Science.gov

Sample records for soil reference materials

  1. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  2. Soiled-based uranium disequilibrium and mixed uranium-thorium series radionuclide reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology has assigned the Technical Measurements Center (TMC), located at the DOE Grand Junction Colorado, Projects Office and operated by UNC Geotech (UNC), the task of supporting ongoing remedial action programs by providing both technical guidance and assistance in making the various measurements required in all phases of remedial action work. Pursuant to this task, the Technical Measurements Center prepared two sets of radionuclide reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. A total of six reference materials, two sets comprising three reference materials each, were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides using mill tailings materials, ores, and a river-bottom soil diluent. One set (disequilibrium set) contains varying amounts of uranium with nominal amounts of radium-226. The other set (mixed-nuclide set) contains varying amounts of uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series nuclides. 14 refs., 10 tabs.

  3. Development of laboratory reference material: Soil 1. Baseline and highly elevated concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, K; Konieczka, P; Namieśnik, J

    2011-01-01

    Reference materials play a key part in systems of inspection and quality control of results of analytical measurements. The main limitation in using certified reference materials (CRM) is their high price, which results from the long and costly process of producing the reference material. An alternative to costly CRM materials is the employment of laboratory reference materials, particularly for interlaboratory control of measurement results and procedures. Under the auspices of the Chair of Analytical Chemistry at the Chemical Department of Gdansk University of Technology, research on the development of new reference materials is being conducted. At present, the research is aimed at producing a new laboratory reference material (LRM): 'Soil 1. Baseline and Highly Elevated Concentrations of Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' - LRM soil 1. This paper presents the production stages of the developed laboratory reference material: acquisition of raw material from soil samples taken from the environment of the Tri-city (in Polish, Trójmiasto Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) bypass road, homogenization and subsequent dosage into appropriate containers, tests of homogeneity of sampled material within one container and between containers, based on the results of the determination of selected parameters (total carbon, content of optional metals - Hg, Fe, Cu Zn, Mn, Mg, water content, content of PAH-group analytes). The obtained results of homogeneity tests of the proposed future laboratory reference material have confirmed the homogeneity of soil samples within a container and between containers. Currently, interlaboratory tests are being carried out to determine the reference value. PMID:21473281

  4. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  5. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  6. Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    Thorium-232 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. A task was undertaken by the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) to prepare some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/g. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 +- 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 +- 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 +- 0.3 pCi/g.

  7. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  9. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  10. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  11. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  12. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs. PMID:21744516

  13. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  14. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  15. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  16. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., amendment 1 (2011). Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  17. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., into § 173.417. (2) Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  18. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  19. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  20. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  1. Final recommendations for reference materials in black carbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Skjemstad, Jan O.

    Last summer, a symposium was held to discuss aspects of global biogeochemical cycles, including organic matter cycling in soils, rivers, and marine environments; black carbon particle fluxes and the biological pump; dissolved organic matter; and organic matter preservation. Seventy scientists from various disciplines, including oceanography, soil science, geology, and chemistry attended the 3-day meeting at the Friday Harbor Laboratories, a research station of the University of Washington.“New Approaches in Marine Organic Biogeochemistry” commemorated the life and science of a colleague and friend, John I. Hedges, who was also involved in several groups developing chemical reference materials. Part of this symposium included a workshop on chemical reference materials, where final recommendations of the Steering Committee for Black Carbon Reference Materials were presented.

  2. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  3. Reference Materials: Significance, General Requirements, and Demand.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-05-01

    Reference materials play an important part in the quality control of measurements. Rapid development of such new scientific disciplines as proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics also necessitates development of new reference materials. This is a great challenge due to the complexity of the production of new reference materials and difficulties associated with achieving their homogeneity and stability. CRMs of tissue are of particular importance. They can be counted among the matrices that are most complex and time consuming in preparation. Tissue is the place of transformation and accumulation of many substances (e.g., metabolites, which are intermediate or end products resulting from metabolic processes). Trace amounts of many substances in tissues must be determined with adequate precision and accuracy. To meet the needs stemming from research and from problems and challenges faced by chemists, analysts, and toxicologists, the number of certified reference materials should be continuously increased. PMID:26042643

  4. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, meth...

  5. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  6. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  7. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  8. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    PubMed Central

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil. PMID:27308183

  9. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  11. Characterization of reference materials for the Barrier Materials Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.A.; Aden, G.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Jones, T.E.; Lane, D.L.; Noonan, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    Initial characterization of the geologic and engineered barrier materials for a nuclear waste repository in basalt has been completed. Data have been obtained on the characteristics of the reference waste forms which are being studied for eventual disposal in such a repository. Reference basalt entablature, colonnade, and flow top specimens have been selected from the Umtanum flow, which is the primary basalt flow under consideration for repository siting. Material from the Mabton Interbed Stratum, Pomona Flow basalt, smectite clay from the Pomona Flow, a potassium clinoptilolite, Beverly sandstone and tuff, and Grande Ronde groundwater are also included in the suite of reference geologic materials. Reference engineered barrier materials include sodium bentonite and canister metals such as carbon steel, cupronickel, Hastelloy and Inconel alloys. Spent fuel, borosilicate glass, and supercalcine ceramic comprise the reference waste forms. Analyses were made for physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics using techniques ranging from simple observations of color to sophisticated ultrastructural analysis in the electron microscope. Analyses of the elemental and phase chemistries for most of the reference materials have been completed on typical samples. Determinations of material homogeneity are currently being performed.

  12. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  13. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in increasing numbers due to many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. VE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport are quite c...

  14. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  15. Mycotoxins: regulations, quality assurance and reference materials.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, H P

    1995-01-01

    Some 60 countries have currently enacted or proposed regulations for control of mycotoxins (primarily the aflatoxins) in food and animal feed. Various factors influence the establishment of limits for certain mycotoxins, but there is no consistent rationale for setting limits or for enforcement control. The enforcement of the regulations requires monitoring of suspected commodities. Many laboratories perform large numbers of determinations of mycotoxins, in particular aflatoxins, and consider their results to be reliable. Nevertheless, it often happens that laboratories find quite different analytical results on samples that have been especially homogenized for interlaboratory studies. The application of Quality Assurance principles contributes to the reliability of mycotoxin measurements. Quality Assurance is focused on the organizational process and the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and archived. This is, in itself, an important contribution to the scientific value of a study. A Quality Assurance programme should include various elements, including (certified) reference materials, if available. Certified reference materials are stable, homogeneous products with certified values of the analyte(s) of interest. Various certified reference materials for mycotoxins have been prepared by the European Commission's Community Bureau of Reference, in co-operation with several European laboratories (aflatoxin M1 in milk powder, aflatoxins B1 B2, G1, and G2 in peanut butter, aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal and compound feed, deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize flour). Other reference materials are in a well-advanced development stage (ochratoxin A in wheat flour and pig kidney, fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize). PMID:7664922

  16. Bromide Adsorption by Reference Minerals and Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromide, Br-, adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous Al and Fe oxide, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and temperate and tropical soils. Bromide adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH with minimal adsorption occurring above pH 7. Bromide adsorption was higher for amorphous oxides t...

  17. 15 CFR 230.3 - New Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New Standard Reference Materials. 230... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS General Information § 230.3 New Standard Reference Materials. When new...

  18. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  19. 47 CFR 0.411 - General reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General reference materials. 0.411 Section 0... Information Printed Publications § 0.411 General reference materials. The following reference materials are... finding aids. See 1 CFR appendix C. (2) The Federal Register. As rules are adopted, amended, or...

  20. 15 CFR 230.2 - Identification of Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of Standard Reference Materials. 230.2 Section 230.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS...

  1. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  2. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  3. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  4. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  5. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  6. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  7. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  8. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels 1065.701 ASTM D6985-04a,...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... of the International System of Units (SI), Barry N. Taylor, Physics Laboratory 1065.20,...

  11. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  12. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  13. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard reference materials. 200.104..., PROCEDURES, AND FEES § 200.104 Standard reference materials. Often the performance of a device or structure... response to a stable, homogeneous reference specimen which has been well-characterized with regard to...

  14. Reference materials and intercomparison samples available from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, E.J.; Laska, P.R.

    1985-06-01

    Reference materials and intercomparison samples may be obtained by laboratories involved in the analysis of environmental samples containing radioactivity, pesticides, toxic inorganic species, or toxic organic species. These reference materials and intercomparison samples are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Quality Assurance Division located at the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). These materials are useful for incorporation into a laboratory's quality control program for the evaluation of the precision and accuracy of analytical work. Media used for radiation reference materials are pitchblende, Monazite ore, uranium mill tailings, Mancos shale, fly ash, and water spiked with radionuclides. Radioactivity intercomparison samples consist of water, milk, air, urine, and a simulated diet slurry spiked with radionuclides. Media available for toxic organic reference materials are sludge, shale oil, and rag oil, and for intercomparison samples are soil and water. Characterized fly ash, foundry sludge, and river sediment serve as reference materials for toxic inorganics, while spiked soil and water serve as intercomparison samples. Finally, spiked adipose tissue, blood plasma, urine, and water comprise the pesticide intercomparison samples, and, after the disclosure of the true pesticide compositions and concentrations of these samples, the laboratory can use the samples as reference materials. The reference materials are generally available continuously, but the intercomparison samples are distributed on a scheduled basis and in some cases only to certain laboratories. 9 tables.

  15. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  16. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  17. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  18. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  19. Reproducibility of polycarbonate reference material in toxicity evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A specific lot of bisphenol A polycarbonate has been used for almost four years as the reference material for the NASA-USF-PSC toxicity screening test method. The reproducibility of the test results over this period of time indicate that certain plastics may be more suitable reference materials than the more traditional cellulosic materials.

  20. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, or http://www.imo.org, or 44-(0)20-7735-7611. (1) Revised...

  1. DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...

  2. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  3. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  4. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  5. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  6. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  7. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management. PMID:27619655

  8. 40 CFR 86.1 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Including Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles, June 2010, IBR approved for § 86.1811-04(n... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone... page 170 (13.170)), IBR approved for §§ 86.111-94; 86.1311-94. (2) SAE J1634, Electric Vehicle...

  9. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  10. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  12. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    A consolidated reference of materials for downhole equipment used in geothermal energy exploitation is nearing completion. The reference is a summary of recent developments in the areas of tubular goods materials, highly alloyed metals, high temperature cements, high temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downwell pumps. A brief overview is presented in this paper.

  13. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. The...

  14. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section 430.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS General Provisions § 430.3 Materials incorporated by reference. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 78848, Dec. 16, 2010. (a) General. We...

  15. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. We incorporate...

  16. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected. PMID:23387148

  17. Isotopic Compositions of Uranium Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, B.; Borg, L. E.; Williams, R. W.; Brennecka, G.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in 238U/235U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of ~1.3‰ are now being observed in 238U/235U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The 238U/235U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed 233U-236U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. This tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured 238U/235U ratios of ~0.03. The values obtained for 238U/235U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 ± 0.020 (n=15), SRM950a = 137.870 ± 0.018 (n=8), and CRM112a = 137.866 ± 0.030 (n=16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. Our measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 ± 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified 238U/235U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for 234U/235U are: SRM950a = (7.437 ± 0.043)x10-3 (n=18), and CRM112a = (7.281 ± 0.050)x10-3 (n=16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for 236U/235U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 ± 2.63)x10-6, whereas 236U was not detected in CRM112a. We are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of

  18. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

    2009-09-03

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for

  19. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  20. Sexuality Education. Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This annotated bibliography describes materials from the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (NCEMCH) reference collection. The 125 items focus on children and sexuality education. Most materials about preventing AIDS/HIV, adolescent pregnancy prevention, and school health education in general, however, are omitted because…

  1. Preparation and characterization of ``exhausted electrowinning electrolyte'' reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arana, G.; Amigo, J. M.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L. A.; Raposo, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    The number of available reference materials of complex matrices is continuously growing but it is still far from ideal. There are too many different matrices which are of interest for too many different analytes. The certified reference materials are expensive and are intended for the validation of methods or for the assurance of traceability of the analytical result. However, many determinations are carried out on a daily basis and the quality control for these determinations requires the use of reference materials, although not certified but laboratory reference materials. These materials are not certified but must be homogeneous and stable with respect to the concentration of the analytes of interest and they must have a similar matrix compared to the samples to be analysed, in order to be able to perform the quality control of the analytical determinations. The reference material herein presented is an exhausted electrowinning electrolyte from a local copper producing company. The analytical determination of the metals in the solution was performed using ICP-AES with a multivariate calibration procedure. The analytes are the following : As, Ca, Cu, Fe, Na, Ni, Sb and Zn.

  2. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium). PMID:8845435

  3. Certification of reference materials for the determination of alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Otsuka, Satoko; Iwasawa, Ryoko; Fujiki, Naomi; Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Kato, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are playing an increasingly important role in national and international standardizing activities. In Japan, primary standard solutions for analyses of endocrine disrupters are supplied under the national standards dissemination system named the Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS). For the traceability on reference materials used for preparation of the primary standard solutions based on the JCSS, the National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed and certified high-purity reference materials of alkylphenols as NMIJ CRMs, such as 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Thereafter, it is essential to determine the alkylphenols by using these solutions based on the JCSS for environmental monitoring and risk assessments because analytical values obtained by using the solutions can ensure the reliability and traceability of the chemical analyses. PMID:25656848

  4. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  5. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2013-10-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0-1 cm; below-crust soils, 2-5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances. PMID:23621290

  6. Soils of amazonia with particular reference to the rainfor sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, C. A.; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O.; Fyllas, N. M.; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2009-04-01

    The tropical forests of Amazonia occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic and geomorphologic conditions. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types, also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is proposed having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  7. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, C. A.; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O.; Fyllas, N. M.; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2011-06-01

    The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  8. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  9. The Metaproteome of "Park Grass" soil - a reference for EU soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Gerry; Dudley, Ed; Doerr, Stefan; Matthews, Peter; Halen, Ingrid; Walley, Richard; Ashton, Rhys; Delmont, Tom; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, Salvatore Andrea; Van Keulen, Geertje

    2016-04-01

    Soil metaproteomics, the systemic extraction and identification of proteins from a soil, is key to understanding the biological and physical processes that occur within the soil at a molecular level. Until recently, direct extraction of proteins from complex soils have yielded only dozens of protein identifications due to interfering substances, such as humic acids and clay, which co-extract and/or strongly adsorb protein, often causing problems in downstream processing, e.g. mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the current most successful, direct, proteomic extraction protocol favours larger molecular weight and/or heat-stable proteins due to its extraction protocol. We have now developed a novel, faster, direct soil protein extraction protocol which also addressed the problem of interfering substances, while only requiring less than 1 gram of material per extraction. We extracted protein from the 'Genomic Observatory' Park Grass at Rothamsted Research (UK), an ideally suited geographic site as it is the longest (>150 years) continually studied experiment on ungrazed permanent grassland in the world, for which a rich history of environmental/ecological data has been collected, including high quality publically available metagenome DNA sequences. Using this improved methodology, in conjunction with the creation of high quality, curated metagenomic sequence databases, we have been able to significantly improve protein identifications from one soil due to extracting a similar number of proteins that were >90% different when compared to the best current direct protocol. This optimised metaproteomics protocol has now enabled identification of thousands of proteins from one soil, leading therefore to a deeper insight of soil system processes at the molecular scale.

  10. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  11. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material. PMID:26462921

  12. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  13. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  14. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  15. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  16. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  17. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  18. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  19. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  20. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  1. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  2. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  4. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  5. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  6. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from...

  7. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.15 Section 431.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  8. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 572.110 Section 572.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male...

  9. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse...

  10. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  11. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  12. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  13. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  14. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  15. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  16. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  17. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.203 Section 431.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  18. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.63 Section 431.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  20. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  1. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  2. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., ISSN 1041-2336. (c) Availability of references. The building...

  4. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials... Ice-Makers.” (2) American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of...

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  6. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.95 Section 431.95... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent... October 27, 2011 and updated by addendum 1 in December 2010 and addendum 2 in June 2011 (AHRI...

  7. Accurate determination of cobalt traces in several biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, R; Danko, B

    1994-01-01

    A newly devised, very accurate ("definitive") method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials was validated by the analysis of several certified reference materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and selective and quantitative postirradiation isolation of radiocobalt from practically all other radionuclides by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. The significance of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to accept a given result as obtained by the "definitive method" is emphasized. In view of the demonstrated very good accuracy of the method, it is suggested that our values for cobalt content in those reference materials in which it was originally not certified (SRM 1570 spinach, SRM 1571 orchard leaves, SRM 1577 bovine liver, and Czechoslovak bovine liver 12-02-01) might be used as provisional certified values. PMID:7710879

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  9. Reference Materials for Reactor Neutron Fluence Rate and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.

    2003-06-01

    Certified reference materials are distributed by the European Commission through the BCR® programme (over 500 CRMs) including a series of activation and fission monitor materials originally proposed by the Euratom Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry. The current range (18 CRMs) includes materials to cover the complete energy spectrum, and suitable for different irradiation times. Fission monitors are 238UO2 or 237NpO2 in the form of microspheres. Activation monitors are high purity metals (Ni, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Rh, or Ti), certified for interfering trace impurities, or dilute aluminium-based alloys. Reference materials newly certified are IRMM-530R A1-0.1%Au, replacing the exhausted IRMM-530 material, used as comparator for k0- standardisation, and three new Al-Co alloys (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%Co). Others in the process of certification are A1-0.1%Ag and A1-2%Sc for thermal and epithermal fluence rate measurements and two uranium-doped glass materials intended for dosimetry by the fission-track technique. Various alloy compositions have been prepared for use as melt-wire temperature monitors with melting points ranging from 198 to 327ºC.

  10. Developing Potential New Reference Materials for Light Isotopes in Foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Van Hale, Robert; Clarke, Dianne; Abrahim, Aiman; Resch, Christian; Mayr, Leopold; Cannavan, Andrew; Gröning, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of subtle variations in stable isotope ratios provide the means for verifying food integrity in numerous ways. Adulterants usually have different isotopic composition so their presence in a food is readily detectable. Stable isotope measurements can also be used to determine the region of production of the food. In most cases the ability of stable isotope measurements to verify, or otherwise reject, the authenticity of the food is greatly enhanced by comparison of a result to a reference database. The more high-quality data in the database, the more statistical power is afforded by the comparison. A serious weakness at present is the lack of reference materials in food matrices available to the community. Thus researchers have to rely on in-house standards for calibration and quality assurance. The result is that there are numerous datasets published that may be internally consistent but it is exceedingly difficult to combine these datasets into a cohesive database. This is particularly important for measurements of the hydrogen isotopes. Here we present a survey of the stable isotope (^2H, ^13C and ^15N) composition of 12 Reference Materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency catalogue. All but one of these materials are plant matter and have been developed as reference materials for other applications such as radionuclide or trace element measurements. Thus they have been verified as suitable materials in terms of stability and homogeneity for those tests. The purpose of this work is to ascertain if they are similarly suitable as stable isotope reference materials. The results from our survey show that there is a wide range in elemental and isotopic composition among these materials. For example, the ^15N values range from-13.5‰ to +18.6‰ and the nitrogen elemental composition range is from 0.7% to 9.7%. The ^13C values range from -20‰ to -40‰ and the carbon elemental composition ranges from 15% to 47%. We are now in the process of

  11. Preparation and stability of milk somatic cell reference materials.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2016-09-01

    Our objectives were to develop a method to produce milk somatic cell count (SCC) reference materials for calibration of electronic somatic cell count (ESCC) using gravity separation and to determine the effect of refrigerated storage (4°C) and freeze-thaw stability of the skim and whole milk SCC reference materials. Whole raw milk was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and split into 2 portions. One portion was gravity separated at 4°C for 22 h and the second portion was centrifugally separated to produce skim milk that was also gravity separated with somatic cells rising to the surface. After 22 h, stock solutions (low SCC skim milk, high SCC skim milk, high SCC whole milk) were prepared and preserved (bronopol). Two experiments were conducted, one to compare the shelf-life of skim and whole milk SCC standards at 4°C and one to determine the effect of freezing and thawing on SCC standards. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Gravity separation was an effective approach to isolate and concentrate somatic cells from bovine milk and redistribute them in a skim or whole milk matrix to create a set of reference materials with a wider and more uniformly distributed range of SCC than current calibration sets. The liquid SCC reference materials stored using the common industry practice at 4°C were stable (i.e., fit for purpose, no large decrease in SCC) for a 2-wk period, whereas frozen and thawed reference materials may have a much longer useful life. A gradual decrease occurred in residual difference in ESCC (SCC × 1,000/mL) versus original assigned reference SCC over duration of refrigerated storage for both skim and whole milk SCC samples, indicating that milk ESCC of the preserved milks was gradually decreasing during 28 d of storage at 4°C by about 15,000 SCC/mL. No difference in the ESCC for skim milk was detected between refrigerated and frozen storage, whereas for whole milk the ESCC for frozen was lower than refrigerated samples. Future work is

  12. Primary certification of reference material for electrolytic conductivity of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. F.; Gomes, M. R. F.; Cassini, G. C.; Faria, A. C. V.; Fraga, I. C. S.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays the preservation of the planet is spreading into the international scene with the use of renewable energy sources such as bioethanol. The challenge is to guarantee the quality of produced bioethanol, and the electrolytic conductivity (EC) is one of the specified parameters for this purpose. However, is necessary to demonstrate the metrological traceability of the measurement results for EC in this matrix. This study presents the certification of a reference material for EC in bioethanol by using only primary measurements. The value of primary certified reference material (CRM) is (0.77 ± 0.06) µS.cm-1, and its use will provide the metrological traceability needed for measurement results in laboratories.

  13. Methods to Characterize Ricin for the Development of Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sook-Kyung; Hancock, Diane K.; Wang, Lili; Cole, Kenneth D.; Reddy, Prasad T.

