It has been estimated that 200 t of mercury are used annually in Indonesia in the recovery of gold from the illegal mines. To date no study has assessed the environmental impact of this illegal activity on the nearby aquatic biota. To address this concern, we compared tissue

Joice L. Kambey; A. p. Farrell; L. i. Bendell-young

2001-01-01

377

Monitoring of mercury, lead and cadmium levels in seafoods during the years 1993–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of mercury, lead and cadmium analyses in seafoods from Campania and Calabria during the years 1993–1995 are herein reported. We analysed 1795 food samples and carried out 3532 determinations about metal concentrations. The data were evaluated to calculate the frequency of illegal samples in respect to the limits permitted by Italian legislation; moreover, we reported the distribution of

Pasquale Gallo; Luigi Serpe

1998-01-01

378

Sequential analysis of hair mercury levels in relation to fish diet of an Amazonian population, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies in the Amazonian Basin have shown that riverine populations are exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption. It has been suggested that seasonal variations in hair mercury observed through sequential analyses may be related to the changes in fish species ingested by the local communities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between fish-eating practices

Julie Dolbec; Donna Mergler; Fabrice Larribe; Marc Roulet; Jean Lebel; Marc Lucotte

2001-01-01

379

Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations

Hecham Elhamri; Larbi Idrissi; Marina Coquery; Sabine Azemard; Abdellah El Abidi; Mohamed Benlemlih; Mohamed Saghi; Francesco Cubadda

2007-01-01

380

Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer  

PubMed Central

A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600?ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0). Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

Yasutake, Akira; Cheng, Jin Ping; Kiyono, Masako; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Liu, Xiaojie; Miura, Kyoko; Yasuda, Yoshiaki; Mashyanov, Nikolay

2011-01-01

381

Spatial Variation and Correlations of Mercury Levels in the Terrestrial and Aquatic Components of a Wetland Dominated Ecosystem: Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the ranges and spatial variation ofmercury in various media in the wetland ecosystems ofKejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia. Mercury concentrations infive-year-old yellow perch (age based on regression analysesof existing data) ranged from 0.12–0.72 µgg-1(wet weight basis) in 24 lakes. Mercury concentrations inred maple ranged from 5 to 41 ng g-1 and levels inwhite pine ranged from 5 to

A. N. Rencz; N. J. O'Driscoll; G. E. M. Hall; T. Peron; K. Telmer; N. M. Burgess

2003-01-01

382

Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for biota and considering the age dependency of mercury concentrations in fish in the monitoring strategy. PMID:22071369

Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

2011-11-08

383

Soil Organic Matter and Macronutrient Levels after Mill Mud Application to Sugarcane Growing in a Sand Soil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mill mud contains high nutrient levels and is often applied to sugarcane grown in sand soils at high rates. The potential for nutrient leaching into the subsoil is not known. An experiment was conducted to assess soil organic matter and macronutrient movement into three soil depths (0- to 6-, 6- to ...

384

Mercury Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive calculator produced by Teachers' Domain helps you determine the mercury levels in various types of fish, and enables you to make more informed choices about which fish are safe to eat and which should be avoided or eaten infrequently.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-23

385

Mercury pollution of effluent, air, and soil near a battery factory in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent, air, and soil samples near a battery factory in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where HgCl2 is used to prevent mold growth, were collected to explore the potential for pollution of the environment from industrial discharge of Hg. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Hg determinations. The concentration of Hg in the effluent ranged from -1 and the Hg

E. Semu; B. R. Singh; A. R. Selmer-Olsen

1986-01-01