    2006-01-01

    Ricin is an abundant protein from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Because of its high toxicity and the simplicity of producing mass quantities, ricin is considered a biological terrorism agent. We have characterized ricin extensively with a view to develop Reference Materials that could be used to test and calibrate detection devices. The characterization of ricin includes: 1) purity test of a commercial batch of ricin using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, 2) biological activity assay by measuring its ability to inhibit protein synthesis, 3) quantitation of protein concentration by amino acid analysis, 4) detection of ricin by an immunoassay using a flow cytometer, and 5) detection of ricin genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction using nine different primer sets. By implementing these five methods of characterization, we are in a position to develop a reference material for ricin. PMID:27274935

  14. Water as a source of errors in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Rückold, S; Grobecker, K H; Isengard, H D

    2001-06-01

    In the field of reference materials, long-term stability is of highest importance. Particularly for biological matrices, any kind of deterioration must be avoided during shelf-life. In the production precautions are taken to prevent these, but possible alterations caused by intensive drying have been underestimated until today. This presentation discusses several mechanisms of deterioration related to water activity and water content. Comparison of the results for water and moisture for six reference materials and their water sorption isotherms serve as a base to discuss the importance of accurate dry mass corrections for certified values. It is shown that the method chosen for dry mass correction influences certified contents significantly and a method description must be given. Furthermore, it is confirmed that for biological matrices optimal ranges of water activity and water content exist, where hygroscopicity is low without significant danger of product deterioration. Additionally, handling is facilitated in the optimised ranges. PMID:11451234

  15. Clinical Biospecimens: Reference Materials, Certified for Nominal Properties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report makes the case for clinical biospecimens to be certified for nominal properties, in particular the diagnosis, and to attain the level of Reference Materials. Clinical certified biospecimens that are collected, processed, characterized, stored, and distributed by biobanks are urgently needed to facilitate diagnostic test development, evaluation, and quality assurance. Four examples are provided to illustrate this purpose and the certification approaches that could be applied are proposed. PMID:24749878

  16. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material listed for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... follows: clauses 2, 3, 4.1, 6.1, 7, and 10, and Tables 1, 2 and 4, IBR approved for § 431.12. (d) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1) IEEE Std...

  17. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Outola, I; Filliben, J; Inn, K G W; La Rosa, J; McMahon, C A; Peck, G A; Twining, J; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K; Smedley, P; Antón, M P; Gascó, C; Povinec, P; Pham, M K; Raaum, A; Wei, H-J; Krijger, G C; Bouisset, P; Litherland, A E; Kieser, W E; Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Hong, G H; Holm, E; Skipperud, L; Harms, A V; Arinc, A; Youngman, M; Arnold, D; Wershofen, H; Sill, D S; Bohrer, S; Dahlgaard, H; Croudace, I W; Warwick, P E; Ikäheimonen, T K; Klemola, S; Vakulovsky, S M; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median method was found to be the most representative technique. The certified values were provided for 13 radionuclides and information values were given for 15 more radionuclides. Results for the natural decay series showed disequilibrium in both the uranium and thorium series. PMID:16549359

  18. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, D. P.; Halloran, S. T.; Owings, R. R.; da Silva, F. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  19. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Pappas, D P; Halloran, S T; Owings, R R; da Silva, F C S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  20. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  1. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  2. Material Spectral Emissivity Measurement Based on Two Reference Blackbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Yang, Yongjun; Liao, Li; Lyu, Guoyi

    2015-12-01

    Spectral emissivity is one of the important physical properties of materials. Emissivity measurement is critical for accurate temperature measurements and the evaluation of the stealth performance for materials. In this paper, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and an energy comparison method are used to study material emissivity measurements. Two reference blackbodies are employed for real-time measurement and correction of the spectrometer background function to enhance the emissivity measurement accuracy, to improve the design of a three-parabolic-mirror optical system, and to enlarge the optical field of view to meet the measurement requirements. The linearity of the system is measured using a mercury cadmium telluride detector and a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector. The results indicate that the linear range of the system meets the emissivity measurement requirements for the temperature range from 50°C to 1000° C. The effective radiation surface is introduced as a parameter of the reference blackbodies to reduce the influence of the measurement distance. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is used to measure the spectral emissivity of a conductive silica film and SiC, respectively, at different temperatures in the wavelength range of 1 \\upmu m to 25 \\upmu m. The expanded uncertainty is less than 5 %.

  3. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  4. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  5. Molecularly uniform poly(ethylene glycol) certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Ehara, Kensei; Sakurai, Hiromu; Horikawa, Yoshiteru; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Bounoshita, Masao

    2015-02-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for poly(ethylene glycol) with no distribution in the degree of polymerization was developed. The degree of polymerization of the CRM was accurately determined to be 23. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate the molecularly uniform polymer from a standard commercial sample with wide polydispersity in its degree of polymerization. Through the use of a specific fractionation system coupled with SFC, we are able to obtain samples of poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer with exact degrees of polymerization, as required for a CRM produced by the National Metrology Institute of Japan.

  6. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  7. Evaluation of New Geological Reference Materials for U-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Nunn, A. J.; Ui Chearnaigh, K.; Amato, R.; Murrell, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium-series analytical measurements are widely used in geochemistry, geochronology, paleoclimatology, volcanology, environmental risk assessment and other fields. Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques e.g. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS present numerous opportunities for the geoanalytical community. As with other analytical techniques, the quality of the elemental concentration and isotopic data obtained through microanalytical techniques is dependent on the accurate characterization of suitable reference materials. Even for the case of fs-laser ablation applications, a range of well-characterized standards are required for high precision U-series work. Advances have been made in evaluating existing standard reference materials for U-series isotopic analysis, but this work is ongoing as more reference materials become available. In this study we present MC-TIMS and MC-ICP-MS results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of chemical compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite and a soil. U concentrations for these glasses range from ≈2 to 14 μg/g and [Th]/[U] ratios range from ≈4 to 6. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data will also be presented for rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru, which can be used as a rhyolitic reference material. These high-precision and high-accuracy ratios, from a suite of standards that exhibit a range of natural, non-basaltic compositions, will complement data from existing standards and expand the catalogue of reference materials that are appropriate for in situ U-series work. These results can be used to assess the performance of microanalytical techniques and will facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of data within the broader geoscience community.

  8. Purity Determination of Acetaldehyde in an Acetaldehyde Certified Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Watanabe, Takuro; Nakamura, Satoe; Kato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is regulated as a toxic substance in various fields, and the method for monitoring or analysis of acetaldehyde is important. However, handling is difficult because of the high reactivity and low boiling point of acetaldehyde. Therefore, a reference material for high purity acetaldehyde with high accuracy was not available. Although the measuring method of acetaldehyde as a reagent is published in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) where the specification of acetaldehyde purity is more than 80%, the analytical method described in JIS is not enough for an accuracy purity determination method. In this research, the high precision purity determination method for development of a certified reference material (CRM) of acetaldehyde was examined. By controlling the volatility and reactivity of acetaldehyde, we established the purity determination method of acetaldehyde with a relative standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. Furthermore, this method was applied to develop a high purity acetaldehyde CRM with an expanded uncertainty of 0.005 kg kg(-1) (k = 2). PMID:26063006

  9. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Eric S.; Carlton, Robert A.; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A.; Bright, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  10. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Eric S; Carlton, Robert A; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A; Bright, David S

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  11. Trace element distribution and mobilization in Scottish soils with particular reference to cobalt, copper and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Berrow, M L; Ure, A M

    1986-03-01

    Total and extractable trace element contents have been determined in about 1000 soil profiles representing the main soil series occurring throughout Scotland. The frequency distributions of a number of trace elements in these soils are described and some relationships between total and extractable contents discussed. The geological nature of the soil parent material, soil texture, organic matter content and environmental contamination are the principal factors controlling soil total contents. Soil drainage class, because of its effect on mineral weathering and soil oxidation-reduction conditions, has a major influence on soil extractable contents, availability to plants and crop uptake. Particular attention is paid to cobalt, copper and molybdenum because of their importance for animal health in Scotland. PMID:24213839

  12. Preparation and Comprehensive Characterization of a Calcium Hydroxyapatite Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Milenko; Fowler, Bruce O.; Tung, Ming S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous biological and chemical studies involve the use of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. In this study detailed physicochemical characterization of HA, prepared from an aqueous solution, was carried out employing different methods and techniques: chemical and thermal analyses, x-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, scanning and transmission microscopies, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface-area method. The contents of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (PO43−), hydroxide (OH−), hydrogenphosphate (HPO42−), water (H2O), carbonate (CO32−), and trace constituents, the Ca/P molar ratio, crystal size and morphology, surface area, unit-cell parameters, crystallinity, and solubility of this HA were determined. This highly pure, homogeneous, and highly crystalline HA is certified as a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material, SRM 2910. PMID:27366634

  13. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  14. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  15. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  16. Anorganic fluorescence reference materials for decay time of fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Klahn, J.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Kynast, U.; Rupertus, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools, detection methods and imaging applications for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for steady state fluorescence diagnostics, a method having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers such as absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This has been done for different types of dopands in different materials such as glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Samples doped with several fluophores of different emission wavelengths and decay times are required for fluorescent multiplexing applications. Decay times shorter than 100 ns are of special interest. In addition, a proper knowledge is necessary of quantum efficiency in highly scattering media. Recently, quantum efficiency in YAG:Ce glass ceramics has been successfully investigated. Glass and glass ceramics doped with threefold charged rare earth elements are available. However, these samples have the disadvantage of emission decay times much longer than 1 microsecond, due to the excitation and emission of their optical forbidden electronic transitions. Therefore first attempts have been made to produce decay-time standards based on organic and inorganic fluophores. Stable LUMOGEN RED pigments and YAG:Ce phosphors are diluted simultaneously in silicone matrices using a wide range of concentrations between 0.0001 and 2 wt%. Organic LUMOGEN RED has decay times in the lower nanosecond range with a slight dependency on concentration

  17. Carbonaceous materials in soil-derived dusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 and 5000 Tg of fugitive dust annually. This dust carries a disproportionate amount of organic and inorganic carbon when compared to the soil of origin. This loss of soil carbon degrades the soil of origin and may re...

  18. Contribution for the Derivation of a Soil Screening Value (SSV) for Uranium, Using a Natural Reference Soil

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Ana Luisa; Marques, Catarina R.; Gavina, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In order to regulate the management of contaminated land, many countries have been deriving soil screening values (SSV). However, the ecotoxicological data available for uranium is still insufficient and incapable to generate SSVs for European soils. In this sense, and so as to make up for this shortcoming, a battery of ecotoxicological assays focusing on soil functions and organisms, and a wide range of endpoints was carried out, using a natural soil artificially spiked with uranium. In terrestrial ecotoxicology, it is widely recognized that soils have different properties that can influence the bioavailability and the toxicity of chemicals. In this context, SSVs derived for artificial soils or for other types of natural soils, may lead to unfeasible environmental risk assessment. Hence, the use of natural regional representative soils is of great importance in the derivation of SSVs. A Portuguese natural reference soil PTRS1, from a granitic region, was thereby applied as test substrate. This study allowed the determination of NOEC, LOEC, EC20 and EC50 values for uranium. Dehydrogenase and urease enzymes displayed the lowest values (34.9 and <134.5 mg U Kg, respectively). Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus revealed to be more sensitive to uranium than Folsomia candida. EC50 values of 631.00, 518.65 and 851.64 mg U Kg were recorded for the three species, respectively. Concerning plants, only Lactuca sativa was affected by U at concentrations up to 1000 mg U kg1. The outcomes of the study may in part be constrained by physical and chemical characteristics of soils, hence contributing to the discrepancy between the toxicity data generated in this study and that available in the literature. Following the assessment factor method, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value of 15.5 mg kg−1dw was obtained for U. This PNEC value is proposed as a SSV for soils similar to the PTRS1. PMID:25353962

  19. Contribution for the derivation of a soil screening value (SSV) for uranium, using a natural reference soil.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Luisa; Marques, Catarina R; Gavina, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In order to regulate the management of contaminated land, many countries have been deriving soil screening values (SSV). However, the ecotoxicological data available for uranium is still insufficient and incapable to generate SSVs for European soils. In this sense, and so as to make up for this shortcoming, a battery of ecotoxicological assays focusing on soil functions and organisms, and a wide range of endpoints was carried out, using a natural soil artificially spiked with uranium. In terrestrial ecotoxicology, it is widely recognized that soils have different properties that can influence the bioavailability and the toxicity of chemicals. In this context, SSVs derived for artificial soils or for other types of natural soils, may lead to unfeasible environmental risk assessment. Hence, the use of natural regional representative soils is of great importance in the derivation of SSVs. A Portuguese natural reference soil PTRS1, from a granitic region, was thereby applied as test substrate. This study allowed the determination of NOEC, LOEC, EC20 and EC50 values for uranium. Dehydrogenase and urease enzymes displayed the lowest values (34.9 and <134.5 mg U Kg, respectively). Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus revealed to be more sensitive to uranium than Folsomia candida. EC50 values of 631.00, 518.65 and 851.64 mg U Kg were recorded for the three species, respectively. Concerning plants, only Lactuca sativa was affected by U at concentrations up to 1000 mg U kg(1). The outcomes of the study may in part be constrained by physical and chemical characteristics of soils, hence contributing to the discrepancy between the toxicity data generated in this study and that available in the literature. Following the assessment factor method, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value of 15.5 mg kg-1dw was obtained for U. This PNEC value is proposed as a SSV for soils similar to the PTRS1. PMID:25353962

  20. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  1. Transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples: the international perspective.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E; Edwards, S

    2006-01-01

    The International Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, reference material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met. PMID:17058481

  2. Standard reference material 2036 near-infrared reflection wavelength standard.

    PubMed

    Choquette, Steven J; Duewer, David L; Hanssen, Leonard M; Early, Edward A

    2005-04-01

    Standard Reference Material 2036 (SRM 2036) is a certified transfer standard intended for the verification and calibration of the wavelength/wavenumber scale of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers operating in diffuse or trans-reflectance mode. SRM 2036 Near-Infrared Wavelength/Wavenumber Reflection Standard is a combination of a rare earth oxide glass of a composition similar to that of SRM 2035 Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard and SRM 2065 Ultraviolet-Visible-Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard, but is in physical contact with a piece of sintered poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The combination of glass contacted with a nearly ideal diffusely reflecting backing provides reflection-absorption bands that range from 15% R to 40% R. SRM 2036 is certified for the 10% band fraction air wavelength centroid location, (10%)B, of seven bands spanning the spectral region from 975 nm to 1946 nm. It is also certified for the vacuum wavenumber (10%)B of the same seven bands in the spectral region from 10 300 cm(-1) to 5130 cm(-1) at 8 cm(-1) resolution. Informational values are provided for the locations of thirteen additional bands from 334 nm to 804 nm. PMID:15901335

  3. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan; Thron, Jonathan L; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey; Razinkov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and displays the three unclassified attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass > 2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) < 0.1.' The AVNG was tested using a number of reference material (RM) sources with masses and isotopic ratios above and below these thresholds. The AVNG was demonstrated in June 2009 using several of these sources in addition to detector calibration sources. Since the AVNG was designed to measure multi-kg plutonium sources, the RM was manufactured specifically for use with this system. In addition, the RM was used to test the thresholds in the AVNG, so the size and composition of each RM was certified prior to use. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  5. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM. PMID:26650733

  6. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Thron, Jonathan; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Livke, Alexander; Bulatov, M; Kondratov, Sergey; Leplyavkina, M; Razinkov, Sergey; Sivachev, D; Tsybryaev, S; V'yushin, A

    2010-07-09

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. An attribute measurement system (A VNG) was developed and fabricated at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, Russia, under contract with LANL, USA. The A VNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and compares the data analysis results with the specified threshold values for three unclassified attributes; plutonium is present or absent, plutonium mass is greater than or less than the specified threshold value and plutonium isotopic ratio 240Pu to 239Pu) is greater than or less then the threshold value. A set of reference materials (RMs) was specially manufactured for the A VNG with masses and isotopic ratios above and below the selected thresholds. The set of RMs was certified in compliance with the Russian metrological requirements. The RMs were used to debug and test the A VNG and to demonstrate the A VNG operation to an American delegation in June 2009. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  7. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  8. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  9. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  10. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  11. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  12. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  13. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Siegrist, T; DeTitta, G T; Finger, L W; Evans, H T; Gabe, E J; Enright, G D; Armstrong, J T; Levenson, M; Cook, L P; Hubbard, C R

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material(®) for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies- are rhombohedral, with space group [Formula: see text]. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013

  14. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  15. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved. PMID:25543146

  16. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST. PMID:26890890

  17. The role of regolith and soil development with respect to assessing heavy metal contamination in urban soils with particular reference to iron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Graaff, R.

    2012-04-01

    The role of regolith and soil development with respect to assessing heavy metal contamination in urban soils with particular reference to iron. Robert H.M. van de Graaff, PhD Van de Graaff & Associates Pty Ltd, 14 Linlithgow Street, Mitcham, Victoria, 3132, Australia Environmental assessors investigating brown and green development areas in inner and peripheral urban land in Australia routinely collect soil samples at prescribed depths, e.g. 0.1 - 0.5 - 1.0 - etc., in the soil profile. These sampling depths take no notice of the natural horizonation of a soil profile and hence are blind to geomorphological and weathering history of the site. In a continent like Australia, which largely has been spared the wholesale removal and re-deposition of soil and rock materials by Pleistocene glaciers, the vertical and lateral movement of heavy metals, including iron, nearly always explains the occurrence of elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, V, Co, Cr, Zn and Ni in certain strata of the soil profile. The localised accumulation of these metals is normally controlled by changing redox potentials, which in turn are affected by translocation of clay and differences in soil hydraulic conductivity between A, B and C soil horizons. In other cases, the soil profile has operated like a chromatogram over many thousands of years. In Australian cities many urban soils do not have anthropogenic origins. This paper will give some examples of misinterpreted contamination scares in relation to As, Ba, Cr and V that sometimes caused large financial budget overruns at developments in Melbourne. These examples are all based on practical consulting experience but elucidated by reference to the scientific literature. Because of its huge spread, the greater Melbourne Metropolitan region extends from its western extremity with 450 mm annual rainfall to its eastern extremity with 900 mm, a distance of 70 km. A similar rainfall gradient may well have operated during much of the Quaternary

  18. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  19. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Environmental Protection.... Document number and name 40 CFR part 600 reference ASTM E 29-67 (Reapproved 1973) Standard Recommended... the U.S. and Canada), or at http://www.sae.org. Document No. and name 40 CFR part 600 reference...

  20. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S... below: (b) ASTM. The following material is available from the American Society for Testing and Materials. Copies of these materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials,...

  1. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  2. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51...://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S....

  3. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.... Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ...

  4. Modification of hydraulic conductivity in granular soils using waste materials.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, S; Saglamer, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of waste products such as silica fume and fly ash in modification of the granular soils in order to remove some environmental problems and create new useful findings in the field of engineering. It is known that silica fume and fly ash, as well as clay material, are used in geotechnical engineering because of their pozzolanic reactivity and fineness to improve the soil properties needed with respect to engineering purposes. The main objective of this research project was to investigate the use of these materials in geotechnical engineering and to improve the hydraulic properties of soils by means of grouting. For this reason, firstly, suitable grouts in suspension forms were prepared by using silica fume, fly ash, clay and cement in different percentages. The properties of these cement-based grouts were then determined to obtain the desired optimum values for grouting. After that, these grouts were penetrated into the soil samples under pressure. The experimental work indicates that these waste materials and clay improved the physical properties and the fluidity of the cement-based grouts and they also decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the grouted soil samples by sealing the voids of the soil. The results of this study have important findings concerning the use of these materials in soil treatment and the improvement of hydraulic conductivity of the soils. PMID:15120433

  5. [Reference ranges of 9 plasmatic proteins in Tunisian population based on the new IFCC reference material CRM 470].

    PubMed

    Znazen, Raja; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Gargouri, Jalel; Bel Hadj Hmida, Youssef; Kassis, Mondher; Damak, Jamel; Masmoudi, Hatem

    2003-04-01

    The interpretation of biological exam results requires the knowledge of physiological variation factors and reference values for every parameter. Following the preparation and the diffusion by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) of a new reference material for the dosage of plasmatic proteins (CRM470) and in order to take part in the international effort of standardization of these dosages, we established reference ranges in the tunisian population for 9 plasmatic proteins: the Immunoglobulines G, A and M, complement factors C3 and C4, albumin, transferrin, haptoglobin and the a 1-glycoprotéin acid. Our sample of 211 healthy blood donors aged between 18 and 63 years. Reference limits 0.95 that we obtained are located within variation of most reference values lately found in the literature. PMID:12848010

  6. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing.

  7. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used. PMID:10676473

  8. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reference. (1) Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Standard 210/240-2003 published in 2003, “Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” IBR approved for § 431.96. (2) ARI Standard 340/360-2004, “Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat...

  9. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to...

  10. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... Test Methods for Single- and Three-Phase Small Motors, IBR approved for § 431.444. (2) (c) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  12. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  13. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  14. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Fifth Edition, Approved March 26, 2009, IBR approved for § 430.2. (e) (f) ASHRAE. American Society of... Society of Mechanical Engineers, Service Center, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007,...

  15. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane,...

  16. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performance standard listed in paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR Part 435 subpart A. The Director of... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Any subsequent amendment to....gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html (2) U.S. Department of...

  17. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  18. A Bibliography of Reference Materials for Evaluating Foreign Student Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefling, Robert, Ed.

    The Academic Advisory Staff (AAS) of the Office of International Training (OIT), Agency for International Development (AID) analyzes and interprets the academic credentials of AID participants from cooperating countries in terms of the educational system of the U. S. To carry out this service the AAS has developed a library of reference materials…

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Day Care Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif, Nadine

    This annotated bibliography contains day care reference sources available through ERIC. Specific contents are: (1) After School Care; (2) Analysis; (3) Analysis, Cost; (4) Bibliographies; (5) Comprehensive Programs; (6) Community-Coordinated Child Care; (7) Demonstration Centers; (8) Programs for the Disadvantaged; (9) Effects of Day Care; (10)…

  20. A Multimedia Reference Listing of Materials on Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This multimedia resource guide provides a listing of various materials on drug education. The materials listed include the following: advertisements; charts; editorials; posters; audio and video tapes; audiovisual catalogs; bibliographies; books; drug education kits; essays; film reviews; films; filmstrips; general articles; pamphlets and…

  1. The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    "Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease

  2. Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first

  3. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  4. Soil Surface Composition Effects on the Wettability of Aquifer Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, J. L.; Demond, A. H.

    2004-05-01

    The wettability of subsurface porous media is critical for determining the distribution of non-aqueous phase liquids. Variations in the wettability of subsurface materials are generally attributed to sorption of hydrophobic contaminants. However, naturally occurring carbonaceous materials may influence the wettability as well. A series of seven soil materials were selected to determine the effect of organic carbon surfaces on soil wetting behavior. The materials represent organic carbon containing surfaces that may be found in soils from young humic matter to mature coal and shale kerogen. Measurements of organic liquid-water contact angle against cut rock faces reveal that surface composition alters the contact angle from the completely water wetted condition of quartz in the case of the mature carbon materials (Lachine Shale, Garfield Shale, Waynesburg Coal, and Plumbago Mineral Carbon). An examination of the soil elemental composition confirms that the bulk elemental composition of each material is separated on a plot of hydrogen to carbon versus oxygen to carbon ratios. The functional groups present at the surface of the soil materials were obtained with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and indicate that the presence of oxygen containing surface functional groups is positively correlated with increased organic-liquid wetting. This study demonstrates that even in the absence of sorbing contaminants the subsurface is fractionally water-wet. This finding may help explain why subsurface distributions of non aqueous phase liquids can vary from those determined with laboratory sands.

  5. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a... Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (610)...

  6. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a..._federal_ regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at...

  7. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available for inspection at...

  8. ECUT energy data reference series: lightweight materials for ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  9. ECUT energy data reference series: Lightweight materials for ground transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarcar, R. B.; Hane, G. J.; Johnson, D. R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  10. Soil Inorganic Carbon Formation: Can Parent Material Overcome Climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, C.; Will, R. M.; Seyfried, M. S.; Benner, S. G.; Flores, A. N.; Guilinger, J.; Lohse, K. A.; Good, A.; Black, C.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon is the third largest carbon reservoir and is composed of both organic and inorganic constituents. However, the storage and flux of soil carbon within the global carbon cycle are not fully understood. While organic carbon is often the focus of research, the factors controlling the formation and dissolution of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) are complex. Climate is largely accepted as the primary control on SIC, but the effects of soil parent material are less clear. We hypothesize that effects of parent material are significant and that SIC accumulation will be greater in soils formed from basalts than granites due to the finer textured soils and more abundant calcium and magnesium cations. This research is being conducted in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwestern Idaho. The watershed is an ideal location because it has a range of gradients in precipitation (250 mm to 1200 mm), ecology (sagebrush steppe to juniper), and parent materials (a wide array of igneous and sedimentary rock types) over a relatively small area. Approximately 20 soil profiles will be excavated throughout the watershed and will capture the effects of differing precipitation amounts and parent material on soil characteristics. Several samples at each site will be collected for analysis of SIC content and grain size distribution using a pressure calcimeter and hydrometers, respectively. Initial field data suggests that soils formed over basalts have a higher concentration of SIC than those on granitic material. If precipitation is the only control on SIC, we would expect to see comparable amounts in soils formed on both rock types within the same precipitation zone. However, field observations suggest that for all but the driest sites, soils formed over granite had no SIC detected while basalt soils with comparable precipitation had measurable amounts of SIC. Grain size distribution appears to be a large control on SIC as the sandier, granitic soils promote

  11. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  12. Development of Microanaytical Reference Materials for In-situ Anaysis at the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    With the increased use of microanalysis in geochemical investigations comes the need for a reliable and diversified supply of reference materials homogenous at the micrometer scale to assist analysts in element quantification. To meet these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to develop a series of reference materials which cover a range of sample types currently being investigated in our microanalytical laboratories. Initial efforts have focused on the development of natural basalt glasses (BCR- 2G, BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, TB-1G, NKT-1G) from a variety of geologic settings. In addition to these natural basalt materials a series of synthetic basalt glasses GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G have also been developed with 65 trace elements at 0, 3, 30, and 300, ppm respectively. The homogeneity of these materials and their use in international microanalytical proficiency studies will be presented. Application of this technology to the development of glass reference materials as part of a USGS/NASA collaborative studies on the development of Lunar Soil Simulant material will also be discussed.

  13. Reference data for thermocouple materials below the ice point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, L. L.; Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Standard thermoelectric data have been determined for four thermocouple combinations used below the ice point: commercial types E, K, and T and the special combination of KP vs Au-0.07 at.% Fe. Power series coefficients necessary to generate E = f(T) data for these combinations are given. In addition, extensive tests were carried out to ascertain the variability between materials from different manufacturers. Typical wires processed for low-temperature usage often have slightly thermoelectric properties (up to 1%) from those, nominally identical, wires made for high-temperature applications. Generally, type E is the most satisfactory standardized commercial combination. The Au-0.07 at.% Fe material has been examined in particular detail, because it is not yet an ISA standard material. It has excellent sensitivity in the liquid helium/liquid hydrogen temperature range and a nearly linear thermovoltage at higher temperatures.

  14. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  15. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.810 What materials does this part reference?...

  16. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  17. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  18. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3...

  19. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  20. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  1. Collective Bargaining for Public Managers (State and Local): Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Labor Relations Training Center.

    The book contain pertinent articles on various subjects related to collective bargaining. It was developed and the materials specially written for use by instructors in a collective bargaining course designed to assist public sector managers in attaining a stable and productive labor relations environment. Each article has been keyed to the…

  2. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  3. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  4. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  5. Household Hazardous Materials and Their Labels: A Reference for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    Household hazardous materials are products or wastes which are toxic, corrosive, reactive, and/or ignitable. Although common products such as pesticides, oils, gasoline, solvents, cleaners, and polishes are hazardous, students and adults are not always aware of potential dangers. This sourcebook contains definitions and examples of household…

  6. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... assembly drawing SA-150 M060, revision A, titled “Pelvis and Abdomen Assembly,” dated May 18, 1994....

  7. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S... http://www.ari.org/std/standards.html: (1) ARI Standard 1200-2006, Performance Rating of...

  8. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  9. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  10. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  11. Climatic controls on soil hydraulic properties along soil chronosequences on volcanic parent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, L. K.; Lohse, K. A.; Godsey, S.; Huber, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    . We observe that θ decreases with age, and α occurs at higher tensions. Soil horizons are developed dominantly on the cinder cones. These model estimates appear to match well with preliminary field measurements. Tropical climates enhance the weathering of basaltic parent material. The mean annual precipitation in the Hawaiian site is 2500 mm, and 310 mm at COTM. Accumulation of rainfall increases the weathering rate of the parent material. Using previous work characterizing the physical characteristics of soil across the Hawaii chronosequence to model the contrasting soils, we found that the 0.3 and 20 ka Hawaii soils had similar hydraulic properties; θ values were approximately 0.45 cm3/cm3 and Ks values were 6 cm/hr. However, these Hawaiian soils contrasted and were quantitatively lower than the entire COTM chronosequence. At the 2.1 ka COTM soil, Ks was 17 cm/hr and θ was 0.52-0.65 cm3/cm3 whereas at the 13.9 ka soil, Ks was 12 cm/hr and θ was 0.52 cm3/cm3. The 0.3 ka Hawaiian soil had a 20-30% higher silt content than the 2.1 ka COTM soil. Our models help quantify rates of soil development and hydraulic properties developed through time on volcanic parent materials.

  12. Mobility of organic solvents in water-saturated soil materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation presents an analysis of the mobility of 37 organic solvents in saturated soil-water systems, focusing on adsorption phenomena at the solid-liquid interface This analysis was made, in part, by applying predictive expressions that estimate the potential magnitude of adsorption by soil materials Of the 37 solvents considered, 19 were classified as either "very highly mobile" or "highly mobile" and, thus, would have little tendency to be retained by soils to a significant extent, 12 were considered to have medium mobility and 6 low mobility None of these solvents were in the immobile class The limited information available indicates that these predictive expressions yield satisfactory first approximations of the magnitude of adsorption of these solvents by soil materials ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. SAND SPIKED WITH COPPER AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT MATERIAL FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING: A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Routine use of solid-phase sediment toxicity tests for scientific and regulatory purposes necessitates the development of solid-phase reference toxicant materials. n order to evaluate an approach for developing such materials, 12 solid-phase 96-h reference toxicant tests were con...

  14. Copper toxicity in a natural reference soil: ecotoxicological data for the derivation of preliminary soil screening values.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Luísa; Marques, Catarina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The risk assessment of contaminated soils is conventionally done with the support of soil screening values (SSVs). Since SSVs are still unavailable for many European countries, including Portugal, standardized toxicity tests are urgently claimed for their derivation. Hence, this work aimed the generation of toxicity values for copper (Cu) in a natural reference soil (PTRS1) targeting different terrestrial species, endpoints and soil functions, as to derive a preliminary Cu SSV. For this, the Assessment Factor approach was applied, which allowed calculating predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for Cu that will be the basis for SSV proposal. In order to increase the reliability of the PNEC, and hence of the SSV, a lab/field factor was applied to correct the toxicity values used for PNEC determination. Cu affected urease, cellulase and nitrogen mineralization activities. The EC50 values calculated for the invertebrates reproduction were 130.9, 165.1 and 191.6 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw for Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, respectively. Cu inhibited seed germination mainly for Lactuca sativa, whilst it was toxic for the growth of different plant species (EC50s between 89 and 290.5 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw). Based on the outcomes gathered, we proposed SSVs for Cu ranging between 26.3 and 31.8 mg Kg(-1) soildw, which is above the background values reported and below all the EC20s recorded for the species and endpoints herein analyzed. Overall, this work describes a procedure that could be easily followed by other European countries wishing to derive SSVs adjusted to their soils. PMID:26520436

  15. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  16. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  17. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  18. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  19. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the US Government`s Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. Environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, difficulties in transporting nuclear materials, and International factors, including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection of excess US nuclear materials, are all contributing influences. During these changing times, ft is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  20. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. Frozen Soil Barrier. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area. OST Reference No. 51

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: Hazardous and radioactive materials have historically been disposed of at the surface during operations at Department of Energy facilities. These contaminants have entered the subsurface, contaminating soils and groundwater resources. Remediation of these groundwater plumes using the baseline technology of pump and treat is expensive and takes a long time to complete. Containment of these groundwater plumes can be alternative or an addition to the remediation activities. Standard containment technologies include slurry walls, sheet piling, and grouting. These are permanent structures that once installed are difficult to remove. How It Works: Frozen Soil Barrier technology provides a containment alternative, with the key difference being that the barrier can be easily removed after a period of time, such as after the remediation or removal of the source is completed. Frozen Soil Barrier technology can be used to isolate and control the migration of underground radioactive or other hazardous contaminants subject to transport by groundwater flow. Frozen Soil Barrier technology consists of a series of subsurface heat transfer devices, known as thermoprobes, which are installed around a contaminant source and function to freeze the soil pore water. The barrier can easily be maintained in place until remediation or removal of the contaminants is complete, at which time the barrier is allowed to thaw.

  2. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the U.S. Government`s certifying authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. New challenges include: environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, and difficulties in transporting nuclear materials and international factors, including IAEA influences. During these changing times, it is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  3. Reference Materials for Secondary School Library Media Centers. Library Resources #2 [and] Selected Bibliography of Elementary Reference Materials. Library Resources #25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Bettie

    These two annotated bibliographies list reference materials for the secondary school and elementary school levels. Each bibliography contains entries arranged alphabetically by title under Dewey Decimal Classification headings, i.e., 000s through 900s. Entries consist of the title, author/published, publication date, and cost; elementary-level…

  4. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  5. EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

  6. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  7. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  8. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  9. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALYTICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA programs in pesticides, toxics, and hazardous waste require analytical reference materials. This project emphasized the collection of and analysis of urine, fat, and blood for ultimate use as reference samples. Another objective of the project concerned the practicality of us...

  10. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  11. Evaluation of glucoiberin reference material from Iberis amara by spectroscopic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Jaki, Birgit; Sticher, Otto; Veit, Markus; Fröhlich, Roland; Pauli, Guido F

    2002-04-01

    Increasing worldwide regulations require increased efforts toward validation of analytical and pharmacological reference materials. A detailed survey of glucoiberin, a prototype lead constituent of therapeutic value, using 1D/2D NMR, MS, and X-ray spectroscopy provided precise phytochemical data for structure assignment. Quantitative reference validation was achieved by the recently proposed qNMR method. PMID:11975492

  12. EPR-based material modelling of soils considering volume changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Javadi, Akbar A.; Alani, Amir M.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), taking into account its volumetric behaviour. EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial test are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well known conventional material models. In particular, the capability of the developed EPR models in predicting volume change behaviour of soils is illustrated. It is also shown that the developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis. Two geotechnical examples are presented to verify the developed EPR-based FE model (EPR-FEM). The results of the EPR-FEM are compared with those of a standard FEM where conventional constitutive models are used to describe the material behaviour. The results show that EPR-FEM can be successfully employed to analyse geotechnical engineering problems. The advantages of the proposed EPR models are highlighted.

  13. Infrared optical properties of Mars soil analog materials: Palagonites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.

    1992-01-01

    The globally distributed bright soils on Mars represent products of chemical alteration of primary igneous materials. As such, understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of these soils provides clues about the nature of the parent materials and the type, duration, and extent of the chemical weathering environments on Mars. Such clues are key in developing an understanding of the interior and surficial processes that have operated throughout Mars' history to yield the surface as it is currently observed. The generally homogeneous nature of these soils is illustrated by a variety of observational data. These data include (1) direct determination of elemental abundances by the X-ray fluorescence instruments on both Viking Landers, (2) Earth-based telescopic observations, and (3) space-based observations. Based on their spectral properties in the visible and near-infrared, terrestrial palagonitic soils have been suggested as analogs for the bright regions on Mars. Palagonites represent the weathering products of basaltic glass and as such are composed of a variety of minerals/materials. In order to gain an understanding regarding the chemical, mineralogical, and spectral properties of a broad suite of palagonites, several samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of the island of Hawaii.

  14. Comparison of phosphate materials for immobilizing cadmium in soil.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Oh; Chung, Doug Young; Lee, Do Kyoung; Kim, Pil Joo

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of phosphate (P) materials in reducing cadmium extractability. Seven P materials (commercial P fertilizers--fused phosphate (FP), 'fused and superphosphate' [FSP], and rock phosphate [RP]; P chemicals--Ca[H(2)PO(4)](2).H(2)O, [NH(4)](2)HPO(4), KH(2)PO(4), and K(2)HPO(4)) were selected for the test. The selected P source was mixed with Cd-contaminated soil at the rate of 0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 mg P kg(-1) under controlled moisture conditions at 70% of water holding capacity, then incubated for 8 weeks. FP, Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2) H(2)O, KH(2)PO(4), and K(2)HPO(4) significantly decreased NH(4)OAc-extractable Cd (plant-available form) concentrations with increasing application rates. Compared to other phosphate materials used, K(2)HPO(4) was found to be the most effective in reducing the plant-available Cd concentration in soil, mainly due to the negative charge increase caused by soil pH and phosphate adsorption. Contrary to the general information, FSP and (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) increased Cd extractability at low levels of P application (<400 mg kg(-1)), and thereafter Cd extractability decreased significantly with increasing application rate. RP scarcely had an effect on reducing Cd extractability. Ion activity products of CdHPO(4), Cd(OH)(2), and CdCO(3) analyzed by the MINTEQ program were significantly increased by K(2)HPO(4) addition, but the effect of Cd-P compound formation on reducing Cd extractability was negligible. Conclusively, the P-induced alleviation of Cd extractability can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization due to the increase in soil pH and negative charge rather than Cd-P precipitation, and therefore, alkaline P materials such as K(2)HPO(4) are effective for immobilizing soil Cd. PMID:19633979

  15. Synergetic toxic effect of an explosive material mixture in soil.

    PubMed

    Panz, Katarzyna; Miksch, Korneliusz; Sójka, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Explosives materials are stable in soil and recalcitrant to biodegradation. Different authors report that TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are toxic, but most investigations have been performed in artificial soil with individual substances. The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances. TNT was the most toxic substance. Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research. Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed. PMID:24005241

  16. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  17. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  18. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  20. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  1. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  2. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  3. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  4. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  5. Characterization of high-fired PuO/sub 2/ as a certified reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Legeled, M.A.; Cacic, C.G.; Crawford, D.W.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1984-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), U.S. Department of Energy, has certified a plutonium dioxide reference material, CRM 122, for plutonium assay and isotopic composition. The PuO/sub 2/ standard, one of several certified Pu reference materials currently being developed at NBL for use in instrumentation calibration and measurement control for safeguards, establishes traceability to the national measurement base. This plutonium reference material in the oxide form provides more directly demonstrable traceability than metal because it undergoes the same chemical treatment for dissolution as PuO/sub 2/ fuel materials. Various tests for achieving a constant weight and for dissolving CRM 122 high-fired PuO/sub 2/ were conducted. Results of these tests as well as the certification data generated by controlled-potential coulometry for plutonium assay and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic composition will also be presented and discussed.

  6. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRMs approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Part of this proced...

  7. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRM's). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRM's approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). As of October 19...

  8. Probing soil and aquifer material porosity with nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinedi, Z. R.; Kabala, Z. J.; Skaggs, T. H.; Borchardt, D. B.; Lee, R. W. K.; Chang, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were used to identify different characteristic porosity domains in soil and aquifer materials. The porosity distribution can be inferred from these measurements by a regularization method applicable to any nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation, or by an analytic method applicable only to multiexponential relaxations (D. Orazio et al., 1989). The porosity distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements strongly depends on the pore shape factor. For the Borden aquifer material, both the regularized and the analytic pore size distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements are consistent with those obtained by Ball et al. (1990) using Hg porosimetry and N2 adsorption. For the Eustis and the Webster soils, the measured porosity domains are qualitatively consistent with those expected based on their respective composition. Our findings suggest that due to the long time required to saturate fine pores, NMR measurements of porosity distribution that are collected at short saturation times are biased toward larger pore sizes.

  9. Correlation of some soil types of Kosovo from the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification (YSC) into World Reference Bases for soil resources (WRB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresilla, Betim; Zogaj, Muhamet; Szegi, Tamas; Micheli, Erika; Bresilla, Kushtrim

    2013-04-01

    Kosovo is still using the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to view the correlation between the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification (YSC) and World Reference Bases for soil resources (WRB). A total of 46 samples of genetic horizons were collected from 11 profiles, randomly from a soil map of Kosovo (1974). The samples belong to four different soil types classified according to WRB, which are spread in different location throughout the country. The physical and chemical properties such as structure and texture, pH, organic matter OM, calcium carbonate CaCO3, cation exchange capacity CEC, base saturation BS and electrical conductivity EC were analyzed by standard methods. The results showed that the structure of most of the profiles are blocky angulare and blocky subangulare while the first and fourth profile have prismatic structure below 40 cm and the eighth profile have no structure below 25 cm. The texture of most of the profiles is loamy, clay and clay loamy, whereas the nineth profile sandy loam texture. The pH in H2O mostly is weak acidic, basic and weak alkaline, therefore, is decreasing with depth while in profiles that have a certain amount of CaCO3 the pH is increasing. The profiles are rich in organic matter but the OM is decreasing linearly with depth except in third profile that organic matter is increasing below topsoil. The CaCO3 takes place in profile seven below 90cm, in profile eight throughout it and in profile eleven as well. The cation exchange capacity varies from the profiles with 4.53 cmol/kg the lowest value in profile nine until 51.3 cmol/kg the highest value in profile eighth. Base saturation is more than 95% in all the profiles. The electrical conductivity varies from 71 mS/cm up to 545 mS/cm. Based on a field experiment, we found that the existing soil map of Kosovo (1974) is not fully corresponding to the soil in the field, thus, 45.45% of the map corresponds to the field, while 54

  10. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  11. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  12. Development of new reference materials for the determination of cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead in polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Jae; Lee, Yeo Jin; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Youn Sung; Heo, Soo Bong

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in polycarbonate were developed. Reference materials with two concentration level of elements were prepared by adding appropriate amounts of chemicals to a blank polycarbonate base material. It was shown that ten bottles with triplicate analysis are enough to demonstrate the homogeneity of these candidate reference materials. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in both short-term stability test for four weeks and long-term stability test for twelve months. The certification of the four elements was carried out by isotope-dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with microwave-assisted digestion. Certification of candidate reference materials in a single laboratory was confirmed with interlaboratory comparison participated by a certain number of well-recognized testing laboratories in Korea. The certified values and expanded uncertainties (k=2) for the candidate reference material with low level and the one with high level were (51.7±2.1)mgkg(-1) Cd, (103.8±2.9)mgkg(-1) Cd, (98.8±4.5)mgkg(-1) Cr, (1004±49.8)mgkg(-1) Cr, (107.4±4.6)mgkg(-1) Hg, (1133±50.7)mgkg(-1) Hg, (94.8±3.7)mgkg(-1) Pb and (988.4±53.6)mgkg(-1) Pb, respectively. The reference materials developed in this study demonstrated their suitability for the quality assurance in Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb analysis for the implementation of RoHS Directive. PMID:23245892

  13. Evaluation of polymeric standard reference materials for monitoring the performance of X-ray photoelectron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Brian R.

    1991-04-01

    The use of standard reference materials is a common practice in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). Recently, several polymeric standard reference materials have become available for monitoring various performance aspects of ESCA spectrometers. These reference materials include polyethylene (PE), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and dimethyl silicon (DMS). The advantages and disadvantages encountered when using these materials as standards were investigated in this study. Results indicated that PEG, PTFE and DMS are useful standards for checking or determining relative elemental sensitivity factors for C, O, F and/or Si. These three materials can also be used for monitoring the linearity and stability of the instrumental binding energy scale. However, in general, metallic standards such as gold, silver and/or copper are superior to the polymeric standards for this purpose, because their photoelectron lines cover a wider binding energy range and their respective peak positions are much better known. Although PE exhibits a fairly narrow C1s line that can be used to monitor variations in the instrumental energy resolution, the FWHM observed for the C1s line is much broader that the FWHM values obtained from the appropriate lines of sputtered-cleaned metals. Results also indicated that the use of PTFE as a standard reference material must be done with caution, because PTFE readily degrades with time under X-ray exposure.

  14. Development of Reference Materials for Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements by the Flash Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid materials used for thermal simulations and thermal designs can be obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density in many cases. The thermal diffusivity is usually measured by the flash method, and the specific heat capacity is usually measured by differential scanning calorimetry. In order to obtain reliable thermal conductivities for strict thermal design, it is necessary to measure the thermal diffusivity using the flash method, a well-validated apparatus. Reference materials are an effective means for validation of most practical measurement apparatus. For the flash method, isotropic graphite was selected as a candidate reference material. A batch of isotropic graphite samples was prepared and characterized in detail in order to be a certified reference material for thermal-diffusivity measurement. The detailed characterization ensures the traceability of the measurement results to the international system of units (SI). A convenient reference material for thermal conductivity was also obtained by using the known thermal-diffusivity measurements, specific heat capacity, and density of the material.

  15. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  16. CD Reference Materials Fabricated on Monolithic 200 mm Wafers for Automated Metrology Tool Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Guthrie, William F.; Shulver, Byron J. R.; Bunting, A. S.; Stevenson, J. T. M.; Walton, Anthony J.

    2007-09-01

    Recently, prototype isolated-line, single-crystal critical dimension (CD) reference materials (SCCDRMs) with linewidths as narrow as 40 nm±1.5 nm have been reported. These reference materials, designated NIST Prototype Reference Material (RM) 8111, were configured as 10 mm by 11 mm silicon test chips mounted in 200 mm carrier wafers. The RM 8111 chips were fabricated using microelectromechanical (MEMS) process techniques, which assure the alignment of the sidewalls of the features to silicon (111) lattice planes, and were calibrated in a sequence involving atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) metrology. This paper reports initial results on SCCDRMs fabricated on 200 mm bulk wafers; this monolithic approach would eliminate the need for carrier wafers.

  17. Field-measured, hourly soil water evaporation stages in relation to reference evapotranspiration rate and soil to air temperature ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation takes critical water supplies away from crops, especially in areas where both rainfall and irrigation water are limited. This study measured bare soil water evaporation from clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, and fine sand soils. It found that on average almost half of the ir...

  18. Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic

  19. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for Genetic Testing: Focus on Public Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa V; Datta, Vivekananda; Williams, Mickey; Zook, Justin M; Salit, Marc L; Han, Jin Yeong

    2016-11-01

    Characterized reference materials (RMs) are needed for clinical laboratory test development and validation, quality control procedures, and proficiency testing to assure their quality. In this article, we review the development and characterization of RMs for clinical molecular genetic tests. We describe various types of RMs and how to access and utilize them, especially focusing on the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (Get-RM) and the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) Consortium. This review also reinforces the need for collaborative efforts in the clinical genetic testing community to develop additional RMs. PMID:27578503

  20. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  1. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stéphane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterisation of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots. This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a 'reference material' (ISO Guide 30:2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of 'representative test material' (ISO TS 16195:2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to representative test material or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use.

  2. Assessment of international reference materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the number of international measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic reference materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic reference materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary international measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.

  3. Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Bedner, M; Tims, M C; Yen, J H; Duewer, D L; Porter, B; Christopher, S J; Day, R D; Long, S E; Molloy, J L; Murphy, K E; Lang, B E; Lieberman, R; Wood, L J; Payne, M J; Roman, M C; Betz, J M; NguyenPho, A; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A

    2012-01-01

    A suite of three green tea-containing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 3254 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaves, SRM 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract, and SRM 3256 Green Tea-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. The materials are characterized for catechins, xanthine alkaloids, theanine, and toxic elements. As many as five methods were used in assigning certified and reference values to the constituents, with measurements carried out at NIST and at collaborating laboratories. The materials are intended for use in the development and validation of new analytical methods, and for use as control materials as a component in the support of claims of metrological traceability. PMID:22127575

  4. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  5. GeoReM: A new Geochemical Database for Reference Materials and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Nohl, U.; Herwig, K.; Lammel, E.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a new geochemical database GeoReM (http://georem.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de) for reference materials and standards. Reference samples include amongst others USGS, GSJ, GIT-IWG rock powders, synthetic and natural NIST, USGS, MPI-DING reference glasses, mineral standards (e.g., 91500 zircon), isotope standards (e.g., LaJolla, E&A, NIST SRM 981), river water and seawater. GeoReM complements the GEOROC, NavDAT and PetDB databases. GeoReM is a relational database, which strongly follows the concept of the three EARTHCHEM databases [1]. It contains published analytical and compilation values (major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios), important metadata about the analytical values, such as uncertainty, uncertainty type, method and laboratory. Sample information and references are also included. Three different queries are possible: (1) Sample names or materials, (2) Chemical criteria, and (3) Bibliography. Querying by sample names the database provides ranges of published data for concentrations and isotope ratios. To get more detailed information, all primary data and metadata can be shown and downloaded. It is also possible to query by material type (powder, glass, solution, mineral, gas, metal) and material (e.g., basalt, komatiite, seawater). To query by chemistry, element concentrations and isotope ratios can be selected. As a result, a list of suitable reference materials fulfilling all selected chemical criteria is shown. Now it is possible to choose one or more samples. The database provides tables with all analytical data for these samples or data only for the selected items. Furthermore, the number of analytical data can be reduced by selecting one or more materials, material types and/or methods. Four bibliographic queries are possible, by author or coauthor(s), journal, keywords, and by GeoReM number. The GeoReM number, which unambiguously assigns to the reference, may be useful for citation purposes. GeoReM now

  6. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  7. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  8. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. How this material might impact agricultural soils within temperate regions is largely unknown, Validation of biochar as a beneficial soil amendment and carbon sink would add important...

  9. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Reimann, Clemens; Bastrakov, E.; Bowbridge, D.; Boyle, P.; Briggs, S.; Brown, D.; Brown, M.; Brownlie, K.; Burrows, P.; Burton, G.; Byass, J.; de Caritat, P.; Chanthapanya, N.; Cooper, M.; Cranfield, L.; Curtis, S.; Denaro, T.; Dhnaram, C.; Dhu, T.; Diprose, G.; Fabris, A.; Fairclough, M.; Fanning, S.; Fidler, R.; Fitzell, M.; Flitcroft, P.; Fricke, C.; Fulton, D.; Furlonger, J.; Gordon, G.; Green, A.; Green, G.; Greenfield, J.; Harley, J.; Heawood, S.; Hegvold, T.; Henderson, K.; House, E.; Husain, Z.; Krsteska, B.; Lam, J.; Langford, R.; Lavigne, T.; Linehan, B.; Livingstone, M.; Lukss, A.; Maier, R.; Makuei, A.; McCabe, L.; McDonald, P.; McIlroy, D.; McIntyre, D.; Morris, P.; O'Connell, G.; Pappas, B.; Parsons, J.; Petrick, C.; Poignand, B.; Roberts, R.; Ryle, J.; Seymon, A.; Sherry, K.; Skinner, J.; Smith, M.; Strickland, C.; Sutton, S.; Swindell, R.; Tait, H.; Tang, J.; Thomson, A.; Thun, C.; Uppill, B.; Wall, K.; Watkins, J.; Watson, T.; Webber, L.; Whiting, A.; Wilford, J.; Wilson, T.; Wygralak, A.; Albanese, S.; Andersson, M.; Arnoldussen, A.; Baritz, R.; Batista, M. J.; Bel-lan, A.; Birke, M.; Cicchella, C.; Demetriades, A.; Dinelli, E.; De Vivo, B.; De Vos, W.; Duris, M.; Dusza-Dobek, A.; Eggen, O. A.; Eklund, M.; Ernstsen, V.; Filzmoser, P.; Finne, T. E.; Flight, D.; Forrester, S.; Fuchs, M.; Fugedi, U.; Gilucis, A.; Gosar, M.; Gregorauskiene, V.; Gulan, A.; Halamić, J.; Haslinger, E.; Hayoz, P.; Hobiger, G.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoogewerff, J.; Hrvatovic, H.; Husnjak, S.; Janik, L.; Johnson, C. C.; Jordan, G.; Kirby, J.; Kivisilla, J.; Klos, V.; Krone, F.; Kwecko, P.; Kuti, L.; Ladenberger, A.; Lima, A.; Locutura, J.; Lucivjansky, P.; Mackovych, D.; Malyuk, B. I.; Maquil, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Meuli, R. G.; Miosic, N.; Mol, G.; Négrel, P.; O'Connor, P.; Oorts, K.; Ottesen, R. T.; Pasieczna, A.; Petersell, V.; Pfleiderer, S.; Poňavič, M.; Prazeres, C.; Rauch, U.; Reimann, C.; Salpeteur, I.; Schedl, A.; Scheib, A.; Schoeters, I.; Sefcik, P.; Sellersjö, E.; Skopljak, F.; Slaninka, I.; Šorša, A.; Srvkota, R.; Stafilov, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Trendavilov, V.; Valera, P.; Verougstraete, V.; Vidojević, D.; Zissimos, A. M.; Zomeni, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SiO2 and TiO2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

  11. Use of gelatin gels as a reference material for performance evaluation of meat shear force measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing standards for meat tenderness based on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) is complicated by the lack of methods for certifying WBSF testing among texture systems or laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of using gelatin gels as a reference material ...

  12. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  13. Field-Tested Reference Materials: A Survey of What Has Worked Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brenda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 33 reference items--including several CD-ROM products--published during 1991-92 that were recommended by librarians. Materials are listed in the following areas: general works; business, science, and technology; fine arts; history and genealogy; medicine and health; and social sciences and humanities. A…

  14. [Effect of emotional content and self reference of learning materials on recall performance].

    PubMed

    Spies, K

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that high affective value and high self-reference of learning material help to improve memory performance as these factors allow better memory consolidation (activation hypothesis) or better integration of the new material into existing knowledge structures (extent-of-processing hypothesis). To test this assumption, 60 subjects were shown 16 short advertising films characterized by low vs. high affective value and low vs. high self-reference. Both factors were varied within subjects. After the films had each been presented twice, subjects had to recall the product names and answer two questions to each film. Results showed for both dependent variables that films with high affective values were better remembered than films with low affective values. The same held true--though to a lower extent--with respect to self-reference. According to the expected linear trend, performance was best for material scoring high on affective value as well as on self-reference, while it was worst for material scoring low on both factors. PMID:7754642

  15. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  16. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENTS IN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of analytical data and have been used extensively in the USDA's ongoing National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP), which generates contract analytical food composition data for inclusion in the USDA Nation...

  17. New matrix-free reference material for ethene in the form of optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    Reference materials are indispensable in the quality control and quality assurance of analytical measurements. One novel approach to the generation of standard gaseous mixtures of toxic, reactive, volatile, labile, and malodorous substances involves thermal decomposition or rearrangement, under defined temperature conditions, of compounds immobilized, by chemical bonding, on the surface of an appropriate carrier to release specific amounts of a volatile compound. In this technique the type of support used to immobilize the compound is extremely important, because the amount of analyte released depends directly on the choice of material. In this paper we report the novel preparation of a matrix-free ethene standard in the form of glass fibres coated with a thin layer of aluminium, the surface of which is modified by reaction with a specific compound. As a result of thermal decomposition of this compound, gaseous ethene is formed. In this paper we present the results obtained from tests of stability and homogeneity, two properties of crucial importance in the preparation of reference materials, by comparison of a series of results obtained for randomly chosen samples of the reference material. Interlaboratory comparative studies resulted in determination of a reference value for the ethene formed after thermal decomposition of the surface compound ((2.12 ± 0.14) ng per fibre). PMID:23239177

  18. URBAN AEROSOL ACIDS: ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL 1649

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air particulate matter, collected from Washington, D.C. and certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as Standard Reference Material 1649, was extracted and fractionated into acid, base and neutral fractions. ach fraction was tested for biologic...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section lists... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to §...

  20. DIRECT CALIBRATION OF GC/MS SYSTEMS USING SRM (STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL) GAS CYLINDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cryogenic trapping system has been developed for use in calibrating GC/MS systems for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. This system provides for direct Standard Reference Material (SRM) traceability on data generated on gaseous samples. The cryogenic trap is a coil of...

  1. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are available to ship freight? (a) The following is a partial list of handbooks and guides available from...

  3. Reference Materials for Food and Nutrition Metrology: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970’s the first “biological” RM of Bowens Kale, as well as Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver SRMs, from the ...

  4. UPDATED ESTIMATES OF THE SELENOMETHIONINE CONTENTS OF NIST WHEAT REFERENCE MATERIALS BY GC-IDMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Updated estimates of the selenomethionine contents of four NIST wheat reference materials have been obtained using a revised gas chromatography-stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry method. The revised method makes use of digestion with methanesulfonic acid, providing a more complete accounting ...

  5. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  6. An Annotated Bibliography of Reference Materials for Use in a Junior-Senior High School Library Media Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Faye McConnell

    Designed to assist the librarian and/or teacher by serving as a checklist for a basic collection of reference materials, this annotated bibliography presents a list of reference sources that are appropriate for Alabama students in grades 7 through 12. The reference materials are intended to support the curriculum of a comprehensive public…

  7. Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix. PMID:25627789

  8. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    PubMed Central

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a “reference material” (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of “representative test material (RTM)” (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use. PMID:26539428

  9. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  10. Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

  11. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements.

    PubMed

    He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Steffen, Carolyn R; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    NIST standard reference material (SRM) 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number. PMID:27335805

  12. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study. PMID:23138418

  13. Dynamic soil property reference values and soil resilience: Keys to developing innovative, sustainable solutions for American agriculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers, ranchers, conservationists and other land managers can benefit from four types of soil information when developing new management systems and deciding where to apply currently available systems: (1) values for relatively static soil properties and relationships to plant growth, (2) values f...

  14. Preparation and characterization of standard reference material 1849 infant/adult nutritional formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Lindstrom, Richard M; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Karen W; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M; Spatz, Rabia O; Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Turk, Gregory C; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H

    2010-01-01

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for SRM 1846 Infant Formula, issued in 1996. Extraction characteristics of SRM 1846 have changed over time, as have NIST's analytical capabilities. While certified mass fraction values were provided for five constituents in SRM 1846 (four vitamins plus iodine), certified mass fraction values for 43 constituents are provided in SRM 1849 (fatty acids, elements, and vitamins) and reference mass fraction values are provided for an additional 43 constituents including amino acids and nucleotides, making it the most extensively characterized food-matrix SRM available from NIST. PMID:20922961

  15. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community. PMID:24004454

  16. Inter-laboratory variation in the chemical analysis of acidic forest soil reference samples from eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald S.; Bailiey, Scott W; Briggs, Russell D; Curry, Johanna; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Fredriksen, Guinevere; Goodale, Christine L.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Heine, Paul R; Johnson, Chris E.; Larson, John T; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Kolka, Randy K; Ouimet, Rock; Pare, D; Richter, Daniel D.; Shirmer, Charles D; Warby, Richard A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term forest soil monitoring and research often requires a comparison of laboratory data generated at different times and in different laboratories. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with these analyses is necessary to assess temporal changes in soil properties. Forest soil chemical properties, and methods to measure these properties, often differ from agronomic and horticultural soils. Soil proficiency programs do not generally include forest soil samples that are highly acidic, high in extractable Al, low in extractable Ca and often high in carbon. To determine the uncertainty associated with specific analytical methods for forest soils, we collected and distributed samples from two soil horizons (Oa and Bs) to 15 laboratories in the eastern United States and Canada. Soil properties measured included total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and exchangeable cations. Overall, results were consistent despite some differences in methodology. We calculated the median absolute deviation (MAD) for each measurement and considered the acceptable range to be the median 6 2.5 3 MAD. Variability among laboratories was usually as low as the typical variability within a laboratory. A few areas of concern include a lack of consistency in the measurement and expression of results on a dry weight basis, relatively high variability in the C/N ratio in the Bs horizon, challenges associated with determining exchangeable cations at concentrations near the lower reporting range of some laboratories and the operationally defined nature of aluminum extractability. Recommendations include a continuation of reference forest soil exchange programs to quantify the uncertainty associated with these analyses in conjunction with ongoing efforts to review and standardize laboratory methods.

  17. Consensus Characterization of 16 FMR1 Reference Materials: A Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Amos Wilson, Jean; Pratt, Victoria M.; Phansalkar, Amit; Muralidharan, Kasinathan; Highsmith, W. Edward; Beck, Jeanne C.; Bridgeman, Scott; Courtney, Ebony M.; Epp, Lidia; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Hjelm, Nick L.; Holtegaard, Leonard M.; Jama, Mohamed A.; Jakupciak, John P.; Johnson, Monique A.; Labrousse, Paul; Lyon, Elaine; Prior, Thomas W.; Richards, C. Sue; Richie, Kristy L.; Roa, Benjamin B.; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M.; Sellers, Tina; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Siegrist, Karen A.; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, which is caused by expansion of a (CGG)n repeat in the FMR1 gene, occurs in approximately 1:3500 males and causes mental retardation/behavioral problems. Smaller (CGG)n repeat expansions in FMR1, premutations, are associated with premature ovarian failure and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. An FMR1-sizing assay is technically challenging because of high GC content of the (CGG)n repeat, the size limitations of conventional PCR, and a lack of reference materials available for test development/validation and routine quality control. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Molecular Pathology, together with the genetic testing community, have addressed the need for characterized fragile X mutation reference materials by developing characterized DNA samples from 16 cell lines with repeat lengths representing important phenotypic classes and diagnostic cutoffs. The alleles in these materials were characterized by consensus analysis in nine clinical laboratories. The information generated from this study is available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Coriell Cell Repositories websites. DNA purified from these cell lines is available to the genetics community through the Coriell Cell Repositories. The public availability of these reference materials should help support accurate clinical fragile X syndrome testing. PMID:18165276

  18. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  19. Interlaboratory comparison program for nondestructive assay of prototype uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Trahey, N.M.; Smith, M.M.; Voeks, A.M.; Bracey, J.T.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBS), designed and administered an interlaboratory comparison program based on the measurement of NBL-produced prototype uranium nondestructive assay (NDA) reference materials for scrap and waste. The objectives of the program were to evaluate the reliability of NDA techniques as applied to nuclear safeguards materials control and accountability needs and to investigate the feasibility of providing practical NDA scrap and waste reference materials for use throughout the nuclear safeguards community. Fourteen facilities representing seven DOE contractors, four US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees, one EURATOM Laboratory, and NBL, participated in this program. Three stable, well-characterized uranium reference materials were developed and certified for this program. Synthetic calcined ash, cellulose fiber, and ion-exchange resin simulate selected uranium scrap and waste forms which are often encountered in fabrication and recovery operations. The synthetic calcined ash represents an intermediate density inorganic matrix while the cellulose fiber and ion-exchange resin are representative of low-density organic matrices. The materials, containing from 0 to 13% uranium enriched at 93% /sup 235/U, were sealed in specially selected containers. Nineteen prototype reference samples, plus three empty containers, one to accompany each set, was circulated to the participants between August 1979 and May 1984. Triplicate measurements for /sup 235/U on each of the 19 filled containers were required. In addition, participants could opt to perform modular configuration measurements using containers from Sets IIA and IIB to simulate non-homogeneously dispersed uranium in waste containers. All data were reported to NBL for evaluation.

  20. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects. PMID:26022409

  1. Extending the soil moisture data record of the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) and Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Bell, Jesse E.; Cosh, Michael H.

    2015-05-01

    Soil moisture estimates are valuable for hydrologic modeling, drought prediction and management, climate change analysis, and agricultural decision support. However, in situ measurements of soil moisture have only become available within the past few decades with additional sensors being installed each year. Comparing newer in situ resources with older resources, previously required a period of cross-calibration, often requiring several years of data collection. One new technique to improve this issue is to develop a methodology to extend the in situ record backwards in time using a soil moisture model and ancillary available data sets. This study will extend the soil moisture record of the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) by calibrating a precipitation-driven model during the most recent few years when soil moisture data are available and applying that model backwards temporally in years where precipitation data are available and soil moisture data are not. This approach is validated by applying the technique to the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) where the same model is calibrated in recent years and validated during preceding years at locations with a sufficiently long soil moisture record. Results suggest that if two or three years of concurrent precipitation and soil moisture time series data are available, the calibrated model's parameters can be applied historically to produce RMSE values less than 0.033 m3/m3. With this approach, in locations characterized by in situ sensors with short or intermittent data records, a model can now be used to fill the relevant gaps and improve the historical record as well.

  2. k0-NAA, a valuable tool for reference-material producers.

    PubMed

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Pauwels, J

    2001-06-01

    The main concern of producers of certified reference materials (CRM) is the preparation of high-quality products with demonstrated homogeneity and stability, combined with a well established set of certified characteristics. CRM producers must, furthermore, comply with other constraints imposed by the ISO Guide 34: production processes, production control, and certification analyses should be performed by expert laboratories, using validated protocols documented in their respective quality assurance manuals; laboratory mean values and the corresponding "expanded" uncertainties, must be used for the determination of the certified values, as recommended by the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurements (GUM); and when possible, traceability of the certified value to the SI units, using appropriately validated and/or primary methods, must be ensured. k0-NAA, i.e. neutron activation analysis with k0 standardization, is one of the analytical techniques implemented at the Reference Material Unit of IRMM; it meets the first two requirements. PMID:11451247

  3. Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Nakamura, Munetomo; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2011-08-24

    Green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for the analysis of pesticide residues were issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Green onion and cabbage samples were grown so as to contain several kinds of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides, and those were collected from a field in the Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The certification was carried out by using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and permethrin for green onion and chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and permethrin for cabbage) were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values of target pesticides were 0.96-13.9 and 2.41-6.9 mg/kg for green onion and cabbage, respectively. These are the first green onion and cabbage powder certified reference materials in which organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are determined. PMID:21774469

  4. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  5. The production and certification of a plutonium equal-atom reference material: NBL CRM 128

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W. . Office of Safeguards and Security); Gradle, C.G.; Soriano, M.D. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the design, production, and certification of the New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium equal-atom certified reference material (CRM), NBL CRM 128. The primary use of this CRM is for the determination of bias corrections encountered in the operation of a mass spectrometer. This reference material is available to the US Department of Energy contractor-operated and government-operated laboratories, as well as to the international nuclear safeguards community. The absolute, or unbiased, certified value for the CRM's Pu-242/Pu-239 ratio is 1.00063 {plus minus} 0.00026 (95% confidence interval) as of October 1, 1984. This value was obtained through the quantitative blending of high-purity, chemically and isotopically characterized separated isotopes, as well as through intercomparisons of CRM samples with calibration mixtures using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 32 tabs.

  6. Reference Materials for Calibration of Analytical Biases in Quantification of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hannah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Yang, Inchul

    2015-01-01

    Most contemporary methods for the quantification of DNA methylation employ bisulfite conversion and PCR amplification. However, many reports have indicated that bisulfite-mediated PCR methodologies can result in inaccurate measurements of DNA methylation owing to amplification biases. To calibrate analytical biases in quantification of gene methylation, especially those that arise during PCR, we utilized reference materials that represent exact bisulfite-converted sequences with 0% and 100% methylation status of specific genes. After determining relative quantities using qPCR, pairs of plasmids were gravimetrically mixed to generate working standards with predefined DNA methylation levels at 10% intervals in terms of mole fractions. The working standards were used as controls to optimize the experimental conditions and also as calibration standards in melting-based and sequencing-based analyses of DNA methylation. Use of the reference materials enabled precise characterization and proper calibration of various biases during PCR and subsequent methylation measurement processes, resulting in accurate measurements. PMID:26368560

  7. Aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal reference materials: intercomparisons of methods.

    PubMed

    Van Egmond, H P; Wagstaffe, P J

    1989-01-01

    The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is preparing a series of animal feed reference materials to provide a basis for analytical quality assurance for aflatoxin B1 analysis, a problem of particular importance in view of Community legislation. Before reference values can be assigned to the reference materials the major errors in the underlying measurements must be identified and reduced. This paper presents the results of two intercomparison exercises involving some 20 European laboratories who applied a wide variety of analytical methods. It is shown that the major source of error and discrepancy is connected with incomplete extraction and/or losses during clean-up and that, provided correction for recovery/background interference is made, many methods can achieve acceptable accuracy. Sources of error and their control are discussed, and essential details of the methods used are presented. It is concluded that analytical QA is more important than the use of standardized methods when a high degree of accuracy and comparability are required. PMID:2498137

  8. Metrological approaches to organic chemical purity: primary reference materials for vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael A; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian E; Toman, Blaza; Lippa, Katrice A

    2015-11-01

    Given the critical role of pure, organic compound primary reference standards used to characterize and certify chemical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), it is essential that associated mass purity assessments be fit-for-purpose, represented by an appropriate uncertainty interval, and metrologically sound. The mass fraction purities (% g/g) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reference standards used to produce and certify values for clinical vitamin D metabolite CRMs were investigated by multiple orthogonal quantitative measurement techniques. Quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) was performed to establish traceability of these materials to the International System of Units (SI) and to directly assess the principal analyte species. The 25(OH)D standards contained volatile and water impurities, as well as structurally-related impurities that are difficult to observe by chromatographic methods or to distinguish from the principal 25(OH)D species by one-dimensional NMR. These impurities have the potential to introduce significant biases to purity investigations in which a limited number of measurands are quantified. Combining complementary information from multiple analytical methods, using both direct and indirect measurement techniques, enabled mitigation of these biases. Purities of 25(OH)D reference standards and associated uncertainties were determined using frequentist and Bayesian statistical models to combine data acquired via qNMR, liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-UV, LC-ACPI-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Karl Fischer (KF) titration. PMID:26345446

  9. Development of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes certified gaseous reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, M. C.; Sobrinho, D. C. G.; Fagundes, F. A.; Oudwater, R. J.; Augusto, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    The work describes the production of certified gaseous reference materials of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in nitrogen from the gravimetric production up to the long term stability tests followed by the certifying step. The uncertainty in the amount fractions of the compounds in these mixtures was approximately 4% (relative) for the range studied from 2 to 16 µmol/mol. Also the adsorption of the BTEX on the cylinder surface and the tubing were investigated as potential uncertainty source.

  10. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached andmore » an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  11. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  12. Software Management Environment (SME) release 9.4 user reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, R.; Kistler, D.; Manter, K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains user reference material for the Software Management Environment (SME) prototype, developed for the Systems Development Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of management tools that can be used by software development managers in their day-to-day management and planning activities. This document provides an overview of the SME, a description of all functions, and detailed instructions concerning the software's installation and use.

  13. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  14. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Calibration of Critical Dimension (CD) Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    ALLEN, RICHARD A.; CRESSWELL, MICHAEL W.; EVERIST, SARAH C.; GHOSHTAGORE, RATHINDRA N.; HEADLEY, THOMAS J.; LINHOLM, LOREN W.

    1999-09-21

    NIST and Sandia have developed a procedure for producing and calibrating critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials. These reference materials will be used to calibrate metrology instruments used in semiconductor manufacturing. The artifacts, with widths down to 100 nm, are produced in monocrystalline silicon with all feature edges aligned to specific crystal planes. A two-part calibration of these linewidths is used: the primary calibration, with accuracy to within a few lattice plane thicknesses, is accomplished by counting the lattice planes across the sample as-imaged through use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The secondary calibration is the high-precision electrical CD technique. NIST and Sandia are developing critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials for use by the semiconductor industry. To meet the current requirements of this rapidly changing industry, the widths of the reference features must be at or below the widths of the finest features in production and/or development. Further, these features must produce consistent results no matter which metrology tool (e.g., scanning electron microscope, scanned probe microscope, electrical metrology) is used to make the measurement. This leads to a requirement for the samples to have planar surfaces, known sidewall angles, and uniform material composition. None of the production techniques in use in semiconductor manufacturing can produce features with all these characteristics. In addition, requirements specified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors indicate that the width of the feature must be accurately calibrated to approximately 1-2 nm, a value well beyond the current capabilities of the instruments used for semiconductor metrology.

  15. Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. The major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  16. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  17. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  18. Collection and characterization of a bulk PM2.5 air particulate matter material for use in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Heller-Zeisler, S F; Ondov, J M; Zeisler, R

    1999-01-01

    A contemporary PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter) aerosol material from an urban site has been collected for the production of a new standard reference material that will be made available for the development of new PM2.5 air quality standards. Air particulate matter corresponding to the PM2.5 fraction was collected at an established Environmental Protection Agency monitoring site in Baltimore, Maryland. The air-sampling system that has been constructed for this collection separates fine particles with a cyclone separator and deposits them onto an array of Teflon membrane filters. The fine air particulate material is removed by ultrasonication or by mechanical means and collected for further preparation of standards. The composition of the collected PM2.5 aerosol, as well as the composition of the deposited PM2.5 aerosol, are determined by instrumental nuclear activation analysis and other techniques. PMID:10676493

  19. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014

  20. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

  1. Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

  2. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  3. Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  4. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  5. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  6. Exploration of optical fibres as a carrier for new benzene and toluene matrix-free reference materials.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Marć, Mariusz; Szczygelska-Tao, Jolanta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    To meet high expectations concerning precision and accuracy of reference materials, preparation of matrix-free reference materials using thermal decomposition-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was proposed in this study. In the paper, the results obtained in preparation of the new reference materials for benzene and toluene are presented, based on the thermal decomposition technique of compounds chemically bound to the surface of optical fibre segments. The results obtained at various stages of the research procedure (homogeneity, stability) confirmed the possibility of using prepared laboratory samples of materials as reference materials for benzene and toluene. For the prepared batch of materials, reference values 1.26 ± 0.91 (ng/fibre) for benzene and 11.3 ± 7.4 (ng/fibre) for toluene were determined. PMID:25976396

  7. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  8. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  9. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions. PMID:24102115

  10. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  11. Validation of reference materials for uranium radiochronometry in the frame of nuclear forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Varga, Z; Mayer, K; Bonamici, C E; Hubert, A; Hutcheon, I; Kinman, W; Kristo, M; Pointurier, F; Spencer, K; Stanley, F; Steiner, R; Tandon, L; Williams, R

    2015-08-01

    The results of a joint effort by expert nuclear forensic laboratories in the area of age dating of uranium, i.e. the elapsed time since the last chemical purification of the material are presented and discussed. Completely separated uranium materials of known production date were distributed among the laboratories, and the samples were dated according to routine laboratory procedures by the measurement of the (230)Th/(234)U ratio. The measurement results were in good agreement with the known production date showing that the concept for preparing uranium age dating reference material based on complete separation is valid. Detailed knowledge of the laboratory procedures used for uranium age dating allows the identification of possible improvements in the current protocols and the development of improved practice in the future. The availability of age dating reference materials as well as the evolvement of the age dating best-practice protocol will increase the relevance and applicability of age dating as part of the tool-kit available for nuclear forensic investigations. PMID:26043276

  12. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-12-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  13. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

  15. Extending the soil moisture record of the climate reference network with machine learning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture estimation is crucial for agricultural decision-support and a key component of hydrological and climatic research. Unfortunately, quality-controlled soil moisture time series data are uncommon before the most recent decade. However, time series data for precipitation are accessible at ...

  16. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  17. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  18. Preparation and certification of standard reference material 3278 tocopherols in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Catherine A; Putzbach, Karsten; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C; Yen, James H

    2012-07-11

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3278 Tocopherols in Edible Oils has been issued for use as a quality assurance tool in the measurement of tocopherols. Like other natural-matrix SRMs, this material can be used in method validation or in assignment of tocopherol values to in-house quality control materials. Because most edible oils contain one predominant tocopherol isoform, the SRM is a blend of sunflower, soy, canola, and safflower oils to provide roughly comparable chromatographic peak heights of the two main tocopherols, γ and α, with smaller amounts of δ and β. The four tocopherol isoforms were determined by three independent liquid chromatography methods with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Various chromatographic and detection modes are used for assignment of certified values because biases inherent to one method should not be present in the other, and the existence of bias can therefore be identified. PMID:22686411

  19. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  20. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  1. Isotopic composition ( 238U/ 235U) of some commonly used uranium reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel J.; McLean, Noah; Noble, Stephen R.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2010-12-01

    We have determined 238U/ 235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, and HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U- 236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. Total uncertainty on the 238U/ 235U determinations is estimated to be <0.02% (2σ). These natural 238U/ 235U values are different from the widely used 'consensus' value (137.88), with each standard having lower 238U/ 235U values by up to 0.08%. The 238U/ 235U ratio determined for CRM U500 and IRMM 184 are within error of their certified values; however, the total uncertainty for CRM U500 is substantially reduced (from 0.1% to 0.02%). These reference materials are commonly used to assess mass-spectrometer performance and accuracy, calibrate isotope tracers employed in U, U-Th and U-Pb isotopic studies, and as a reference for terrestrial and meteoritic 238U/ 235U variations. These new 238U/ 235U values will thus provide greater accuracy and reduced uncertainty for a wide variety of isotopic determinations.

  2. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. PMID:27562701

  3. History of reference materials for food and nutrition metrology: As represented in the series of BERM Symposia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970s the first “biological” Reference Material (RM) of Bowens Kale, Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver from ...

  4. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  5. MOBILE SYSTEM FOR EXTRACTING SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM EXCAVATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...

  6. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. PMID:23938446

  7. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n = 191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2) = 0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types. PMID:24135921

  8. Chemical analyses of soils and other surficial materials, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Peard, J.L.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.; Thompkins, M.L.; Stewart, K.C.; Briggs, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction: The favorable response to the reports on the geochemistry of unconsolidated surficial materials of the conterminous United States (informally called the '50-mile geochemical survey,' Shacklette and others, 1971a, 1971b, 1973, and 1974) led us, in 1975, to initiate a somewhat similar survey of Alaska. The principal objective of studies of this type is to establish estimates of the abundance of elements in soils and other surficial materials. Such information is useful in the evaluation of geochemical data for (1) mineral resources, (2) environmental appraisals, and (3) the definition of broad-scale geochemical patterns. For about six years this effort progressed slowly on a non-funded, time-available basis. During fiscal years 1982 and 1983, however, some funds were made available through the USGS Energy Lands and Alaska Mineral Surveys programs which allowed for the completion of the field-work phase of the project. The sampling plan was kept simple because, as with the 50-mile study, the acquisition of samples depended on the voluntary cooperation of field personnel (only about 40 percent of the total number of samples was obtained by the authors).

  9. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-30

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Development and Certification of a Standard Reference Material for Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Seruma

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Karen W.; Bedner, Mary; Tai, Susan S.-C.; Vamathevan, Veronica V.; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Wise, Stephen A.; Yen, James H.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Coates, Paul M.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum. SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum consists of four serum pools with different levels of vitamin D metabolites and has certified and reference values for 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Value assignment of this SRM was accomplished using a combination of three isotope-dilution mass spectrometry approaches, with measurements performed at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chromatographic resolution of the 3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 proved to be essential for accurate determination of the metabolites. PMID:22141317

  11. Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

  12. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  13. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  14. Development of apple certified reference material for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2013-06-01

    An apple certified reference material for the analysis of pesticide residues was issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides were sprayed on apples, and these were used as raw materials of certified reference material. The harvested apples were cut into small pieces, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved, placed into 200 brown glass bottles (3g each), and sterilized by γ-irradiation. Stability and homogeneity assessment was performed, and the relative uncertainties due to instability (for an expiry date of 32 months) and inhomogeneity were 10.3-25.0% and 4.0-6.8%, respectively. The characterization was carried out using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values were 2.28 ± 0.82 mg/kg for diazinon, 3.14 ± 0.79 mg/kg for fenitrothion, 1.55 ± 0.81 mg/kg for cypermethrin, and 2.81 ± 0.70 mg/kg for permethrin. PMID:23411239

  15. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  16. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SURFACE MINE SOIL MATERIAL FOR VEGETATION MANAGEMENT AND SOIL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs on the basis of its text...

  18. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  19. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    indicated a higher performance in terms of soil moisture retrieval accuracy for the Mironov dielectric model (RMSE of 0.035 m3/m3), followed by Dobson, Wang & Schmugge, and Hallikainen. This analysis indicates that Mironov dielectric model is promising for passive-only microwave soil moisture retrieval and could be a useful choice for SMAP satellite soil moisture retrieval. Keywords: Dielectric models; Single Channel Algorithm, Combined Radar/Radiometer, Soil moisture; L band References: Behari, J. (2005). Dielectric Behavior of Soil (pp. 22-40). Springer Netherlands O'Neill, P. E., Lang, R. H., Kurum, M., Utku, C., & Carver, K. R. (2006), Multi-Sensor Microwave Soil Moisture Remote Sensing: NASA's Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) System. In IEEE MicroRad, 2006 (pp. 50-54). IEEE. Srivastava, P. K., Han, D., Rico Ramirez, M. A., & Islam, T. (2013), Appraisal of SMOS soil moisture at a catchment scale in a temperate maritime climate. Journal of Hydrology, 498, 292-304. USDA OPE3 web site at http://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/.

  20. Identification and quantitation of arsenic species in a dogfish muscle reference material for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Bednas, M.E.; Berman, S.S.; McLaren, J.W.; Siu, K.W.M.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    1988-10-15

    The arsenic species present in a dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1) have been identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), thin-layer chromatography, and electron impact mass spectrometry and quantified by using HPLC/ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The major species is arsenobetaine (15.7 +/- 0.8 ..mu..g of As/g of DORM-1), constituting about 84% of the total arsenic. For this species, the HPLC/ICP-MS detection limit was 0.3 ng of As.

  1. Evaluation of the sulfur isotopic composition and homogeneity of the Soufre de Lacq reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmody, R.W.; Seal, R.R., II

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic analysis of the elemental sulfur reference material Soufre de Lacq, prepared as silver sulfide by chromous chloride reduction and as copper sulfide by sealed-tube synthesis, indicates that Soufre de Lacq is isotopically homogeneous across different size fractions to within analytical uncertainty (??0.15???). The sulfur isotopic composition of aliquots of Soufre de Lacq prepared by these two techniques are identical to within analytical uncertainty. The mean sulfur isotopic composition for Soufre de Lacq prepared as silver sulfide and copper sulfide (relative to VCDT) is +16.20 ?? 0.15??? (1??).

  2. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often <5 min), lateral spatial resolution (<10 μm), sample volume consumption (<10 ng) and overall reproducibility compare extremely favorably with other microanalytical techniques for these applications. However, accuracy and reproducibility are currently wholly limited by the homogeneity of available solid reference material - which is far inferior to the tenths of a percent levels of precision achieved by SIMS. Due to variation in the sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some

  4. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental geochemistry and health, wildlife management, and soil-forming processes in cold climates and to computation of element abundances on a regional or worldwide scale. Limited data for an additoinal eight elements are also presented. Materials were collected using a one-way, three-level, analysis-of-variance samplling design in which collecting procedures were simplified for the convenience of the many volunteer field workers. The sample collectors were asked to avoid locations of known mineral deposits and obvious contamination, to take samples at a depth of about 20 cm where possible, and to take a replicate sample about 100 m distant from the first sample collected. With more than 60 percent of the samples replicated and 14 percent of the samples split for duplicate laboratory analyses, reliable estimates were made of the variability in element concentrations at two geographic scales and of the error associated with sample handling and laboratory procedures. Mean concentrations of most elements in surficial materials from the state of alaska correspond well with those reported in similar materials from the conterminous United STatess. Most element concentrations and ranges in samples of stream and lake sediments from Alaska, however, as reported in the literature, do not correspond well with those found in surficial materials of this study. This lack of correspondence is attributed to (1) a merger of two kinds ofsediments (stream and lake) for calculating means; (2) elimination from the sediment mean calculations of values below the limit of quantitative determination; (3) analytical methods different from those of the surficial materials study; and (4) most importantly, the inherent differences in chemistry of

  5. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, Ganapathi; Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Brodie, Eoin L; Tisa, Louis S; Minocha, Subhash C

    2012-03-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-amended (WS1) and reference watershed (WS3) for comparison of bacterial community composition between the two watersheds. The sites were about 125 m apart and were known to have similar stream chemistry and tree populations before Ca amendment. Ca-amended soil had higher Ca and P, and lower Al and acidity as compared with the reference soils. Analysis of bacterial populations by PhyloChip revealed that the bacterial community structure in the Ca-amended and the reference soils was significantly different and that the differences were more pronounced in the mineral soils. Overall, the relative abundance of 300 taxa was significantly affected. Numbers of detectable taxa in families such as Acidobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae were lower in the Ca-amended soils, while Flavobacteriaceae and Geobacteraceae were higher. The other functionally important groups, e.g. ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonadaceae, had lower numbers of taxa in the Ca-amended organic soil but higher in the mineral soil. PMID:22098093

  6. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  7. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  8. Microbial properties of mine spoil materials in the initial stages of soil development

    SciTech Connect

    Machulla, G.; Bruns, M.A.; Scow, K.M.

    2005-08-01

    The early years of soil genesis during mine spoil reclamation are critical for vegetative establishment and may help predict reclamation success. Mine spoils in the Halle-Leipzig region of Germany were analyzed for microbial changes following a hay mulch-seeding treatment without topsoil or fertilizer application. Microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of spoils were measured each year in the first 3 yr after treatment. In the third year, bacterial community DNA fingerprints were compared with those from a reference soil. Microbial indicators were measured at three depths in the upper 10 cm of spoils at three sites with contrasting parent materials: glacial till (sandy loam), limnic tertiary sediments (high-lignite sandy clay loam), and quaternary sand and gravel (loamy sand). Before reclamation, C{sub mic} means and standard deviations of surface spoils (0-1 cm) were 9{+-}6, 39{+-}11, and 38{+-}16 mg kg{sup -1} for the loamy sand, high-lignite sandy clay loam, and sandy loam spoils, respectively. Within one year, mean C{sub mic} at the surface increased to 148{+-}70, 229{+-}64, and 497{+-}167 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, and was significantly higher at 0 to 1 cm than at lower depths. Highest DHA and DNA yields were obtained in the 0- to 1-cm depth of the sandy loam spoils. Microbial biomass C values exhibited significant correlations with DHA, DNA yield, and extractable C for all three mine spoils. Soil microbial indices were more responsive than plant measurements to differences in parent materials.

  9. Mica Mountain Muscovite: A New Silicate Hydrogen Isotope Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonero, A.; Larson, P. B.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    A new standard reference material consisting of finely ground muscovite flakes has been developed and utilized at Washington State University to calibrate hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) measurements to the VSMOW scale. This standard was prepared from a single crystal 'book' of a muscovite-bearing pegmatite near Deary, ID. The value we obtained for this muscovite standard (MMM) is: δD VSMOW = -79.1 ± 2.0‰ relative to NBS-30 biotite at -65.7‰ compared to a VSMOW value of 0.00‰. This mean value was determined for the muscovite and has been used as our working standard. There have been many recent geological applications to continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. When hydrogen isotope ratios are of interest, a suitable standard for hydrogen in silicate systems often is not available. With supplies of the older NBS-30 biotite standard exhausted, much D/H data measured on silicate minerals have been linked to the VSMOW scale via non-silicate reference materials which may not behave similarly to minerals under study. Some recent studies have shown the NBS-30 standard to have poor intra-laboratory agreement with that material's measured and accepted isotopic values (Qi et al., 2014). Many laboratories which would measure D/H in silicate minerals would benefit from using a silicate-based standard for hydrogen. With further characterization, this muscovite may also be useful as a standard for silicate oxygen ratios as well as for some major element cations. This muscovite standard gives consistent values and it is easy to work with and does not leave much combustion residue. Also, because muscovite contains little iron, metal-hydride formation and associated fractionation factors is greatly reduced during the sample combustion. A new silicate-hydrogen standard is needed by the community, and this work represents an example of what a replacement standard material could look like.

  10. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  11. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B R; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M; Chang, Christopher C; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T; Zaranek, Alexander W; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X Y; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S; Mudivarti, Patrice A; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  12. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Phinney, Karen W; Keller, Jennifer M

    2011-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C(8) stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods. PMID:21912833

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Scatterometry Signatures for Optical Critical Dimension Reference Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Heather J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Bishop, Michael

    2007-09-01

    We use an optical critical dimension (OCD) technique, matching modeled to measured scatterometry signatures, to obtain critical dimension linewidth of lines in grating targets fabricated on SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) substrates using the single-crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRM) process. We first compare experimentally obtained reflectance signatures for areas of the unpatterned substrate with signatures modeled using Fresnel theory, and show that the buried oxide (BOX) layer of the SIMOX is not well described optically by a single homogeneous layer of SiO2, but can be so described if a mixed Si-SiO2 boundary layer is included between the Si wafer and the BOX layer. We then obtain linewidths from OCD measurements on a series of grating targets with a range of design linewidths and pitches, and show that the linewidth obtained from the OCD technique is linearly related to the linewidth obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with a slope near unity and zero offset. While these results are very promising, further work in improving the fit of the simulated signatures to the measured signatures for some of the targets, reducing the target line roughness, and analyzing the uncertainties for potential optical critical dimension reference materials, is anticipated.

  14. Enantiomer fractions of polychlorinated biphenyls in three selected Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joshua A; Bleackley, Derek S; Warner, Nicholas A; Wong, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    The enantiomer composition of six chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in three different certified Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 1946 (Lake Superior fish tissue), SRM 1939a (PCB Congeners in Hudson River Sediment), and SRM 2978 (organic contaminants in mussel tissue--Raritan Bay, New Jersey) to aid in quality assurance/quality control methodologies in the study of chiral pollutants in sediments and biota. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, and 183 were measured using a suite of chiral columns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of target analytes were in agreement with certified values. Target analyte EFs in reference materials were measured precisely (<2% relative standard deviation), indicating the utility of SRM in quality assurance/control methodologies for analyses of chiral compounds in environmental samples. Measured EFs were also in agreement with previously published analyses of similar samples, indicating that similar enantioselective processes were taking place in these environmental matrices. PMID:16777177

  15. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Justin M.; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E.; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B.R.; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M.; Chang, Christopher C.; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T.; Zaranek, Alexander W.; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M.; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X.Y.; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S.; Mudivarti, Patrice A.; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  16. Production of trace elements in coastal sea water certified reference material NMIA MX014.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey P; Saxby, David L; White, Ian E A W; Antin, Luminita; Murby, E John

    2016-06-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in acidified sea water, NMIA MX014, has been produced by the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA). The CRM consists of natural coastal sea water with 12 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and V) fortified to levels relevant to environmental regulatory testing in Australia ranging from 0.4 to 22 μg/kg. Certified values for these 12 elements were assigned using reference methods developed at NMIA, using either isotope dilution or standard addition with ICP-MS measurement. Specialised sample preparation (coprecipitation) and ICP-MS optimisation (online dilution, collision/reaction chemistry, high mass resolution) were used to negate the effect of the high level of dissolved solids. Multiple confirmatory experiments were performed in order to verify that ICP-MS spectral interferences were eliminated and to estimate the measurement uncertainty contribution from method precision and method trueness. Extensive homogeneity and stability testing was performed and the measurement uncertainty of certified values includes contributions from between-bottle homogeneity, short-term stability, medium-term stability and long-term stability. Special attention was paid to the stability of Hg due to well-known preservation problems. Acidified sea water matrix was satisfactory for stabilising Hg at 0.4 μg/kg for at least 4 years. Relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for the 12 certified values were between 1 and 11 %. NMIA MX014 is intended for use as a reference material for analytical method validation and quality control for quantification of trace elements in saline water and other similar sample types. PMID:27108283

  17. High concentration aqueous sodium fluoride certified reference materials for forensic use certified by complexometric titration.

    PubMed

    Archer, Marcellé; Brits, Martin; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Quinn, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Sodium fluoride in concentrations of 1 to 2 % is used to prevent the formation of ethanol in blood and urine samples that are to be analysed for ethanol content. The majority of such samples form part of forensic investigations into alleged drunken driving. In South Africa, the laboratory performing the tests is required to prove that the sodium fluoride concentration in the blood samples is above 1 g/100 ml on receipt. This is done by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode calibrated with external aqueous solutions of sodium fluoride. The National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) prepares sodium fluoride solutions in concentrations from 0.3 to 3.0 g/100 ml. No other certified sodium fluoride reference solutions in these concentrations are available commercially. The sodium fluoride is certified by precipitation of the fluoride as lead chlorofluoride (PbClF) through the addition of a known excess of lead nitrate. The excess lead is back-titrated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) using a photometric electrode to detect the endpoint. Aqueous sodium fluoride solutions are prepared and the concentrations verified by the precipitation/back-titration method. This paper shows the application of a classical complexometric method to the certification of reference materials and describes the procedures for the preparation of the sodium fluoride solutions, verification of the concentrations, homogeneity and stability by primary titrimetry. It also briefly covers the calculation of uncertainty, the establishment of traceability and the quality control measures applied to ensure the quality of the certified reference materials (CRMs). PMID:25326884

  18. Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Source Materials and Soil Components on Partitioning and Dermal Uptake.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huan; Gomez-Eyles, Jose L; Ghosh, Upal

    2016-04-01

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils can be influenced by the source material they are emitted within, the properties of the receiving soil, weathering processes, and the concentration of PAHs. In this study 30 contaminated soils were constructed with common PAH sources (fuel oil, soot, coal tar based skeet particles) and direct spike with a solvent added to different types and contents of soil organic matter and minerals to achieve PAH concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Source material had the greatest impact on PAH partitioning. Soils containing skeet generally exhibited the highest KD values, followed by soot, fuel oil, and solvent spiked soils. Among all soil compositions, the presence of 2% charcoal had the largest enhancement of KD. Partitioning behavior could not be predicted by an organic carbon and black carbon partitioning model. Including independently measured partitioning behavior of the soil components and PAH sources allowed better prediction but still suffered from issues of interaction (oil sorption in peat) and highly nonlinear partitioning with depletion (for skeet). Dermal absorption of PAHs measured using pig skin was directly related to the freely dissolved aqueous concentration in soil and not the total concentration in the soil. Overall, we show that PAH source materials have a dominating influence on partitioning, highlighting the importance of using native field soils in bioavailability and risk assessments. PMID:26964018

  19. Glass-based fluorescence reference materials used for optical and biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Schweizer, S.; Selling, J.; Spaeth, J.-M.; Rupertus, V.

    2006-04-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and biotechnical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. For routine measurements by fluorescence techniques the existence of an improved quality assurance is one of the basic needs. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values only. Typical requirements onto fluorescence reference materials or standards deal with the verification of the instrument performance as well as the improvement of the data comparability. Especially for biomedical applications fluorescence labels are used for the detection of proteins. In particular these labels consist of nano crystalline materials like CdS and CdSe. The field of Non-Cadmium containing materials is under investigation. In order to evaluate whether glass based materials can be used as standards it is necessary to calculate absolute values like absorption/excitation cross sections or relative quantum yields. This can be done using different quantities of dopands in glass, glass ceramics or crystals. The investigated materials are based on different types of glass, silicate, phosphate and boron glass, which play a dominant role for the absorption and emission mechanism. Additional to the so-called elementary fluorescence properties induced by raw earth elements the formation of defects lead to higher cross sections additionally. The main investigations deal with wavelength accuracy and lifetime of doped glasses, glass ceramics and crystalline samples. Moreover intensity patterns, homogeneity aspects and photo stability will be discussed.

  20. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    PubMed Central

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196Pt-198Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g−1 to 4 μg g−1. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ198Pt (permil difference in the 198Pt/194Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ198Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results

  1. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively. PMID:26911018

  2. Comparing AMSR-E soil moisture estimates to the extended record of the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bindlish, Rajat; Bell, Jesse

    2015-11-01

    Soil moisture plays an integral role in multi-scale hydrologic modeling, agricultural decision analysis, climate change assessments, and drought prediction/prevention. The broad availability of soil moisture estimates has only occurred within the past decade through a combination of in situ networks and satellite-driven remote sensing. The U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) has provided a nationwide in situ resource since 2009. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), launched in 2002, is one of the satellite products available for comparison, but there are a limited number of years where the data records overlap. This study compares the results of modeled historical soil moisture estimates derived using USCRN precipitation data to the remotely sensed estimates provided by the AMSR-E satellite between 2002 and 2011. First, this work assesses the calibrated model's similarity to in situ estimates. Next, the model estimates and in situ measurements are shown to perform comparably well against the AMSR-E satellite product, suggesting that it may be possible to utilize modeled estimates at times and locations where satellite estimates are unavailable and further extend the soil moisture record spatially and temporally.

  3. Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76-Apr 82

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, R.; Milanowski, J.

    1983-10-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but that the effectiveness depends on the washing fluid (water + additives) and on the soil composition and particle size distribution. Based on the test results, a full-scale, field-use system was designed, engineered, fabricated, assembled, and briefly tested; the unit is now ready for field demonstrations.

  4. Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesta, Raimundo; Bueno, Paz; Rubi, Juan; Giménez, Rosario

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

  5. Multi-profile analysis of soil moisture within the U.S. Climate Reference Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture estimates are crucial for hydrologic modeling and agricultural decision-support efforts. These measurements are also pivotal for long-term inquiries regarding the impacts of climate change and the resulting droughts over large spatial and temporal scales. However, it has only been t...

  6. A ground reference site for detailed studies of remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B.; Krajewski, W. F.; Kaleita-Forbes, A.; Kruger, A.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2006-12-01

    The authors discuss establishment of an experimental site for studies of passive microwave remote sensing technologies and their applicability to observe components of the water cycle. Despite their apparent usefulness, the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. There is wide consensus within the scientific and engineering communities that validation of these technologies is an important challenge. To improve the quantitative value of remotely-sensed observations of the water cycle the authors plan developing and using innovative validation techniques. The cornerstone of these efforts is development of a small (~1 km2) prototype experimental validation site. The site will be extensively instrumented with both in-situ and remote sensors so that the complete water cycle and important ancillary data can be carefully characterized at several spatial scales for long periods of time. Initially the focus will be on validating remotely-sensed observations of soil moisture. The site will be fully characterized with respect to topography, soil types, and vegetation. The authors will collect detailed precipitation data using a cluster of rain gauges and NEXRAD information. Atmospheric data such as air temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and velocity, and solar radiation will be provides by sensors placed on two towers within the site. These will include eddy covariance evapotranspiration observing systems. Soil moisture and soil temperature vertical profile data will be collected at numerous points of several clusters of wirelessly connected small-scale networks using time- domain reflectometry. These fixed measurements will be complemented by measurements of greater spatial extent made periodically with soil moisture impedance probes. Vegetation measurements will be provided on a systematic basis. Remote sensing data will be provided by a dual-polarized L-band microwave radiometer on both a tower and a mobile platform. Evaporation, dew

  7. A new Certified Reference Material for radionuclides in Irish sea sediment (IAEA-385).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Andor, K; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bikit, I; Carvalho, F P; Dimitrova, K; Edrev, Z H; Engeler, C; Fouche, F J; Garcia-Orellana, J; Gascó, C; Gastaud, J; Gudelis, A; Hancock, G; Holm, E; Legarda, F; Ikäheimonen, T K; Ilchmann, C; Jenkinson, A V; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kleinschmidt, R; Koukouliou, V; Kuhar, B; Larosa, J; Lee, S-H; Lepetit, G; Levy-Palomo, I; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Llauradó, M; Maringer, F J; Meyer, M; Michalik, B; Michel, H; Nies, H; Nour, S; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pantelic, G; Pfitzner, J; Pilvio, R; Puskeiler, L; Satake, H; Schikowski, J; Vitorovic, G; Woodhead, D; Wyse, E

    2008-11-01

    A new Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in sediment (IAEA-385) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Eleven radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am) have been certified and information mass activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for seven other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (210)Pb((210)Po), (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (241)Pu). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides ((60)Co, (99)Tc, (134)Cs, (155)Eu, (224)Ra and (239)Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in sediment samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. PMID:18513984

  8. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides. PMID:25335820

  9. Trueness Assessment for Serum Glucose Measurement Using Commercial Systems through the Preparation of Commutable Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xia, ChangYu; Liu, Ou; Wang, LanZhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Commutable reference materials (RMs) are suitable for end-users for evaluating the metrological traceability of values obtained using routine measurement systems. We assessed the performance of 6 routine measurement systems with validated secondary RMs. Methods We tested the homogeneity, stability, and commutability of 5 minimally processed human serum pools according to the standard guidelines. The serum pools were assigned values as per the reference procedure of the United States Centers for Disease Control and were used to evaluate the trueness of results from 6 commercial measurement systems based on enzymatic methods: 3 glucose oxidase (GOD) and 3 hexokinase (HK) methods. Results The prepared RMs were validated to be sufficiently homogenous, stable, and commutable with the patient samples. Method bias varied for different systems: GOD01, -0.17 to 2.88%; GOD02, 1.66 to 4.58%; GOD03, -0.17 to 3.14%; HK01, -3.48 to -0.85%; HK02, -3.83 to -0.11%, and HK03, -1.82 to -0.27%. Conclusions We observed that the prepared serum glucose RMs were qualified for trueness assessment. Most of the measurement systems met the minimal quality specifications. PMID:22779064

  10. Fe-C interactions and soil organic matter stability in two tropical soils of contrasting parent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, E.; Thompson, A.; Plante, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The long residence time of soil organic matter (SOM) is a dynamic property, reflecting the diversity of stabilization mechanisms active within the soil matrix. Climate and ecosystem properties act at the broadest scale, while biochemical recalcitrance, physical occlusion and mineral association drive stability at the microscale. Increasing evidence suggests that the stability of SOM is dominated by organo-mineral interactions. However, the 2:1 clays that provide much of the stabilization capacity in temperate soils are typically absent in tropical soils due to weathering. In contrast, these soils may contain an abundance of iron and aluminium oxides and oxyhydroxides, known as short-range-order (SRO) minerals. These SRO minerals are capable of SOM stabilization through adsorption or co-precipitation, a faculty largely enabled by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, despite their relatively small mass, SRO minerals may contribute substantially to the SOM stabilization capacity of tropical soils. The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify these Fe-C interactions. Surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug within the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials. Four extraction procedures were used to isolate three different forms of Fe-C interactions: sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-metallic complexes, hydroxylamine and oxalate to isolate SRO Fe- and Al-hydroxides, and dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides. Extracts were analysed for DOC and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate the amount of SOM associated with each mineral type. Soils were subjected to SSA and solid-phase C analyses before and after extraction to determine the contribution of the various Fe mineral types to soil SSA, and therefore to potential stabilization capacity through organo-mineral complexation. Preliminary results

  11. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  12. Characterization of Perchlorate in a New Frozen Human Urine Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lee L.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Davis, W. Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L.; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C.; Leber, Dennis D.; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units (SI). To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the U.S. population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS or IC-MS/MS). Potential sources of bias were analyzed and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 μg L−1 ± 0.21 μg L−1, and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 μg L−1 ± 0.96 μg L−1. PMID:22850897

  13. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    PubMed Central

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of −20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year. PMID:19609396

  14. T-2 and HT-2 toxins in oat flakes: development of a certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Robert; Bremser, Wolfram; Stephan, Ina; Klein-Hartwig, Karin; Rasenko, Tatjana; Koch, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins, with T-2 and HT-2 toxins being the main representatives of the type A subgroup, are naturally and worldwide occurring contaminants frequently found in grain-based food and feed. Due to the high consumption of these products and the potential health risk associated herewith, concerns about the safety and quality of food and feed have increased over the last decades at both governmental and consumer levels. Since it is not possible to avoid their occurrence, tremendous efforts have been performed to identify and monitor mycotoxins in food and feed to make their consumption safe. However, suitable certified reference materials (CRMs) intended for quality assurance and quality control purposes are still lacking for many mycotoxin-matrix combinations. Therefore, in the framework of a European Reference Material (ERM®) project, the first CRM for T-2 and HT-2 toxin in ground oat flakes (ERM®-BC720) was developed according to the requirements of ISO Guide 35. The whole process of ERM®-BC720 development, including sample preparation, homogeneity and stability studies and value assignment, is presented. The assignment of the certified mass fractions was based upon an in-house study using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Simultaneously, an interlaboratory comparison study involving 24 expert laboratories was conducted in order to support the in-house certification study. The certified values and their corresponding expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for both T-2 and HT-2 toxin in ERM®-BC720, traceable to the international system of units, are (82 ± 4) μg kg(-1) and (81 ± 4) μg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25399074

  15. Feasibility study on production of a matrix reference material for cyanobacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Christie; Thomas, Krista; Lewis, Nancy; Békri, Khalida; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increase in cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes and rivers is of great concern as many cyanobacteria produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins (cyanotoxins). Such toxins pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems, livestock, and drinking water supplies. In addition, dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria can pose a risk to consumers if they contain toxins. Analytical monitoring for toxins in the environment and in consumer products is essential for the protection of public health. Reference materials (RMs) are an essential tool for the development and validation of analytical methods and are necessary for ongoing quality control of monitoring operations. Since the availability of appropriate RMs for cyanotoxins has been very limited, the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of producing a cyanobacterial matrix RM containing various cyanotoxins. The first step was large-scale culturing of various cyanobacterial cultures that produce anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins. After harvesting, the biomass was lyophilized, blended, homogenized, milled, and bottled. The moisture content and physical characteristics were assessed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the production process. Toxin levels were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet detection. The reference material was found to be homogeneous for toxin content. Stability studies showed no significant degradation of target toxins over a period of 310 days at temperatures up to +40 °C except for the anatoxin-a, which showed some degradation at +40 °C. These results show that a fit-for-purpose matrix RM for cyanotoxins can be prepared using the processes and techniques applied in this work. PMID:25929442

  16. First certified reference materials for molecular fingerprinting of two approved probiotic Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    De Baets, L; Van Iwaarden, P; Meeus, N; Schimmel, H; Philipp, W; Emons, H

    2009-01-31

    At present probiotic bacteria are widely used in human and animal nutrition because they beneficially influence the balance of the intestinal flora of the host. Positive effects related to probiotics are various and include enhancement of digestion, strengthening of the immune system and stimulation of vitamin production. Moreover, implementation of probiotics is intended to reduce the use of antibiotics and improve animal growth and feed conversion. To protect human and animal health and to improve consumer confidence, a strict legislation on the use of probiotics exists within the European Union (EU). Official controls by national authorities are performed to ensure verification of compliance with feed and food law. Apart from the risk of using unauthorized strains, mislabelling is a known problem, partly because of the use of phenotyping or genotyping methods with a lack of discriminative power. In addition to official controls, private controls by food and feed producing companies are important in the frame of protection of patented strains and industrial property rights. To support these applications, IRMM has developed certified reference materials (CRMs) consisting of genomic DNA inserts of B. subtilis DSM 5749 and B. licheniformis DSM 5750, two strains that received EU approval. In this study we investigated the use of these CRMs, IRMM-311 and IRMM-312, for the detection and unambiguous discrimination of Bacillus strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identical fingerprints were obtained for the CRMs and control strains isolated from the feed additive Bioplus 2B. On the other hand a distinction could be made from other not approved B. licheniformis and B. subtilis strains. The reference materials discussed in this study are the first CRMs based on a whole bacterial genome and suitable for PFGE. They offer perspectives for applications in other domains such as analysis of foodborne pathogens in outbreaks or routine analysis. PMID:19062121

  17. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2013-01-01

    Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

  18. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides

  19. Reference levels of background radioactivity for beach sands and soils in İnebolu/Kastamonu-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnaz, Aslı; Türkdoǧan, Savaş; Hançerlioǧulları, Aybaba; ćetiner, M. Atıf

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of environmental radioactivity levels for İnebolu district (tourist area), Kastamonu-Turkey. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and the fission product 137Cs in soil samples collected from 13 region surroundings of study area and in 12 beach sand samples collected from along the coast of İnebolu were determined. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose and the annual effective dose were evaluated separately, and found to be 112.90 nGy h-1 and 138.46 µSv y-1 for soil samples and 75.19 nGy h-1 and 92.22 µSv y-1 for beach sand samples, respectively. The results show that İnebolu does not have high background.

  20. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  1. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T C; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong, Yiu-chung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC-HRIDMS and GC-IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg(-1) and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14μg kg(-1). The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation. PMID:22405308

  2. Development of a certified reference material for the determination of acrylamide in potato chips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Insun; Lim, Youngran; Hwang, Euijin; So, Hun-Young

    2010-09-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), KRISS CRM 108-10-003, has been developed for analysis of acrylamide in potato chips, as a representative of carbohydrate-rich food cooked in high-temperature oil. The material was prepared by grinding commercially available potato chips to a paste which was then homogenized, bottled in 15-g units, and stored at -70 °C. Certification, homogeneity and stability testing, were carried out by liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS). A single ID-LC-MS measurement was performed for each of 10 selected units for certification and homogeneity assessment. The mean measurement result for the 10 bottles, 0.455 ± 0.012 mg kg(-1), was assigned as the certified value of the CRM. The between-bottle homogeneity was 0.8% of the certified value. The within-bottle homogeneity, tested by measuring three replicate sub-samples from each of three randomly selected bottles, was similar to the between-bottle homogeneity. The stability of the CRM under storage conditions (-70 °C) was tested for 21 months and no change in the acrylamide content was observed within the measurement uncertainty. Stability of the CRM at -20 °C (storage at user's site) and room temperature (for regular use and transportation) was also tested. Also presented is the newly designed procedure for evaluating the uncertainty of the certified value for the characterization scheme used in this study. PMID:20625887

  3. Twenty five years of reference material activity at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    2001-06-01

    In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide commerce. To provide additional coverage, an RM development project was initiated with input from cooperating analysts leading to an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cooperative venture and development of a total of 12 different agricultural/food RMs. With a total of 303 concentration values for 34 elements and a wide range of matrix components such as ash, silica, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, these RMs significantly augment the world repertoire of biological control materials. A final material under consideration is a highly reliable, discrete, synthetic RM for quality control and calibration. This paper summarizes the research and developmental activities undertaken during the past quarter of a century related to RM development at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and includes a short historical background, conceptual considerations, preparation, physical characterization, homogeneity estimation, chemical characterization, calculation of recommended reference values and associated uncertainties, methodology development and application, and performance of inorganic analytical methods in a multielement, multilaboratory, collaborative characterization campaign. PMID:11451252

  4. Two new standard reference materials for the determination of drugs of abuse in human hair.

    PubMed

    Welch, Michael J; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan

    2003-08-01

    Two new standard reference materials (SRM) for drugs of abuse in human hair have been developed. SRM 2379 consists of hair spiked with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, phencyclidine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. SRM 2380 consists of hair spiked with codeine, morphine, monoacetylmorphine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The SRMs were prepared by soaking the hair in a solution of the target analytes in water-dimethylsulfoxide. The concentration of each analyte was determined using two methods, one based upon gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and one based upon liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Both methods used 0.1 M HCl for extraction of all the analytes from the hair, except for THC, which was extracted with 1 M NaOH. For isolation of the analytes from the extracts, the GC/MS-based methods used different clean-up procedures from those used for the LC/MS-based methods. The results from the two methods were in good agreement with mean differences for the analytes ranging from 4% to 16%. These materials will enable laboratories performing analyses of hair for drugs of abuse to test the accuracy of their methods. PMID:12879199

  5. Preparation and application of a fortified hair reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-07-01

    Quality assurance is one of the major issues in forensic analytical laboratories, where the need for a reference material (RM) has rapidly increased. RMs are very useful for method development and validation, internal quality control or proficiency tests. In the present study, we prepared a RM using drug-free hair for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) according to the recommendations of ISO Guide 35. The concentrations of MA and AP were determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). The assignment of values was conducted through the homogeneity study and characterization of the material. Furthermore, an internal proficiency test was performed with the prepared RM, of which the results were compared with those of the authentic hair RM prepared in our previous study. As a result, a hair RM containing MA and AP was prepared at the level of 4.86+/-0.69 ng/mg and 4.63+/-0.44 ng/mg, respectively. Most participants showed satisfactory performances in the internal proficiency test with the both RMs. The hair RM prepared in this study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in forensic laboratories. PMID:18502069

  6. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Geochemistry Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Weyer, S.; Alonso, A.; Aregbe, Y.; Kuehn, H.; Eykens, R.; Verbruggen, A.; Wellum, R.

    2009-12-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. The preparation of several new synthetic uranium reference materials at IRMM during the recent five years has provided significant impacts on geochemical research. As an example, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of IRMM-074, results with smaller uncertainties were obtained, which are shifted by about 0.04% compared to the commonly used values published earlier by Cheng et al. in 2000. This has a significant impact for U isotope measurements in geochemistry.. As a further example, the new double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 and an expanded uncertainty as low as 0.016% (coverage factor k=2, 95% confidence level) was prepared gravimetrically. This double spike allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements of close to natural samples. Using the new double spike IRMM-3636, the 235U/238U ratios for several commonly used natural U standard materials from NIST/NBL and IRMM, such as e.g. NBS960 (=NBL CRM-112a), NBS950a,b and IRMM-184, have been re-measured with improved precision

  7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

  8. Reduction and persulfate oxidation of nitro explosives in contaminated soils using Fe-bearing materials.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Su; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang Don; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-07-13

    The oxidative and reductive transformation of nitro explosives in contaminated soils with Fe-bearing materials and persulfate (S2O8(2-)) was examined via batch experiments. Zero-valent cast iron [Fe(0)], steel dust from a steel manufacturing plant, and FeS rapidly reduced 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil under anaerobic conditions as long as a sufficient amount of water was present. The Fe-bearing materials also effectively activated persulfate to enhance the oxidative transformation of TNT and RDX in soil-water systems. Kinetically, reductive and oxidative transformations removed more than 90% of the explosives from a soil-water system within 5 h under the given conditions. Pseudo-first-order rates in the range of 0.7-23.4 h(-1) were observed. By increasing the concentration of persulfate or Fe-bearing materials, the oxidative transformation could be promoted. Treated soils via redox reactions using the Fe-bearing materials did not show significant toxicity, except for the case of TNT-contaminated soils oxidized by FeS-assisted persulfate. Considering the kinetics of explosive degradation and the toxicity of treated wastewaters and soils, Fe(0) or steel dust-assisted persulfate oxidation may be a safe option as an ex situ remediation process for the treatment of explosive-contaminated soils. PMID:27327861

  9. Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

  10. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Research in Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Stephan; Alonso, Adolfo; Aregbe, Yetunde; Eykens, Roger; Jacobsson, Ulf; Kuehn, Heinz; Verbruggen, Andre; Weyer, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. Firstly, the double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 was prepared which allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements. The 234U abundance of this double spike material is low enough to allow an accurate and precise correction of 234U/238U ratios, even for measurements of close to equilibrium uranium samples. The double spike IRMM-3636 is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.005mg/g. Secondly, the 236U single spike IRMM-3660 was prepared and is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. Thirdly, a "Quad"-isotope reference material, IRMM-3101, has been prepared which is characterized by 233U/235U/236U/238U=1/1/1/1. This material is useful for checking Faraday cup efficiencies and inter-calibration of MIC (multiple ion counting) detectors. The quad-IRM is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. As one example for the significant influence of synthetic reference materials for geochemical research, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of

  11. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  12. NIST bullet signature measurement system for RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Song, John; Whitenton, Eric; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Zhou, Jack

    2004-07-01

    A bullet signature measurement system based on a stylus instrument was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the signature measurements of NIST RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets. The standard bullets are developed as a reference standard for bullet signature measurements and are aimed to support the recently established National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The RM bullets are designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at ATF and FBI using six different guns. By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine at NIST, 40 RM bullets were produced. In this paper, a comparison parameter and an algorithm using auto-and cross-correlation functions are described for qualifying the bullet signature differences between the RM bullets and the virtual bullet signature standard. When two compared signatures are exactly the same (point by point), their cross-correlation function (CCF) value will be equal to 100%. The measurement system setup, measurement program, and initial measurement results are discussed. Initial measurement results for the 40 standard bullets, each measured at six land impressions, show that the CCF values for the 240 signature measurements are higher than 95%, with most of them even higher than 99%. These results demonstrate the high reproducibility for both the manufacturing process and the measurement system for the NIST RM 8240 standard bullets. PMID:15317178

  13. Soil deepening by trees and the effects of parent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shouse, Michael; Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    In some cases biomechanical effects of individual trees may locally deepen or thicken regolith, especially in relatively shallow soils. This biogeomorphic ecosystem engineering phenomenon is at least partly contingent on the geological setting. The purpose of this research was to gain further insight into the biogeomorphic phenomenon, and to assess the relative importance of biomechanical and geological effects. Earlier studies in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas showed that individual trees locally thicken the regolith via mechanisms associated with root penetration of bedrock. However, that work was conducted mainly in areas of strongly dipping and contorted rock, where joints and bedding planes susceptible to root penetration were thought to be common and accessible. This project extended the research to the Cumberland Plateau region of Kentucky, where flat, level-bedded sedimentary rocks are dominant. Soil depth beneath trees was compared to that of non-tree sites by measuring depth to bedrock beneath rotted tree stumps and at adjacent sites with 1.0 m. While soil thickness beneath stumps was greater in the Ouachita Mountains compared to the Kentucky sites, in both regions soils beneath stumps are significantly deeper than adjacent soils. Further, there were no statistically significant differences in the difference between stump and adjacent sites between the two regions. This suggests the local deepening effects of trees occur in flat-bedded as well as steeply dipping lithologies.

  14. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  15. Using soil E horizon in salvaged topsoil material - effect on soil texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topsoil is a limited natural resource that needs to be efficiently salvaged during landscape reconstruction operations for its further use as topsoil. Current guidelines for borrowed topsoil define topsoil as the surface layer of native soil, or soil A horizon. Using information from nearly 8,000 ...

  16. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Miller, G; Simmers, J W

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high concentrations of trace elements in the biota. PMID:15092276

  17. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone... name Part 1048reference ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements...

  18. F sorption/desorption on two soils and on different by-products and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Quintáns-Fondo, Ana; Ferreira-Coelho, Gustavo; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2016-07-01

    We used batch-type experiments to study F sorption/desorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, finely and coarsely ground mussel shell, mussel shell calcination ash, oak wood ash, pine-sawdust, slate processing fines, and three different mixtures that included three components: sewage sludge, mussel shell ash, and calcined mussel shell or pine wood ash. The three waste mixtures, forest soil, pyritic material, and shell ash showed high sorption capacity (73-91 % of added F) and low desorption, even when 100 mg F L(-1) was added. All these materials (and to a lower extent wood ash) could be useful to remove F from polluted media (as certain soils, dumping sites, and contaminated waters). The vineyard soil, the granitic material, mussel shell, slate fines, and pine-sawdust were less effective in F removal. In most cases, sorption data fitted better to the Freundlich than to the Langmuir equation. These results can be useful to program the correct management of the soils, by-products, and waste materials assayed, mostly in situations where F concentrations are excessive and F removal should be promoted. PMID:27250088

  19. Reference Materials and Services for a Small Hospital Library. 5th Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesti, Julie, Comp.; Graham, Elaine, Comp.

    This manual suggests and describes recommended reference services and sources for a small hospital library. Focusing on reference services, the first section includes information on ready-reference services; bibliographic search services, including taking and processing a request for a bibliography, National Library of Medicine literature…

  20. Reference Materials Found in a Sample of Illinois School Library/Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Mary Ellen; Wert, Lucille M.

    1974-01-01

    A study to determine which reference works are most widely held, the age breakdown of reference holdings, and the relationship between size of school and size of reference holdings in a sample of schools with centralized media programs in Illinois. (Author/LS)

  1. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar) of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Sun, J. N.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-02-01

    Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  2. Minimizing soil remediation volume through specification of excavation and materials handling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Oresik, W.L.S.; Otten, M.T.; Nelson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The technologies currently available for treating soils contaminated with the explosives 2,4,6-trinitroluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX) are both limited and expensive. Therefore, an important consideration in soils remediation is the preparation of construction specifications and contract drawings which limit the volume of soil that will be required to undergo treatment. Construction specifications and contract drawings were developed for the Contaminated Soil Remediation of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) with the following primary objectives: (1) limit the volume of soil excavated from the Explosives Washout Lagoons and Explosives Washout Plant Areas, (2) minimize materials handling, and (3) reduce the excavated volume of soil which will undergo treatment.

  3. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  4. Uranium isotopic ratio measurements of U3O8 reference materials by atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Albert J; Perea, Daniel E; Bartrand, Jonah; Arey, Bruce W; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-03-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural. PMID:26774651

  5. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  6. Multielemental analysis in small amounts of environmental reference materials with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dombovári, J; Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-07-01

    The lowest possible sample weight for performing multielemental trace element analysis on environmental and biological samples by ICP-MS has been investigated. The certified reference materials Bovine Liver NIST SRM 1577b, Human Hair NCS DC 73347 and Oriental Tobacco Leaves CTA-OTL-1 were applied at sample weights (1, 5, 20 and 50 mg aliquots, n = 10) which were significantly lower than those recommended with most recoveries in the range of 95-110%. Samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen fluoride by closed-vessel microwave digestion. Multielemental analysis was performed with an optimized ICP-QMS method. Aqueous standard solutions were applied for external calibration with rhodium as the internal standard element. The detection limits varied between 0.02-0.38 microg/g for Li, Na, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb, and up to 1.92 microg/g for Mg, Al, Ca, Fe and Ni. Digested human plasma samples were spiked with multielemental solution (0.5-10 microg/L) to test the analytical method and the recoveries were 95-105% for most analytes. Our results show that in the case of homogeneous SRMs it is possible to use them in very low amounts (1-5 mg) for method development and quality control. PMID:11227466

  7. Application of Uranium Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in the preparation of New Certified Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, A.; Mathew, K. J.; Orlowicz, G.; Srinivasan, B.; Narayanan, U.

    2012-04-01

    Proven measurement techniques play a critical role in the preparation of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) - those requiring high accuracy and precision in the measurement results. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is one such measurement method commonly used in the quantitative analysis of uranium in nuclear safeguards and isotope geology applications. In this project, we evaluated the possibility of using some of the uranium isotopic and assay CRMs made earlier by the New Brunswick laboratory as IDMS spikes to define the uranium mass fraction in future preparations of CRMs. Uranium solutions prepared from CRM 112-A (a highly pure uranium metal assay standard) and CRM 115 (a highly pure uranium oxide isotopic and assay standard) were used as spikes in the determination of uranium. Two different thermal ionization mass spectrometer instruments (MAT 261 and TRITON) were used for the isotopic measurements. Standard IDMS equation was used for data reduction to yield results for uranium mass fraction along with uncertainties, the latter calculated according to GUM. The results show that uranium mass fraction measurements can be made with the required accuracy and precision for defining the uranium concentration in new CRMs as well as in routine samples analyses.

  8. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties. PMID:27524810

  9. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  10. Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Albert J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Bartrand, Jonah AG; Arey, Bruce W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-01-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural.

  11. Development of Lentivirus-Based Reference Materials for Ebola Virus Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Mattiuzzo, Giada; Ashall, James; Doris, Kathryn S.; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Nicolson, Carolyn; Wilkinson, Dianna E.; Harvey, Ruth; Almond, Neil; Anderson, Robert; Efstathiou, Stacey; Minor, Philip D.; Page, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-present Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa has prompted the production of many diagnostic assays, mostly based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAT). The calibration and performance assessment of established assays and those under evaluation requires reference materials that can be used in parallel with the clinical sample to standardise or control for every step of the procedure, from extraction to the final qualitative/quantitative result. We have developed safe and stable Ebola virus RNA reference materials by encapsidating anti sense viral RNA into HIV-1-like particles. The lentiviral particles are replication-deficient and non-infectious due to the lack of HIV-1 genes and Envelope protein. Ebola virus genes were subcloned for encapsidation into two lentiviral preparations, one containing NP-VP35-GP and the other VP40 and L RNA. Each reference material was formulated as a high-titre standard for use as a calibrator for secondary or internal standards, and a 10,000-fold lower titre preparation to serve as an in-run control. The preparations have been freeze-dried to maximise stability. These HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials were suitable for use with in-house and commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays and with digital RT-PCR. The HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials are stable at up to 37°C for two weeks, allowing the shipment of the material worldwide at ambient temperature. These results support further evaluation of the HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials as part of an International collaborative study for the establishment of the 1st International Standard for Ebola virus RNA. PMID:26562415

  12. Controls of Parent Material and Topography on Soil Carbon Storage in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, N. R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Lohse, K. A.; Link, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-arid environments make up a large percentage of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, and climate is a major factor influencing soil carbon storage and release. However, the roles of local controls such as parent material, aspect and microtopography have received less attention and are important for consideration in soil carbon modeling. The purpose of this study is to understand the role that parent material, aspect and micro-topography play in storage and release of soil carbon along an elevation gradient in a semi-arid climate. Johnston Draw (JD) is a first order watershed within the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in southwestern Idaho with underlining late cretaceous, granitic Idaho batholith bedrock. Upper Sheep Creek (USC) is a first order watershed consisting of basalt. Both watersheds were chosen for this project due to similar size, aspect, elevation, vegetation and for the contrast in parent material. Two transects, totaling approximately nine soil pits, were excavated on both the north and south facing slopes of each watershed running parallel to the water channel. Soil carbon was generally higher in basalt compared to the granite parent material in pits with similar aspect, elevation and vegetation. Preliminary data using soil organic matter (SOM) as a proxy for organic carbon (OC) and soil water dynamics showed that percent OC declines markedly with elevation in JD and soil depth at lower elevations and is more homogenous throughout the profile moving up elevation (1646 meters 4.3-9.7%; 1707 meters 6.87-3.83%). Similarly, aspect controls patterns of SOM at depth more strongly at lower elevations. Findings from our study suggest that parent material and topography may play as important roles in semi-arid ecosystems as climate factors in controlling soil carbon storage.

  13. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM STANDARD REFERENCE SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of new sample preparation techniques by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), especially those that minimize waste solvents, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of organic compounds from solid materials (or "matrices") was evaluated. Six...

  14. Vapor-pressure osmometric study of the molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active.

  15. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  16. Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingkui; Pu, Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper, zinc and lead were selected and amended in the laboratory with the mineral materials) for 12 months. Results indicated that application of the mineral materials reduced exchangeable metals in the sequence of Pb, Cd > Cu > Zn. The reduction of exchangeable fraction of heavy metals in the soils amended with different mineral materials followed the sequence of CMP, PG > AL > RP. Reductions of heavy metals leached were based on comparison with cumulative totals of heavy metals eluted through 12 pore volumes from an untreated soil. The reductions of the metals eluted from the calcareous soil amended with the RP, AL, PG and CMP were 1.98%, 38.89%, 64.81% and 75.93% for Cd, 8.51%, 40.42%, 60.64% and 55.32% for Cu, 1.76%, 52.94%, 70.00% and 74.12% for Pb, and 28.42%, 52.74%, 64.38% and 49.66% for Zn. Those from the acidic soil amended with the CMP, PG, AL, and RP were 25.65%, 68.06%, 78.01% and 79.06% for Cd, 26.56%, 49.64%, 43.40% and 34.68% for Cu, 44.44%, 33.32%, 61.11% and 69.44% for Pb, and 18.46%, 43.77%, 41.98% and 40.68% for Zn. The CMP and PG treatments were superior to the AL and RP for stabilizing heavy metals in the polluted urban soils. PMID:21793403

  17. How physical alteration of technic materials affects mobility and phytoavailabilty of metals in urban soils?

    PubMed

    El Khalil, Hicham; Schwartz, Christophe; El Hamiani, Ouafae; Sirguey, Catherine; Kubiniok, Jochen; Boularbah, Ali

    2016-06-01

    One fundamental characteristic distinguishing urban soils from natural soils is the presence of technic materials or artefacts underlining the influence of human activity. These technic materials have different nature (organic or inorganic) and origins. They contribute to the enrichment of the soil solution by metallic trace elements. The present study aims to determine the effect of physical alteration of the technic coarse fraction on the bioavailability of metallic trace elements in urban Technosols. In general, results show that physical alteration increases the metallic trace elements water extractible concentrations of technic materials. The ability of lettuce to accumulate metallic trace elements, even at low concentrations, underlines the capacity of technic materials to contaminate the anthropised soil solution by bioavailable metals. The highest metal levels, accumulated by the various organs of the lettuce (leaves and roots), were measured in plants grown in presence of metallic particles mixtures. This indicates that the majority of metallic trace elements released by this technic constituent is bioavailable and explains the low plant biomass obtained. The abundant part of metallic trace elements released by the other technic constituents (building materials, bones, wood, plastic and fabric-paper) remains less bioavailable. Under anthropised soil conditions, technic materials have a significant effect on the metallic trace elements behavior. They impact the flow of these metallic elements in Technosols, which can increase their bioavailability and, therefore, the contamination of the food chain. PMID:26999750

  18. DNA copy number concentration measured by digital and droplet digital quantitative PCR using certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Philippe; Pinheiro, Leonardo; Mazoua, Stéphane; Kortekaas, Anne-Marie; Chung, Pui Yan Jenny; Gerganova, Tsvetelina; Roebben, Gert; Emons, Hendrik; Emslie, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    The value assignment for properties of six certified reference materials (ERM-AD623a-f), each containing a plasmid DNA solution ranging from 1 million to 10 copies per μL, by using digital PCR (dPCR) with the BioMark™ HD System (Fluidigm) has been verified by applying droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) using the QX100 system (Bio-Rad). One of the critical factors in the measurement of copy number concentrations by digital PCR is the partition volume. Therefore, we determined the average droplet volume by optical microscopy, revealing an average droplet volume that is 8 % smaller than the droplet volume used as the defined parameter in the QuantaSoft software version 1.3.2.0 (Bio-Rad) to calculate the copy number concentration. This observation explains why copy number concentrations estimated with ddPCR and using an average droplet volume predefined in the QuantaSoft software were systematically lower than those measured by dPCR, creating a significant bias between the values obtained by these two techniques. The difference was not significant anymore when the measured droplet volume of 0.834 nL was used to estimate copy number concentrations. A new version of QuantaSoft software (version 1.6.6.0320), which has since been released with Bio-Rad's new QX200 systems and QX100 upgrades, uses a droplet volume of 0.85 nL as a defined parameter to calculate copy number concentration. PMID:25600685

  19. Single crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRM): process optimization for the next generation of standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald G.; Guthrie, William F.; Cresswell, Michael; Allen, Richard A.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.

    2007-03-01

    Critical dimension atomic force microscopes (CD-AFMs) are rapidly gaining acceptance in semiconductor manufacturing metrology. These instruments offer non-destructive three dimensional imaging of structures and can provide a valuable complement to critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) and optical metrology. Accurate CD-AFM metrology, however, is critically dependent upon calibration of the tip width. In response to this need, NIST has developed prototype single crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRMs). In 2004, a new generation of SCCDRMs was released to the Member Companies of SEMATECH - a result of the fruitful partnership between several organizations. These specimens, which are fabricated using a lattice-plane-selective etch on (110) silicon, exhibit near vertical sidewalls and high uniformity and can be used to calibrate CD-AFM tip width to a standard uncertainty of about +/- 1 nm. Following the 2004 release, NIST began work on the "next generation" of SCCDRM standards. A major goal of this thrust was to improve upon the SCCDRM characteristics that impact user-friendliness: the linewidth uniformity and cleanliness. Toward this end, an experiment was designed to further optimize the process conditions. The first round of this experiment was recently completed, and the results show great promise for further improvement of the SCCDRM manufacturing process. Among other observations, we found that the minimum linewidth and linewidth uniformity were primarily sensitive to different factors - and can thus be independently tuned to meet our future goals - which include linewidths as small as 20 nm and a standard uncertainty due to non-uniformity at the +/- 0.5 nm level. Our future work will include a new refining experiment to further optimize the important factors that we have identified, and extension of the methodology to a monolithic 200 mm implementation.

  20. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting

  1. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034

  2. Experimental study of nonlinear ultrasonic behavior of soil materials during the compaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yangping

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear ultrasonic behavior of unconsolidated granular medium - soil during the compaction is experimentally studied. The second harmonic generation technique is adopted to investigate the change of microstructural void in materials during the compaction process of loose soils. The nonlinear parameter is measured with the change of two important environmental factors i.e. moisture content and impact energy of compaction. It is found the nonlinear parameter of soil material presents a similar variation pattern with the void ratio of soil samples, corresponding to the increased moisture content and impact energy. A same optimum moisture content is found by observing the variation of nonlinear parameter and void ratio with respect to moisture content. The results indicate that the unconsolidated soil is manipulated by a strong material nonlinearity during the compaction procedure. The developed experimental technique based on the second harmonic generation could be a fast and convenient testing method for the determination of optimum moisture content of soil materials, which is very useful for the better compaction effect of filled embankment for civil infrastructures in-situ. PMID:27010698

  3. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced by the thermochemical pyrolysis of biomass materials. It is being considered as a potentially significant means of storing carbon for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases. Much of the interest comes from studies of Amazonian soils that appear to have...

  4. Arranging Materials and Services in a University Library Reference Area for Effective Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Hugh; And Others

    In fall of 1988, the William Jasper Kerr Library at Oregon State University combined its separate science/technology and social science/humanities reference areas. One year later, the Reference Arrangement Task Force was appointed to evaluate the effectiveness of the new configuration. The Task Force modelled the area with drawings and balsa…

  5. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land. PMID:26395356

  6. Certified reference materials for testing of the presence/absence of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Nia, Yacine; Schimmel, Heinz; Mutel, Isabelle; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Emteborg, Håkan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Auvray, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) account for a substantial number of food-poisoning outbreaks. European legislation (Commission Regulation 1441/2007) stipulates the reference procedure for SE analysis in milk and dairy products, which is based on extraction, dialysis concentration and immunochemical detection using one of two approved assays (VIDAS(®) SET2, Ridascreen(®) SET Total). However, certified reference materials (CRMs) are lacking to support laboratories in performing reliable detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) in relevant matrices at sub-nanogram per gram levels. The certification of a set of three reference materials (blank and two SEA-containing materials) for testing of the presence/absence of SEA in cheese is described. The reference procedure was applied in an intercomparison with 15 laboratories, and results were reported in a qualitative manner (presence or absence of SEA in the sample). No false-negative or false-positive results were obtained. The certified values were stated as diagnostic specificity (blank material) or diagnostic sensitivity (SEA-containing materials) and were 100 % in all cases. Stability studies demonstrated suitable material stability when stored cooled or frozen. An in-house study on the recovery of SEA in the cheese materials using a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed comparable recovery values of around 45 % at the two spiking levels and in both the SEA-containing CRMs as well as blank CRM freshly spiked prior to analysis. The values were also comparable over time and among different analysts. The materials provide valuable support to laboratories for method validation and method performance verification and will increase the reliability of measuring SEA in cheese. PMID:27220526

  7. Reading Materials in Large Type. Reference Circular No. 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This circular provides information about reading materials in large type, i.e., materials set in type that is a minimum size of 14-point and, most commonly, 16- to 18-point size. Most of the materials listed are typeset, but a few are photographically enlarged conventionally printed books or typewritten materials prepared using a large-print…

  8. Determination of the purity of pharmaceutical reference materials by 1H NMR using the standardless PULCON methodology.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-11-01

    A fast and reliable nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic method for quantitative determination (qNMR) of targeted molecules in reference materials has been established using the ERETIC2 methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations) based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination). The developed approach was validated for the analysis of pharmaceutical samples in the context of official medicines control, including ibandronic acid, amantadine, ambroxol and lercanidipine. The PULCON recoveries were above 94.3% and coefficients of variation (CVs) obtained by quantification of different targeted resonances ranged between 0.7% and 2.8%, demonstrating that the qNMR method is a precise tool for rapid quantification (approximately 15min) of reference materials and medicinal products. Generally, the values were within specification (certified values) provided by the manufactures. The results were in agreement with NMR quantification using an internal standard and validated reference HPLC analysis. The PULCON method was found to be a practical alternative with competitive precision and accuracy to the classical internal reference method and it proved to be applicable to different solvent conditions. The method can be recommended for routine use in medicines control laboratories, especially when the availability and costs of reference compounds are problematic. PMID:25215441

  9. [Effect and mechanism of immobilization of cadmium and lead compound contaminated soil using new hybrid material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Ying-Ming; Liang, Xue-Feng; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu

    2011-02-01

    The effect of new hybrid material and its compound treatments with phosphate on immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soil was investigated using a pot-culture experiment, and the immobilization mechanism of hybrid material was clarified through analysis of heavy metal fractions, sorption equilibration experiment and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The single treatments of hybrid material could not significantly promote growth of Brassica chinensis, while the compound treatments of hybrid material and phosphate markedly increased dry biomass of shoots and roots, with maximal increases of 75.53% and 151.22%, respectively. Different hybrid material treatments could significantly reduce Cd and Pb concentrations in shoots, with maximal reductions of 66.79% and 48.62%, respectively, and the compound amendment treatments appeared more efficient than the single amendment treatments in reducing Cd and Pb uptake of B. chinensis. Different hybrid material treatments could significantly decrease concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable Cd and Pb, and the compound hybrid material treatments appeared more efficient than the single treatments in reducing TCLP extractable Cd and Pb. Through the formation of bidentate ligand between metal ions and surface sulfhydryl by complexing reaction, the hybrid material could absorb and fix mobile fractions of Cd and Pb in soil, and promote transformation of acid extractable Cd and Pb into residual fraction, resulting in significant reduction of heavy metals bioavailability and mobility and then fixing remediation of contaminated soil. In summary, the compound treatment of hybrid material and phosphate is the most effective treatment for immobilization of Cd and Pb in contaminated soils, and the hybrid material inactivates Cd and Pb in soil mainly through special chemical adsorption. PMID:21528587

  10. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of in-house reference material of tylosin in honey and results of a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Gowik, Petra

    2011-08-26

    The analysis of incurred material from animals treated with pharmacologically active substances is an efficient way to check the accuracy of a method. Tylosin A was chosen for the preparation of that material because it is highly effective in controlling active infections of American Foulbrood (AFB), a global threat to apiculture, but residues in honey are not allowed according to European legislation. For this reason an in-house reference material of honey containing the macrolide tylosin A and its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) was prepared. After the treatment of a beehive with the appropriate macrolide tylosin A, the honey samples were collected. The incurred honey material was diluted by mixing with blank honey. Concentrations of 25.81 μg kg(-1) for tylosin A and of 19.28 μg kg(-1) for its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) were reached. The homogeneity was checked by analysing 12 bottles in duplicate. The stability was tested at different defined temperatures and storage conditions. The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable. Samples of this in-house reference material were used for the realisation of a proficiency test with international participation. All participants accomplished satisfying results with the exception of one laboratory. PMID:21742117

  12. Soil Loss From Tillage Ridge as Affected by Waste Materials and Soil Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semi-arid regions with low crop residues, tillage ridges are used to mitigate wind and water erosion. Unfortunately, without sufficient immobile soil aggregates, bare ridges also often need additional protection. From late winter through early summer of 2006-2008 the reduction in erosion by vario...

  13. Soil as an inexhaustible and high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Kai; Cong, Liang; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2015-11-11

    Herein, we demonstrate that by a simple treatment of heating and ball-milling, soil is endowed with a 77.2% degree of defects and acts as a high-performance anode material for soil/Li half cells and 18650-type LiNi0.915Co0.075Al0.1O2 (NCA)/soil full batteries that displayed a high and stable capacity of 3200 mA h (corresponding to 176 W h kg(-1) and 522 W h L(-1)) in the 200th cycle at a high current of 4 A. PMID:26372419

  14. Reference Materials for Determination of the Nutrient Composition of Foods: Results from USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of nutrient data for food samples. A number of available food CRMs of differing matrix composition have assigned concentrations for various nutrients, along with associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) for those valu...

  15. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  16. A PROCEDURE FOR ESTABLISHING TRACEABILITY OF GAS MIXTURES TO CERTAIN NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure includes the specifications and requirements that must be followed by gas manufacturers during the preparation of compressed cylinder gas Certified Reference Materials (CRM). A CRM is a certified gas standard prepared at a concentration that does not exceed + or - ...

  17. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Prokisch, J; Zeleny, R; Trapmann, S; Le Guern, L; Schimmel, H; Kramer, G N; Pauwels, J

    2001-08-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special importance if the reference material is prepared by dry mixing, a dilution technique which is used for the production of the new and third generation of genetically modified (GMO) plant certified reference materials. For the production of dry mixed PMON 810 maize reference material a computer program was developed to calculate the theoretically smallest uncertainty for a selected sample intake. This model was used to compare three differently milled maize samples, and the effect of dilution on the uncertainty of the DNA content of GMO maize was estimated as well. In the case of a 50-mg sample mass the lowest achievable standard deviation was 2% for the sample containing 0.1% GMO and the minimum deviation was less than 0.5% for the sample containing 5% GMO. PMID:11569879

  18. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  19. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. PMID:26434333

  20. Global nutrients data synthesis based on Reference Material of Nutrients of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Murata, Akihiko; Nishino, Shigeto

    2013-04-01

    Realistic distributions of nitrate, phosphate and silicate and inventories of them in the world's ocean are basic issues of geochemical study of nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon cycles as well as tracer use of nutrients for deep ocean circulation. WOA09 and WGHC were global hydrographic datasets created by objective analysis and offset correction/objective analysis, respectively. However synthesis using mathematics methods and experience could get apparent global comparability but does not have a firm foundation, therefore accuracy is unknown for nutrients data in WOA05/09 and WGHC. Recently hydrographic dataset such as CARINA and PACIFICA were also created by synthesis. We did global synthesis work based on Reference Material of Nutrients in Seawater (RMNS) for WOCE/CLIVAR cruises datasets, WGHC datasets and some new hydrographic cruises which cover the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Among 69982 profiles in 5174 cruises, we could put correction factors of nutrients concentration for 14491 profiles in 268 cruises for nitrate, 18378 profiles in 412 cruises for phosphate and 15825 profiles in 268 cruises for silicate. Global Nutrients Dataset 2010, GND10, is newly created as 0.5 deg. × 0.5 deg. and 50 m interval of 138 levels gridded dataset based on corrected nutrients profiles described above. One feature of GND10 is that nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in deep waters in WOA dataset showed a peak at 14.6 while nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in GND10 showed a peak at 14.3 and kurtosis of frequency distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio is larger in GND10 dataset rather than that in WOA dataset. A reason of larger kurtosis of distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio might be that comparability of nitrate and phosphate concentration data was improved. Newly created GND10 can provide more realistic distribution of nutrients in the world ocean because comparability of nutrients concentration in GND10 is

  1. Shock-treated Lunar Soil Simulant: Preliminary Assessment as a Construction Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  2. Shock-treated lunar soil simulant: Preliminary assessment as a construction material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  3. 46 CFR 164.008-1 - Applicable specification and reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vessels. (b) Guidance. For guidance you may use the following technical reference: ASTM E 119-98, Standard... file. A copy of the specification listed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be kept on file by...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a)...

  6. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  7. Development of a reference material for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in cheese: feasibility study, processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, R; Emteborg, H; Charoud-Got, J; Schimmel, H; Nia, Y; Mutel, I; Ostyn, A; Herbin, S; Hennekinne, J-A

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by enterotoxins excreted into foods by strains of staphylococci. Commission Regulation 1441/2007 specifies thresholds for the presence of these toxins in foods. In this article we report on the progress towards reference materials (RMs) for Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese. RMs are crucial to enforce legislation and to implement and safeguard reliable measurements. First, a feasibility study revealed a suitable processing procedure for cheese powders: the blank material was prepared by cutting, grinding, freeze-drying and milling. For the spiked material, a cheese-water slurry was spiked with SEA solution, freeze-dried and diluted with blank material to the desired SEA concentration. Thereafter, batches of three materials (blank; two SEA concentrations) were processed. The materials were shown to be sufficiently homogeneous, and storage at ambient temperature for 4weeks did not indicate degradation. These results provide the basis for the development of a RM for SEA in cheese. PMID:25172706

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  9. Metrological aspects related to stable isotope reference materials: the traceability concept and uncertainty evaluation scheme supporting every day practice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide metrological comparability of stable isotope measurement results is presently achieved by linking them to the conventional delta scales. Delta scales are realized by scale defining reference materials, most of them being supplied by the IAEA (examples are VSMOW2 & SLAP2). In fact, these reference materials are artefacts, characterized by a network of laboratories using the current best measurement practice. In reality any measurement result is linked to the scale via reference materials (RMs) in use. Any RMs is traceable to the highest-level RMs which define the scale; this is valid not only for international RMs (mostly secondary RMs like IAEA-CH-7, NBS22) but for any lab standard calibrated by users. This is a basic of measurement traceability. The traceability scheme allows addressing both the comparability and long-term compatibility of measurement results. Correspondingly, the uncertainty of any measurement result has to be propagated up to the scale level. The uncertainty evaluation should include (i) the uncertainty of the RMs in use; (ii) the analytical uncertainty of the materials used in calibration runs performed at the user laboratory; (iii) the reproducibility on results obtained on sample material; (iv) the uncertainty of corrections applied (memory, drift, etc). Besides these, there may be other uncertainty components of to be considered. The presentation will illustrate the metrological concepts involved (comparability, traceability etc) and give a generic scheme for the uncertainty evaluation.

  10. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  11. Observation of anomalous behavior in the thermal and electrical conductivity of a standard reference material SRM-735

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldratt, E.; Greenfield, A. J.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements have been carried out over the temperature range 360-480 K of both the thermal conductivity κ(T) and the electrical resistivity ρ(T) for the austenitic stainless steel material chosen by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as the Standard Reference Material for these two properties in the temperature range 4-1200 K. These measurements show a ripple in κ(T) vs. T centered at 410 K. The amplitude of the observed ripple is within the ±5% experimental scatter of previous data. Measurements of κ(T) for ordinary 304 stainless steel over the same temperature range show no sign of such a ripple. Measurements of the electrical resistivity of the Standard Reference Material also show an unusual structure centered at 410 K.

  12. Chemical immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd by phosphate materials and calcium carbonate in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Su, Xiaojuan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Yifei; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination with toxic metals has increasingly become a global concern over the past few decades. Phosphate and carbonate compounds are good passivation materials for Pb immobilization, while the effect of phosphate and carbonate on the immobilization of multiple heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) in contaminated soils was seldom investigated. In this study, bone meal (BM), phosphate rock (PR), oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), super phosphate (SP), and calcium carbonate (CC) were added to the contaminated soils to evaluate the effect of phosphate materials and calcium carbonate on the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd. The results showed that the pH of the treated soils increased 1.3-2.7, except SP which decreased 0.5 at most. Compared to the control treatment, all phosphates and calcium carbonate added to the polluted soils increased the fraction of residual metals, and the application of APR, PR, BM, and CC significantly reduced exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction metals. PR and APR were the most effective for the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd in the soils among these materials. Moreover, the concentrations of all metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate decreased with increasing amounts of amendments, and the concentrations of Pb in the TCLP leachate for soils treated with PR and APR were below the nonhazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) (US Environmental Protection Agency). Based on our results, phosphate rock and oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock are effective in the immobilization of multiple metals by reducing their mobility in the co-contaminated soils. PMID:27197655

  13. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  14. Lunar surface - Identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C.; Charette, M. P.; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying basalt in the Taurus-Littrow valley appears to be an extension of material forming the low-albedo ring around part of Mare Serenitatis and much of the surface of Mare Tranquillitatis. The surface of this basalt region is spectrally distinct from areas with dark mantling material. These results are derived from telescopic and laboratory measurements of the optical properties of lunar soil. Digital vidicon color images are used to map the extent of these material units in the Taurus-Littrow region.

  15. Solar distillation of water from soil and plant materials: a simple desert survival technique.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R D; Van Bavel, C H

    1965-09-17

    Water obtained from soil and plant materials by a simple distillation technique can provide a means for survival under desert conditions. A hemispherical hole in soil (in some cases containing cut plant material) is covered with plastic film formed and held in a conical shape by a rock placed in the center. Water collects on the under side of the plastic, runs to the point of the cone, and drops into the container. A yield of 1.5 liters per day of potable water was obtained from a single "survival still." PMID:5826532

  16. The informativeness of coefficients a and b of the soil line for the analysis of remote sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The coefficients of the soil line are often taken into account in calculations of vegetation indices. These coefficients are usually calculated for the entire satellite image, or are taken as constants without any calculations. In both cases, the informativeness of these coefficients is low and insufficient for the needs of soil mapping. In our study, we calculated soil line coefficients at 8000 lattice points for the territory of Plavsk, Arsen'evsk, and Chern districts of Tula oblast on the basis of 34 Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images obtained in 1985-2014. In order to distinguish between the soil line calculated for a given image and the soil line calculated for lattice points on the basis of dozens of multitemporal images, we suggest that the latter can be referred to as the temporal soil line. The temporal soil line is described by a classical equation: NIR = RED a + b, where a is its slope relative to the horizontal axis (RED), and b is the Y-axis (NIR) intercept. Both coefficients were used to create soil maps. The verification of the maps was performed with the use of data on 1985 soil pits. The informativeness of these coefficients appeared to be sufficient for delineation of eight groups of soils of different taxonomic levels: soddy moderately podzolic soils, soddy slightly podzolic soils, soddy-podzolic soils, light gray forest soils, gray forest soils, dark gray forest soils, podzolized chernozems, and leached chernozems. The b coefficient proved to be more informative, as it allowed us to create the soil map precisely on its basis. In order to create the soil map on the basis of the a coefficient, we had to apply some threshold values of the b coefficient. The bare soil on each of Landsat scenes was separated with the help of the mask of agricultural fields and the notion of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL).

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  18. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  19. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Batjes, N.H.; Bridges, E.M.

    1994-08-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to assemble a global soil database in association with the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), using a 1/2 deg x 1/2 deg grid of geographic soil data (1:5 M scale). This `area` data will be linked to a database of soil profile `attribute` data using a geographical information system. The foundations for this work have now been put in place and, providing the soil profile collection programme proceeds satisfactorily, it is anticipated that a preliminary database should begin to emerge by the end of 1993. When the soil database is complete, the second thrust will be to make an inventory of the world`s poorly drained soils, providing the geographical framework for an improved estimate of methane production potentials. To do this, controlled long-term field experiments are required and modeling techniques must be developed and tested. ISRIC is cooperating with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines for these aspects of the work. An important corollary to the development of a global soil database is that many requests are being received for soil information relevant for studies of `global change.` At present, much of this information does not exist in an adequate format, so ISRIC is proceeding as rapidly as possible to implement the WISE digital database in a format which is compatible and user-friendly, for ultimate distribution in the public domain.

  20. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batjes, Niels H.; Bridges, E. M.

    1994-08-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to assemble a global soil database in association with the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), using a ½° × ½° grid of geographic soil data (1:5 M scale). This "area" data will be linked to a database of soil profile "attribute" data using a geographical information system. The foundations for this work have now been put in place and, providing the soil profile collection programme proceeds satisfactorily, it is anticipated that a preliminary database should begin to emerge by the end of 1993. When the soil database is complete, the second thrust will be to make an inventory of the world's poorly drained soils, providing the geographical framework for an improved estimate of methane production potentials. To do this, controlled long-term field experiments are required and modeling techniques must be developed and tested. ISRIC is cooperating with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines for these aspects of the work. An important corollary to the development of a global soil database is that many requests are being received for soil information relevant for studies of "global change." At present, much of this information does not exist in an adequate format, so ISRIC is proceeding as rapidly as possible to implement the WISE digital database in a format which is compatible and user-friendly, for ultimate distribution in the public domain.